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Esselen

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
9 Boxes
Culture:
Esselen Indians  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Place:
California -- Languages
Date:
1913-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Esselen. Materials include drafts of a paper on Esselen; copies of primary and secondary sources; file slips containing Esselen vocabulary, cognates, and equivalent terms; notes on rehearings of Esselen vocabulary; and notes on a comparison of Esselen and Southern Pomo vocabulary. The drafts are for a paper on sources of Esselen, with notes on phonetics, grammar, and vocabulary. The section of primary and secondary sources contains notes from 1916 to 1953 and include handwritten and typed copies of manuscripts and published versions of the various Esselen vocabularies. The file contains fairly extensive notes from a conversation with Henshaw regarding his fieldwork, dated August 31, 1920, and notes on the chapter entitled "The Esselen and Salinans" from Kroeber's "Handbook of the Indians of California." There are also several pages of notes on Esselen which were sent to Harrington by C. Hart Merriam. The slipfiles are organized under broad semantic headings: nature, material culture, bodyparts, animals, plants, kinship, tribenames, and placenames. The remainder of the slips were filed under such grammatical headings as nouns, verbs, pronouns, adverbs, reduplication, and phonetics. The sources of Esselen vocabulary from which he extracted the data were de Lamanon, Alcala Galiano, Arroyo de la Cuesta, Pinart, Henshaw, Merriam, and Kroeber. For comparative purposes, he also copied lexical items in other languages. Notes from rehearings of Esselen vocabulary are from his work with Ascencion Solorsano and Isabelle Meadows, both Costanoan speakers. The files on the comparison of Esselen and Southern Pomo contains Pomo vocabulary that Harrington recorded from Manuel C. Cordova along with Harrington's notes on the similarity of certain terms to Esselen.

A number of abbreviations were utilized by Harrington throughout the work to refer to the various reference works which he consulted. "Man." and "Per." refer to the vocabulary collected by de Lamanon and published by Laperouse. "Suen." and "Gal." allude to the vocabulary obtained by Lasuen and often credited to the explorer Dionicio Alcala Galiano.) Harrington also refers to this work as "Esp." for Espinosa y Tello. "Pi." and "Pin." stand for Alphonse Pinart and "Hen." for Henry W. Henshaw. The code "Mof." was utilized for Eugene Duflot de Mofras and "Cues." or "Arr." for Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta. Harrington employed the abbreviations "Mer." and "Kr." for the writings of his contemporaries C. Hart Merriam and Alfred L. Kroeber.
Biographical / Historical:
Harrington began a study of Esselen relatively early in his career and maintained a continuing interest in relating it to a recognized language family. Because the language became extinct in the early 1900s, he himself was not actually able to conduct any fieldwork with a native speaker. He did undertake research among the existing primary and secondary sources and attempted to learn what he could from various Native Americans who he thought might have some knowledge of the language.

As early as 1913 Harrington began compiling notes on the historical accounts of Esselen. It is known that he presented a paper on the subject at the meeting of the San Francisco Society of the Archaeological Institute of America at Berkeley in November of that year. An undated manuscript titled "The Excelen Language" presumably dates from that period.

As his research continued, Harrington was pleased to locate a "new source," the vocabulary recorded by Alphonse Pinart, at the Bancroft Library. This manuscript had been unavailable to Alfred Kroeber when he published his summary of Esselen in 1904. The discovery may have led Harrington to present a paper titled "Notes on Esselen" at the joint session of the San Francisco Society of the A.I.A. and the Anthropological Section of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held in Berkeley on December 1 and 2, 1916.

Harrington continued revising his notes on secondary sources in the 1920s, producing two additional drafts of his earlier summary in 1921 and 1927. In addition, he compiled slipfiles and various handwritten and typed lists of lexical items which were culled from the available sources on Esselen and some neighboring languages.

In the mid-1930s Harrington reviewed his files with Rumsen speaker Isabelle Meadows in hopes that she might recognize or help him reconstruct various Esselen words. At the end of their work he concluded that she knew only eleven words of the language.

In February 1947 Harrington reheard Esselen vocabulary items with his Southern Pomo consultant, Manuel C. Cordova, in an attempt to find similarities between the two languages. A number of years later he began another draft write-up. This remains in a sketchy, outline form.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Esselen language  Search this
Pomo languages  Search this
Ohlone language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 2.14
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 2: Papers Relating to the Native American history, language and culture of northern and central California
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3793f68bd-bc92-44f9-b0b7-325709a41092
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref13841
Online Media:

Supplemental Material on Northern and Central California

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Underhill, Ruth, 1883-1984  Search this
Names:
Drake, Francis, 1540?-1596  Search this
Du Bois, Cora Alice, 1903-1991  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Morton, C. V. (Conrad Vernon), 1905-1972  Search this
Uldall, Hans Jørgen, 1907-1957  Search this
Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), b. 1885  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
5 Boxes
Culture:
Wiyot  Search this
Yurok  Search this
Mattole  Search this
Nisenan Indians  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Karuk (Karok)  Search this
Chimariko  Search this
Shasta  Search this
Wailaki  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Atsugewi (Hat Creek)  Search this
Wintu  Search this
Yana  Search this
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Esselen Indians  Search this
Salinan Indians  Search this
Yokuts  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Vocabulary
Field notes
Manuscripts
Place:
California -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
circa 1907-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Notes and writings on special linguistic studies series contains material that supplement Harrington's Northern and Central California field notes. There are materials on Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole; Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok; Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok; Plains Miwok; Karok/Shasta/Konomihu; Chimariko/Hupa; Wailaki; Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko; Costanoan; Esselen; Salinan; and Yokuts. The files include notes Harrington collected from the field, covering linguistic, botanical, biographical, geographical, and ethnographic topics; notes from rehearings; notes and drafts from his papers; notes on his travels and activities; and notes from secondary sources, including field notes from Alfred Kroeber and other colleagues and notes on Sir Francis Drake's travels in California. Some of his botanical notes include scientific identifications and comments by botanist C. V. Morton of the National Herbarium. The Karok section contains labels for Karok baskets housed in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology.

There are also some general and miscellaneous materials, notes relating to collections of artifacts, notes relating to mission records, notes from conversations, notes from secondary sources, and notes and writings collected from others. Miscellaneous material includes lists of possible informants for a number of California languages, bibliographic references, notes on boats, a list of captions for Harrington's paper "Chainfern and Maidenhair, Adornment Materials of Northwestern California Basketry," a tracing of a map labeled "Plano de la Mision San Jose, 1824," additional references to that mission, and a text. The papers contain references to the Hupa, Maidu, and Yurok tribes. Notes on artifacts pertain to collections held by others, including the George Heye collection of artifacts for the Modoc, Klamath, Pomo, Tolowa, Hupa, and Yurok tribes. Notes from conversations includes interviews with Cora DuBois, C. Hart Merriam, Carl F. Voegelin, and T.T. Waterman. Notes from his meeting with Dr. J.W. Hudson are the most extensive. The last file in the subseries consists of notes from a meeting with Ruth Underhill on January 10, 1941, and a notebook which Harrington evidently obtained from her at that time. The notebook contains class notes from a course on Maidu which Underhill had taken at Columbia University in 1932 with Hans Jorgen Uldall. Included are information on phonetics and grammar and a number of texts.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Grammar, Comparative and general  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Wiyot language  Search this
Yurok language  Search this
Mattole language  Search this
Nisenan language  Search this
Miwok languages  Search this
Karok language  Search this
Shasta language  Search this
Konomihu language  Search this
Chimariko language  Search this
Hupa language  Search this
Achomawi language  Search this
Atsugewi language  Search this
Wintu language  Search this
Yana language  Search this
Ohlone language  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Salinan language  Search this
Yokuts language  Search this
Meskwaki; Sauk & Fox  Search this
Karuk  Search this
Achumawi  Search this
Genre/Form:
Vocabulary
Field notes
Manuscripts
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 8.2
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 8: Notes and Writings on Special Linguistic Studies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30cfeef45-d96e-4d0f-b57c-8ea915d225b3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15214
Online Media:

Basket Collection:from O'Hara and Livermore Collection

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (008 in x 010 in mounted on 008 in x 010 in)
Container:
Box V:7, Folder 4
Culture:
Esselen Indians  Search this
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.01547800

OPPS NEG.81-8348
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Place:
California
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 24 SPC Calif Basketry Mission NM No # 01547800, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Photographs of Native Americans and Other Subjects
Photographs of Native Americans and Other Subjects / Series 1: America north of Mexico / California / Basketry Mission
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3868eea8e-d3c2-454e-bde6-80fe414d3ebb
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-24-ref15282

MS 385 "Idiomas Californias"

Creator:
Arroyo de la Cuesta, Felipe, -1842  Search this
Murray, E. F. (Edward F.)  Search this
Extent:
32 Pages
Culture:
Chumash -- Purismeno  Search this
Santa Ynez Chumash (Santa Inez)  Search this
Yokuts  Search this
San Luis Rey  Search this
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Salinan -- San Miguel  Search this
Chumash [San Luis Obispo Mission]  Search this
Salinan -- San Antonio  Search this
Barbareño Chumash (Santa Barbara)  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Wintun  Search this
Esselen Indians  Search this
Karkin  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Chumash  Search this
Salinan Indians  Search this
Patwin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1821
Scope and Contents:
Copied by E.F. Murray in 1878 from the original made in 1821. It includes vocabularies of the following languages: Esselen, San Antonio (Salinan), San Miguel (Salinan), San Luis Obispo (Obispeno Chusmash), Santa Barbara (Barbareno Chumash), La Purisima (Purismeno Chusmash), Santa Inez (Inezeno Chumash), Nophrinthres of San Juan Bautista (a Yokuts dialect), Lathruunen (Yokuts), San Luis Rey (Uto-Aztecan), Karkin (Costanoan), Saclan (Miwok), Juichun (Costanoan), Huimen (Marin Miwok), and Suisen (a dialect of Patwin [Wintun]).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 385
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Ynezeno  Search this
Antoniaños  Search this
Migueleños  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 385, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS385
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ef078075-0f0c-4568-a7c9-a16db1c965ea
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms385
Online Media:

MS 382 Esselen vocabulary

Creator:
Henshaw, Henry W. (Henry Wetherbee), 1850-1930  Search this
Extent:
22 Pages
Culture:
Esselen Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1888
Scope and Contents:
With notes, 2 pages, and marginalia by A.L. Kroeber and note by A.S. Gatschet.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 382
Local Note:
Reference: Henshaw, "A new linguistic family in California," American Anthropologist, old series, III, 1890, pages 45-49. Kroeber, "The languages of the coast of California south of San Francisco," U. of California. Pubs. in Archeology and Ethnology, II, Number 2 (1904), 28-80.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 382, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS382
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3e8a2789a-da22-4e95-93c4-d1f97d890b82
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms382
Online Media:

MS 383 Eslen vocabulary

Collector:
Alcalá-Galiano, Dionisio, 1760-1805  Search this
Extent:
3 Pages
Culture:
Esselen Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Copied from Relacion del Viage Hecho, etc., 1802.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 383
Local Note:
Evidently related to the Esselen in "Idiomas Californias" and Henshaw's vocabulary of 1888.- J.O.D. 10/19/93. So stated by Mr Gatschet in his remarks on the Idiomas.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 383, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS383
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ebb517ef-d879-4230-a372-f05493c4e6ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms383

MS 384 Salinan comparative vocabulary

Creator:
Henshaw, Henry W. (Henry Wetherbee), 1850-1930  Search this
Extent:
8 Pages
Culture:
Esselen Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Place:
Carmel (Calif.)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Compares vocabularies marked "Eslen," "Ecclemachs," and "Carmel of Mofras."
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 384
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 384, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS384
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ab739ae2-d99b-4d55-a3a2-aeccd731d918
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms384
Online Media:

MS 302 Soledad (Costanoan) vocabulary with some Obispeno Chumash entries

Creator:
Henshaw, Henry W. (Henry Wetherbee), 1850-1930  Search this
Extent:
47 Items (ca. pages ca. 47 pages)
Culture:
Ohlone (Costano)  Search this
Chumash [San Luis Obispo Mission]  Search this
Esselen Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Chumash  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Chumash encircled with a line, or otherwise marked; also the numbers 1-5 and 10 in Esselen (page 97). In pencil, in Powell's schedule of Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages.
Biographical / Historical:
Recorded from Clara, who lived at Arroyo Seco, 10 miles from Soledad; place of record not stated.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 302
Topic:
Numbers -- Esselen  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 302, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS302
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a4b9f9bd-0a28-4dd0-9db5-e7a4f4368364
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms302
Online Media:

The Esselen indians of the Big Sur Country : the land and the people / by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat

Author:
Breschini, Gary S  Search this
Haversat, Trudy  Search this
Physical description:
232 p. : ill., maps ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
California
Monterey County
Big Sur (Calif.)
Date:
2004
Topic:
History  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_795692

A Gathering of voices : the Native Peoples of the central California coast / edited by Linda Yamane

Author:
Yamane, Linda  Search this
Museum of Art and History (Santa Cruz, Calif.)  Search this
Physical description:
241 p. ; ill., ports. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
California
Monterey County
Santa Cruz County
Date:
2002
Call number:
E78.C15 G38 2002
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_686477

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