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Bureau of American Ethnology illustrations for publications

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Artist:
Newcomb, Josepha  Search this
Nichols, Hobart, 1869-1962  Search this
Schumacher, Edward G.  Search this
Wright, Mary Irwin  Search this
Extent:
1 Watercolor
3 Prints (silver gelatin)
120 Items (circa 120 line drawings)
20 Graphite drawings
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Mayas  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Watercolor
Prints
Graphite drawings
Photographs
Watercolors
Drawings
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Mostly images of artifacts, architecture, peoples, and some maps published in various Bureau of American Ethnology publications, particularly the Annual Reports. Most of the line drawings were made by Henry Hobart Nichols, while most of the graphite drawings were possibly created by Edward Schumacher.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 78-51
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional illustrations for various BAE publications can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 133 and in the records of the BAE.
Information on these illustrations and publications can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the records of the BAE.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Watercolors
Drawings
Citation:
Photo lot 78-51, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.78-51
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-78-51

United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Extent:
78 Prints (circa, albumen)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Apache  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Hawaiians  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Unangan (Aleut)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
circa 1884-1885
Scope and Contents note:
Army Medical Museum photographs prepared under the supervision of John Shaw Billings and Washington Matthews, and created by superimposing images of several skulls for comparative purposes. Each image has a caption that includes tribal or racial identification, number of skulls photographed, photograph number, negative number, and data on photographic technique.

The collection represents of Aleut, Apache, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Dakota, Eskimo, Hidatsa, Navajo, Oglala, Ojibwa, Paiute, Piegan, Ponca, Wichita, African American, Hawaiian, people, and people of San Miguel and San Nicholas Islands (California).
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased Native Americans. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 6A
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 73-26C, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
The National Anthropological Archives holds microfilm of the papers of Washington Matthews, circa 1864-1905, and records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution from the Army Medical Museum.
See others in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, circa 1884-1885
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.6A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-6a

United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Collector:
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Hayden, F. V. (Ferdinand Vandeveer), 1829-1887  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Palmer, Edward, 1829-1911  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Rolleston, George, 1829-1881  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F.  Search this
Depicted:
Guiteau, Charles J. (Charles Julius), 1841-1882  Search this
Extent:
100 Negatives (circa, glass)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Ute  Search this
Chinook  Search this
Choptank Indians -- depicted  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Eskimos -- depicted  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Africans -- United States -- depicted  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Taiwan aborigines -- depicted  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Taiwanese -- depicted  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Nisqually  Search this
Hawaiians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
probably 1870s-1880s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of skulls in the United States Army Medical Museum collection, which appear to have been collected for physical anthropological purposes. Included are archeological remains and remains of Native American tribes and some other ethnic groups. Other than tribe or location, data for the specimens include Army Medical Museum specimen number, AMM negative number, and sex; for some, there is also collection data and information on physical or medical conditions. There are also notes identifying donors who included army officers, physicians, scientists, and explorers such as Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden, Edward Palmer, Frederic Ward Putnam, George Rolleston, Paul Schumacher, and many others. Some of the photographs may have been made as part of the Army Medical Museumʹs program of distributing images of its specimens.

Represented are Africans, Chinook, Choptank, Dakota, Eskimo of Greenland, Taiwanese peoples, Hawaiians, Hidatsa, Nisqually, Philippine peoples, Ponca, Potowatomi, Pueblo, Tonkawa, and Ute. Archeological specimens are from the Aleutian Islands, California, the Dakotas, England (Roman period), Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, New Mexico, Peru, Vancouver Island, and Vermont. For some, there is also information about the status or physical condition of the individual or observations of medical conditions shown in the specimens. Some additional photographs appear to show specimens at the American Museum of Natural History.
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased Native Americans. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73-26C, NAA Photo Lot 73-26D
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs previously filed in Photo Lot 73-26D have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 73-26C. These are also Army Medical Museum negatives of skulls and form part of this collection.
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6A, Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 73-26C, United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73-26C
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73-26c

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
African American  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

Shaman's Hat

Collector:
William J. Fisher  Search this
Donor Name:
William J. Fisher  Search this
Height - Object:
25 cm
Culture:
Eskimo, Alutiiq (Sugpiaq), Koniag  Search this
Object Type:
Hat
Place:
Ugashik, Alaska Peninsula / Ugashik River, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
4 Jan 1887
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
018490
USNM Number:
E127804-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3f03f9f95-a2a3-45e8-98cb-d6027161d0d2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8334405
Online Media:

Charles Francis Hall Collection

Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Correspondent:
Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Culture:
Eskimo/Inuit  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business cards
Letters (correspondence)
Navigation charts
Notebooks
Scrapbooks
Ships' logs
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Nunavut
Date:
1858-1871
Summary:
The collection documents Hall's Arctic exploration.
Scope and Contents:
Diaries, journals, notebooks, scrapbooks, business cards, correspondence, ships' logs, navigation charts and documents on Hall's Arctic exploration. The correspondence includes letters to and from Henry Grimmell, William Grimmell, J. Carson Brevoont, John Barrow, Cyrus Field, Edward Everett, Clement Markham, Joseph Henry, and the Royal Geographic Society.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall was born about 1821, either Vermont or New Hampshire; there are very few details about his early life. He is most notable for spending over ten years in the Arctic among the Inuit, initially focused on locating evidence of the lost British Expedition under Sir John Franklin, and then, in two later expeditions, searching for the Northwest Passage and the North Pole.

Before becoming a polar explorer, Hall began as a blacksmith's apprentice at a young age in Rochester, NH. Sometime in the 1840's he married and moved westward eventually coming to Cincinnati, where Charles opened a business making engraving plates and seals, in 1849. Later he published a small newspaper in Cincinnati, The Cincinnati Occasional.

While publishing news stories of arctic expeditions related to the Franklin expedition, Hall became enamored with the idea of polar exploration. In 1857 he began collecting any material he could gather on the landscape and survival in the Arctic, previous expeditions, and John Franklin's expedition itself, while at the same time seeking financial support for his expedition.

After detailed preparation and a small amount of financial backing, Hall boarded a ship for Greenland, and then on to the "Terra Incognita" of the Arctic. Despite being an amateur explorer with very little support for his first expedition, Hall believed that by living amongst the indigenous Inuit people, a non-native could survive long periods living in the arctic. In May 1860, Hall arrived in Frobisher Bay, Canada and with not much more than a small boat and basic supplies, Hall met befriended local Inuit who took him in for the next two years.

Over those two years, Hall found little evidence of the Franklin expedition, but what he did find proved to be more valuable. While an avid and writer, Hall lived, learned and daily documented in his journals more about the Inuit people that any visitor before him. His journals describe Inuit society, traditions, oral histories, language and culture, as well as the skills necessary to survive in such an unforgiving climate. He also travelled and mapped much of the unknown Frobisher Bay area, correcting many previously incorrect maps that depicted area as an open strait, rather than a closed bay.

Once Hall returned to the United States, he began working on publishing his writings and preparing for a second expedition to Frobisher Bay. In 1864, he left for his second trip spending almost five years living amongst the Inuit, searching for the Franklin expedition and mapping unknown portions of the Arctic.

As soon as he arrived home in 1869, Hall began again planning his next and bigger expedition, but times had changed in the U.S. The Civil War was over and the United States government was now interested in polar exploration and the race to the North Pole. Gaining the attention of President Grant, Hall was appointed as joint commander of the Polaris Expedition.

Departing in 1871, the expedition began with critical problems. The "joint-command" of the expedition put Hall in direct conflict with the other two expedition commanders, each one believing they should have been appointed as sole commander. This eventually led to incredible disasters throughout the expedition, resulting in the total failure of the mission, loss of the ship, as well as the death of Charles Francis Hall. Hall died on the expedition in November 1871, possibly from poisoning by one of his co-commanders. His body was exhumed in 1969 and tested, revealing the presence of arsenic. While Hall claimed on his deathbed he had been poisoned by a crew member, many 19th century medicines contained arsenic.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Indigenous peoples  Search this
Inuktut  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business cards
Letters (correspondence) -- 1850-1900
Navigation charts
Notebooks
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Ships' logs
Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0702
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0702
Online Media:

Episode 16

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
audio/x-mpeg
Uploaded:
Wed, 10 Aug 2011 15:00:00 GMT
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more episodes:
Tapestry of the Times
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_53c8343cd853d93621f0228717240e76

sunglasses; eskimo eyeshades; goggles

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
string, cotton ? (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 cm x 15.5 cm x 7.8 cm; 1 9/16 in x 6 1/8 in x 3 1/16 in
overall: 1 5/8 in x 6 1/4 in x 3 in; 4.1275 cm x 15.875 cm x 7.62 cm
Object Name:
Sunglasses
sunglasses
eskimo eyeshades
goggles
Other Terms:
Sunglasses; Eye Protective Device; Vision Aids; Eskimo Sun Shield
Credit Line:
Dr. Leslie W. Myers
ID Number:
MG.M-14104
Accession number:
309904
Catalog number:
M-14104
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-8f8e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1117466
Online Media:

sunglasses; eskimo eyeshades; goggles

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
rawhide (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5.8 cm x 18 cm x 8.5 cm; 2 5/16 in x 7 1/16 in x 3 3/8 in
overall: 2 3/8 in x 7 1/8 in x 3 1/2 in; 6.0325 cm x 18.0975 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
Sunglasses
sunglasses
eskimo eyeshades
goggles
Other Terms:
Sunglasses; Eye Protective Device; Vision Aids; Eskimo Sun Shield
Date made:
1938
Credit Line:
R. S. Moody
ID Number:
MG.317912.090
Accession number:
317912
Catalog number:
317912.090
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-7d30-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1114638
Online Media:

sunglasses; eskimo eyeshades; goggles

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
rawhide (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5.6 cm x 17.8 cm x 8.5 cm; 2 3/16 in x 7 in x 3 3/8 in
overall: 2 1/4 in x 7 in x 2 1/2 in; 5.715 cm x 17.78 cm x 6.35 cm
Object Name:
Sunglasses
eskimo eyeshades
sunglasses
eskimo sunshadeseskimo eyeshades
goggles
Other Terms:
Sunglasses; Eye Protective Device; Vision Aids; Eskimo Sun Shield
Date made:
1938
Credit Line:
R. S. Moody
ID Number:
MG.317912.092
Accession number:
317912
Catalog number:
317912.092
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-ac37-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1114676
Online Media:

Eskimo Sun Shield

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
twine (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2.5 cm x 12.2 cm x 2.5 cm; in x 4 13/16 in x in
overall: 1 1/8 in x 4 7/8 in x 1 1/8 in; 2.8575 cm x 12.3825 cm x 2.8575 cm
Object Name:
Sunglasses
sunglasses
eskimo eyeshades
goggles
Other Terms:
Sunglasses; Eye Protective Device; Vision Aids; Eskimo Sun Shield
Credit Line:
R. S. Moody
ID Number:
MG.317912.085
Accession number:
317912
Catalog number:
317912.085
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-82aa-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1114680
Online Media:

Chinese Spectacles

Object Name:
Spectacles
Other Terms:
Spectacles; Sun Shield, Eskimo; Sun Shield, Eskimo, Batch of; Medicine
Place made:
China
Subject:
Ophthalmology  Search this
Credit Line:
Robert S. Moody
ID Number:
MG.317912
Catalog number:
317912
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-8d95-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_734817
Online Media:

eskimo eyeshades; sunglasses

Measurements:
overall: 1 1/4 in x 5 1/2 in x 1 3/8 in; 3.175 cm x 13.97 cm x 3.4925 cm
Object Name:
eskimo eyeshades
sunglasses
ID Number:
2012.0165.225
Catalog number:
2012.0165.225
Accession number:
2012.0165
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-b32c-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1437670
Online Media:

eskimo eyeshades; sunglasses; goggles

Measurements:
overall: 1 3/4 in x 5 3/8 in x 2 1/8 in; 4.445 cm x 13.6525 cm x 5.3975 cm
Object Name:
Sunglasses, Eskimo
eskimo eyeshades
sunglasses
goggles
Other Terms:
Sunglasses, Eskimo; Medicine
Credit Line:
Bruce A. and Georgia C. Hedrick
ID Number:
1981.0273.01
Accession number:
1981.0273
Catalog number:
1981.0273.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-880f-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_723506
Online Media:

eskimo eyeshades; sunglasses; goggles

Measurements:
overall: 3/4 in x 5 3/4 in; 1.905 cm x 14.605 cm
Object Name:
Sunglasses, Eskimo
eskimo eyeshades
sunglasses
goggles
Other Terms:
Sunglasses, Eskimo; Medicine
Credit Line:
Bruce A. and Georgia C. Hedrick
ID Number:
1981.0273.02
Accession number:
1981.0273
Catalog number:
1981.0273.02
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-8810-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_723507
Online Media:

Sam Chatmon

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife (1976)  Search this
Artist:
Chatmon, Sam  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (7 inch reel, 1/4 inch tape)
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1976 September 4
Contents:
Sam Chatmon--Bumble bee (frag)--I'm just sitting here thinking--Waiting for a train--She's nobody's sweetheart now--Ashtray taxi--Big boss man--I don't want no more pinto beans--Careless love--Aba-dabba-doo--Fishing blues--Somebody stole my gal; Eskimo dance music--Husband and wife dance--Medicine man dance--Last part of the wolf dance--Invitatational dance--Eskimo kicking game
General note:
DPA number 77.712.16
Local Numbers:
FP-1976-7RR-2781
General:
CDR copy
77.712.16
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, 1976.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Blues (Music)  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1976 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1976, Item FP-1976-7RR-2781
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1976 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1976 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: Festival Stage / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1976-ref13477

Festival Recordings: Narrative Stage: Called to the Drum; Pomo Traditions; Ways of Our Grandmothers

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Heartbeat Program 1995 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Seeger, Hileia (recorder)  Search this
Sutch, John (recorder)  Search this
Artist:
Brooks, Alma  Search this
Snell, Garrett  Search this
Torres, Bernice  Search this
Jumper, Betty Mae, 1923-2011  Search this
DeLaune, Dorothy Whitehorse  Search this
Charles, Elena, 1918-2007  Search this
Paul, Margaret  Search this
Performer:
Brooks, Alma  Search this
Snell, Garrett  Search this
Torres, Bernice  Search this
Jumper, Betty Mae, 1923-2011  Search this
DeLaune, Dorothy Whitehorse  Search this
Charles, Elena, 1918-2007  Search this
Paul, Margaret  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Americans  Search this
Passamaquoddy Indians  Search this
Cree Indians  Search this
Pomo Indians  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Yupik Eskimos  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Montana
Canada
Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (Mont.)
New Brunswick
California
Sebastopol (Calif.)
Oklahoma
Alaska
Florida
Hollywood (Fla.)
Bethel (Alaska)
Anadarko (Okla.)
Date:
1995 June 27
Track Information:
101 Called to the Drum / Alma Brooks, Garrett Snell, Margaret Paul.

102 Pomo Traditions / Bernice Torres. Rattle (Musical instrument).

103 Ways of Our Grandmothers / Betty Mae Jumper, Dorothy Whitehorse DeLaune, Elena Charles.
Local Numbers:
FP-1995-CT-0494
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, June 27, 1995.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Lullabies  Search this
Rattle (Musical instrument)  Search this
Atsina Indians  Search this
Malecite Indians  Search this
Assinboine Indians  Search this
Gender  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Fasting  Search this
Family  Search this
Generations  Search this
clans  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1995, Item FP-1995-CT-0494
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Heartbeat: The Voices of First Nations Women / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1995-ref849

Thomas Dale Stewart Papers

Creator:
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
Names:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History  Search this
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)  Search this
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Angel, J. Lawrence (John Lawrence)  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
McKern, T. W.  Search this
Extent:
65 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Alaska
Shanidar Cave (Iraq)
Virginia
Maryland
Delaware
Mexico
Peru
Guatemala
Chaco Canyon (N.M.) -- Archeology
Date:
1875-1991, bulk 1931-1991
bulk 1927-1991
Summary:
Thomas Dale Stewart was a physical and forensic anthropologist and worked at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History from 1931 until his death in 1997. He worked under Ales Hrdlicka until 1943, became the head curator in 1960, director of the museum in 1962, and retired in 1971. Stewart's research interests included physical and forensic anthropology and archaeology, mostly in North and South America. He also worked with the F.B.I. frequently to aid in homicide investigations, and worked extensively with the U.S. Army to identify skeletal remains from the Korean War in Operation Glory. The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers primarily deal with his life and career at the Smithsonian, particularly his research projects and publications between 1931 and 1991. Materials consist mainly of correspondence, photographic material, dossiers based on writings and research projects, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers document his research and professional activities from 1931 to 1991 and primarily deal with his anthropological and archaeological research in North and South America. There is also significant material related to ancient human skeletal remains found in Egypt and the Middle East, Stewart's work identifying skeletal remains for the U.S. Army (Operation Glory), and the history of physical and forensic anthropology. Material documenting Stewart's work with Ales Hrdlicka and other colleagues are also represented in this collection. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and research files, project data, skeletal data punch cards, photographic and illustration materials, and administrative and financial papers.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 9 series: Series 1. Biographical and Background, 1937-1983; Series 2. Correspondence, 1931-1990; Series 3. Writings and Research, 1875, 1902-1990; Series 4. Operation Glory, 1954-1957; Series 5. Professional Organizations, 1930-1990; Series 6. Trip Files, 1945-1985; Series 7. Teaching and Lectures, 1950-1970; Series 8. Exhibit Material, 1961-1969; Series 9. Photographs, 1928-1979.
Biographical note:
Thomas Dale Stewart was a curator of physical anthropology at the Smithsonian specializing in anthropometry, early man, and forensic anthropology. He worked in the Department of Anthropology for over seventy years. Born in Delta, Pennsylvania in 1901, Stewart moved to Washington, D.C. to pursue a degree at George Washington University. While attending school, he also began working at the Smithsonian in 1924 as a temporary substitute for John Baer, a family friend from Delta. After Baer died during conducting research in Panama, Stewart was invited to stay on as assistant to Ales Hrdlicka, curator of physical anthropology. Hrdlicka was impressed by Stewart's abilities and quickly took him on as a student. Promised that he would succeed Hrdlicka one day if he obtained an M.D., Stewart enrolled at The Johns Hopkins University and graduated in 1931. After graduating, Stewart was rehired by the Smithsonian as an assistant curator.

Stewart rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology quickly, being promoted to associate curator in 1939 and curator in 1943 after the death of his mentor Hrdlicka. Stewart was appointed head curator of the department in 1960 and director of the Natural History Museum in 1962. He continued to work at the Smithsonian well after he retired in 1971, conducting research and producing a stream of publications well into his 90s. He died in 1997 at the age of 96. Many of Stewart's early research interests matched those of his mentor: a focus on dental caries, separate neural arch and spondylolisthesis, ossuary excavation, cranial deformations, and other examinations of archaeological remains throughout North America. While Hrdlicka was alive, Stewart provided support for many of his research projects and publications. After Hrdlicka died, Stewart expanded his interests to include forensic topics and analysis of other archaeological remains.

Anthropometry was prominent in a great deal of his work. He was the first to describe Tepexpan Man from Mexico and Midland Man from Texas. He also studied the remains of Neanderthal specimens that Ralph S. Solecki, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, had uncovered at Shanidar Cave in Iraq. In forensic work, as Hrdlicka's heir, Stewart assumed work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement officials. Moreover, Stewart devised new methods and published books and articles concerning forensic analysis, including his Essentials of Forensic Anthropology. In closely related work during 1954-1955, the United States Army engaged Stewart to go to Japan to examine skeletal remains repatriated after the Korean War in a project called "Operation Glory."

In terms of his areal specialization, Stewart was essentially an Americanist. In North America, he worked in Alaska with Henry B. Collins in 1927, and in subsequent years he excavated several ossuaries and other sites in the Washington, D.C., vicinity. These included a site on Potomac Creek in Virginia, Piscataway sites in Maryland, and the Townsend site in Delaware. He also carried out laboratory studies and prepared reports on skeletal remains uncovered by Smithsonian colleagues. In the 1940s and 1950s, Stewart conducted field work at archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru.

He was awarded the Viking Medal in Physical Anthropology in 1953, the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1967, and an award from the physical anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1981.

Sources: Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Thomas Dale Stewart, A Biographer Memoir," National Academy of Sciences, 2006.

Pace, Eric. "T. Dale Stewart Dies at 96; Anthropologist at Smithsonian," The New York Times, 1997.

Chronology

1901 -- Born in Delta, Pennsylvania.

1922-1927 -- Moved to Washington, D.C. and attended George Washington University.

1924 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.

1927 -- Sent by Ales Hrdlicka to Alaska to collect skeletal remains with Henry Collins.

1931 -- Graduated from The Johns Hopkins University with an M.D.

1931 -- Appointed assistant curator at the Smithsonian under Hrdlicka.

1939 -- Promoted to associate curator.

1939 -- Field work in Mexico.

1941 -- Field work in Peru.

1943 -- Taught at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

1943 -- Promoted to curator after Hrdlicka dies.

1943 -- Began working on forensic cases for the F.B.I.

1945 -- Field work in Mexico.

1949 -- Field work in Peru.

1947, 1949 -- Field work in Guatemala.

1954-1955 -- Traveled to Japan to assist in the identification of skeletal remains from the Korean War (Operation Glory).

1957-1967 -- Taught at the George Washington University School of Medicine.

1960-1962 -- Served as head curator of the Department of Anthropology.

1962-1965 -- Served as the director of the National Museum of Natural History.

1964 -- Assisted in the production of Smithsonian exhibits on physical anthropology.

1966 -- Retired from administrative duties and appointed senior scientist.

1971 -- Retired from the Smithsonian.

1997 -- Died in Bethesda, Maryland.
Related Materials:
The following manuscripts related to Stewart and his work can be found at the NAA:

NAA MS 1615- Excavations in Mancos Canyon, Colorado September 1943.

NAA MS 4669- The Townsend Site Near Lewes, Delaware 1962 by Henri Omwake.

NAA MS 4843- Report by T. Dale Stewart on Human Skeletal Material Excavated by W.M. Walker at Cedar Grove Cave, Arkansas and Natchitoches, Louisiana.

NAA MS 7025- A Tentative Closing Report on the Willin Site, Eldorado, Maryland September 1, 1952.

NAA MS 7121- "Memories from Half a Century at the Smithsonian January 11, 1978" recording.

NAA MS 7223- The Townsend Site January 1950.

NAA MS 7264- Documents Concerning Preserved Paleolithic Human Remains Found in the Vicinity of Cueva, Spain 1969-1972.

NAA MS 7357- Material Relating to Dermatoglyphics of Mayan Groups ca. 1947-1949.

NAA MS 7358- Personal Identification in Mass Disasters December 9-11 1968.

NAA MS 7359- T. Dale Stewart on the Identification of Human Remains April 6, 1970.

NAA MS 7474- Sketches of Burials at Ossuary 2, Juhle Site ca. 1971-1972.

Additional material T. Dale Stewart created while assisting Ales Hrdlicka is located at the National Anthropological Archives, The Papers of Ales Hrdlicka, ca. 1887-1943.

Many objects and artifact materials collected by T. Dale Stewart throughout his career are also held by the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology. These include skeletal remains and other materials from the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, forensic anthropological material including bone casts from Operation Glory, archaelogical materials from excavations in Maryland and Virginia including the Nanjemoy and Potomac Creek sites, and skeletal remains and other related materials from Stewart's 1927 expedition to Alaska with Henry Collins. Contact Anthropological Collections for more information.
Provenance:
Materials were transferred from T. Dale Stewart to the National Anthropological Archives in multiple accretions between 1975 and 2000 under accessions 1981-52, 1981-59, 1986-04, 1988-15, 1988-33, 1995-04, 1998-61, and 2000-46.The bulk of materials in this collection were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 1994 (1995-04).
Restrictions:
The Thomas Dale Stewart papers are open for research.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
Operation Glory  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- Eskimo  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- American Indian  Search this
Americans  Search this
Aging  Search this
Anthropology -- Exhibits  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Early man -- Neanderthal  Search this
George Washington University  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Anthropology, history of  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- Early man  Search this
Primates  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.1988-33
See more items in:
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1988-33

E-I

Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Container:
Box 43
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Includes epics, ethnobotany, Fiji, finger Rings, fire making, flagellants, fly traps, folk songs, galleys, Goajira peninsula, Guan, Gypsy, Greenland, habitations, handicraft, harpoon—Eskimo, Hawaii, heads, Hiawatha, Himalaya, holiday, Holland, hops, Hupa, Igorot, Indian medicines, Indian names, and Indian names for estates.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Miscellany
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref14998

Greeley Expedition

Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Container:
Box 17a
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1880-1884
Scope and Contents:
Includes a letter, H. W. Greeley to General Hazen, 5/14/84, witnessing to skills of Dr. Octave Pavy; a testimonial by members of Pavy Franklin Bay Polar Expedition, 5/19/84, stating Pavy's skills in medicine; a testimonial, Kvariys Smith, Godhavn, Greenland, 6/13/81, on behalf of Pavy; a watercolor sketch of Eskimo Village, by Pavy; a photograph of the ship "Gulmare" with Pavy aboard, 1880; a map, "Nugsuaks Halvo"; and printed material re Pavy.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref6003

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