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National Arts Club records

Creator:
National Arts Club  Search this
Names:
Arts Realty  Search this
De Kay, Charles  Search this
Extent:
32.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Photograph albums
Date:
1898-1960
Summary:
The records of the National Arts Club measure 32.1 linear feet and date from 1898 to 1960. The collection documents the founding of the club, and it's governance, administration, exhibitions, and social activities
Scope and Content Note:
Records of the National Arts Club, spanning the period 1898 to 1960, document the founding of the organization, and its governance, administration, finances, exhibitions, and social activities. There are large gaps in the records and many of those surviving are incomplete, which can be explained by a 1932 resolution of the Board of Governors that "old files and letters and bills in the storeroom prior to 1922 may be destroyed at the discretion of the Secretary and Treasurer."

Minutes and reports of the Board of Governors and Executive Committee are fairly complete through 1949, but sparse thereafter. Records do not exist for all standing and special committees, and those remaining tend to be concentrated in the early twentieth century.

Correspondence of the officers, for the most part, is routine and relates to administrative matters. Financial records cover the period 1917 to 1950, with a large number of gaps.

A small number of records of the Arts Realty Co. (later known as 15 Gramercy Park, Inc.) are extant. These include lists of stockholders, correspondence concerning mortgage bonds, and minutes.

Membership records, arranged alphabetically, are available for the years 1931 to 1959, and there are rosters arranged by membership category, 1940-1952; in addition, printed membership lists were issued circa 1900-1951.

More than four hundred exhibitions are known to have been held in the galleries of the National Arts Club between 1899 and 1960. Catalogs for 124 National Arts Club exhibitions are available at the Archives of American Art; 69 titles are to be found among the Club's records and an additional 55 were microfilmed previously as parts of other collections. Other exhibition documentation includes printed matter such as invitations, entry blanks, publicity, and photographs (see Appendix A). For some exhibitions, supporting documentation such as correspondence with exhibitors and collectors, sales and consignment records, and shipping receipts have survived. These files are mainly confined to Books of the Year exhibitions, Arts and Crafts/Decorative Arts exhibitions, and a smaller number of exhibitions of Living American Etchers, 1928-1957.

General social events, activities sponsored by Arts Club committees, and special commemorative occasions are documented by invitations, programs, publicity, calendars of events, and photographs. The majority of this material is contained in seventeen scrapbooks, 1898-1940. Programs of the Men's Open Table, 1915-1950, are particularly well documented by the Chairman's correspondence and three volumes containing meeting notices with signatures of members in attendance.

In addition to printed matter relating to exhibitions and events, scrapbooks, 1898-1940, contain general publicity, clippings concerning members, and samples of National Arts Club printed matter such as form letters to the general membership, brochures, ballots, house rules, published membership lists, year books, and the like. Loose printed matter augments that preserved in the scrapbooks. These sources combined provide a fairly complete set of the Bulletin, but the number of year books is small, and there are catalogs of only slightly more than a third of the exhibitions identified.

Photographs, in addition to those recording exhibitions and events, include portraits of governors, officers, distinguished visitors, speakers, and performers; views of Gramercy Park and the interior and exterior of the clubhouse; and works of art in the permanent collection.

Miscellaneous material includes information on the National Arts Club's first home on West 34th Street, and the Tilden Mansion, its current clubhouse on Gramercy Park; histories of the organization; unpublished speeches presented at Club occasions; and copies of legal documents, including the Club's charter and act of incorporation.

See Appendix A for an annotated list of National Arts Club exhibitions, 1899-1960
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into the following series:

Series 1: Board of Governors, 1898-1960, undated

Series 2: Administration, 1898-1960, undated

Series 3: Financial Records, 1917-1952

Series 4: Membership, circa 1900-1962

Series 5: Arts Realty Co., 1909-1913, 1945-1956, undated

Series 6: Miscellaneous, 1890-1961, undated

Series 7: Photographs, 1899-1957, undated

Series 8: Printed Matter, 1893-1960, undated

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1898-1940
Historical Note:
The National Arts Club was founded by Charles de Kay, literary and art critic for the New York Times who believed there was a need for a club uniting all of the arts. In March of 1898, de Kay called together a number of civic leaders and men prominent in the art world who supported the idea, elected the first officers and incorporated the Club in 1899.

As stated in a circular issued by the Club, its specified purposes were: to promote the mutual acquaintance of art lovers and art workers in the United States; to stimulate and guide toward practical and artistic expression the artistic sense of the American people; to maintain in the City of New York a Club House...for social purposes in connection with the arts; to provide proper exhibition facilities for such lines of art, especially applied and industrial art, as shall not be otherwise adequately provided for in the same City; and to encourage the publication and circulation of news, suggestions and discussions relating to the fine arts.

During its initial months, the National Arts Club operated from a temporary office at 156 Fifth Avenue. In the search for a permanent site, considerable care was taken to select an auspicious location and accommodations, and in 1899 the first clubhouse was opened at 37 West 34th Street in leased quarters renovated expressly for the Club. Within a year, the gallery and restaurant required additional space, and there was a desire to provide overnight quarters for members visiting from out of town. In 1901 the Club created a corporation, Arts Realty Co., which issued shares to members and other investors for the purpose of raising funds to purchase the adjacent property (39 West 34th Street). This end was accomplished, and when it was decided to move the Club to another location, proceeds from the sale of the lease on 37 West 34th Street and the lot next door, augmented by additional funds subscribed by members, enabled Arts Realty Co. to acquire the Tilden Mansion at 15 Gramercy Park in 1905. Construction was begun immediately on a connecting studio tower to the rear (119-121 East 19th Street), designed by architect and Club President George B. Post. Upon completion, the Club bought the property from Arts Realty Co., issuing both First and Second Mortgage Bonds to individual subscribers. The Gramercy Park property has been occupied by the Club since 1906.

A show of American gold and silver work in October 1899 was the first exhibition held at the National Arts Club. Decorative arts, crafts, and industrial arts figured prominently in early exhibitions, as did designs for civic improvements. The monthly exhibition schedule emphasized contemporary American art, but also included some historical shows. Members of the public were admitted without charge to the galleries, where they could view such innovative and important exhibitions as Pictorial Photographs presented by the Photo-Secession (1902) and a group exhibition featuring the works of Robert Henri, William Glackens, George Luks, Arthur B. Davies, and Maurice Prendergast (1904). After about 1907, exhibitions grew more conservative, probably reflecting the personal tastes of Art Committee members rather than a formal opposition of the Club to nonrepresentational art. Increasingly, the exhibition schedule was filled by shows of members' work, the Club's permanent collection (mainly works by artist members, usually given in payment for life membership), the Annual Arts and Crafts exhibitions, Books of the Year exhibitions, and shows organized by various art societies.

In addition to exhibitions, the National Arts Club regularly featured a variety of cultural programs such as concerts, lectures, and dramatic presentations for members and guests. Parties, dinner, dances, and other social activities drew members to the Club, too. During its first years, some artist members expressed dissatisfaction with the high priority given social functions; by 1905, J. Carroll Beckwith, Walter Shirlaw, and Stanford White were among those who had resigned for this reason.

Within the National Arts Club there have been some smaller societies. The earliest of these were The Discus, a short lived dining and debating club, and The Vagabonds, a lunch group of writers, editors, printers and illustrators. The Men's Open Table, founded in 1910, met weekly for more than forty years for dinner followed by a talk, given by a fellow member or an outside, often professional, lecturer. A wide range of topics, not necessarily on the arts, were presented and discussed at the Men's Open Table. The American Institute of Graphic Arts is one of the organizations said to have developed from associations formed and discussions held at the Men's Open Table. A Women's Open Table, patterned after the men's, was established later.

The National Arts Club, unlike many other private clubs founded during the same era, admitted women members from its inception. Throughout its history, the Club's membership has been comprised of artists, musicians, writers, and performers, as well as collectors and supporters of the arts drawn from all parts of the country. Membership peaked at around 1,800 in 1920, declining throughout the Depression and again in the mid-1950s, and remaining at about 600 for the next two decades.

1898 -- Founding; occupied temporary office at 156 Fifth Ave.

1899 -- Incorporation; leased clubhouse at 37 West 34th St.; opened first exhibition, American Gold and Silver Work

1900 -- Constitution adopted

1901 -- First donations to permanent collection; Arts Realty Co. formed for the purpose of acquiring and financing the adjacent property (39 West 34th St.)

1905 -- Arts Realty Co. purchased Gramercy Park property (Tilden Mansion) on behalf of NAC; remodeling of clubhouse and construction of studio tower begun

1906 -- Plan for financing new clubhouse approved; second Mortgage Bonds issued; clubhouse and studio tower occupied; First Annual Books of the Year Exhibition

1907 -- Annual Members' Exhibition initiated; Bulletin began publication

1910 -- First meeting of Men's Open Table (established 1909)

1914 -- Essay contest, "A Critical Estimate of the Altman Collection"

1917 -- American Artists War Emergency Fund Committee issues art stamp

1923 -- Junior Artist membership category created

1930-1931 -- Essay contest, "Soul of America"

1940 -- Works by deceased artist life members deaccessioned from permanent collection; fund for refugee artists established

1962 -- Clubhouse designated New York City Landmark

1976 -- Clubhouse designated National Historic Landmark

1987 -- NAC records donated to Archives of American Art
Appendix A: Annotated List of National Arts Club Exhibitions, 1899-1960:
* = photographs included with records of NAC (See pp. 22-23 for reel and frame numbers)

+ = photograph in NAC album (See pp. 24 for reel and frame numbers)

x = catalog, checklist, or printed announcement included with NAC printed matter

s = copy of catalog in NAC scrapbook (volume number noted, see pp. 27-32 for reel and frame numbers of each volume)

Microfilm reel and frame numbers (e.g.: N134:416-419) are cited below for NAC catalogs appearing in other collections within the Archives of American Art.

DateExhibitionOct. 30 *, 1899 -- House Warming, Exhibition of American Gold and Silver Work

Nov. 13-18, 1899 -- Tenth Exhibition of the Woman's Art Club; Reception to Miss Cecilia Beaux (N134:416-419)

Nov. 27-Dec. 10, 1899 -- Art Pottery, American, Oriental, and European (N134:407-415)

Dec. 23-Jan. 8, 1899 -- Exhibition of Small Bronzes (N134:437-443)

Jan. 13, 1900 -- Exhibition of Photographs, works by members of the Society of Mural Painters

Jan. 29, 1900 -- Design for Street Refuge, shown by New York Municipal Art Society

Feb. 5-22, 1900 -- Exhibition of Embroideries and Native Rugs (N134:420-425)

Feb. 24-Mar. 10, 1900 -- John Leslie Breck Memorial Exhibition (N443:703-708; N551:719-724)

Mar. 24-Apr. 14, 1900 -- Pastel Exhibition, American Work

Apr., 1900 -- Old and Modern Japanese Prints

Apr. 14-21, 1900 -- Ernest Tarleton Memorial Exhibition

Apr. 21-May 3, 1900 -- Exhibition of Color Reproductions, American and European

May 10-21, 1900 -- American Art Leatherwork (N134:432-426)

May 24-30, 1900 -- Small Exhibition of Japanese Water Colors

May 31-June 14, 1900 -- William Hamilton Gibson Memorial Exhibition

June, 1900 -- New York Municipal Art Society Competition

Nov. 28-Dec. 19 x, 1900 -- Arts and Crafts (N134:421-431)

Jan., 1901 -- Birds and Beasts in Art

Feb., 1901 -- Art Leatherwork and Objects Relating to the Hearth

Mar., 1901 -- Works by the Society of Mural Painters

Apr., 1901 -- Books and Bookmaking

Apr., 1901 -- Howard Walter, Water Colors Taken in Europe

May, 1901 -- Glass in the Arts

May, 1901 -- Memorial to John A. Fraser, His Paintings

May-Nov., 1901 -- Arts and Crafts in the Liberal Arts Building, Pan-American Pacific Exhibition, Buffalo, N.Y.

June-Sept., 1901 -- Sculpture, Oil Paintings, Pastels, Water Colors, and Objects of Industrial Art by Members of the Club

Oct., 1901 -- Memorial Window for the Ames Family by John La Farge

Nov., 1901 -- Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by the Woman's Art Club

Dec., 1901 -- Objects Shown at the Pan-American Pacific Exposition

Jan., 1902 -- Ecclesiastical Art

Feb., 1902 -- Art Objects Relating to Civic Art, under the auspices of the Municipal Art Society

Mar., 1902 -- American Pictorial Photographs, shown by the Photo-Secession

Mar. 26-Apr. 21, 1902 -- Fourth Annual Exhibition of the National Sculpture Society (N551:725-729; N134:446-451)

May, 1902 -- Pictures of "Womanhood"

May, 1902 -- Memorial Window for Baltimore by D. Maitland Armstrong; Memorial Window for Wells College by Mrs. Ella Condie Lamb June Window in Stained Glass, Memorial to Julia Doane, Chicago, by John La Farge

Oct., 1902 -- Collection of Objects in Metal; Artistic Bird Cages lent by A. W. Drake, Esq.

Nov., 1902 -- Annual Exhibition by the Woman's Art Club

Nov., 1902 -- Paintings by Four Western Artists, Messrs. Duveneck, Steele, Meakin and Sharp, through the courtesy of the Cincinnati Museum Association

Dec., 1902 -- Designs Submitted for Competition for the Emblem of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition

Jan. s, 1903 -- Portraits of Napoleon, lent by John Leonard Dudley, Jr., Esq. (volume 4)

Jan., 1903 -- "Autumn," Stained Glass Window for the country residence of William C. Whitney, by John La Farge

Feb., 1903 -- Eskimo and Arctic Objects, with Paintings from the Arctic and Antarctic Circles by Frank Wilbert Stokes

Mar., 1903 -- Objects of Municipal Art

Apr., 1903 -- Examples of Ideal Art by American Artists

May, 1903 -- Sculptures by Rodin, Roche, and Rivere, belonging to Miss Lois Fuller

May, 1903 -- Portraits and other Paintings by American Artists of the Colonial and Early Periods

June-Oct., 1903 -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings, Water Colors, and Sculpture by Members of the Club

Nov., 1903 -- Jewelry and Precious Stones, Modern, Old and Oriental

Dec. 1-14, 1903 -- Thirteenth Annual Exhibition of the Woman's Art Club (N134:452-456)

Dec., 1903 -- Stained Glass Window, designed by Miss Mary E. Tillinghast

Dec., 1903 -- Sketches for the Sculpture at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, shown by the National Sculpture Society

Jan. 5-16 s, 1904 -- Loan Exhibition of Pictures by Eminent American Painters (N134:426-464, and volume 4)

Jan. 5-16 s, 1904 -- Loan Exhibition of Pictures by Robert Henri, William Glackens, George Luks, Arthur B. Davies, and Maurice Prendergast (volume 4)

Feb., 1904 -- Pictures by Contemporary American Artists

Mar. 2-15, 1904 -- Loan Exhibition of Pictures by American Figure Painters (N50:471-472; N134:460-461)

Mar., 1904 -- Annual Exhibition of Objects of Municipal Art

Apr. 5-15 s, 1904 -- Loan Exhibition of Pictures by Some Boston Artists (N443:713-715, and volume 4)

Apr. 19-30 s, 1904 -- Loan Exhibition of Pictures by Old Masters, lent by the Messrs. Durand-Ruel (N443:711-712; N134:462-464, and volume 4)

May 3-14 s, 1904 -- Oil Paintings, Water Colors, and Drawings by John La Farge, N.A. (volume 4)

May, 1904 -- Photographs of Paintings by Old Italian Masters, under the auspices of the Library Committee

Oct., 1904 -- Work of Holders of the Lazarus and Reinhart Scholarships executed while at the American Academy in Rome

Nov., 1904 -- "The Moral and Divine Law," painting by John La Farge

Nov., 1904 -- Exhibition by Members of the Nippon-Bijitsuin (Japanese Art Academy)

Jan., 1905 -- Exhibition by the Lyme Group of Painters

Feb., 1905 -- "Old Masters" and Aphrodite

Feb., 1905 -- Pictures by Some Boston Artists

Mar., 1905 -- Annual Exhibition of the Municipal Art Society of New York

Apr., 1905 -- Artistic and Commercial Posters, under the Auspices of the Municipal Art Society

Apr., 1905 -- Textiles and Ceramics

Oct., 1905 -- "Out of Doors" as Seen by Various Artists

Nov., 1905 -- Color Prints by S. Arlent-Edwards

Dec., 1905 -- American Indians as Seen by the Artist and the Artist Photographer

Jan., 1906 -- Birds and Beasts in Art

Feb., 1906 -- Miniatures

Mar., 1906 -- Fifth Annual Exhibition of the Municipal Art Society

Mar., 1906 -- Exhibition by the Alumni of Cooper Institute

Apr. 2-14 s, 1906 -- Municipal Art Society Exhibit of Poster Designs (volume 4)

Apr.-May, 1906 -- Exhibition by the Women's Art Club of New York

Nov. 8-18 s, 1906 -- Opening Exhibition [first exhibition in new quarters]: American Paintings from the Collection of Mr. William T. Evans (D45:29-34, and volume 4)

Dec., 1906 -- Books of the Year

Dec. 8-Jan. 1 s, 1906 -- Pictures by Some American Painters (volume 4)

Jan. 12-Feb. 1 s, 1907 -- Modern German Paintings from the Collection of Mr. Hugo Reisinger (N443:716-717, and volume 4)

Feb. s, 1907 -- Exhibition of Wood Engravings by Timothy Cole made for Century Magazine

Feb., 1907 -- Longfellow Memorial

Mar. 13-31, 1907 -- Sixth Annual Exhibition of the Municipal Art Society of New York

Apr., 1907 -- New York Society of Ceramic Artists

Apr., 1907 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Members

May s, 1907 -- Exhibition of Artists' Preliminary Sketches

May-Nov., 1907 -- Sketches by Members

Oct. 16-Nov. 16 s, 1907 -- Fall Exhibition of Sketches by Members (volume 4)

Nov. 20-Dec. 11, 1907 -- Arts and Crafts Exhibition (N29:1001-1026)

Dec., 1907 -- Second Annual Exhibition of the New Books of the Year

Jan. 4-25 s, 1908 -- Contemporary Art (N443:744-746, and volume 5)

Feb., 1908 -- First Annual Exhibition of Advertising Art

Feb. 1-15 s, 1908 -- Contemporary Paintings (volume 5)

Mar., 1908 -- Exhibition of the Municipal Art Society of New York

Apr. 2-25 * s, 1908 -- Special Exhibition of Members' Work (volume 5)

Apr. 15-May 8 s, 1908 -- Members' Spring Exhibition (volume 5)

Apr. 25-May 15 s, 1908 -- Paintings Loaned by C. C. Ruthrauff (volume 5)

May *, 1908 -- Exhibition of Painting, Sculpture, and Illustration under the auspices of the Art Students League of New York

Oct. 21-Nov. 7 s, 1908 -- Members' Fall Sketch Exhibition (volume 5)

Nov. *, 1908 -- Third Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec., 1908 -- Arts and Crafts Exhibition

Jan., 1909 -- Second Annual Exhibition of Advertising Art

Jan., 1909 -- Small Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by Contemporary Artists

Feb. 2-20 s, 1909 -- International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography (volume 1)

Feb. 23-Mar. 17 s, 1909 -- John W. Alexander Retrospective Exhibition (volume 5)

Apr., 1909 -- Exhibition of the New York Society of Keramic Arts

May, 1909 -- Spring Exhibition of Members' Work

July, 1909 -- Paintings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. William T. Evans

Sept.-Oct., 1909 -- Three Centuries of New York, under the auspices of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration

Nov. 3-26 s, 1909 -- Fourth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year (volume 5)

Dec., 1909 -- Third Annual Exhibition of Arts and Crafts

Jan., 1910 -- William M. Chase Retrospective Exhibition

Feb., 1910 -- Exhibition of American Landscape Painting

Mar. 2-28 s, 1910 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Louis Mark, of Budapest (volume 5)

Apr. 6-30 s, 1910 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Alfred East, of London (N134:465-469, and volume 5)

May, 1910 -- Exhibition of Household Art, under the auspices of the Domestic Training Department of the Public Schools

May 4-Oct. s, 1910 -- Third Annual Exhibition of the Former Students of the Art Students League (volume 5)

Oct. 20-Nov. 1 s +, 1910 -- Third Annual Exhibition of Advertising Art (volume 5)

Nov.-Dec., 1910 -- Fifth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. * +, 1910 -- Fourth Annual Arts and Crafts Exhibition

Jan. 5-Feb. 3 s +, 1911 -- First Annual Artist Life Members' Exhibition (volume 5)

Feb. +, 1911 -- Exhibition of the New York Society of Keramic Arts

Feb. 11-Mar. 10, 1911 -- Circuit Exhibition of Contemporary Art (D12:437-439; N52:105-107)

Mar. 8-Apr. 5 * s +, 1911 -- Paintings and Drawings by Walter Shirlaw, N.A. (N52:967-973, and volume 5)

Apr., 1911 -- Exhibition of the Municipal Art Society of New York

Apr. 26-May * s +, 1911 -- Group Exhibition of Paintings: William R. Derrick, Reynolds Beal, Frederick J. Waugh (volume 5)

Oct. 25-Nov. 4 * +, 1911 -- Exhibition of Color Schemes and Model Rooms in Miniature

Nov. 8-30 * +, 1911 -- Sixth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 7-28 * +, 1911 -- Fifth Annual Arts and Crafts Exhibition

Jan. 3-28 s +, 1912 -- First Prize Exhibition of Artist Life Members (N443:754-756, and volume 6)

Jan. 31-Feb. 18 * s +, 1912 -- Otto Walter Beck Exhibition (volume 6)

Feb. 21-Mar. 10 s +, 1912 -- Etchings of E. T. Hurley (volume 6)

Mar. 13-20 s +, 1912 -- National Park Pictures Collected and Exhibited by the Department of the Interior (volume 3)

Apr. 4-21 s +, 1912 -- Paintings, Embroideries, and Tapestries from the Collection of Mr. Emerson McMillan (D45:462-468; N443:757-762, and volume 6)

Apr. 4-Mar. 12 s, 1912 -- Exhibition of Original Dickens and Thackeray Drawings by Harry Furniss (volume 3)

May 8-June 1 * s +, 1912 -- Sculpture Exhibition (volume 6)

June 4-8 +, 1912 -- Exhibition of Industrial Art, under the auspices of The School Art League and the Art Departments of the City High Schools

June-Oct., 1912 -- Summer Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Oct. 16-Nov. 12 +, 1912 -- Third Special Exhibition of the Society of Illustrators

Nov. 13-29, 1912 -- Seventh Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 4-28 +, 1912 -- Sixth Annual Exhibition of the National Society of Craftsmen

Jan. 8-Feb. 9 +, 1913 -- Work of the Painter, Sculptor, and Architect Members (N443:763-767; N50:126-130)

Feb. 12-Mar. 9 * +, 1913 -- Exhibition of Works by the Late Frederick Warren Freer

Mar. 12-31 +, 1913 -- The Applied Arts of Germany

Apr. 2-27 +, 1913 -- Small Works by Six Painters: Richard E. Miller, Frederick Carl Frieseke, Charles W. Hawthorne, William Wendt, William Ritschel, and Elise Dodge Pattee

Apr. 30-June 1 +, 1913 -- Small Marbles and Bronzes (N551:732-737)

May-June, 1913 -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture

Oct. 15-Nov. 9, 1913 -- Society of Illustrators

Nov. 12-28, 1913 -- Eighth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 3-28 * +, 1913 -- Seventh Annual Exhibition of the National Society of Craftsmen

Jan. 8-Feb. 1 +, 1914 -- Work of Painter, Sculptor, and Architect Members

Feb. 4-21, 1914 -- The Pastellists

Feb. 5-Mar. 21 x +, 1914 -- Contemporary Art

Mar. 11-29 * +, 1914 -- Hungarian Peasant Art (N134:470-479)

Apr. 1-May 2 +, 1914 -- Paintings by Eleven Western Artists

May 6-31 * +, 1914 -- Exhibition of Small Sculpture (N551:738-743)

June-Sept., 1914 -- Paintings

Nov. 4-27, 1914 -- Ninth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 3-28 +, 1914 -- Eighth Annual Exhibition of National Society of Craftsmen

Jan. 7-31 +, 1915 -- Work of Painter Members (N551:744-746)

Feb. 4-25 +, 1915 -- Forty-eighth Annual Exhibition of American Water Color Society

Mar. 3-24 +, 1915 -- Portraits (N551:747-748)

Apr. 7-13 +, 1915 -- Sculpture

May 5-21, 1915 -- Exhibition of Municipal Art Society

June-Oct. *, 1915 -- Work of Painter Members

Oct. 13-30 +, 1915 -- Fifth Special Exhibition of the Society of Illustrators

Nov. 5-13 +, 1915 -- American Wood Engraving, under the auspices of the American Institute of Graphic Arts

Nov. 17-Dec. 3, 1915 -- Tenth Anniversary Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 8-30 +, 1915 -- Ninth Annual Exhibition of the National Society of Craftsmen

Jan. 6-28 +, 1916 -- Work of Painter Members

Feb. 3-27 +, 1916 -- Forty-ninth Annual Exhibition of American Water Color Society

Mar. 2-25 * +, 1916 -- Loan Exhibition of Portraits of Academicians and Associates Selected from the Permanent Collection of the National Academy of Design (N551:749-752; N134:480-483)

Mar. 28-Apr. 14 +, 1916 -- One Hundred American Paintings by the American Institute of Graphic Arts (N443:768-770)

Mar. 28-Apr. 14 +, 1916 -- Exhibition of American Printing

Apr. 19-May 6, 1916 -- Exhibition of the Municipal Art Society

May 10-26, 1916 -- English Posters

June-Aug. +, 1916 -- Members' Summer Sketch Exhibition

Oct. 5-Nov. 3, 1916 -- Photography, under the auspices of the American Institute of Graphic Arts

Nov. 9-30, 1916 -- Eleventh Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 7-29, 1916 -- Tenth Annual Exhibition of the National Society of Craftsmen

Jan. 3-28 +, 1917 -- Annual Exhibition of the Work of Artist Members

Feb. 1-24 +, 1917 -- Fiftieth Annual Exhibition of the American Water Color Society

Feb. 28-Mar. 23 +, 1917 -- Etchings, under the auspices of the American Institute of Graphic Arts

Mar. 29-Apr. 27, 1917 -- Paintings by Boston Artists

May 2-Sept. +, 1917 -- Members' Sketch Exhibition

Oct. 3-31 +, 1917 -- Paintings from the Netherlands Section of the Panama-Pacific Exposition

Oct. 4-31, 1917 -- Illustrations of the Catskill Aqueduct

Nov. 8-30 +, 1917 -- Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 6-29, 1917 -- Eleventh Annual Exhibition of the National Society of Craftsmen

Jan. 3-Feb. 1 +, 1918 -- Annual Exhibition of Paintings by Members

Feb. 7-Mar. 1 +, 1918 -- Fifty-first Annual Exhibition of the American Water Color Society

Mar. 20-Apr. 26, 1918 -- Life Membership Pictures from the Permanent Collection

May, 1918 -- War Posters, under the auspices of the American Society of Graphic Arts

June 2-Oct. 1 +, 1918 -- Sketch Exhibition by Members

Dec. 5-28 +, 1918 -- Twelfth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Jan. 8-31 +, 1919 -- Retrospective Exhibition of the Work of the Artist Life Members

Feb., 1919 -- Fifty-second Annual Exhibition of the American Water Color Society

Mar., 1919 -- Exhibition of War Housing

Apr. 2-May 3 +, 1919 -- Special Exhibition of the Society of Illustrators (N29:873-875)

May-Oct. +, 1919 -- Annual Exhibition of Sketches by Members

Nov., 1919 -- Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Jan. 7-30 +, 1920 -- Annual Exhibition of Painter and Sculptor Members (N29:864-866)

Feb., 1920 -- Fifty-third Annual Exhibition of the American Water Color Society

Mar., 1920 -- Drawings from Artists' Portfolios

Mar. 3-27 x +, 1920 -- American Drawings and Sculpture Sketches

Mar. 31-Apr. 16 +, 1920 -- Special Exhibition of the Society of Illustrators (N29:867-869)

May, 1920 -- Printing by the American Institute of Graphic Arts

June-Oct. +, 1920 -- Sketches and Small Sculpture by Members

Nov., 1920 -- Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 1-29 +, 1920 -- Exhibition of Art Expression by Club Members

Jan. 5-27 +, 1921 -- Members' Annual Prize Exhibition

Mar. 2-31 +, 1921 -- Art Directors Club First Annual Exhibition of Drawings and Paintings Used in American Advertising

Apr. 7-30, 1921 -- Exhibition of Old Prints, under the auspices of the American Institute of Graphic Arts (N443:775-778)

May-Oct., 1921 -- Pictures from the Club's Permanent Collection

Nov., 1921 -- Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 7-30 +, 1921 -- Humorists Exhibition

Jan. 5-28 +, 1922 -- Members' Annual Prize Exhibition

Feb., 1922 -- Seventh Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Bookplates, held by the American Bookplate Society

Feb. 15-Mar. 5 +, 1922 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Charles C.Curran, Franklin de Haven, George Glenn Newell, Harry W. Watrous

Mar., 1922 -- Lithographs

Apr. 5-30 +, 1922 -- Loan Exhibition of American Painting and Sculpture Owned by Club Members

May-Oct. +, 1922 -- Summer Exhibition of Artist Members

Nov., 1922 -- Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 6-29 +, 1922 -- Work by Members

Jan. 10-Feb. 10 +, 1923 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Feb. 14-Mar. 3 +, 1923 -- Humorists Exhibition

Mar., 1923 -- Craftwork from Berea College, Kentucky

Mar., 1923 -- Group Exhibition: Roy Brown, Oscar Fehrer, Edmund Greacen, Eugene Higgins, Lee Laurie, F. Luis Mora, Carl Rungius, Edward C. Volkert.

Mar. 28-Apr. 20 +, 1923 -- Group Exhibition: Leon Dabo, William R. Derrick, Charles P. Gruppe, Hayley Lever, Charles R. Patterson

Apr., 1923 -- Miniature Garden Exhibition, by the Garden Club of America

May-July, 1923 -- Exhibition Selected from the Permanent Collection

June 5-28 +, 1923 -- Annual Prize Exhibition of Painter and Sculptor Members

Nov., 1923 -- Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 12-29 +, 1923 -- Work of Living American Etchers

Jan. 9-Feb. 2 +, 1924 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Mar. 5-29 +, 1924 -- Exhibition of Sculpture

Apr., 1924 -- Selected Paintings from the Permanent Collection

Apr. 30-May 15 +, 1924 -- Exhibition of Books Illustrating the History of Printing

June, 1924 -- Adirondack Mountain Club Exhibition of Photographs

Nov. *, 1924 -- Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 10-27 +, 1924 -- Second Annual Exhibition of Living American Etchers

Jan. 7-31 +, 1925 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture (N552:122-159)

Feb. 23-Mar. 7 +, 1925 -- Autograph Letters with Accompanying Portraits of Authors, Statesmen, Artists, etc.

Apr. 8-May 9 +, 1925 -- Exhibition of Lithographs, Wood Blocks, and Linoleum Cuts

Nov., 1925 -- Twentieth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 3-20, 1925 -- Work of Living American Etchers (N552:1-7)

Jan. 13-Feb. 6 +, 1926 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture (N552:19-21)

Feb. 10-27 +, 1926 -- Group Exhibiton by Members of the National Arts Club

Mar. 3-27 +, 1926 -- Copies of Old Masters

Apr., 1926 -- Architecture, Sculpture, and Decorative Painting

May +, 1926 -- Fifth International Exhibition of the Brooklyn Society of Etchers (N552:34-48)

Summer +, 1926 -- Summer Exhibition

Aug.-Oct. x, 1926 -- The Vollbehr Incunabula Exhibition

Nov., 1926 -- Twenty-first Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 2-22 +, 1926 -- Fourth Annual Exhibition of Works of Living American Etchers (N552:8-12)

Jan. 5-29 +, 1927 -- Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members

Feb. 11-27 +, 1927 -- Exhibition and Auction of Works of Art by Artist Members

Mar. 2-21 +, 1927 -- Invited Exhibition by Distinguished American Painters (NHS4:693-695)

Apr. 6-29 +, 1927 -- Norse Pictorial Weaving--Mrs. Berthea Aske Bergh (N552:66-68)

Nov., 1927 -- Twenty-second Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 7-24 +, 1927 -- Fifth Annual Exhibition of Works of Living American Etchers (N552:13-18)

Jan., 1928 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Feb. 8-29 +, 1928 -- Small Paintings

Mar. 8-31 x, 1928 -- Exhibition of Decorative Arts

Apr. 4-20 +, 1928 -- Exhibition by Junior Artist Members of the Club

Nov., 1928 -- Twenty-third Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec., 1928 -- Small Paintings

Jan. 8-Feb. 8 + -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Feb. 13-Mar. 8 -- Sixth Annual Exhibition by Living American Etchers

Mar. + -- Richard M. Hurd Loan Exhibition of Italian Primitives

Apr. 3-26 + -- Exhibition by Junior Artist Members of the Club

May 1-Oct. 1 + -- Summer Exhibition by Painter Life Members

Nov. -- Twenty-fourth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 4-26 * + -- Exhibition of the Decorative Arts

Jan. 8-Feb. 1 +, 1930 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Feb. 5-28 x +, 1930 -- Seventh Annual Exhibition of Living American Etchers

Mar. 5-28 +, 1930 -- Junior Artist Members' Exhibition

Apr. 16-Sept. 30 +, 1930 -- Members' Exhibition of Small Paintings (N134:484-490)

Nov., 1930 -- Silver Anniversary Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 3-26 * +, 1930 -- Eighth Annual Exhibition by Living American Etchers

Jan. 7-Feb. 6 +, 1931 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Mar. 4-27 +, 1931 -- Exhibition by the Junior Artist Members

Mar. 13-Apr. 15 x, 1931 -- Auction Exhibition and Sale by Artist Members

Apr. 1-25 +, 1931 -- Members' Work of the New York Water Color Club

May 2-24 +, 1931 -- The Story of Gramercy Park in Portraits and Historical Objects of the Period, in connection with Gramercy Park Centenary Celebration

June 3-Oct. 1 +, 1931 -- Members' Exhibition of Small Paintings

Oct. 21-Nov. 20, 1931 -- Twenty-sixth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Nov. 26-Dec. 26, 1931 -- Sixteenth Annual Exhibition by the Society of American Etchers (formerly The Brooklyn Society of Etchers)

Jan. 6-13 +, 1932 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Feb. 3-27 +, 1932 -- Exhibition of Drawings by Artist Members

Mar. 2-26 +, 1932 -- Paintings by Junior Artist Members

Mar. 13-Apr. 15 +, 1932 -- Auction Exhibition and Sale by Artist Members

Apr. 20-30 +, 1932 -- Exhibition by a Group of New York Art Schools

May 4-Oct. 1 +, 1932 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Small Paintings

Jan. 4-27 +, 1933 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Mar. 1-31 +, 1933 -- Junior Artist Members

Apr. 5-22 +, 1933 -- Society of Illustrators

May 3-Oct. 1 +, 1933 -- Members' Exhibition of Small Paintings and Sculpture

Jan. 3-27 +, 1934 -- Members' Annual Exhibition

Jan. 31-Mar. 2 +, 1934 -- Memorial Exhibition of a Group of Former Painter and Sculptor Members: Max Bohm, Emil Carlsen, Charles Hawthorne, Robert Henri, Karl Bitter, Solon Borglum, Daniel Chester French, Edmund Quinn

Mar. 7-29 +, 1934 -- Junior Artist Members

Apr. 4-27 +, 1934 -- Society of Illustrators, Thirty-second Annual Exhibition

May 2-June 28 +, 1934 -- Members' Exhibition of Small Paintings and Sculpture (N552:69-71; N134:491-494)

Nov.-Dec., 1934 -- Seventeenth Annual Exhibition of the Society of American Etchers (formerly The Brooklyn Society of Etchers) (N552:49-65)

undated -- Twenty-ninth Annual Exhibition of Fifty Books of the Year

Jan. 9-Feb. 1 +, 1935 -- Members' Exhibition (N552:22-24)

Feb. 6-Mar. 2 +, 1935 -- Members' No Jury Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture (N552:72-74)

Mar. 6-29 +, 1935 -- Junior Artist Members (N552:75-77)

Apr. 3-27 +, 1935 -- Loan Exhibition of Works of Art owned by Artist Members (N552:84-96)

undated -- Thirtieth Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

undated -- Twentieth Annual Exhibition of the Society of American Etchers

Jan. 8-31 +, 1936 -- Members' Annual Exhibition (M552:25-27)

Mar. 4-27 +, 1936 -- Junior Artist Members (N552:78-80)

Apr. 1-May 1 x +, 1936 -- Exhibition of Neighboring Art Organizations (N552:92-94)

Spring +, 1936 -- First Annual Exhibition of Pictorial Photography by the Pictorial Forum (N552:87-91)

1936 -- Thirty-first Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

undated -- Twenty-first Annual Exhibition of the Society of American Etchers

Jan. 6-29 +, 1937 -- Members' Annual Exhibition

Mar. 3-26 +, 1937 -- Exhibition by the Younger Artists Group (N134:495-497)

Mar. 31-Apr. 27 +, 1937 -- Second Exhibition of Neighboring Art Organizations (N552:95-97)

Nov. *, 1937 -- Thirty-second Annual Exhibition of Books of the Year

Dec. 8-25 +, 1937 -- Members' Exhibition of Smaller Paintings and Black and Whites (N552:110-112)

Jan. 12-27, 1938 -- Exhibition of Former Painter and Sculptor Members (N552:113-115)

Mar. 14-Apr. 2 +, 1938 -- Third Exhibition of Neighboring Art Organizations (N552:98-100)

Apr. 6-20 +, 1938 -- Younger Artists Group Exhibition (N552:107-109)

Jan. 12-27 x +, 1939 -- Memorial Exhibition of the Work of a Group of Former Painter and Sculptor Members (N134:498-499)

Feb. 1-25 +, 1939 -- Members' Exhibition (N552:28-30)

Mar. 1-31 +, 1939 -- Exhibition of Flower Paintings (N552:116-118; N134:500-502)

Mar. 3-26, 1939 -- Younger Artists Group (N552:104-106)

Apr. 5-21 +, 1939 -- Fourth Annual Exhibition of Neighboring Art Organizations (N552:101-103)

May 10-24 +, 1939 -- Annual Junior Members' Exhibition (N552:81-83; N134:503-505)

June-Oct. +, 1939 -- Selected Works by Deceased Artists from the National Arts Club Permanent Collection (N552:119-121; N134:506-508)

Oct. 18-28 +, 1939 -- Special Exhibition of Paintings by Junior Members

Dec. 4-25 +, 1939 -- Christmas Sale of Paintings, Drawings, Photographs, and Sculpture by Junior Members

Jan. 3-19 +, 1940 -- Members' Annual Exhibition

Jan. 24-Feb. 9 +, 1940 -- Distinguished Exhibition of the Work of Living American Painters, Non-Members

Feb. 14-29 +, 1940 -- Exhibition and Sale of Ceramics (N134:511-513)

Mar. 19-29, 1940 -- Fontainebleau Alumni Exhibition

Apr. 3-19 +, 1940 -- Annual Junior Members' Exhibition

Apr. 24-May 3 +, 1940 -- Flower and Still Life Paintings

May 8-June 1, 1940 -- Special Exhibition of Water Colors, Architectural Renderings, Type Compositions, and Color Reproductions by Edwin Hooper Denby, A.I.A., S.A.D.G. (N443:779-780; N134:509-510)

Dec. +, 1940 -- Twenty-fifth Annual Exhibition of the Society of American Etchers

Feb. 4-Mar. 1, 1942 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Artists of the United Nations (N134:512-518)

June 12-Sept. 30, 1942 -- Members' Summer Exhibition (N134:519)

Dec. 16-Jan. 22, 1942 -- Exhibition of Chinese and Indian Art (N134:520)

Mar. 31-, 1943 -- Exhibition of Junior Members (N134:521)

July 1-Sept. 30, 1943 -- Summer Exhibition of Smaller Paintings by Members (N134:522)

Feb. 17-Mar. 15, 1944 -- Exhibition of Studies by American Masters (N134:523)

Oct. 5-27, 1944 -- Exhibition of Enlarged Photographs of American Patriots as Seen in Sculpture (N134:523)

Jan. 10-Feb. 9 x, 1945 -- Members' Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Dec. 22-Jan. 4, 1945 -- Seventh Annual Exhibition of the American Veterans Society of Artists, Inc. (N134:527-540)

May 21-30, 1946 -- The Traphagen School Exhibition of Costume Design, Illustrating the Development of American Fashion (N134:526)

Feb. 20-Mar. 7, 1947 -- Exhibition of Contemporary Chinese Paintings (N134:541)

Apr. 20-May 2, 1947 -- Junior Members' Exhibition

Dec. 10-24, 1947 -- Ninth Annual Exhibition of American Veterans Society of Artists, Inc. (N121:721-733)

Feb. 23-Mar. 6, 1948 -- Forty-seventh Annual Exhibition of the New York Society of Ceramic Arts (N134:543)

Mar. 9-21, 1948 -- Annual Exhibition of Junior Members (N134:543)

Apr. 8-May 30, 1948 -- Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members, Past and Present (N134:543)

June 10-Sept., 1948 -- Members' Summer Exhibition (N134:544)

Jan. 19-Feb. 9, 1949 -- Fifty-first Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members and Guest Artists (N134:544)

Mar. 14-31, 1949 -- Exhibition by Members of the Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors (N134:545)

May 5-Sept. 15, 1949 -- Members' Summer Exhibition (N134:546)

Oct. 15-Nov. 4, 1949 -- Fourth Annual Exhibition of the Photo-Engravers Society

Jan. 4-Feb. 1, 1950 -- Fifty-second Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by Members and Guest Artists (N134:546-548 and 550)

Jan. 28-Feb. 19, 1950 -- Eighty-third Annual Exhibition of the American Water Color Society (N134:549)

Feb. 8-23, 1950 -- Exhibition of Creative Art Associates (N134:549)

Mar. 16-Apr. 2, 1950 -- Exhibition of Room Interiors Especially Designed by Members of the American Institute of Decorators, in collaboration with Members of the National Society of Mural Painters (N134:551)

May 7-28, 1950 -- Active Members' Exhibition (N134:551-554)

June 28-Sept. 15, 1950 -- Members' Summer Exhibition (N134:555)

Feb. 26-Mar. 17 x, 1951 -- Paul Mommen

Mar. 24-Apr. 19, 1951 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Non-Members (N134:558-559)

May 5-31, 1951 -- Spring Water Color Exhibition (N134:560)

June 6-, 1951 -- Group Exhibition by Distinguished Artist Members: Gifford Beal, Louis Betts, Charles Clapman, Walter Farndon, Albert Groll, Eugene Higgins, Leon Kroll, Van Dearing Perrine, Keith Shaw Williams

Jan. 6-30, 1952 -- Fifty-fourth Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by Members and Guest Artists (D176:917-919; N134:561)

Feb. 9-28, 1952 -- Annual Water Color Exhibition (N134:562)

Mar. 9-27, 1952 -- Exhibition of Oil Paintings by Distinguished American Artists (N134:572)

Jan. 4-18, 1953 -- Fifty-fifth Annual Exhibition by Painter and Sculptor Members and Guest Artists (N134:563)

Jan. 25-Feb. 8, 1953 -- Annual Water Color Exhibition (N134:564)

Feb. 15-Mar. 1, 1953 -- Open Exhibition of Oil Paintings (N134:565-568)

Mar. *, 1953 -- Art of Indonesia

May 3-24, 1953 -- Members' Exhibition of Smaller Paintings in Oil (N134:569-571)

Nov. 1-14, 1954 -- The American Artists Professional League, American Art Week (N121:258-259)

Oct. 2-19, 1955 -- Open Water Color Exhibition

Jan. 8-22 x, 1956 -- Fifty-eighth Annual Exhibition by Painter and Sculptor Members and Guest Artists (N134:573-575)

June 17-Sept. 7 x, 1956 -- Members' Summer Exhibition

Sept. 24-Oct. 8 x, 1956 -- James H. Walsh

Oct. 28-Nov. 10 x, 1956 -- Small Picture Exhibition by Members and Guests

Nov. 16-30 x, 1956 -- August Benziger

Dec. 5-22 *, 1956 -- Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition of Books of the Year

Jan. 6-27, 1957 -- Fifty-ninth Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members and Guest Artists

Feb. 1-15, 1957 -- Catherine Lorillard Wolfe Art Club Sixtieth Annual Exhibition (N134:576-577)

Sept. * x, 1957 -- International Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture

Jan. 10-24 x, 1958 -- Sixtieth Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members and Guest Artists

May 21-31 x, 1958 -- Water Color and Graphic Arts Exhibition by Members and Non-Members

Oct. 17-31 x, 1958 -- Twelfth Annual Exhibition of the Photo-Engravers Society

Nov. 22-Dec. 3 x, 1958 -- Metropolitan Young Artists Show

Jan. 11-26 x, 1959 -- Sixty-first Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members and Guest Artists

Dec. 9-Jan. 7 x, 1959 -- Metropolitan Young Artists Show

Jan. 15-28 x, 1960 -- Sixty-second Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members and Guest Artists

Apr. 18-May 1, 1960 -- Catherine Lorillard Wolfe Art Club Flower Painting Exhibition and Sale (D176:1128-1129)

June 8-29 x, 1960 -- Summer Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Members

undated -- * Arts and Crafts Exhibitions

undated -- * x Annual Exhibitions of Books of the Year

undated -- * Ceramic Art Exhibition

undated -- x Water-Oils by Charles S. Chapman, N.A.

undated -- x Fine Art of the Caribbean

undated -- x Painters of the United States, 1720-1920, from the Permanent Collection of the Fine Arts Department, International Business Machines Corp.

undated -- * Pottery Exhibition

undated -- * Traveling Exhibition of Enlarged Photographs of Sculpture and Spring Exhibition of Small Sculpture by Members of the National Sculpture Society

undated -- * Exhibition of Small Sculpture

undated -- x Modern Tapestries from Vienna

undated -- x Annual Open Water Color Exhibition

undated -- x Catherine Lorillard Wolfe Art Club, Flower Paintings Exhibition and Sale

undated -- * Unidentified exhibition installations
Related Material:
These citations were compiled from Art Index, 1929-1960; The New York Times Index, 1898-1960; Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, 1898-1906; Nineteenth Century Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, 1898-1899; and Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, 1900-1960, using the format employed in Art Index. Citations are presented in chronological order, as it is anticipated that most researchers consulting the National Arts Club Records will be interested in a specific event or era in the Club's history, or are apt to be researching artists whose National Arts Club affiliation or exhibition activities were confined to a particular period.

1898

National Art Club. -- Harpers Weekly -- 42:329, April 2.

1899

Club to advance art industries. -- Critic -- 34:349-51, April.

National Arts Club organized. -- New York Times -- (7-2), 29-288-2, April 26.

1909

Position as a factor in the encouragement of the fine arts. G. Teall. -- Craftsman -- 15:604-13, February.

Club officials rule a member may take a process server into club as a guest to serve papers on fellow member, case of R.S. Perrin vs. D. Whipple. -- New York Times -- 7:3, June 29.

1913

Lecture of Prof. Eucken on Art and Morality. -- New York Times -- 9:3, March 1.

Offers prize to member who writes best manuscript on "A Critical Estimate of the Altman Collection." -- New York Times -- 12:7, November 8.

Annual exhibition of Books of the Year; organization of American Institute of Graphic Arts planned. -- New -- York Times 9:3, November 13.

1914

Alexander de Yourevitch has visited Russian political exiles as agent from the Czar; arranges for Russian trade exhibit in New York; National Arts Club has agreed to cooperate. -- New York Times -- 20:2, March 27.

Dinner in honor of Shakespeare celebration, address by Henry Clews. -- New York Times -- 13:2, April 24.

Farewell dinner to Karl Vollmoeller and George Sylvester Viereck at National Arts Club by Alfred Rau. -- New York Times -- III, 7:3, May 7.

Exhibition of Books of the Year (editorial). -- New York Times -- VI, 514:2, November 22.

1915

Awards announced. -- New York Times -- 10:1, January 7.

Paintings exhibition. -- New York Times -- V, 11:13, January 10.

Poster exhibition. -- New York Times -- III, 2:5, March 28.

Thanksgiving dinner to east side waifs. -- New York Times -- 11:1, November 26.

1917

Annual exhibition; Gold Medal and $1000 prize awarded to Ben Foster. -- New York Times -- 10:6, January 4.

Memorial services for W.B. Howland. -- New York Times -- 7:3, March 3.

Offers prizes for best patriotic medal, poem, and song. -- New York Times -- 9:14, April 6.

Offers prizes to promote expression of American patriotism in art. -- New York Times -- IV, 13:2, April 15.

H.A.W. Wood speaks at distribution of prizes. -- New York Times -- 11:3, May 31.

"Road to France," $500 prize offered for appropriate music. -- New York Times -- 13:2, June 9.

American Artists' War Emergency Fund Committee announces that art stamp will be sold to aid artists reduced in circumstances through the war. -- New York Times -- 13:6, July 10.

Offers prize of $500 for best musical setting for D.M. Henderson's "The Road to France." -- New York Times -- VIII, 9:3, August 12.

Prize for music for war song by D.M. Henderson is awarded to Signe Lund. -- New York Times -- 13:3, November 1.

1919

Annual books exhibition. -- New York Times -- VIII, 686:1, November 23.

1921

Comment on suggestion by G. Bellows that proposed members should possess some work by living American artist. -- New York Times -- III, 20:3, February 6.

Elects governors. -- New York Times -- 9:2, April 13.

1922

Awards Agar prize to Christine Herter. -- New York Times -- 16:7, April 7.

Address by Ann Martin. -- New York Times -- 4:3, August 3.

1923

Annual exhibition of books; I. Zangwill speaks; protest by member. -- New York Times -- 6:1, November 8.

1924

Prize winners of annual exhibition. -- New York Times -- 4:15, January 10.

Honors J.G. Agar at dinner. -- New York Times -- 6:2, February 26.

1925

Mural panels of Old NY used for New Year's fete to be put on exhibition. -- New York Times -- 29:1, January 4.

Announces prize winners at Members' Annual Exhibition. -- New York Times -- VIII, 11:2, January 18.

Murals depicting history of NYC, painted for New Years' ball, to be given to Museum of the City of New York. -- New York Times -- 25:4, February 3.

Exhibition of lithographs, woodcuts, and linoleum prints. -- New York Times -- VIII, 11:13, April 12.

1926

Exhibition. -- New York Times -- 4:5, January 14.

Exhibition. -- New York Times -- 17:3, April 8.

Exhibition of photographs of recent buildings. -- New York Times -- VIII, 12:6, April 18.

15th century books brought from Germany by Dr. Otto H.F. Vollbehr on exhibition at the National Arts Club. -- New York Times -- 6:6, August 24.

15th century Book of Hours, worth $15,000, stolen from exhibition at National Arts Club. -- New York Times -- 1:2, August 26.

Feature article on exhibition. -- New York Times -- IV, 15:1, August 29.

Book of Hours mysteriously returned to Vollbehr by E.M. Garlock, attorney, acting for unnamed client who claims to have bought book from stranger. -- New York Times -- 19:1, September 12.

Editorial on return of book. -- New York Times -- 20:4, September 13.

21st annual book exhibit; addresses. -- New York Times -- 28:3, November 4.

History in connection with 20th anniversary celebration. -- New York Times -- VIII,18:6, November 7.

1927

New Year's Eve costume ball. -- New York Times -- 15:3, January 1.

Exhibition of American paintings. -- New York Times -- 25:5, March 3.

Exhibition of etchings. -- New York Times -- IX, 10:4, December 11.

1928

Exhibits. -- New York Times -- 30:2, January 12; -- New York Times -- IX, 13:2, January 29.

Awards in small painting exhibition. -- New York Times -- 27:2, February 10.

Exhibit. -- New York Times -- VIII, 15:3, February 12.

First exhibition of decorative arts. -- New York Times -- 28:4, March 15; -- New York Times -- IX, 15:4, March 18.

Exhibition. -- New York Times -- IX, 15:2, April 15.

1929

J. Lie, P. Manship, and C. Beach win prizes. -- New York Times -- 25:3, January 11.

Annual members' exhibition. -- New York Times -- X, 18:4, January 27.

Exhibition of crafts. -- New York Times -- X, 15:6, December 8.

Prize awarded to D.C. Nisbet. -- New York Times -- 23:5, December 29.

1930

Arts Club prizes announced. -- Art News -- 28:21, January 4.

Annual exhibition of painting and sculpture. -- New York Times -- VIII, 13:3, January 19.

Seventh annual exhibition. -- New York Times -- VIII, 13:1, February 16.

Annual junior art show. -- New York Times -- 3:5, March 15; -- New York Times -- X, 19:3, March 16.

Exhibition of prints by living American etchers. -- New York Times -- X, 18:1, December 14.

1931

New York season; Living American Etchers. -- Art Digest -- 5:14, January 1.

M. Gregg Memorial Prize awarded to I.G. Olinsky; medal to H.W. Watrous. -- New York Times -- 34:6, January 10.

Exhibitions. -- New York Times -- VIII, 12:7, February 22.

Exhibition of Junior Artist Members. -- New York Times -- IX, 13:4, March 15.

Hold exhibition of portraits and other objects relating to history of Gramercy Park. -- New York Times -- II, 1:7 and 18:4, May 3.

Annual exhibition of paintings by members. -- New York Times -- 30:6, June 4.

Awards to R.D. Bowden $3000 prize, offered by J.G. Agar for best book on "The Soul of America." -- New York Times -- 20:6, June 8.

1932

Annual exhibition of work by painter and sculptor members; prizes announced. -- New York Times -- 27:7, January 7.

Art Club prizes. -- Art Digest -- 6:10, January 15.

Forum on development of art talent in young artists. -- New York Times -- 13:8, January 18.

Arts Club prizes. -- Art News -- 30:20, January 23.

Opening. -- New York Times -- 16:7, February 4.

Prizes awarded to junior artists. -- New York Times -- 19:2, March 8.

Art auction totals $600. -- New York Times -- 19:5, April 14.

Members' exhibition of small paintings. -- New York Times -- 16:6, May 5.

National Arts Club book exhibition. E. Yost. -- Publishers Weekly -- 122:2382-3, December 31.

1933

R. Nickerson, new member, wins medal at annual painting and sculpture show; other awards. -- New York Times -- 18:2, January 5.

Annual members' exhibition. -- New York Times -- 13:2, January 13; -- New York Times -- IX, 12:6, January 15.

National Arts club prizes. -- Art Digest -- 7:15, January 15; -- Art News -- 31:7, January 28 Celebrates 119th birthday of S.J. Tilden. -- New York Times -- 17:6, February 8.

Exhibition by junior artist members. -- New York Times -- 15:2, March 2.

1934

Prizes for annual members' show announced. -- New York Times -- IX, 12:3, January 14.

Annual dinner. -- New York Times -- 17:4, January 18.

Prizes. -- Art Digest -- February 1, 8:19; -- Art Digest -- 8:13, May 15.

Memorial exhibition of eight of its deceased painter and sculptor members. -- New York Times -- IX, 12:6, February 4.

Junior members exhibit. -- New York Times -- 17:1, March 8; -- New York Times -- IX, 9:7, March 18; Prizes awarded. -- New York Times -- 22:8, March 22.

Annual members' show. -- New York Times -- 17:2, May 3; Awards, -- New York Times -- 21:1, May 8; -- New York Times -- IX, 7:7, May 13.

Awards given by Arts Club. -- Art News -- 32:4, June 2.

Rare book exhibition planned. -- New York Times -- 19:4, September 18; Exhibition. -- New York Times -- 17:1, September 19.

1935

Annual exhibition of members' work opened. -- New York Times -- 17:5, January 10; -- New York Times -- 9:3, January 14.

Annual dinner; awards. -- New York Times -- 20:7, January 17.

Stag dinner; portrait of Victoria replaces painting of nude. -- New York Times -- 23:4, February 1.

Prizes, annual exhibition of painting and sculpture. -- Art Digest -- 9:21, February 1.

Members' annual exhibition. -- New York Times -- 18:2, February 8; -- New York Times -- VIII, 9:6, February 17.

Annual exhibition by junior artists. -- New York Times -- 18:5, March 9.

Arts Club plans a large bazaar. -- Art News -- 33:10, August 17.

Series of articles on traditions of club being written. -- New York Times -- II, 7:1, October 6.

Plans for annual book week. -- New York Times -- II and III, 8:5, October 13; exhibitors to be entertained by J.R. Gregg, president. -- New York Times -- 19:2, October 30.

To award two trips to Europe for mural decoration. New -- York Times -- 26:7, November 1; -- New York Times -- 19:5, November 14.

To hold "At Home" tea. -- New York Times -- II, 8:2, December 8.

Dinner. -- New York Times -- 14:8, December 11.

1936

Annual members' exhibition. -- New York Times -- 19:6, January 9; -- New York Times -- 13:8, January 11; -- New York Times -- IX, 10:1, January 19.

Exhibition of modern textbooks. -- New York Times -- 17:7, February 6.

Announces winners of trips to Europe. -- New York Times -- 21:2, February 11.

Exhibition by neighboring organizations. -- New York Times -- IX, 8:1, April 12.

Summer exhibit from permanent collection. -- New York Times -- IX, 7:4, June 21.

Exhibition of contemporary books; authors' night. -- New York Times -- VI, 9:2, November 8.

Plans for children's matinee at annual book exhibition. -- New York Times -- VI, 7:2, November 8.

Women's open table plans dinner. -- New York Times -- 16:4, November 23.

Exhibition of Society of American Etchers. -- New York Times -- XII, 9:2, November 29.

1937

Awards at members' exhibit. -- New York Times -- 24:3, January 27.

Exhibitions sponsored by Society of American Etchers. -- New York Times -- 21:3, February 3; -- New York Times -- X, 9:7, February 7.

Women's committee holds drama dinner. -- New York Times -- 13:1, February 15.

R.D. Kohn speaks, -- New York Times -- 25:7, March 11.

Jr. artists group exhibit. -- New York Times -- IX, 10:1, March 14; Awards. -- New York Times -- 23:6, March 25.

Photographic exhibition. -- New York Times -- X, 10:2, May 16.

Officers elected. -- New York Times -- 19:1, May 20.

H. Hamilton exhibit. -- New York Times -- IX, 6:7, September 26.

Book of the year exhibit. -- New York Times -- 23:6, November 4; -- New York Times -- VI, 4:3, November 28.

Mr. H.P. Crine elected life member. -- New York Times -- 9:1, November 28.

Members' exhibit. -- New York Times -- 28:3, December 9.

1938

Women's Open Table plans. -- New York Times -- 11:2, January 17.

Members' annual exhibit. -- New York Times -- , January 18 26:2; -- New York Times -- IX,9:3, January 23; Awards. -- New York Times -- 22:2, January 27.

Members studio receptions planned. -- New York Times -- VI, 2:7, January 30.

Dinner honoring Dr. W. Damrosch. -- New York Times -- 12:5, March 7.

Exhibit by art groups near NYC. -- New York Times -- 20:8, March 28.

Group show. -- New York Times -- X, 8:2, April 17.

Viennese ball. -- New York Times -- 22:6, April 21.

J.F. Talcott elected president; D.E. Waid executive committee chairman. -- New York Times -- 21:6, November 19.

Victorian ball. -- New York Times -- 18:1, December 17.

1939

Members' memorial exhibit. -- New York Times -- 15:1, January 13; -- New York Times -- IX, 9:2, January 22.

Members' painting and sculpture exhibit. -- New York Times -- IX, 9:2, February 5.

Jr. Members' lecture. -- New York Times -- 10:2, February 6.

Painting exhibit. -- New York Times -- 18:1, March 1; -- New York Times -- X, 10:2, March 5.

Jr. Members party planned. -- New York Times -- 50:3, March 5.

Exhibit of neighboring art organizations. -- New York Times -- 13:2, April 17.

Wild West party planned to benefit Jr. Members Scholarship Fund; to close 40th anniversary celebration. -- New York Times -- II, 2:8, April 23; -- New York Times -- II, 3:1, April 30.

Jr. Members plan New Year's Eve Olympian Ball. -- New York Times -- 30:2, December 19; -- New York Times -- II, 1:2, December 31.

1940

Art by deceased life members to be sold. -- New York Times -- 17:2, January 5.

Group show; awards. -- New York Times -- 21:2, January 11.

Group show. -- New York Times -- 24:2, January 24; -- New York Times -- IX, 9:2, January 28.

Non-members exhibition. -- Art News -- 38:15, February 3.

Exhibits: ceramics. -- New York Times -- 17:4, February 16; Ceramics and flowers. -- New York Times -- 15:5, February 19; Ceramics. -- New York Times -- II, 5:2, February 25; Exhibits: Jr. members. -- New York Times -- IX, 10:2, April 14; Group show awards. -- New York Times -- 21: 5, April 25.

Pan-American Ball held. -- New York Times -- 21:5, April 20.

Fund campaign for refugee artists started. -- New York Times -- 8:2, July 31.

Establishes artist refugee fund. -- New York Times -- 19:1, August 1.

Benefit exhibit plans. -- New York Times -- 20:8, October 2; Exhibit. -- New York Times -- IX, 5:4, October 6.

County fair planned. -- New York Times -- II, 3:3, October 6.

Refugee artists show their work. -- Art News -- 39:10, October 12.

Annual book exhibit opens. -- New York Times -- 3:5, November 3.

Testimonial luncheon for foreign authors in U.S. -- New York Times -- 45:2, November 10.

National Arts Club dramatizes books at the 35th annual new books of the year exhibition. -- Publishers Weekly -- 138:2046, November 30.

1941

Annual members' exhibit. -- New York Times -- 24:8, January 10; Comment. -- New York Times -- IX, 9:2, January 12; Awards. -- New York Times -- 24:6, January 23.

Annual prizes. -- Art Digest -- 15:13, February 1.

Benefits concerts planned. -- New York Times -- 39:1, February 23; -- New York Times -- 20:7, March 28.

Annual exhibit awards. -- New York Times -- 28:3, March 11; Comment. -- New York Times -- I, 10:3, March 16.

Group shows. -- New York Times -- IX, 10:1, March 30; -- New York Times -- IX, 8:2, May 25; -- New York Times -- X, 13:5, May 25; -- New York Times -- IX, 7:5, June 15.

Book exhibit. -- New York Times -- 1:6,November 9.

1942

Group show. -- New York Times -- X, 10:1, January 18.

Group show. -- New York Times -- 14:4, February 4; Private preview. -- New York Times -- 15:4, February 5; Comment. -- New York Times -- IX, 9:6, February 8.

Jr. members to honor servicemen at Hallowe'en party. -- New York Times -- 16:3, October 30.

37th annual show of new books. -- Publishers Weekly -- 142:2044, November 14.

To sponsor Chinese and Indian art exhibit in NYC. -- New York Times -- VIII, 9:1, December 13; Exhibit. -- New York Times -- 42:5, December 17.

1945

Holds Xmas fair. -- New York Times -- 13:3, November 16.

1946

Contemporary American painting exhibit planned. -- New York Times -- 23:6, February 20.

Jr. members and young non-members exhibition. -- Art News -- 45:67, May.

Annual book show plans. -- New York Times -- 21:2, November 1; Show, W.L. Laurence speaks. -- New York Times -- 13:1, November 12.

Annual book show. -- Publishers Weekly -- 150:2731, 2718, November 9.

Packaging the book. P. Boswell. -- Art Digest -- 21:3, November 15.

Choosing best book jackets, 41st annual book show. -- Art News -- 45:8, December.

1947

Preview exhibit. -- New York Times -- 21:5, January 9.

Forming symphony orchestra. -- New York Times -- 27:1, September 19.

1948

Ninth annual exhibition of American Veterans Society of Artists. -- Art Digest -- 22:19, January 1.

Conservatives score at the 50th annual exhibition of painting and sculpture. -- Art Digest -- 22:17, February 1.

Fiftieth annual exhibition. -- Art News -- 47:49, March.

Book fair opens in NYC. -- New York Times -- 30:7, December 9.

1949

Summer annual. -- Art Digest -- 23:14, August.

Dinner honors Mrs. F.D. Roosevelt. -- New York Times -- 39:5, October 11.

1950

Fifty-second annual exhibition of oils and sculptures. -- Art Digest -- 24:12, January 15.

Members' summer exhibition. -- Art Digest -- 24:18, August.

Fair plans. -- New York Times -- 44:8, November 1.

1951

Members-guests annual. -- New York Times -- II, 19:1, January 14.

53rd Annual Exhibition. -- Art Digest -- 25:18, January 15; -- Art News -- 49:47, February.

Non-members annual. -- New York Times -- 21:5, March 30.

Open competition for non-members. -- Art Digest -- 25:18, April 15.

Summer painting exhibition series opens. -- New York Times -- 42:8, June 7.

Members work. -- New York Times -- II, 6:4, June 17.

Summer exhibition. -- Art Digest -- 25:19, July.

1952

Fifty-fourth annual exhibition. -- Art Digest -- 26:19, January 15; -- Art News -- 49:47, February.

Members and guests annual. -- New York Times -- 59:2, January 6; Awards. -- New York Times -- 16:2, January 17.

Watercolor annual; awards. -- New York Times -- 14:4, February 8; -- Art News -- 51:56, March.

Non-members painting annual; awards. -- New York Times -- 16:5, March 10; -- New York Times -- 27:3, March 13.

Small pictures by members; awards. -- New York Times -- 25:5, April 9.

Exhibition of small oils. -- Art Digest -- 26:18-19, April 15; -- Art News -- 49:47, February.

1953

Theatre in an art gallery. A. Scheff. -- Theatre Arts -- 37:92, January.

Members-guests annual; awards. -- New York Times -- II, 11:2, January 11.

Non-members painting annual; awards. -- New York Times -- 21:5., February 19.

Members work; awards. -- New York Times -- II, 13:2, May 10; -- New York Times -- II, 8:5, June 21.

1954

Painting and sculpture annual by members and guests. -- New York Times -- 25:5, January 26.

Fifty-sixth annual exhibition. -- Arts Digest -- 28:17, February 1.

Members and non-members annual; contemporary watercolors; awards. -- New York Times -- 27:5, February 11; Review. -- New York Times -- II, 14:2, February 14.

Grand national annual members' competition. -- Art News -- 53:63, May.

1955

Painting and sculpture annual; awards. -- New York Times -- 23:1, January 12.

Fifty-sixth annual exhibition. -- Arts Digest -- 28:17, February 1.

Paintings annual; awards. -- New York Times -- 18:4, March 1.

Annual exhibition of American oil paintings. -- Art Digest -- 29:26, March 15.

Poet P. MacKaye honored on 80th birthday. -- New York Times -- 28:2, March 16.

1957

Arts Club honors Neuman; WNYC. C. Durgin. -- Musical America -- 77:12, April.

Art Clubs of America. -- Artist -- 53:67, June.

1958

At founding [sixtieth anniversary]. -- New York Times -- 49:2, November 27.

First annual metropolitan young artists show; awards. -- New York Times -- 49:2, November 27

1959

Stadium Concerts founder Mrs. C.S. Guggenheimer gets scroll from Mayor Wagner and National Arts Club medal. -- New York Times -- 9:2, March 12.

1960

Tenor competition awards. -- New York Times -- 47:8, November 15.
Provenance:
The National Arts Club donated its records to the Archives of American Art in 1987. Although a limited amount of printed matter was available at various libraries and on microfilm through the Archives of American Art, scholars have not had access to unpublished records of the Club until this time.

In November 2017 an addition to the Officers' Correspondence was donated by Elizabeth G. Knudsen, granddaughter of Edmund Greacen, former Arts Committee Chair.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Photography -- Exhibitions  Search this
Bibliographical exhibitions -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Clubhouses -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Decorative arts -- New York (State) -- New York -- Exhibitions  Search this
Handicraft -- New York (State) -- New York -- Exhibitions  Search this
Function:
Arts organizations
Arts organizations -- Taxation
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Photograph albums
Citation:
National Arts Club records, 1898-1960. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.natiartc
See more items in:
National Arts Club records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-natiartc

Ed Brady collection of photographs of Native Americans

Collector:
Brady, Ed  Search this
Publisher:
Keystone View Company  Search this
Pacific Photo Company (Salem, Or.)  Search this
Names:
Atkinson, James  Search this
Photographer:
Johnston  Search this
Moorhouse, Lee, 1850-1926  Search this
Potts, E.  Search this
Williams, G.F.  Search this
Extent:
1 Pamphlet
1 Stereograph (silver gelatin)
2 Color postcards
2 Color prints
3 Copy negatives
5 Copy prints
42 Prints (silver gelatin (some on postcard stock))
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Palouse  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Umatilla  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
American Indians -- Southwest  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pamphlets
Stereographs
Color postcards
Color prints
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Prints
Place:
Tesuque Pueblo (N.M.)
Date:
circa 1880-1950
Scope and Contents note:
Ed Brady's collection of photographs and postcards of Native American camps, people, crafts, schools, and dances, as well as agency personnel at various reservations. A majority of the original prints are photographs by Lee Moorhouse, including images of American Indian dwellings, camps, Kate Drexel School, children in cradleboards, and formal and informal portraits. Additionally, there are photographs made by E. Potts at Tesuque Pueblo on November 12, 1924 during the feast day; images are mostly of Tewa people dancing the Buffalo-Deer Dance.

The collection also includes a stereograph depicting Taos people in front of Taos Pueblo, as well as photographic postcards of Omaha men in Walthill, Nebraska, American Indians at a camp in Idaho, Indians at a camp near International Falls, Minnesota, a Navajo camp in Arizona, an elevated view of a camp with numerous tipis, possibly for a rodeo, two Alaskan Eskimo girls, and a reenactment of the Battle of Little Bighorn aftermath. There is also a pamphlet entitled "Old Travois Trails," from 1941, which was possibly originally collected by Dr. W. A. Russell, a doctor for the Fort Peck Agency.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 90-8, NAA Photo Lot 81-39, NAA Photo Lot 89-28
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photo Lot 81-39 has been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 90-8. These photographs were also collected by Ed Brady and form part of this collection.
Brady also donated Indian police badges to the Department of Anthropology in accessions 343151 and 378681.
Additional photographs by Moorhouse can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 78 and the BAE historical negatives.
The University of Oregon Special Collections holds a large collection of Lee Moorhouse photographs, 1888-1925 (PH036).
Additional photographs published by the Keystone View Company can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4551, Photo Lot 140 and Photo Lot 90-1.
The University of Washington holds Ed Brady photographs of the Mount St. Helens Eruption (PH Coll 889).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Schools  Search this
Dance  Search this
Infant carriers  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Sweatbaths  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 90-8, Ed Brady collection of photographs of Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.90-8
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-90-8

George V. Allen photograph collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier

Collector:
Allen, George V.  Search this
Names:
Albuquerque Indian School  Search this
Castillo de San Marcos (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
Chilocco Indian School  Search this
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Haskell Indian Nations University  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Yankton Mission (Yankton Indian Reservation, S.D.)  Search this
American Horse, 1840-1908  Search this
Big Bow Chief  Search this
Bogy, Lewis V. (Lewis Vital), 1813-1877  Search this
Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 1857-1900  Search this
Harding, Warren G. (Warren Gamaliel), 1865-1923  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Iron Bull (Crow Indian chief)  Search this
Kelly, Luther S. (Luther Sage), 1849-1928  Search this
Mató-Tópe, Mandan chief, d. 1837  Search this
Mix, Charles E.  Search this
Monroe, Mark, 1930-  Search this
Moran, John, 1831-1903  Search this
Ouray  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Red Dog (Oglala chief)  Search this
Red Shirt, 1845?-1925  Search this
Reilly, John James, 1838-1894  Search this
Reynolds, Joseph Jones, 1822-1899  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Stevenson, Matilda Coxe, 1850-1915  Search this
Two Guns White Calf, 1872-1934 (Piegan)  Search this
Photographer:
Alvord, Kellogg, & Campbell  Search this
Bailey & Whitesides  Search this
Bailey, Dix, & Mead  Search this
Bennett & Brown  Search this
Black Hills View Company  Search this
Brooks Photo  Search this
Brubaker and Whitesides  Search this
C. Duhem & Bro.  Search this
Calfee & Catlin  Search this
Caswell & Davy  Search this
Copelin & Son  Search this
Cosand & Mosser  Search this
Cunningham & Co. (1880-1889)  Search this
D.D. Merrill, Randall & Co.  Search this
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm)  Search this
Eaton, of Ralston, Oklahoma  Search this
Griffith & Griffith  Search this
Gurnsey & Illingworth  Search this
Hamilton and Hoyt  Search this
Hamilton and Kodylek  Search this
Hansard & Carden  Search this
Henry L. Shepard & Co.  Search this
Ingersoll View Company (St. Paul, Minnesota)  Search this
J.J. Reilly & Co.  Search this
Judd and McLeish  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Kilburn Brothers  Search this
Lawrence & Houseworth  Search this
M.S. Mepham & Bro.  Search this
Martin's Gallery  Search this
Montgomery Ward  Search this
Ramsour & Pennel  Search this
Reed & McKenney  Search this
Rodocker & Blanchard  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Thomas Houseworth & Co  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Universal Photo Art Co  Search this
Whitney & Zimmerman  Search this
Wittick & Bliss  Search this
Wittick & Russell  Search this
Young & Chase  Search this
Barker, George, 1844-1894  Search this
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Batchelder, B. P. (Benjamin Pierce), 1826-1891  Search this
Bates, Edw. (Edward)  Search this
Beaman, Edward O.  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Bell, William, 1830-1910  Search this
Benecke, Robert  Search this
Bennett, H. H. (Henry Hamilton), 1843-1908  Search this
Bierstadt, Charles, 1819-1903  Search this
Blessing, S. T.  Search this
Blosser, J. A.  Search this
Bonine, Elias A., 1843-1916  Search this
Brockham, William (of Morris, Minnesota)  Search this
Brown, William Henry, 1844-1886  Search this
Brubaker, C. B.  Search this
Buehman, Henry, 1851-1912  Search this
Calfee, H. B. (Henry Bird), 1848-1912  Search this
Carbutt, John, 1832-1905  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Chase, D. B. (Dana B.)  Search this
Childs, B. F. (Brainard F.), ca. 1841-1921  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Clark, George A. (George Alfred), 1936-  Search this
Climo, John Saunders  Search this
Cobb, William Henry, 1859-1909  Search this
Conklin, E (Enoch)  Search this
Cozzens, Samuel Woodworth, 1834-1878  Search this
Croft, Thomas  Search this
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Currier, Frank, fl. 1890-1909  Search this
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Curtis, George E., 1830-1910  Search this
Cushing, W. H., fl. 1870-1889  Search this
Davis, S., fl. 1860-1880  Search this
Doremus, John P., 1827-1890  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Eisenmann, Charles, b. 1850  Search this
Flanders, Dudley P.  Search this
Forsyth, N. A. (Norman A.), 1869-1949  Search this
Fouch, John H., 1849-1933  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Godkin, William R.  Search this
Goodell, Abner Cheney, 1831-1914  Search this
Graves, C. H. (Carleton H.), -1943  Search this
Gurnsey, B. H. (Byron H.), 1833-1880  Search this
Hamilton, J. H. (James H.)  Search this
Hart, Alfred A., 1816-1908  Search this
Hawkins, B.A.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Hazeltine, M. M. (Martin Mason), 1827-1903  Search this
Heister, H. T., (Henry T.), -1895  Search this
Heller, Louis Herman, ca. 1839-1929  Search this
Heston, Wat  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Hook, W. E. (William Edward), 1833-1908  Search this
Huffman, L. A. (Laton Alton), 1854-1931  Search this
Illingworth, W. H. (William H.), 1842-1893  Search this
Immke, Henry W.  Search this
Ingalls, George W., 1838-1920  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Jacoby, W. H. (William H.), 1841-1905  Search this
Jarvis, J. F. (John F.), b. 1850  Search this
Johnson, W.S.  Search this
Kirkland, Geo. W. (George W.)  Search this
Knight, J. Lee  Search this
Landon, S. C. (Seth C.), b. 1825  Search this
Leonard & Martin  Search this
Line, A. A.  Search this
Little, H.N.  Search this
Marshall, William I. (William Isaac), 1840-1906  Search this
Martin, Alex (Alexander), 1841-1929  Search this
Maude, F. H. (Frederic Hamer)  Search this
Maynard, Hannah, 1834-1918  Search this
Maynard, Richard, 1832-1907  Search this
McIntyre, A. C. (Alexander Carson)  Search this
Meddaugh, J. E.  Search this
Mellen, Geo. E. (George Egbert), b. 1854  Search this
Mepham, Michael S.  Search this
Mitchell, Daniel S.  Search this
Morrow, Stanley J.  Search this
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904  Search this
Newcomb, C. H.  Search this
Nims, F.A.  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Palmer, A. A.  Search this
Parker, Joseph C.  Search this
Pierron, Geo. (George), b. 1816  Search this
Pollock, Charles, 1832-1910  Search this
Powers, F. F.  Search this
Raitt, T.G.  Search this
Randall, A. Frank  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Rodocker, D. (David)  Search this
Rothrock, George H.  Search this
Rudy, W. Ira  Search this
Russell, Andrew J.  Search this
Rutter, Thomas H., 1837-1925  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Seaver, C. (Charles)  Search this
Sedgwick, S. J. (Stephen James)  Search this
Shipler, James William, 1849-1937  Search this
Soule, John P.  Search this
Stoddard, Seneca Ray, 1844-1917  Search this
Taber, I. W. (Isaiah West), 1830-1912  Search this
Thorne, G.W.  Search this
Thurlow, J., 1831-1878  Search this
Towne, Bertram C.  Search this
Trager, George E.  Search this
Upton, B. F. (Benjamin Franklin)  Search this
Watkins, Carleton E., 1829-1916  Search this
Weitfle, Charles, 1836-1921  Search this
Wendt, Julius M.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Williscraft, W.H.  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Woodburn, J. R.  Search this
Zimmerman, Charles A., 1844-1909  Search this
Publisher:
Beal's Gallery  Search this
Continent Stereoscopic Company  Search this
Florida Club (Cooperative)  Search this
Union View Company  Search this
Webster & Albee (Rochester, N.Y.)  Search this
Smith, O. C.  Search this
Extent:
67 Lantern slides
26 Negatives (glass)
10 Negatives (nitrate)
6 Autochromes (photographs)
50 Stereographs (circa 50 printed stereographs, halftone and color halftone)
1,000 Stereographs (circa, albumen and silver gelatin (some tinted))
239 Prints (circa 239 mounted and unmounted prints, albumen (including cartes de visite, imperial cards, cabinet cards, and one tinted print) and silver gelatin (some modern copies))
96 Prints (Album :, silver gelatin)
21 Postcards (silver gelatin, collotype, color halftone, and halftone)
Culture:
Puyallup  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Modoc  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Washo Indians  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Ute  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Haida  Search this
Cree  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Osage  Search this
Apache  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Umatilla  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives
Autochromes (photographs)
Stereographs
Prints
Postcards
Place:
Custer Battlefield (Montana)
Date:
circa 1860-1935
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to Native Americans or frontier themes, including portraits, expedition photographs, landscapes, and other images of dwellings, transportation, totem poles, ceremonies, infants and children in cradleboards, camps and towns, hunting and fishing, wild west shows, food preparation, funeral customs, the US Army and army posts, cliff dwellings, and grave mounds and excavations. The collection also includes images of prisoners at Fort Marion in 1875, Sioux Indians involved in the Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, the Fort Laramie Peace Commission of 1868, Sitting Bull and his followers after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890.

There are studio portraits of well-known Native Americans, including American Horse, Big Bow, Four Bears, Iron Bull, Ouray, Red Cloud, Red Dog, Red Shirt, Sitting Bull, Spotted Tail, Three Bears, and Two Guns White Calf. Depicted delegations include a Sauk and Fox meeting in Washington, DC, with Lewis V. Bogy and Charles E. Mix in 1867; Kiowas and Cheyennes at the White House in 1863; and Dakotas and Crows who visited President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Images of schools show Worcester Academy in Vinita, Oklahoma; Chilocco Indian School; Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Haskell Instittue, and Albuquerque Indian School.

Some photographs relate to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876; World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, 1903; and Centennial Exposition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railraod, 1876. Expedition photographs show the Crook expedition of 1876, the Sanderson expedition to the Custer Battlefield in 1877, the Wheeler Survey of the 1870s, Powell's surveys of the Rocky Mountain region during the 1860s and 1870s, and the Hayden Surveys.

Outstanding single views include the party of Zuni group led to the sea by Frank Hamilton Cushing; Episcopal Church Rectory and School Building, Yankton Agency; Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking a photographs of a Zuni ceremony; John Moran sketching at Acoma; Ben H. Gurnsey's studio with Indian patrons; Quapaw Mission; baptism of a group of Paiutes at Coeur d'Alene Mission; court-martial commission involved in the trial of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, 1877; President Harding at Sitka, Alaska; Walter Hough at Hopi in 1902; and Mrs. Jesse Walter Fewkes at Hopi in 1897.
Biographical/Historical note:
George V. Allen was an attorney in Lawrence, Kansas and an early member of the National Stereoscope Association. Between the 1950s and 1980s, Allen made an extensive collection of photographs of the American West, mostly in stereographs, but also including cartes-de-visite and other styles of mounted prints, photogravures, lantern slides, autochromes, and glass negatives.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 90-1
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Camps  Search this
Child care  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Totem poles  Search this
Cookery  Search this
Wild west shows  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Hunting  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 90-1, George V. Allen collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.90-1
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-90-1

Eskimo Pie Corporation Records

Creator:
Eskimo Pie Corporation.  Search this
Nelson, Christian Kent, 1893-1992  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (50 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Sheet music
Posters
Photographs
Business records
Legal records
Clippings
Date:
1921-1996
Scope and Contents:
Printed advertisements, photographs (including negatives and slides), sales presentation materials and packaging; patent and legal information, clippings, posters, scripts for radio commercials, sheet music for jingles, etc. Also includes personal papers (correspondence) of Christian Nelson, inventor of the Eskimo Pie.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biographical / Historical:
Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher. The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know--I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day. On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products. In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar. After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related. Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4. Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946. Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company. Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included. Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included. Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream. Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1990 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation. Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1990 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). It also includes video footage of a 1990 production line. Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1. Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters. Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year. Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter. Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events. Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising. Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically. Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film AWho's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods. Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads. Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions. Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included. Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear. Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting. Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information. Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here. Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, television commercials, and little written information on television campaigns. Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections The Division of Cultural History has several objects which are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including: #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)

#78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)

#112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983

#300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)

#451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990

#588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989

#594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts housed in the Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dave Clark, Eskimo Pie Corporation, July 12, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Polar bear in art  Search this
Ice cream industry -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Sheet music -- advertising
Posters
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Legal records
Clippings
Citation:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records, 1921-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0553
See more items in:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0553
Online Media:

Dale-Patterson Family collection

Creator:
Dale, Dianne  Search this
P.H. Polk, 1898-1984  Search this
Names:
Barry, Marion, 1936-2014  Search this
Dale, Almore M., 1911-1984  Search this
Dale, Dianne  Search this
Dale, John Henry, Jr., 1888-1973  Search this
Dale, Lucille Emma Patterson, 1889-1973  Search this
Dale, Marie Howard, 1914-2011  Search this
Dale, Norman Edward, 1908-1991  Search this
Garner, Araminta Dale, 1913-1987  Search this
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Patterson, Wilhelmina Bessie, 1888-1962  Search this
Extent:
6 Linear feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Programs
Clippings
Correspondence
Ephemera
Postcards
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1866 - 1990.
Summary:
The Dale-Patterson family papers, which date from 1866 to 2010 and measure 6 linear feet, document the personal and professional lives of the Dale-Patterson family who came to live in Hillsdale, Anacostia, area of Washington, D.C., in 1892.
Scope and Contents note:
The Dale-Patterson family papers, which date from 1866 to 1990 and measure 6 linear feet, document the personal and professional lives of the Dale-Patterson family who came to live in Hillsdale, Anacostia, area of Washington, D.C., in 1892. The collection is comprised of correspondence, photographs, clippings, and ephemera.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged in four series:

Series 1: Dale-Patterson Family papers Series 2: Charles Qualls papers Series 3: Community Organizations Series 4: Subject Files
Biographical/Historical note:
The Dale family came to Washington, DC in 1886 when John Henry Dale, Sr., a gifted self-taught man, obtained a position as clerk in the newly contracted Pension Bureau building at 5th and G Streets, NW. First they lived near 13th Street and Florida Avenue, NW, then moved to Howard Road in Anacostia. Dale built a house at 2619 Nichols Avenue, now Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, drawing the plans and supervising the construction. The Dales and only one other family lived in this solidly built house for 100 years before it was sold to a church group and demolished.
General Note:
Finding Aid Note: This finding aid is associated with a MARC collection-level record.361883
Provenance:
The Dale-Patterson Family collection was donated to the Anacostia Community Museum on April 07, 2013.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Dale-Patterson Family collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American families  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Programs
Clippings
Correspondence
Ephemera
Postcards
Citation:
Dale-Patterson Family collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Dianne Dale.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-074
See more items in:
Dale-Patterson Family collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-074
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Online Media:

Artwork

Collection Creator:
Kuh, Katharine  Search this
Extent:
(Boxes 5, 13-14, OVs 15-23; 1.7 linear feet)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1931-1986
Scope and Contents note:
Artwork consists of drawings, watercolors, paintings, and prints by various artists including Josef Albers, Angelica Archipenko, Saradell Ard, Lee Atwood, Serge Chermayeff, Julio De Diego, William Fett, Leon Golub, David Hare, Anne Humenfeld, Boris Margo, Carlos Mérida, Wallace Putnam, Jesse Reichek, Jeff Schlanger, Shelby Shackelford, Hedda Sterne, Hugo Weber, Cady Wells, Bill Westheimer, Emerson Woelffer, and Robert Jay Wolff. There are also drawings by Eskimo children and a watercolor set, Technics and Creativity, designed and autographed by Jasper Johns for the Museum of Modern Art, 1970.
Collection Restrictions:
Authorization to quote, publish or reproduce requires written permission until 2019. Contact the Archives of American Art Reference Services department for additional information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Katharine Kuh papers, 1875-1994, bulk 1930-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kuhkath, Series 4
See more items in:
Katharine Kuh papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kuhkath-ref132

Artwork by Eskimo Children

Collection Creator:
Kuh, Katharine  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 66
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1960-1969
Collection Restrictions:
Authorization to quote, publish or reproduce requires written permission until 2019. Contact the Archives of American Art Reference Services department for additional information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Katharine Kuh papers, 1875-1994, bulk 1930-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Katharine Kuh papers
Katharine Kuh papers / Series 4: Artwork
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kuhkath-ref160

Ruth Law Scrapbook

Collection Creator:
Law, Ruth  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1916-1918
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Law Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0387, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ruth Law Collection
Ruth Law Collection / Series 1: Ruth Law Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0387-ref517
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Journals: Leaves of Wesley Heights

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref139
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RE: Gerald Hughes

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 27
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1978 - 1979
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 1: General Correspondence / 1.2: Family, friends, and miscellaneous
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref70
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Correspondence -- Aircraft Companies

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1939 - 1943
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 2: Professional
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref32
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.014, [Charles Francis Hall Expedition Diary Volume III, First Expedition]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 9.5" x 12.2".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1860 August-1860 November
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000004
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref20
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Miscellaneous negatives

Photographer:
Brady, Mathew B  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H. 1840-1882  Search this
Bell, William 1830-1910  Search this
Pywell, William R  Search this
Mindeleff, Victor 1860-1948  Search this
Schadenburg, Alexander  Search this
Sloan, Thomas L Mrs  Search this
Moorhouse, Lee 1850-1926  Search this
Mooney, James 1861-1921  Search this
Barrett, Otis Warren  Search this
Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933  Search this
Dinwiddie, William  Search this
Hillers, John K. 1843-1925  Search this
Gill, De Lancey W  Search this
Cook, C.C  Search this
Sawyer, Wells 1863-1960  Search this
Kroehle, J. Charles 1876-1902  Search this
Russell, Andrew J  Search this
Kopta, Emry  Search this
Moore, Riley D  Search this
Gilbert, Grove Karl 1843-1918  Search this
McGee, W. J. 1853-1912  Search this
Creator:
Hewett, Edgar Lee  Search this
Elio, John Bible  Search this
Sherman, Penoyer Levi  Search this
Myer, William Edward  Search this
Moore, Clarence B (Clarence Bloomfield) 1852-1936  Search this
Bushnell, David Ives Jr 1875-1941  Search this
Walter, Hough  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943  Search this
Willis, Bailey 1857-1949  Search this
United States Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian  Search this
Yellowstone Expedition of 1873  Search this
Kuhn Photo of Atlanta  Search this
Illustrator:
Eastman, Seth  Search this
Artist:
Heitmuller, Wilhelm  Search this
Collector:
Bache, René 1861-1933  Search this
Herndon, William Lewis  Search this
Gibbon, Lardner  Search this
Donor:
Bolles, T. Dix  Search this
Photographers:
Skeen and Company  Search this
Subject:
Kissell, Mary Lois  Search this
McDonnell  Search this
Prince, L. Bradford  Search this
Goode, George Brown family  Search this
Antonio Apache  Search this
United States Fish Commission  Search this
Jamestown (Virginia) Tercentenary Exposition (1907)  Search this
Depicted:
Parker, Quanah 1845?-1911  Search this
Smith, John  Search this
Physical description:
ca. 2700 negatives
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Philippines  Search this
Flathead  Search this
American Indians weaving  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Eskimo carving  Search this
American Indians fire signals  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Hopi  Search this
Egypt art and architecture  Search this
Greece art and architecture  Search this
Rome art and architecture  Search this
Renaissance art and architecture  Search this
Iroquois village  Search this
Dioramas  Search this
Finnish spindle  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Comanche Indians  Search this
Walla Walla Indians  Search this
Nez Percé Indians  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Sauk Indians  Search this
Samoan  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Samoans  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America Northeast  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Salish Indians  Search this
Type:
Petroglyphs
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
Oceania
Morgantown (W. Va.)
Southwest
Topic:
Weaving--American Indian  Search this
Mummies--fake  Search this
Baskets  Search this
Civil War  Search this
Tattoos  Search this
Cicatrization  Search this
Spindle--Finnish  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Archeology--frauds  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_2285

Rockwell Kent papers

Creator:
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Names:
American Artists' Congress  Search this
Artists League of America  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Citizens' Committee for Government Arts Projects  Search this
Farmers Union of the New York Milk Shed  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Federal Writers' Project  Search this
International Workers Order  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
National Farmers' Union (U.S.)  Search this
National Maritime Union of America  Search this
United American Artists  Search this
United Office and Professional Workers of America  Search this
United Scenic Artists  Search this
Boyesen, Bayard  Search this
Chamberlain, J. E.  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Cleland, T. M. (Thomas Maitland), 1880-1964  Search this
Daniel, Charles, 1878-1971  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Fitzgerald, James, 1899-1971  Search this
Freuchen, Peter, 1886-1957  Search this
Gellert, Hugo, 1892-1985  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry, 1895-  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Hays, Lee, 1914-1981  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Jones, Dan Burne  Search this
Keller, Charles, 1914-2006  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 1876-1952  Search this
Nearing, Helen  Search this
Nearing, Scott, 1883-1983  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Rasmussen, Knud, 1879-1933  Search this
Reeves, Ruth, 1892-1966  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945  Search this
Ruggles, Carl, 1876-1971  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Untermeyer, Louis, 1885-1977  Search this
Wildenstein, Felix, 1883-1952  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl, 1891-  Search this
Extent:
88 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
circa 1840-1993
bulk 1935-1961
Summary:
The Rockwell Kent papers measure 88.0 linear feet and date from circa 1840 to 1993 with the bulk of the collection dating from 1935 to 1961. The collection provides comprehensive coverage of Kent's career as a painter, illustrator, designer, writer, lecturer, traveler, political activist, and dairy farmer.
Scope and Content Note:
The Rockwell Kent papers measure 88 linear feet and date from circa 1840 to 1993 with the bulk of the collection dating from 1935 to 1961. The collection provides comprehensive coverage of Kent's career as a painter, illustrator, designer, writer, lecturer, traveler, political activist, and dairy farmer.

Circumstances surrounding the acquisition of the papers are highlighted in an article by Garnett McCoy ("The Rockwell Kent Papers," in the Archives of American Art Journal, 12, no. 1 [January 1972]: 1-9), recommended reading for researchers interested in the collection. The collection is remarkably complete, for in the mid 1920s Kent began keeping carbon copies of all outgoing letters, eventually employing a secretary (who became his third wife and continued her office duties for the remainder of Kent's life).

Series 1: Alphabetical Files contain Kent's personal and professional correspondence, along with business records of the dairy farm and associated enterprises; also included are printed matter on a wide variety of topics and promotional literature relating to organizations and causes of interest to him. Voluminous correspondence with his three wives, five children, and other relatives, as well as with literally hundreds of friends, both lifelong and of brief duration, illuminates Kent's private life and contributes to understanding of his complex character. Among the many correspondents of note are: his art teachers William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri, and Kenneth Hayes Miller; fellow artists Tom Cleland, Arthur B. Davies, James Fitzgerald, Hugo Gellert, Harry Gottleib, Marsden Hartley, Charles Keller, and Ruth Reeves; collectors Duncan Phillips and Dan Burne Jones; critics J. E. Chamberlain and Walter Pach; and dealers Charles Daniel, Felix Wildenstein, and Macbeth Galleries. Kent corresponded with such diverse people as Arctic explorers Peter Freuchen, Knud Rasmussen, and Vilhjalmar Steffanson; composer Carl Ruggles and songwriters Lee Hays and Pete Seeger; civil rights pioneers Paul Robeson and Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois; writers Bayard Boyesen, Scott and Helen Nearing, and Louis Untermeyer; and art historian and print curator Carl Zigrosser.

Kent's interest and involvement in the labor movement are reflected in correspondence with officials and members of a wide variety and large number of unions and related organizations, among them: the Farmers' Educational and Cooperative Union of America, Farmers' Union of the New York Milk Shed, International Workers Order, National Maritime Union, and United Office and Professional Workers of America. Of special interest is his participation, often in leadership roles, in various attempts to organize artists. Files on the American Artists' Congress, Artists League of America, The Artists Union, United American Artists, and United Scenic Artists contain particularly valuable material on the movement.

A supporter of New Deal efforts to aid artists, Kent was actively interested in the various programs and often was critical of their limitations; he advocated continuing federal aid to artists after the Depression abated. The Kent papers include correspondence with the Federal Arts Project, Federal Fine Arts Project, Federal Writers Project, and the War Department, as well as correspondence with the Citizens' Committee for Government Art Projects and President Franklin D. Roosevelt on the subject.

Kent's professional correspondence documents exhibitions, sales, consignments, and reproduction of prints and paintings. He kept meticulous records of his advertising commissions and illustration work. Detailed correspondence with publishers and printers indicates Kent's involvement in the technical aspects of production and provides a good overview of the publishing industry during the mid-twentieth century.

Business records of Asgaard Farm include records of the dairy and transfer of ownership to its employees, tax and employee information, and documents concerning several related business ventures such as distributor ships for grain, feed, and farm implements.

Series 2: Writings consists of notes, drafts, and completed manuscripts by Rockwell Kent, mainly articles, statements, speeches, poems, introductions, and reviews. The Kent Collection given to Friendship House, Moscow, in 1960, was augmented later by a set of his publications and the illustrated manuscripts of many of his monographs. Also included are a small number of manuscripts by other authors.

Series 3: Artwork consists mainly of drawings and sketches by Kent; also included are works on paper by other artists, many of whom are unidentified, and by children.

Series 4: Printed Matter consists of clippings, exhibition catalogs and announcements, brochures, broadsides, programs, and newsletters. These include items by and about Kent and his family, as well as articles written and/or illustrated by him, and reviews of his books. There is also material on a variety of subjects and causes of interest to him. Additional printed matter is included among the alphabetical files, mainly as attachments to correspondence.

Series 5: Miscellaneous includes biographical material, legal documents, and memorabilia. Artifacts received with papers include textile samples, a silk scarf, dinnerware, ice bucket, and rubber stamp, all featuring designs by Rockwell Kent. Also with this series are a variety of documents including a phrenological analysis of an ancestor, lists of supplies for expeditions, a hand-drawn map of an unidentified place, and technical notes regarding art materials and techniques.

Series 6: Photographs includes photographs of Kent, his family and friends, travel, and art number that over one thousand. Also included here are several albums of family and travel photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series. Series 1 is arranged alphabetically. The arrangement of the remaining series is explained in each series description. Note that sealed materials that became available in 2000 were microfilmed separately on reels 5740-5741, but have integrated into this finding aid.

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, circa 1900-1971, undated (Reels 5153-5249, 5256, 5740-5741)

Series 2: Writings, 1906-1978, undated (Reels 5249-5252, 5741)

Series 3: Art Work, 1910-1972, undated (Reels 5252, 5741)

Series 4: Printed Matter, 1905-1993, undated (Reels 5252-5254)

Series 5: Miscellaneous, 1859-1969, undated (Reels 5254, 5741)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1840-1970, undated (Reels 5254-5255, 5741)
Biographical Note:
Rockwell Kent (1882-1971), an energetic and multitalented man, pursued many interests and careers during his very long and active life. At various times he was an architect, draftsman, carpenter, unskilled laborer, painter, illustrator, printmaker, commercial artist, designer, traveler/explorer, writer, professional lecturer, dairy farmer, and political activist.

While studying architecture at Columbia University, Kent enrolled in William Merritt Chase's summer school at Shinnecock Hills, Long Island. He then redirected his career ambitions toward painting and continued to study with Chase in New York. Kent spent a summer working and living with Abbott H. Thayer in Dublin, New Hampshire, and attended the New York School of Art, where Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller were his teachers.

Critically and financially, Kent was a successful artist. He was very well known for his illustration work--particularly limited editions of the classics, bookplates, and Christmas cards. He was a prolific printmaker, and his prints and paintings were acquired by many major museums and private collectors. During the post-World War II era, Kent's political sympathies resulted in the loss of commissions, and his adherence to artistic conservatism and outspoken opposition to modern art led to disfavor within art circles. After many years of declining reputation in this country and unsuccessful attempts to find a home for the Kent Collection, Kent gave his unsold paintings--the majority of his oeuvre--to the Soviet Union, where he continued to be immensely popular.

An avid traveler, Kent was especially fascinated by remote, Arctic lands and often stayed for extended periods of time to paint, write, and become acquainted with the local inhabitants. Between 1918 and 1935, he wrote and illustrated several popular books about his experiences in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego, and Greenland. In the 1930s and 1940s, Kent was much in demand as a lecturer, making several nationwide tours under the management of a professional lecture bureau; he spoke mainly about his travels, but among his standard lectures were some on "art for the people."

In 1927, Kent purchased Asgaard Farm at AuSable Forks, New York, in the Adirondacks, where he lived for the remainder of his life, operating a modern dairy farm on a modest scale for many years.

As a young man, Kent met Rufus Weeks, became committed to social justice, and joined the Socialist Party. Throughout his life, he supported left-wing causes and was a member or officer of many organizations promoting world peace and harmonious relations with the Soviet Union, civil rights, civil liberties, antifascism, and organized labor. Kent was frequently featured as a celebrity sponsor or speaker at fund-raising events for these causes. In 1948, he ran unsuccessfully as the American Labor Party's candidate for Congress. Kent's unpopular political views eventually led to the dissolution of his dairy business, resulted in a summons to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee, and prompted the U.S. State Department to deny him a passport, an action that subsequently was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court.

Kent wrote two autobiographies, This Is My Own (1940) and It's Me, O Lord (1955). In 1969, he was the subject of an oral history interview conducted by Paul Cummings for the Archives of American Art.

1882 -- born, Tarrytown, New York

1887 -- death of Rockwell Kent, Sr.

1894-1896 -- attended Cheshire Academy

1895 -- toured Europe with Aunt Jo

1896 -- attended Horace Mann School, New York City

1900-1902 -- studied architecture at Columbia University

1900-1902 -- attended William Merritt Chase's summer school, Shinnecock Hills, Long Island

1903 -- studied with William Merritt Chase, New York City

1904 -- first sale of a painting

1904 -- met Rufus Weeks and attended first Socialist meeting

1905 -- lived and worked with Abbott H. Thayer, Dublin, New Hampshire

1905 -- first painting trip to Monhegan Island, Maine

1907 -- first one-man show, Claussen Galleries, New York City

1908 -- marriage to Kathleen Whiting

1908 -- studied with Robert Henri

1908 -- joined Socialist Party

1909 -- birth of Rockwell, III

1910 -- ran Monhegan Summer School of Art

1910 -- first trip to Newfoundland

1910 -- helped to organize first Independent Exhibition

1911 -- birth of Kathleen

1912 -- moved to Winona, Minnesota

1913 -- birth of Clara

1914 -- settled in Newfoundland

1915 -- deported from Newfoundland

1915 -- birth of Barbara

1917 -- served as full-time organizer and administrator of Independent Exhibition

1918-1919 -- in Alaska with son Rocky

1919 -- purchased Egypt Farm, Arlington, Vermont

1919 -- incorporated self

1920 -- publication of Wilderness

1920 -- birth of Gordon

1922 -- traveled to Tierra del Fuego

1924 -- publication of Voyaging

1925 -- trip to France

1925 -- divorced from Kathleen

1926 -- marriage to Frances Lee

1926 -- traveled to Ireland

1927 -- purchased Asgaard Farm, AuSable, New York

1927 -- editor of Creative Art

1927 -- helped organize National Gallery of Contemporary Art, Washington, D.C.

1929 -- sailed to Greenland on Direction

1930 -- publication of N by E

1932-1933 -- returned to Greenland

1934-1935 -- final trip to Greenland

1935 -- publication of Salamina

1936 -- trip to Puerto Rico

1937 -- trip to Brazil

1937-1938 -- Post Office Department mural commission and controversy over Eskimo-language message interpreted as encouraging Puerto Rican independence

1939 -- divorced from Frances

1939 -- General Electric Co. mural commission for New York World's Fair

1940 -- publication of This Is My Own

1940 -- marriage to Shirley Johnstone (Sally)

1942 -- solo exhibition, Know and Defend America, at Wildenstein Galleries, New York City

1946 -- elected to Executive Committee of American Labor Party

1948 -- congressional candidate, American Labor Party

1948 -- transferred ownership of dairy to remaining employees after boycott resulting from support of Wallace for president

1949 -- attended World Congress for Peace, Paris

1950-1958 -- denied U.S. passport; lawsuit, appeals, and Supreme Court decision reinstating right to travel

1953 -- testified before House Un-American Activities Committee

1955 -- publication of It's Me, O Lord

1958 -- one-man show at Hermitage Museum, Leningrad

1959 -- publication of Of Men and Mountains

1960 -- gift of Kent Collection to Friendship House, Moscow

1960 -- exhibition at Pushkin Museum, Moscow

1963 -- publication of Greenland Journal

1966 -- elected to Academy of Arts of the USSR

1967 -- awarded Lenin Peace Prize, Moscow

1969 -- oral history interview, Archives of American Art

1969 -- home at Asgaard destroyed by fire; papers survived with some water and smoke damage

1969 -- first installment of Rockwell Kent Papers donated to Archives of American Art

1971 -- died, Plattsburgh, New York

1971 -- gift of additional Rockwell Kent Papers to Archives of American Art

1979 -- gift of textile samples to the Archives of American Art

1996 -- gift of additional Rockwell Kent Papers to Archives of American Art

2000 -- death of Sally [Shirley Johnstone] Kent Gorton

2000 -- previously sealed correspondence of wives Frances and Sally (Series 1) opened to researchers

2001 -- gift of additional Rockwell Kent papers to the Archives of American Art from the Estate of Sally Kent [Shirley Johnstone] Gorton
Provenance:
In 1969, Rockwell Kent donated his papers to the Archives of American Art; textile samples were received in 1979, and his widow gave additional papers in 1971 and 1996. Letters to Rockwell Kent from wives Frances and Sally, sealed during Sally Kent Gorton's lifetime, became available for research after her death in 2000, and further material was donated to the Archives of American Art in 2001 by the Estate of Sally Kent [Shirley Johnstone] Gorton.
Restrictions:
The microfilm of this collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not microfilmed or digitized requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Politics and culture  Search this
Authors -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States -- Political aspects  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State)  Search this
Illustration of books  Search this
Works of art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Civilian relief  Search this
Art and war  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Function:
Labor unions
Genre/Form:
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Rockwell Kent papers, circa 1840-1993, bulk 1935-1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kentrock
See more items in:
Rockwell Kent papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kentrock
Online Media:

"Heights and weights of Eskimo children"

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 99
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes pages of original measurements.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 9: Alaska Archeological Expeditions / Anthropological survey in Alaska:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref2253

Kuskokwim

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 259
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
after 1929
Scope and Contents:
Includes portraits of Mrs. Heron, school children, Mike Akiachon, Vasili, Czaska (Hoolitna) and Willie, William Kwishluk, people from Good News Bay, Bethel inhabitants (school children, a nurse with a reinder herder, Miss Martin's government school children, and children in a Moravian orphanage), a grandmother and child at Quigillingok, people at Moose Creek camp, people at Akiak-Tuluksak, Mizak and others at Napagayashak, people from Lower Kuskokwim, Tommy from Okagamute, Sachar and Pete from Oogavik, Daniel and Big Charley from Tundra, and people at Kushluk. Includes views of Bethel, Dr. L.M.Waugh's boat (1936), Kokak fish camp, graveyard near Apogak, Yukon-Kuskokwim portage, Lomahovik burials, Akiachok graveyard, Eskimo camp, Bogus Creek village, and Crow village site.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 37: Photographs / Alaska Field Views:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4319

Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs

Creator:
Maertz, J.F., Department Store (Milwaukee, Wis.).  Search this
Stanley-Brown, Joseph, 1858-1941  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Rau, William H.  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet ((29 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Lantern slides
Place:
Milwaukee (Wis.)
California
Date:
1887-1930
bulk 1900-1930
Summary:
Collection consists of lantern slides and stereographs produced by several companies: Keystone View Company, Better America Lecture Service, Incorporated, American Press Association, J. Stanley-Brown, William H. Rau, and J. F. Maertz Department Store. The lantern slides were primarily intended to be used for educational presentations about the United States, other countries, history, and society. Many of the slides and stereographs are accompanied by descriptive text and in some instances by small cards--one card for each slide--and in other instances directly on the back of a stereoview. The majority of images were taken from 1900 to 1930.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of lantern slides and stereographs primarily designed for use in audio-visual educational presentations about the United States, other countries, history, and society. Many of the slides and stereographs are accompanied by descriptive text. In some instances on small cards--one card for each slide-- and in other instances printed directly on the back of a stereoview. A few of the lantern slides, particularly the ones of the J. F. Maertz Department Store of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, are advertisements for consumer products. The majority were taken from 1890 through 1930. While the collection as a whole is in good general condition, some lantern slides, stereographs, and text cards are missing, and some of the lantern slides are cracked.

The collection will appeal to researchers examining the course of nineteenth-century social history broadly, especially how lantern slides were marketed to educators to teach geography, social studies, science, history and reading. The lantern slides as artifacts will be of interest to those who study material culture.

Series 1, Keystone View Company Lantern Slides and Stereographs, undated, is divided into seven subseries: Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated; Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300; Subseries 3, Biblical, undated; Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated; Subseries 5, Roads, undated; and Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated.

The series depicts scenes from around the United States and the rest of the world. Each image is intended to be characteristic of its location and in most cases is accompanied by a text card that describes the scene and gives the geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) of the location. Many of the glass lantern slides have corresponding stereoviews and in these instances two box numbers are given.

Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated, is arranged in order by the numbers on the image. Views #1-261 are arranged in a rough geographic order beginning in Maine and proceeding down the Atlantic Coast, through the former Confederate states, into the Midwest and Plains states, the mountain West states and the West coast, and ending in the territories of Alaska and Hawaii and the Panama Canal. Views #262-346 begin in eastern Canada, proceed across Canada and move through Mexico and Central America into the Caribbean, thence the length of South America and the Antarctic. Views #347-554 begin in the British Isles and move through Northern and Southern Europe and into Central Europe and then Russia, the Middle East, South Asia, and the Far East. Views #556-592 begin in North Africa and cover the length of the continent and a few areas in the Pacific. The series concludes with views of several planets, President McKinley reviewing Civil War heroes (1899), and the work of a Mexican artist (1900).

Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300, undated, is arranged in order by the numbers on the image. H-1 to H-258 depict scenes and sites of American history beginning with several images of indigenous peoples and proceeding, roughly chronologically, through major events and locations to about 1925. Images H-259 to H-300 document a range of localities and activities across the country in the mid-1920s, including major buildings in Washington, D.C., industrial activities, and modern agricultural practices.

Subseries 3, Biblical, undated, shows religious art works and rural scenes.

Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated, contains two images. One is pastoral with a Franscican friar, the other a fountain.

Subseries 5, Roads, undated, includes three images of roads, one with a person on horseback, the other two depicting wagons.

Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated, contains lithoprint stereographs, each with a short description, depicting scenes such as landmarks in the United States; news events in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; warfare; domestic scenes and scenes of foreign countries.

Series 2, Hillis Better America Lecture Service lantern slides, undated, is divided into 12 subseries: Subseries 1, Ability Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 2, Bolshevism Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 3, Builders Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 4, Equality Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 5, Fathers Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 7, General Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 8, Poverty Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 9, Property Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 10, Republic Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 11, Socialism Lecture Slides, undated; and Subseries 12, Miscellaneous Lecture Slides, undated.

This series consists of lantern slides produced by Newell Dwight Hillis' Better America Lecture Service Incorporated. Newell Dwight Hillis (1858-1929), was a noted clergyman, lecturer and author. The Better American Lecture Service sought to make better Americans and to inspire greater loyalty to American institutions. Better America Lecture Service rented the lecture manuscript and slides to churches, societies, schools, and patriotic organizations. Slides were sent in a tin box and contained suggestions for publicity arrangements. (Nevada Educational Bulletin, December 1920).

Hillis published more than twenty volumes including collections of his sermons, inspirational works, and a novel. In addition, many of Hillis addresses were published and distributed as pamphlets. The slides were intended to be used for lectures on subjects such as socialism and equality. The slides generally consist of text, drawings, images of persons, paintings, and landscapes. A few slides in each set are missing, and there is no text accompanying any of the slides. The series is arranged into twelve subseries alphabetically by topic.

Series 3, American Press Association lantern slides, undated, is divided into ten subseries: Subseries 1, General Images, undated; Subseries 2, Coffins and soliders, undated; Subseries 3, Mexican War, undated; Subseries 4, Niagara Falls Conference, undated; Subseries 5, Pancho Villa and Major Gonzales, undated; Subseries 6, Parade, undated; Subseries 7, Refugees, undated; Subseries 8, Warships, undated; Subseries 9, West Virginia Mine Explosion, undated; and Subseries 10, Women March for Votes (Suffrage), undated.

The series consists of lantern slides from the American Press Association depicting news events from early twentieth century history (e.g., Mexican War; Ludlow Colorado strike; suffragettes; Gettysburg veterans; various ship disasters). Each slide has a caption with a brief description of the scene. Many slides are cracked; one is completely broken and is in a folded paper. There are also approximately fifty slides with scenes of events associated with the Mexican-American War, most with short captions identifying the scenes. Many of these slides are cracked.

Series 4, J. F. Maertz Department Stores advertisement lantern slides, early 1920s, is divided into thirteen subseries: Subseries 1, Bathrooms, undated; Subseries 2, Children's shoes and clothing, undated; Subseries 3, Dress goods, undated; Subseries 4, Dress patterns, undated; Subseries 5, Hosiery, undated; Subseries 6, House furnishings, undated; Subseries 7, House wares, undated; Subseries 8, Ladies' Home Journal, undated; Subseries 9, Shoes, undated; Subseries 10, Store advertising, undated; Subseries 11, Underwear, undated; Subseries 12, Women's clothing, undated; and Subseries 13, Miscellaneous, undated.

The series consists of lantern slides showing advertisements used in J.F. Maertz Department Store catalogs for consumer goods. Slides are categorized by type of goods, including children's shoes and clothes, bathroom needs, dress patterns, men's wear, shoes, house furnishings, house wares, Ladies' Home Journal, and underwear.

Series 5, J. Stanley-Brown and E. H. Harriman lantern slides, undated, is divided into nineteen subseries: Subseries 1, Alaska-California scenes, undated; Subseries 2, Animal life, undated; Subseries 3, Artifacts, undated; Subseries 4, California/Franciscan life, undated; Subseries 5, California Indians, undated; Subseries 6, California mission exteriors, undated; Subseries 7, California mission interiors, undated; Subseries 8, Eskimos,undated; Subseries 9, Franciscans, undated; Subseries 10, Indians, undated; Subseries 11, Landscapes, undated; Subseries 12, Maps, undated; Subseries 13, Mission interiors, undated; Subseries 14, Seascapes, undated; Subseries 15, General images (#1-7;10), undated; Subseries 16, General images (#11-14; 16-17; 19-20), undated; Subseries 17, General images (#21-30), undated; Subseries 18, General images (#31-33; 36-40), undated; and Subseries 19, General images (#42; 45-50), undated.

The series contains lantern slides, each labeled with the names of distributors, "J. Stanley-Brown, 1318 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, D.C. and E.H. Harriman, 1 East, 55th Street, New York." The slides, some with captions, depict maps; landscapes; seascapes; Eskimos; animal life; Franciscan dwellings; Indians of California; California missions and Franciscan life. There are slides depicting various scenes of California missions and scenes of indigenous Alaskans. Some slides are cracked.

Series 6, Miscellaneous Stereographs, 1894-1907, is divided into seventeen subseries: Subseries 1, American Series, 1887; Subseries 2, C.H. Graves Publisher, 1907; Subseries 3, Griffith and Griffith, 1894; Subseries 4, Pesko Binocular Company, 1907; Subseries 5, William H. Rau Publisher,undated; Subseries 6, Domestic scenes,undated; Subseries 7, Military, undated; Subseries 8, Miscellaneous, undated; Subseries 9, Places--Asia, undated; Subseries 10, Places--Cuba, undated; Subseries 11, Places--Egypt, undated; Subseries 12, Places--France, undated; Subseries 13, PLaces--Germany, undated; Subseries 14, Places--Italy, undated; Subseries 15, Places--Monte Carlo, undated; Subseries 16, Places-- Palestine, undated; and Subseries 17, Places--United States, undated.

The series consists of lantern slides and stereoviews from distributors that include the American Series; Griffith and Griffith; Pesko Binocular Company; William H. Rau Publisher; and the Universal Photo Art Company.

The stereographs related to domestic and military issues and geography are dated circa 1905, and copyrighted by H. C. White, and distrbuted by World Series.

The stereo views produced by William H. Rau, a publisher in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, show parades and other ceremonies at Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) encampments and Elks conventions held in Philadelphia. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who served in the American Civil War.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Keystone View Company Lantern Slides and Stereographs, undated

Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated

Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300, undated

Subseries 3, Biblical, undated

Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated

Subseries 5, Roads, undated

Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 2: Hillis Better America Lecture Service Lantern Slides, undated

Subseries 1, Ability Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 2, Bolshevism Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 3, Builders Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 4, Equality Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 5, Ftahers Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 7, General Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 8, Poverty Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 9, Property Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 10, Republic Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 11, Socialism Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 12, Miscellaneous Lecture Slides, undated

Series 3: American Press Association Lantern Slides, undated

Subseries 1, General Images, undated

Subseries 2, Coffins and Soliders, undated

Subseries 3, Mexican War, undated

Subseries 4, Niagara Falls Conference, undated

Subseries 5, Pancho Villa and Major Gonzales, undated

Subseries 6, Parade, undated

Subseries 7, Refugees, undated

Subseries 8, Warships, undated

Subseries 9, West Virginia Mine Explosion, undated

Subseries 10, Women March for Votes (Suffrage), undated

Series 4: J. F. Maertz Department Store Advertisement Lantern Slides, early 1920s

Subseries 1, Bathrooms, undated

Subseries 2, Children's shoes and clothing, undated

Subseries 3, Dress goods, undated

Subseries 4, Dress patterns, undated

Subseries 5, Hosiery, undated

Subseries 6, House furnishings, undated

Subseries 7, House wares, undated

Subseries 8, Ladies' Home Journal, undated

Subseries 9, Shoes, undated

Subseries 10, Store advertising, undated

Subseries 11, Underwear, undated

Subseries 12, Women's clothing, undated

Subseries 13, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 5, J. Stanley-Brown and E.H. Harriman lantern slides, undated

Subseries 1, Alaska-California scenes, undated

Subseries 2, Animal life, undated

Subseries 3, Artifacts, undated

Subseries 4, California/Franciscan life, undated

Subseries 5, California Indians, undated

Subseries 6, California mission exteriors, undated

Subseries 7, California mission interiors, undated

Subseries 8, Eskimos, undated

Subseries 9, Franciscans, undated

Subseries 10, Indians, undated

Subseries 11, Landscapes, undated

Subseries 12, Maps, undated

Subseries 13, Mission interiors, undated

Subseries 14, Seascapes, undated

Subseries 15, General images (#1-7;10), undated

Subseries 16, General images (#11-14; 16-17; 19-20), undated

Subseries 17, General images (#21-30), undated

Subseries 18, General images (#31-33; 36-40), undated

Subseries 19, General images (#42; 45-50), undated

Series 6: Miscellaneous Stereographs, 1887-1907

Subseries 1, American Series, 1887

Subseries 2, C.H. Graves Publisher, 1907

Subseries 3, Griffith and Griffith, 1894

Subseries 4, Pesko Binocular Company, 1907

Subseries 5, William H. Rau Publisher, undated

Subseries 6, Domestic scenes, undated

Subseries 7, Military, undated

Subseries 8, Places-Asia, undated

Subseries 9, Places-Cuba, undated

Subseries 10, Places-Egypt, undated

Subseries 11, Places-France, undated

Subseries 12, Places-Germany, undated

Subseries 13, Places-Italy, undated

Subseries 14, Places-Monte Carlo, undated

Subseries 6.15, Palestine, undated

Subseries 6.16, Places-United States, undated

Subseries 6.17: Miscellaneous, undated

Series 7: Miscellaneous Lantern Slides, undated
Historical:
Lantern slides are hand-drawn, painted, or photographic images on glass, intended for viewing by projection; often made in sets. Photographic lantern slides were introduced in the United States by 1850 and popular through World War I; commonly 3.25 x 4 in. (9 x 10 cm.) with a black paper mask, a cover glass, and taped edges. Thesaurus of Graphic Materials

Stereographs consist of two nearly identical photographs or photomechanical prints, paired to produce the illusion of a single three-dimensional image, usually when viewed through a stereoscope. Typically, the images are on card mounts, but they take the form of daguerreotypes, glass negatives, or other processes. Stereographs were first made in the 1850s and are still made today. They were most popular between 1870 and 1920.

In 1851 stereo daguerreotypes were exhibited for the first time to the general public at the London International Exhibition (Crystal Palace). Shortly thereafter, American photographers began making stereographs. One of the first American photographic firms to produce stereographs was the team of William and Frederick Langenheim. The Library owns a set of their early stereoviews of American cities on the East Coast.

By 1860 both amateur photographers and publishing firms were making stereographs. The major stereo publishers sold their views by mail order, door-to-door salesmen, and in stores. Stereographs were sold individually and in boxed sets.

Stereographs are usually mounted. They were typically published with caption information printed under the image or on the back of the mount. The mount also provided information about the publisher, photographer, and sometimes the series or a list of views available from the photographer or publisher.

Stereographs were collected by many middle-class families in the late 19th century. People acquired stereographs of tourist sites they had visited, as well as exotic locales that they would only experience through the wonder of the stereoscope. Viewing stereographs was a common activity, much like watching television or going to the movies today. Stereoviews were also used as an education tool in classrooms. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Stereograph Format)

The Division of Cultural History at the National Museum of American History assembled a collection of miscellaneous lantern slides and stereographs beginning in 1943. Other collection contents were acquired over many years in unrecorded transactions.

Several distributors and publishers of stereographic images are represented in the collection. One of the most prominent was the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania. Founded by Benneville Lloyd Singley (d.1938), a former Underwood & Underwood salesman, Keystone became a major distributor of stereographic images. From 1892 through 1963 it produced and distributed both educational and comic/sentimental stereoviews and stereoscopes used to see the images in 3-D. By 1905 it was the world's largest stereographic company. In 1963 Department A (stereoviews sold to individual families) and the education departments were closed, but Keystone continued to manufacture eye-training stereographic products as a subsidiary of Mast Development Company. In 1972 Mast closed the Meadville manufacturing site.

All of Keystone's manufacturing was done in Meadville, but branch offices were in New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, Portland, Oregon, Chicago, Toronto, Canada and London, England. Salesmen and photographers were scattered around the world, and the company offered 20,000 different views.

Selling stereoviews and lantern slides to schools was a field pioneered by Underwood & Underwood, and for several years Underwood & Underwood and Keystone were competitors for the growing educational market. According to the 1953 Keystone Sales Manual the more aggressive sales methods and the more progressive editorial policies of the Keystone View Company soon made it the acknowledged leader in the industry, and Underwood & Underwood decided to give up the contest.

Between 1915 and 1921 Keystone View Company purchased the negatives of nearly all of its competitors. They also continued to have staff photographers travel the world, so that by 1935 Keystone had approximately two million stereoscopic negatives.

Keystone View Company produced stereographic sets up through the mid-twentieth century, and had a stereoscopic photographer on staff until at least 1955.

References

Thesaurus of Graphic Materials, (2007), http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/tgm1/ (accessed February 10, 2011).

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Stereograph Format, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/stereo/background.html (accessed February 14, 2011).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, 1895-1921, (AC0143)

Other Institutions with Materials

University of California, Riverside/California Museum of Photography

George Eastman House

Temple University

Brooklyn Historical Society
Provenance:
Donated to the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum by Mrs. Joseph Stanley-Brown, through Mrs. Herbert Feis, in 1943.

The Division of Cultural History (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) at the National Museum of American History assembled a collection of miscellaneous lantern slides and stereographs beginning in 1943. Other collection contents were acquired over many years in unrecorded transactions. An unknown portion of the collection transferred to the Archives Center, date unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected lantern slides and stereographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Stereographs -- 1900-1950
Stereographs -- 1900-1910
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Lantern slides
Citation:
Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0945
See more items in:
Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0945
Online Media:

[Eskimos] 8073 Interpositive

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Local Numbers:
RSN 22333
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.23 [213].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
0628
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Children  Search this
Dogs  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Igloos  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 22301-22390
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref20100

The return from the Bear Hunt--Eskimo Village. 5925 Interpositive

Topic:
THE WORLD'S FAIR---Misc.
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904: Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Missouri
Saint Louis (Mo.)
Date:
1903
Local Numbers:
RSN 20787
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.12 [216].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
0617
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Eskimos -- Missouri  Search this
Children -- Missouri  Search this
Dogs -- Missouri  Search this
Expositions -- Missouri  Search this
Sleds -- Missouri  Search this
Tents -- Missouri  Search this
World's fairs -- Missouri  Search this
Eskimos -- Missouri  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 20747-20840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref27064

Play-fellows from the frozen Arctic--Eskimo youngsters and their tame bear. 5926 Interpositive

Topic:
THE WORLD'S FAIR---Misc.
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904: Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Missouri
Saint Louis (Mo.)
Date:
1903
Local Numbers:
RSN 20788
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.12 [216].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
0618
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Eskimos -- zMissouri  Search this
Bears -- Missouri  Search this
Children -- Missouri  Search this
Dogs -- Missouri  Search this
Expositions -- Missouri  Search this
Sleds -- Missouri  Search this
World's fairs -- Missouri  Search this
Eskimos -- Missouri  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 20747-20840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref27065

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