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Acid Etching Room at the National Museum of Natural History

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Archives  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-10-08T15:55:57.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Museum administration  Search this
See more by:
SIArchives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
YouTube Channel:
SIArchives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_28ibc1Uz0H0

How Alabama Became Home to 'Rocket City'

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-03-20T16:20:20.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_1oGUQeNEEC8

2010 Exploring Space Lecture: Where the Hot Stuff Is: Volcanoes of the Earth and Solar System

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-06-15T17:13:08.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_MdOhmmpJfiY

The Mermaid

Artist:
Frederick Stuart Church, Grand Rapids, MI 1842-New York City 1924  Search this
Medium:
etching
Dimensions:
plate: 8 1/2 x 5 3/4 in. (21.6 x 14.6 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Waterscape  Search this
Animal\fish\seahorse  Search this
Fantasy\mermaid  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the National Museum of American History, Division of Graphic Arts, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
1971.183
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk79c4ecd93-adda-4064-8d67-ef058bb2ca3b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1971.183

The Coyote - Arizona; Twilight in Arizona

Graphic artist:
Moran, Thomas  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
plate: 15.5 cm x 23 cm; 6 1/8 in x 9 1/16 in
Object Name:
Print
print
etching
Etching
Place made:
United States
Date made:
1880
Subject:
[NO SUBJECT]  Search this
Landscape  Search this
ID Number:
GA.14790
Catalog number:
14790
Accession number:
94830
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-8ec4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1002315

Looking Seaward, Long Lane, Easthampton, L. I.

Graphic artist:
Moran, Mary Nimmo  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
image: 21.5 cm x 44 cm; 8 15/32 in x 17 5/16 in
plate: 22.5 cm x 45.5 cm; 8 27/32 in x 17 29/32 in
overall: 31.5 cm x 51 cm; 12 13/32 in x 20 3/32 in
Object Name:
Print
print
etching
Date made:
1884
Subject:
Landscape  Search this
ID Number:
GA.14794.1
Catalog number:
14794.1
Accession number:
94830
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-a8d3-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1002319

The Miller's Home, Holland

Object Name:
Print
Other Terms:
Print; Intaglio; Etching
ID Number:
GA.00466
Catalog number:
00466
Accession number:
20285
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-cc09-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_782163

Summer, Easthampton, Long Island

Maker:
Moran, Mary Nimmo  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
image: 29 cm x 23.3 cm; 11 7/16 in x 9 3/16 in
sheet: 43 cm x 29.5 cm; 16 15/16 in x 11 5/8 in
overall: 56 cm x 40.7 cm; 22 1/16 in x 16 in
Object Name:
Print
print
etching
Other Terms:
Print; Intaglio; Etching
Subject:
Landscape  Search this
ID Number:
GA.00539
Accession number:
20295
Catalog number:
539
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Communications
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-cdab-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_782481

Twilight

Maker:
Moran, Mary Nimmo  Search this
Object Name:
Print
print, etching
Other Terms:
Print; Etching
Credit Line:
Gift of the artist
ID Number:
GA.00538.02
Catalog number:
538.2
Accession number:
20295
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a6-0282-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_804701
Online Media:

James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West

Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Names:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Army  Search this
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Crook, George, 1829-1890  Search this
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876  Search this
Hickok, Wild Bill, 1837-1876  Search this
Juárez, Benito, 1806-1872  Search this
Kinman, Seth  Search this
Miles, Nelson Appleton, 1839-1925  Search this
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Richard, Louis  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Photographer:
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Pywell, Wm. R. (William Redish), 1843-1886  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Extent:
4 Tintypes
3 Chromolithographs
3 Lithographs (3 chalk-manner lithographs)
1 Print (photogravure)
118 Pages (Scrapbook)
685 Prints (circa, albumen)
80 Items (circa 80 relief prints (including woodcuts and wood engraving))
30 Items (circa 30 intaglio prints (including etchings and engravings))
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Fox  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tintypes
Chromolithographs
Lithographs
Prints
Pages
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Place:
Mexico
Taos Pueblo (N.M.)
California
Oregon
Fort Davis (Tex.)
New Mexico
Fort Snelling (Minn.)
Arizona
Texas
San Juan Pueblo (N.M.)
Zuni (N.M.)
Kansas
Colorado
Date:
circa 1863-1900
Summary:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations.
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations. The album includes photographs (mostly albumen with three tintypes), newsclippings, wood engravings, and lithographs, some of which are reproductions of Taylor's own illustrations and paintings. Photographs depict American Indians, US Army soldiers and scouts, historical sites, forts, and scenery. Some were made on expeditions, including the Hayden and Powell surveys, and created from published stereographs. Many of Taylor's illustrations are signed, and some are inscribed with dates and "N. Y." The scrapbook also includes clippings from newspapers and other written sources relating to illustrations and photographs in the album.
Biographical Note:
James E. Taylor (1839-1901) was an artist-correspondent for Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper from 1863-1883. Born in Cincinatti, Ohio, he graduated from Notre Dame University by the age of sixteen. Taylor enlisted in the 10th New York Infantry in 1861 and the next year was hired by Leslie's Illustrated newspaper as a "Special Artist" and war correspondent. In 1864 he covered the Shenandoah Valley campaign, and was later one of the illustrator-correspondents at the 1867 treaty negotiations at Medicine Lodge, Kansas. He soon earned the moniker "Indian Artist" because of his vast number of drawings of American Indians. In 1883 Taylor retired from Leslie's to work as a freelance illustrator. Colonel Richard Irving Dodge used Taylor's drawings to illustrate his memoir, "Our Wild Indians: Thirty-three Years' Personal Experience among the Red Men of the Great West" (1882).
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4605
Related Materials:
The National Anthropolgical Archives holds additional photographs by photographers represented in this collection (including original negatives for some of these prints), particularly in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 87.

Additional photographs by Whitney, Gardner, and Barry held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 80-18.

Julian Vannerson and James E. McClees photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4286.

Pywell photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4498.

O'Sullivan photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo lot 4501.

Additional Hillers photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 83-18 and Photo Lot 87-2N.
Provenance:
Donated or transferred by John Witthoft from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, April 14, 1961.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Church buildings  Search this
Mines and mineral resources  Search this
Dance  Search this
White River Massacre, Colo., 1879  Search this
Painting  Search this
Washita Campaign, 1868-1869  Search this
Mormon Church -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Tintypes
Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4605
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw33fa281bf-1e72-4f26-ae86-8c8389244b4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4605
Online Media:

Heatless Laser Etching

Extent:
1 Film reel (color, composite optical soundtrack, print, 16mm; 6 minutes)
Container:
Reel OF 802.8
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Film reels
Date:
1984
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
See more items in:
Division of Electricity Film Collection
Division of Electricity Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87a9a69d0-c8ba-4309-a25f-92c13289b5c7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0802-ref528

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs

Creator:
Pullman Palace Car Co.  Search this
Donor:
Pullman-Standard  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Pullman, George M., 1831-1897  Search this
Extent:
128.5 Cubic feet (147 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1882-1955
Summary:
Collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily early railroad Americana, including interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design. Historians, designers, railroad enthusiasts, model railroad hobbyists, scholars, and others will find this collection useful.

The glass plate negatives in this collection were produced using the wet collodion process, which was introduced to the United States in 1855 and used into the 1880s. The plates were coated with chemicals, sensitized, exposed and developed, all while the plate was wet. Later, Pullman photographers used the dry collodion process. This process involved using glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halides suspended in gelatin. This process had shorter exposure times.

George Pullman assembled a variety of photographers to document his company's work. The photography was primarily used as a record of work, especially for the Operating Department and Manufacturing Department at Pullman, as well as for prospective corporate customers.

Before establishing an in-plant photographic department in 1888, Pullman relied on local photographers. Some of the photographers included John Jex Bardwell, Wylie Dennison, Henry R. Koopman, J. W. Taylor, Thomas S. Johnson, Wylie Dennison, John P. Van Vorst, Clayton Ford Smith, Joseph McAllister, Melvin C. Horn, Ernie Stutkus, and Donald J. O'Barski. Many of the photographers signed the glass plates using their initials. For example, John P. Van Vorst signed his J.P.V.V.

Photography of Pullman activities began in the Detroit Shops (property of the Detroit Car & Manufacturing Co. which was purchased by Pullman in 1873 and operated as the Detroit Shops of Pullman) in the 1870s and expanded to include photographing the town of Pullman, steel car construction, shop accidents, workers, panoramic views, and in some instances, for company publications. In-plant photography was started with Wylie Dennison in 1888. Dennison was the first full-time Pullman photographer, and he created the Pullman Photographic Department. Dennison instituted the practice of recording each photograph, noting the negative number, description of the car, the type of view (typically one interior view and one exterior view) and lot number. All of Dennison's photography was done outside in the daylight.

The negative numbers assigned to the glass plates were identified with a "lot" number. The lot number identified the production order, and in later years, the plan number was added, designating the layout of the car. Photographing one car out of each new lot was the intital practice, but over-time, the Photographic Department began taking six or more views of the interior and exterior as well as end views.

Lot numbers include:

Lots 1 - 500 (Pullman Car Works - Chicago)

Lots 1 - 500 (Detroit Car Works)

Lots 500 plus (can be freight and passenger mixed)

Lots 1000 to 4999 (Pullman passenger equipment)

Lots 5000 to 5999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 5000 + Haskell and Barker (Pullman overlap)

Lots 6000 to 7000+ (Pullman and P-S passenger)

Lots 8000 to 9999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 10000+ (Pullman freight equipment)

Series 1, Original prints, circa 1880-1949, are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. The original prints begin with number 7343 and end with number 33091. The photographs document Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private, and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior views of the cars, and there are some views of porters and passengers. There is some documentation of the workmen constructing the cars. The prints are primarily 8" by 10" black-and-white and were originally bound into books and backed on linen. The prints were unbound at some time. Many of the original prints bear an embossed stamp "Built by Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation Chicago." Some photographs are sepia-tone and there are no negatives for these prints.

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955, consists of prints made from the glass plate negatives by the Smithsonian photographic services office. The copy prints were originally stored in loose binders but were re-housed into folders and arranged numerically according to the original Pullman Company number. The number is typically found in the lower right corner of the image. The copy prints are black-and-white and are either 5" x 7" or 8" x 10".

Series 3, Film negatives, 1917-1955, consists of film negatives (4" x 5" and 8" x 10") that are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. In some instances, information on the enclosure includes the type of car (e.g. sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). In some instances, "repro," or "broken glass" are recorded. For negatives that did not conform to the Pullman numbering system, the container list provides additional information. For example, Haskell and Barker Car Company (Haskell and Barker merged with the Pullman Company in 1922) machine shop views, or Pullman cars in St. Paul, Minnesota are recorded in the collection inventory listing.

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, [circa 1882-1948], is divided into two subseries, Subseries 1, 6" x 8" negatives and Subseries 2, 8" x 10" negatives. The series consists of approximately 13,500 glass plate negatives arranged by Pullman Company negative number. The negatives document primarily Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior and exterior views of the cars and some views of porters and passengers. The interior views include details such as seating, window treatments, lighting fixtures, bathroom fixtures, wood paneling, marquetry work, fabrics, floor treatments, and other furnishings. There is some documentation of the construction of the cars by workmen in the factory.

The negative numbers and lot numbers are etched on the glass plates. Overall the series is in good condition, although there are some broken plates which have been separated. The negatives are not inclusive and some plates are missing, or there are two copies. If plates are missing or additional copies exist, this is noted in the collection inventory. In some instances, plates are labeled 3937 and then 3937-A. This numbering distinguished two different views/angles of the same car.

Many of the envelope enclosures contain the negative number, sometimes preceed by the letter "P" (e.g. P9597), lot number (L4700), and in some instances, text describing the negative. Text typically includes the type of car (sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). If a copy print was created from the negative plate, the enclosure is stamped "printed." However, this practice was not consistent. Plates that were not printed are occasionally noted, but not with any consistency.

The 6" by 8" glass plates numbered 82-4130 to 82-4167, represent numbers assigned by the Office of Photographic Services, Smithsonian Institution. Previously labeled "Pullman" on the enclosures, the plates primarily document engines and passenger cars for the New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, 1870-1890 and undated. The plates do not have Pullman negative numbers etched in the lower left or right corners and it is unclear if these plates belong to this collection.

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated include bound, typescript indices to the Pullman negatives. Created by the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation (now known as the Division of Work and Industry), the indices include listings by railroad, private cars, freight cars, street cars and rapid transit, and Pullman negatives. The indices provide the name of the railroad/railway (e.g. Chicago & Alton), type of car (e.g. coal car or box car), number, lot, remarks (e.g. baggage area), year, type of view (e.g. exterior or interior) and frame number (for the laser disc).

One index is a supplemental guide listing sepia tone prints for which no negative exists in our collection. The indices for the negative listings on laser discs one and two are available. However, the actual lasers discs are missing.

References

Horn, Don. "The Pullman Photographers," Railroad Heritage, No. 7, 2003, pp. 5-13.

Arnold, Rus. "This Negative File was a Sleeper." Technical Photography. May 1970, pp. 21-XX.

Pullman State Historic Site, http://www.pullman-museum.org/theCompany/timeline.html (last accessed April 18, 2011)
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1, Original prints, 1904-1949

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955

Series 3, Film negatives, undated

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, circa 1882-1948

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Recognizing a market for luxurious rail travel, George M. Pullman, who had earlier experimented with sleeping car construction and was wealthy from the provisioning and transporting of Colorado miners in the early 1860s, incorporated the Pullman's Palace Car Company in 1867. By the 1870s his operations were already national and included the operation of sleeping cars under contract with the nation's railroads, the manufacture of cars at the Detroit Works, and the creation of subsidiary firms serving Great Britain and Europe. In the three decades before the turn of the century, the prosperous company grew enormously and included a much heralded model company town adjacent to the new car works at Pullman, Illinois. Acclaim turned to condemnation following the nationwide strike that originated at the Pullman Car Works in 1894. Pullman died in 1897, two years before his company absorbed its last major competitor, the Wagner Palace Car Company, which had been financed by the Vanderbilts.

The Pullman's Palace Car Company entered the twentieth century with a new name, the Pullman Company, and a new president, Robert Todd Lincoln. An extremely profitable virtual monopoly, the Pullman Company began replacing its wood cars with safer all steel bodied models (heavyweights) in its newly segregated manufacturing department and at the same time (1906) came under the regulation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. From 1918 to 1920, the United States Railroad Administration, citing the war emergency, assumed control of the operating arm of the firm, renamed the Pullman Car Lines for the duration of federal control.

The Pullman Company reached its peak during the 1920s, manufacturing new heavyweight cars at a rapid pace. Seeking to expand its freight car production, Pullman merged with the Haskell and Barker Car Company in 1922. Edward F. Carry and his Haskell and Barker associates assumed the presidency and other executive positions in the enlarged Pullman Company. More reorganization took place in 1924, when the Pullman Company Manufacturing Department became a distinct firm, the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation, and in 1927, when a parent or holding company, Pullman Incorporated, was created to oversee the two subsidiary firms. In 1929, following Carry's death, President David A. Crawford engineered the merger of the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation with the Standard Steel Car Company, forming the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company.

During the first three decades of the twentieth century Pullman sought to impede the unionization of its workers by offering new benefits, including a pension plan in 1914, a death benefit plan in 1922, and a plan of group insurance in 1929. F. L. Simmons' Industrial Relations Department, created in 1920, also directed the formation of company-sponsored occupationally-based unions under the plan of employee representation. A. Philip Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and other unions would not successfully organize company workers until the New Deal Railway Labor Act of 1934 forbade corporate interference in union matters. The Depression marked the end of Pullman prosperity. Both the number of car orders and sleeping car passengers declined precipitously. The firm laid off car plant and service workers, reduced fares, and introduced such innovations as the single occupancy section in an effort to fill its cars. During this decade the firm built fewer new cars, but it added air conditioning to its existing heavyweights and remodeled many into compartment sleepers.

In 1940, just as orders for lightweight cars were increasing and sleeping car traffic was growing, the United States Department of Justice filed an anti-trust complaint against Pullman Incorporated in the U. S. District Court at Philadelphia (Civil Action No. 994). The government sought to separate the company's sleeping car operations from its manufacturing activities. In 1944 the court concurred, ordering Pullman Incorporated to divest itself of either the Pullman Company (operating) or the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company (manufacturing). After three years of negotiations, the Pullman Company was sold to a consortium of fifty-seven railroads for around forty million dollars. Carroll R. Harding was named president of this new Pullman Company. The new Pullman Company started out optimistically in 1947 with good passenger traffic figures, but the years following brought steady and marked decline. Regularly scheduled lines were cancelled; all shops except St. Louis and Chicago were closed; employees were furloughed, and major railroad owners such as the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroad totally or partially withdrew from service. On January 1, 1969, at the age of 102, the Pullman Company ceased operation, though it maintained a small central office staff to wind up affairs and handle an equal pay-for-equal-work lawsuit (Denver Case) that continued in the courts until 1981.

John H. White (1933-), historian and curator, collected the Pullman photographs in 1969. White was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and graduated with a bachelors of arts in history from Miami University Ohio in 1958. Shortly after receiving his degree, He joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution as Assistant Curator of the Division of Transportation, Department of Science and Technology, Museum of History and Technology. White later became Associate Curator of the Division, 1961-1966, Curator, 1967-1985, and Senior Historian, 1986-1989. White specialized in land transportation, particularly the history of railroads.

White worked closely with Arthur Detmers Dubin (1923-) to acquire the Pullman photographs for the museum. Dubin was an avid train enthusiast and collector, and he frequently used the Pullman "archives" for his own research on railroads. Dubin was born in Chicago, Illinois and began his architectural education at the University of Michigan in 1941 but his education was interrupted by World War II, and he served with distinction in the United States Army until 1946. After completing his studies in 1949, Dubin joined his father's and uncle's architectural firm, Dubin and Dubin, as a second--eneration architect. The leadership of the firm soon passed to Arthur and his brother, Martin David, and in 1965 they were joined by John Black and in 1966 by John Moutoussamy. Arthur's life--ong interest in trains and transportation and their implications for architecture is evident in transit stations commissions and service on transportation--elated advisory boards (Dubin was a member of the Illinois Railroad Commission), as well as in his writings and personal collections.

In July, 1966, Dubin contacted then Vice President of Public Relations at Pullman-Standard E. Preston Calvert about the history and future of the photographic negative plates. Dubin appealed to Calvert to preserve these materials. Dubin and White were also in contact by correspondence and in June, 1967, White contacted Calvert also, stating that the Chicago Historical Society or Illinois State Historical Society should be offered the plates as a first option. Failing a local Illinois repository accepting the materials, White indicated that the Smithsonian would accept the negatives.

During the spring of 1968, White, working with Dubin and Nora Wilson, editor of the company's publications, coordinated a visit by White to Chicago to examine the photographic negatives at the Pullman Car Works factory in south Chicago. In April 1968, White examined the vast collection of glass plate negatives (approximately 20,000). From April, 1968 to August, 1969, Pullman-Standard and the Smithsonian negotiated acquisition details, including shipping and related costs. In August, 1969, White returned to complete the task of sorting the glass plates, discarding broken plates, and weeding repetitive views. He selected approximately 13,500 glass plates. Views of Pullman towns were donated to the Chicago Historical Society. Dubin appraised the photographic plates and film negatives, presumably on behalf of Pullman-Standard, and estimated the plates to be worth between $54,000 and $67,500 dollars.

References

Historical note courtesy Martha T. Briggs and Cynthia H. Peters, Guide to Pullman Company Archives, The Newberry Library, Chicago, 1995.

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Area Architects Oral History Project http://www.artic.edu/aic/resources/resource/734?search_id=1 (last accessed on February 23, 2011)

John H. White papers, 1959-1989, Record Unit 007384, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C.

Telephone conversation of Alison Oswald, archivist, with John H. White, April 14, 2011.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Pullman Palace Car Company Materials, 1867-1979 (AC0181)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990 (AC0523)

Materials in Other Organizations

•Art Institute of Chicago

•Bombardier Corporation

•California State Railroad Museum

•Chicago History Museum

•Arthur Dubin Collection at Lake Forest College

•Illinois Railway Museum

•Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives

Pullman-Standard Railroad Car Manufacturing Company Personnel Records—Personnel Record Series CRA 314 This index of employee names was created from the original personnel cards housed at Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives from the Indiana locations. Although the records are not complete from the Michigan City plant for the entire period from 1912 to the 1970's, there may be information that will assist researchers with finding key details of a family member. The Hammond Pullman plant was merged with the Haskell Barker Company of Michigan City in 1922.

•Newberry Library, Chicago

The Pullman Company archives at the Newberry Library consists of 2,500 cubic feet of records from the Pullman Company and Pullman heirs. The collection is comprised of business archives of the Pullman Palace Car Company from 1867 and includes records of the entire firm up to the 1924 split into operating (sleeping car operation, service, and repair) and manufacturing companies. From 1924 to 1981 the records chronicle the activities of the operating company only.

•Pennsylvania State Archives

•Pullman State Historic Site

•Pullman Technology (Harvey, Illinois)

•Smithsonian Institution Archives

•South Suburban Genealogical & Historical Society (South Holland, Illinois)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Pullman-Standard Company, through Nora Wilson, editor of employee publications for the Department of Public Relations and Advertising, on October 8, 1969.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Special arrangements required to view original glass plate and film negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Freight cars  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Roomette car  Search this
Hospital cars  Search this
Dining cars  Search this
Hotel car  Search this
Sleeping cars (Railroads)  Search this
Local transit  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass plate negatives
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1890-1900
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1175
See more items in:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85e54d13d-eb5a-4971-8e39-ecfe85039ed4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1175
Online Media:

Elisabeth Rungius Fulda Papers

Collection Creator:
Fulda, Elisabeth Rungius, 1879-1968  Search this
Extent:
0.9 Linear feet (Box 1-2, OV 3)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1893-1968
Scope and Contents:
Found are three sketchbooks, two with watercolor drawings of landscapes and one with scattered pencil sketches of animals. An autograph book, in German, contains small bits of poetry from the 1890s. Additional artworks consist of unsigned etchings and pencil sketches, likely by Fulda. Biographical materials include artist statements and self-critiques, awards and certificates, biographical sketches, a baby book, and vital records including a marriage certificate for Rungius's marriage to Carl Fulda, and birth certificates for herself and daughter Irene Fulda.

Correspondence is primarily professional and includes letters from the American Museum of Natural History, Glenbow Foundation, the Library of Congress, Metropolitan Museum of Art, National Association of women Artists, Inc., National Geographic, and the Treasury Relief Art Project. Of note are greeting and holiday cards featuring original artworks including prints, paintings, and sketches sent to Fulda by artist friends.

Personal business records include loan and sales records and legal material regarding Fulda's divorce in 1916. Also found are housing and rental information. Photographs depict Fulda, family, and friends. Some photographs of the Rungius family are reprints from a photo album. Also found are photographs of works of art. Printed materials include scattered clippings and exhibition announcements and catalogs from Fulda's career. Writings are by Fulda and include a copy of a biography she wrote on her brother, Carl Rungius, and a printed booklet of poems written and illustrated by Fulda.

Also found are records from the Society of Animal Artists including correspondence, administrative information, lists, and drafts of memoranda.
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Elisabeth Rungius Fulda papers, 1893-1968. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.fuldelis, Series 1
See more items in:
Elisabeth Rungius Fulda papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw91d54d90c-278b-4963-94e5-2f72bc4cb9dc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-fuldelis-ref12

Clement Greenberg papers

Creator:
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Names:
American Committee for Cultural Freedom  Search this
Avedisian, Edward, 1936-2007  Search this
Bannard, Walter Darby, 1934-  Search this
Baziotes, Ethel  Search this
Bush, Jack, 1909-  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Connolly, Cyril, 1903-1974  Search this
Davis, Gene, 1920-1985  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard, 1922-1993  Search this
Dorazio, Piero, 1927-  Search this
Dzubas, Friedel, 1915-  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Feeley, Paul, 1910-1966  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Fuller, Peter, 1947-1990  Search this
Goodnough, Robert, 1917-  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Hosaisson, Philippe  Search this
Kainen, Jacob  Search this
Krauss, Rosalind E.  Search this
Moffett, Kenworth  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-  Search this
O'Faolin, Nuala  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pepper, Beverly  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Sander, Ludwig, 1906-  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Smith, Kimber, 1922-1981  Search this
Solomon, Deborah  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Truitt, Anne, 1921-2004  Search this
Waddington, Leslie  Search this
Wisenski, Kurt  Search this
Extent:
8.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Interviews
Etchings
Photographs
Reports
Date:
1937-1983
Summary:
The papers of art critic, author, and lecturer Clement Greenberg measure 8.6 linear feet and date from 1937 to 1983. The bulk of the collection consists of letters from art critics, artists, family, friends, galleries, and museums. Notable correspondents include Jack Bush, Anthony Caro, Richard Diebenkorn, Friedel Dzubas, Helen Frankenthaler, Adolph Gottlieb, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Robert Motherwell, Charles Pollock, Jules Olitski, David Smith, and Anne Truitt among others. Also found are biograpical materials, personal business and financial records, an etching by Kurt Wisneski, printed materials, and two reports by Greenberg concerning his travels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of influential New York art critic Clement Greenberg measure 8.6 linear feet and date from 1937 to 1983. The bulk of the papers (7 feet) consists of letters from art critics, artists, family, friends, galleries, and museums, with some letters from Greenberg. Correspondents include Edward Avedisian, Darby Bannard, Ethel Baziotes, Jack Bush, Anthony Caro, Gene Davis, Richard Diebenkorn, Piero Dorazio, Friedel Dzubas, Andre Emmerich, Paul Feeley, Sam Francis, Helen Frankenthaler, Robert Goodnough, Adolf Gottleib, Hans Hofmann, Philippe Hosiasson, Jacob Kainen, Rosalind Krauss, Robert Motherwell, Ken Moffett, Barnett Newman, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Beverly Pepper, Ludwig Sander, David Smith, Kimber Smith, Clyfford Still, Anne Truitt, and Leslie Waddington.

Biographical materials include a transcript of an interview with Greenberg conducted by Deborah Solomon in 1983. Greenberg's personal business and financial records include correspondence regarding his lectures and seminars, requests for his writings, student queries, documents regarding his television and radio appearances, royalty statements, and receipts for gifts of works of art. Also found within business records are documents relating to Greenberg's testimony at the Mark Rothko Trial in 1974.

Artwork consists of one etching by Kurt Wisenski entitled "Spring." The papers contain very few of Greenberg's writings about art. Found are lists of artists, and reports written by Greenberg on the state of art in Japan and India in 1967, likely related to his membership in the American Committee for Cultural Freedom. Printed material includes scattered clippings concerning art and exhibition announcements.

One series of ACCESS RESTRICTED papers contains documents relating to Greenberg's role as a trustee in the David Smith estate; correspondence between Greenberg with Andre Emmerich and Peter Fuller, Nuala O'Faolain, and the Greenberg family; and some financial materials regarding the sale and loan of Greenberg's art collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1950s-1983 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Business and Financial Records, 1940-1983 (Box 1; 12 folders)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1937-1983 (Boxes 1-8; 7 linear feet)

Series 4: Artwork, 1973 (Box 8; 1 folder)

Series 5: Writings and Notes, 1967-1983 (Box 8; 3 folders)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1950-1982 (Box 8; 2 folders)

Series 7: David Smith Estate Materials (Boxes 9-11; 1.2 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Clement Greenberg was a highly influential art critic working in New York City from the 1940s through the 1960s. He was an advocate of modern art, particulary the abstract expressionist movement, and one of the first critics to recognize the significance of Jackson Pollock's work.

Greenberg was born in 1909 to Russian immigrants in Bronx, New York. After graduating from Syracuse University in 1930, he married and had a child, David. He settled in New York City while working at the United States Customs Department as an appraiser.

In the late 1930s, Clement Greenberg attended a meeting of the U.S. Works Progress Administration and heard Hans Hofmann speak of avant-garde art. In 1939, he wrote one of his first important critical pieces "Avant-Garde and Kitsch" for the Partisan Review. Greenberg argued that the avant-garde art movement rose out of the need to defend and maintain high art standards against the decline in taste brought about by America's consumerism and capitalist culture.

In 1940, Greenberg joined Partisan Review as an editor. He became art critic for the Nation in 1942, and was associate editor of Commentary from 1945 until 1957. In December 1950, he joined the CIA-fronted American Committee for Cultural Freedom.

Throughout the 1940s through the 1960s Greenberg continued to write and, in his essays and articles, he promoted the work of Abstract Expressionists, among them Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Hans Hofmann, Barnett Newman, and Clyfford Still. He particularly championed Jackson Pollock. Greenberg wrote several seminal essays that defined his views on art history in the 20th century. "Greenberg on Collage" was one one of his most important.

Greenberg's views on pop art were mixed. He also became less enamored with Abstract Impressionism, particularly the second generation. However, he became very interested in the Color-Field and Hard-Edge painters.

Through the 1960s Greenberg's views informed a younger generation of art critics including Michael Fried and Rosalind E. Krauss. Some writers maintain that Greenberg's views were so well-respected that he had too much of an influence on the world of art. In time, Greenberg's antagonism to Postmodernist theories and other modern art movements caused him to lose much of his credibility among both artists and art critics.

Greenberg died at the age of eighty-five in 1994.

Since his death, letters edited by his widow, Janice Van Horne and a re-evaluation of his writings have helped to restore his reputation within the art world.
Related Material:
The Portland Art Museum holds Clement Greenberg's private art collection as well as a library of exhibition catalogs.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels N69-91, N70-7, and N737). Most, but not all, of these papers were later donated by Greenberg. Loaned materials not donated at a later date remain with the lender and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
Clement Greenberg initally lent material for microfilming in 1968-1969. He donated most of this material with additional papers in several accretions between 1984 to 1991.
Restrictions:
This collection is temporarily closed to researchers due to archival processing and digitization. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art criticism -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Japan  Search this
Art -- India  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Interviews
Etchings
Photographs
Reports
Citation:
The Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.greeclep
See more items in:
Clement Greenberg papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9583b0d2a-ad31-4fa9-a3b5-eacce3cb0313
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-greeclep
Online Media:

Alexander Brook papers, 1900-1982

Creator:
Brook, Alexander, 1898-1980  Search this
Subject:
Bacon, Peggy  Search this
Biddle, George  Search this
Brett, Catherine  Search this
Covarrubias, Miguel  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Spencer, Niles  Search this
Knee, Gina  Search this
Bouché, Louis  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Watercolors
Sketches
Transcriptions
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Interviews
Etchings
Illustrations
Citation:
Alexander Brook papers, 1900-1982. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Post-impressionism (Art)  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6833
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208960
AAA_collcode_brooalex
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208960
Online Media:

Edison Miniature Lamp

Maker:
General Electric  Search this
Physical Description:
carbon (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/8 in x 1/2 in; 2.8575 cm x 1.27 cm
Object Name:
Light Bulb
light bulb
incandescent lamp
Credit Line:
from Hugh F. Hicks
ID Number:
1994.0126.18
Accession number:
1994.0126
Catalog number:
1994.0126.18
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-84b1-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_751206

Edison Miniature Lamp

Maker:
General Electric  Search this
Physical Description:
carbon (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/8 in x 1/2 in; 2.8575 cm x 1.27 cm
Object Name:
Light Bulb
incandescent lamp
Credit Line:
from Hugh F. Hicks
ID Number:
1994.0126.19
Accession number:
1994.0126
Catalog number:
1994.0126.19
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-8206-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_751207

Miniature Carbon Lamp

Physical Description:
carbon (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/2 in x 3/4 in; 3.81 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
Light Bulb
incandescent lamp
Credit Line:
from Hugh F. Hicks
ID Number:
1994.0126.20
Accession number:
1994.0126
Catalog number:
1994.0126.20
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-834a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_751208

Miniature Carbon Lamp

Physical Description:
carbon (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/2 in x 3/4 in; 3.81 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
Light Bulb
incandescent lamp
Credit Line:
from Hugh F. Hicks
ID Number:
1994.0126.21
Accession number:
1994.0126
Catalog number:
1994.0126.21
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-834b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_751209

Miniature Carbon Lamp

Physical Description:
carbon (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 3/4 in x 3/4 in; 4.445 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
Light Bulb
incandescent lamp
Credit Line:
from Hugh F. Hicks
ID Number:
1994.0126.22
Accession number:
1994.0126
Catalog number:
1994.0126.22
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-834c-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_751210

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