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Oral history interview with Al Qöyawayma, 2010 March 30-31

Interviewee:
Qöyawayma, Al, 1938-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Al Qöyawayma, 2010 March 30-31. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Engineers -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Hopi artists -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Potters -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Theme:
Native American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15789
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)288760
AAA_collcode_qyaway10
Theme:
Native American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_288760
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Al Qöyawayma

Interviewee:
Qöyawayma, Al, 1938-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Extent:
153 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2010 March 30-31
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Al Qöyawayma conducted 2010 March 30 and 31, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Qöyawayma's home and studio, in Prescott, Arizona.
Qoyawayma speaks of his heritage as a Hopi; the influences on his education in science and art; the growth and development of his pottery through his heritage; work through AISES and Smithsonian; concepts behind his artwork; trips that have influenced his work and the development of it; stories of his ancestors that have helped develop his artwork; the value of materials used in the creation of clay; and details about the craft of Native American pottery. Qoyawayma also recalls AISES, University of Arizona, Emery Sekaquaptewa, West Point, Maori, Lee Cohen, Colombus, Fewkes, Smithsonian, Coyote Clan, Tewa, Hopi-Tewa, Uto-Aztecan, Mesa Verde series, yellowware ceramics, American Journal of Archaeology, Ron Bishop, Disney, Lockheed, Old Oraibi, Sherman Institute, San Fernando Valley, Woodland Hills, Sherman Oaks, Van Nuys, Navajo, Herant Engineering, Pete Solokian, Cannon Electric, Rocketdyne, CAD/CAM, San Luis Obispo, Robert Redford, Don Drysdale, Dodgers, Litton Industries, Guidance and Control Division, Apple, IBM, Fortran, Star Trek, Sandra Day O'Conner, Heard Museum, Institute of American Art, Ernest Hemmingway, Roosevelts, Sikyatki, Natural History Museum, National Museum of the American Indian, Secretary Ickes, Mohawk, Norbert, University of Wisconsin at Green Bay, A.T. Anderson, Ely S. Parker, Ely S. Parker Award, Jody Folwell, Inca, Quechua, Valdivia, Ecuador, Betty Meggers, Laguna clay, Chaco Canyon, Toltec, Aztec, Mayan, Nahauatl, Birkland currents, Mixtec Sheild, Los Alamos, Dr. Tony Peratt, Nazca plain, Maxwell's Equations, Te Waka toi, Baye Riddell, Manos Nathan, Blue Corn, Salt River Indian Community, Teotihuacan, Uxmal, Chchen Itza, Coba, George Stuart, National Geographic, Copan, Bill Fash, Herb Kané, Union Carbide, Andy Anderson, Henry Moore, Allan Houser, Charles Loloma, Institute of American Art in Santa Fe, Lloyd Kiva New, Leonardo da Vinci, American Bureau of Ethnology, Peter Lee, Jerry Jacka, Arizona Highways, Chicago Institute of Art, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Al Qöyawayma (1938- ) is a potter, sculptor, and engineer in Prescott, Arizona.
General:
Originally recorded on 8 secure digital memory cards as 10 digital wav files. Duration is 6 hrs., 32 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Engineers -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Hopi artists -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Potters -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Arizona -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.qyaway10
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93f127eb8-fa62-4aae-98ea-49aaffb078d8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-qyaway10
Online Media:

Forest Service, Culture, and Community

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The Festival program, Forest Service, Culture, and Community, presented occupational traditions from the USDA Forest Service, an organization celebrating its centennial in 2005, as well as other forest-dependent traditions from the cultural communities it serves. Approximately a hundred participants on the National Mall shared their skills, experiences, and traditions with members of the public; they included tree pathologists, wildlife biologists, landscape architects, historic horticulturalists, botanists, bird banders, archaeologists, environmental engineers, firefighters, smokejumpers, recreation specialists, backcountry rangers, woodcarvers, basket makers, quilters, instrument makers, musicians, poets, storytellers, and camp cooks.

As the Forest Service began its second century, it already had a long tradition of caring for the land, serving the public, and meeting the challenges of conservation. For instance, the Forest Service has an ongoing mission to educate teachers and children, connecting people to the land through conservation education. Such education increases public awareness and understanding of the interrelationships in natural systems. Natural resource professionals teach in classrooms or lead field trips. Similarly, Smokey Bear and Woodsy Owl have become national symbols in fire-prevention and conservation campaigns.

As the Festival program vividly demonstrated, the men and women who work in our forests and rangelands have very special connections to the land and its natural resources. They understand the science, the history, the technology, the art, and the traditions of forest service, culture, and community. They also recognize the values inherent in the work they do. Following the example set by Forest Service founder Gifford Pinchot a hundred years before, these men and women are still seeking to provide "the greatest good of the greatest number in the long run."

James Deutsch was Program Curator; Dorey Butter was Program Coordinator, and Tasha Coleman was Research Coordinator. At the USDA Forest Service, the Coordination Team included Linda Feldman, New Century of Service Program Manager; Christine Murray, Festival Program Manager; and Karen Fiore, Research and Oral Histories, Festival Co-Coordinator.

The program was made possible through a partnership with the USDA Forest Service and was produced in collaboration with the National Endowment for the Arts. Major support came from the National Forest Foundation, Honda, and Whole Foods Market, with additional contributions from IBM and The American Chestnut Foundation.
Fieldworkers and interviewers:
Arlena Aragon-Husband, Patricia Asteinza, Christina Barr, Sarah Barsness, Bob Beckley, Cheryl Burgess, Kevin Davis, Bonnie Dearing, Sherri Richardson Dodge, Jill Evans, Maryo Ewell, Kathleen Figgen, Karen Fiore, Sandi Forney, Don Gedney (1918-2005), Andrew Grace, Andrea Graham, Elizabeth Harvey, Teresa Haugh, David Hunt, Don Jensen, Elizabeth Harvey Johnson, Barbara Kenady-Fish, Carrie N. Kline, Connie R. Lee, Terry Livingston, Chris Losi, Jens Lund, Kari Lusk, Michelle Mcanally, Ken McCall, James L. McConnell, June McMillen, Darcy Minter, Sheila Poole, Ben Quick, Mike Ryan, John Schelhas, Cathie Schmidlin, Steve Segin, Ronna Lee Sharpe, George Sibley, Brooke Smith, Stephen Swimmer, Elaine Thatcher, Lee Webb, Janet Werren, Georgia Wier, Carol Winkler, Susan Wright, Pat York
Presenters:
Nancy Groce,

Marjorie Hunt,

Carrie Kline,

Jens Lund,

Bob McCarl,

Peter Seitel
Participants:
Susan B. Adams, 1964-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Oxford, Mississippi

Janie Agyagos, 1970-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Cornville, Arizona

Berneice Anderson, Law Enforcement participant, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Kimberly Anderson, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

John Anhold, 1959-, Arizona Camp Foodways/Tree Doctors participant, Flagstaff, Arizona

Matt Arnn, Forest Landscapes participant, New York, New York

Phyllis Ashmead, 1955-, Interactive Forest participant, Mi-Wuk Village, California

Donna Ashworth, 1931-, Fire Lookout Tower participant, Flagstaff, Arizona

Barbara Balen, 1951-, Forest Landscapes participant, Hathaway Pines, California

Ian Barlow, Woodlands Heritage participant, White Bird, Idaho

Joy Barney, 1963-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Pinecrest, California

Dan Bauer, 1941-, Community Stage participant, Washington, D.C.

Keith Bear, Arts & Crafts and Sounds of the Forest participant, Drags Wolf Village, North Dakota

Karen Bennett, 1957-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Philomath, Oregon

Jeff Bryden, 1966-, Law Enforcement participant, Moose Pass, Alaska

Angie Bullets, 1958-, Arts & Crafts participant, Fredonia, Arizona

Rita Cantú, Sounds of the Forest participant, Prescott, Arizona

Cindy Carpenter, 1955-, Sounds of the Forest participant, Brevard, North Carolina

G.W. Chapman, 1929-, Fire Camp and Forest Service History participant, Alamogordo, New Mexico

Kevin Cooper, 1959-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Santa Maria, California

Andy Coriell, 1969-, Law Enforcement participant, Sandy, Oregon

Al Cornell, 1941-, Call of the Wild participant, Sedona, Arizona

Jim Denney, 1953-, Arts & Crafts participant, McKenzie Bridge, Oregon

Dave Edwards, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant

Tim Eldridge, 1956-, Smokejumper Base participant, Missoula, Montana

Kelly Esterbrook, 1956-, Smokejumper Base participant, Bend, Oregon

The Fiddlin' Foresters, Sounds of the Forest participants -- Jane Leche, 1957-, guitarTom McFarland, 1946-, guitarJim Maxwell, 1949-, banjoLynn Young, 1944-, fiddle

Bill Glass, 1949-, Forest Landscapes participant, Wilmington, Illinois

Gordon Grant, 1955-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Corvallis, Oregon

Ed Gross, 1946-, Interactive Forest participant, Brookings, Oregon

Tony Guinn, 1956-, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant, Mountain View, Arkansas

Jim Hammer, 1948-, Call of the Wild participant, Winthrop, Washington

Elizabeth Hawke, 1966-, Interactive Forest participant, Milford, Pennsylvania

Charles Hillary, 1951-, Forest Products participant, Madison, Wisconsin

Jack Holcomb, 1945-, Arts & Crafts participant, Lawrenceville, Georgia

Leslie Hook, 1944-, Camp Foodways participant, Albany, Vermont

Saul Irvin, 1950-, Camp Foodways and Fire Camp participant, Seville, Florida

Dorica R. Jackson, 1950-, Arts & Crafts participant, Ketchikan, Alaska

Nathan P. Jackson, 1938-, Arts & Crafts participant, Ketchikan, Alaska

Patrick Michael Karnahan, Sounds of the Forest participant, Sonora, California

Robert Karrfalt, 1948-, Tree Doctors participant, Lafayette, Indiana

Nova Kim, 1943-, Camp Foodways participant, Albany, Vermont

Beth King, 1946-, Camp Foodways participant, Layton, Utah

Tosh Konya, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant

Samuel Larry, 1958-, Forest Service History participant, Atlanta, Georgia

Pat Lynch, 1939-, Forest Service History participant, Encampment, Wyoming

Wally McRae, 1936-, Community Stage participant, Forsyth, Montana

Nanette Madden, 1951-, Fire Camp participant, Fall River, California

Karen Malis-Clark, 1955-, Family Activities participant, Flagstaff, Arizona

Steve Markofski, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant

Kristen Martine, 1970-, Forest Landscapes participant, Flagstaff, Arizona

Karen Martinson, Sustainable Resource House participant, Madison, Wisconsin

Kirby Matthew, 1957-, Woodlands Heritage participant, Deer Lodge, Montana

Joe Meade, 1958-, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant, Anchorage, Alaska

Bill Meadows, Community Stage participant, Washington, D.C.

Rick Meinzer, 1950-, Canopy Crane participant, Corvallis, Oregon

Warren Miller, 1948-, Woodlands Heritage participant, Peck, Idaho

Kevin Mills, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant

Chuck Milner, 1960-, Sounds of the Forest participant, Cheyenne, Oklahoma

Heather Murphy, 1953-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Leavenworth, Washington

Lezlie Murray, 1954-, Call of the Wild participant, Girdwood, Alaska

Hank Nelson, 1933-, Community Stage participant, Wasilla, Alaska

Lavinia B. Nelson, 1921-, Arts & Crafts participant, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina

Mark Pearlstein, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant

Kelly Pearson, Call of the Wild participant, Jonesboro, Illinois

Leona Pooyouma, 1946-, Arts & Crafts participant, Flagstaff, Arizona

Marvin Pooyouma, 1948-, Arts & Crafts participant, Flagstaff, Arizona

Steve Reed, 1967-, Smokejumper Base participant, Victor, Montana

Rodney Richard, Sr., 1929-, Arts & Crafts participant, Rangeley, Maine

Riders in the Dirt, Sounds of the Forest -- Riders in the Dirt, Sounds of the ForestAnne Alford, 1967-, lead singer, bassistJo Booser, 1950-, fiddle, musical saws, flutesJudy Haigler, 1952-, rhythm guitarGayle Hunt, 1954-, guitar, banjo, mandolin

Michael Ritter, Sustainable Resource House participant, Madison, Wisconsin

William Rosanelli, 1949-, Forest Service History participant, Montague, New Jersey

Michelle Ryan, 1949-, Forest Service History participant, Dillon, Montana

Catherine "Cat" Sampson, 1949-, Law Enforcement participant, Camp Verde, Arizona

Nathan Schiff, 1958-, Tree Doctors participant, Stoneville, Mississippi

Herb Schroeder, 1951-, Forest Landscapes participant, Evanston, Illinois

Dave Shaw, 1955-, Canopy Crane participant, Carson, Washington

The Shawnee Forest New Century Children's Choir, Sounds of the Forest participants, Southern Illinois

Jane E. Smith, 1959-, Tree Doctors participant, Corvallis, Oregon

Stacey Smith, 1960-, Call of the Wild participant, McKenzie Bridge, Oregon

Bill Stafford, 1949-, Camp Foodways participant, Lake Montezuma, Arizona

Jean Szymanski, 1959-, Family Activities participant, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Sidne Teske, 1952-, Arts & Crafts participant, Tuscarora, Nevada

Donna Thatcher, 1939-, Camp Foodways participant, Farmington, New Mexico

Walt Thies, 1942-, Arts & Crafts participant, Corvallis, Oregon

Charmaine Thompson, 1960-, Forest Landscapes participant, Provo, Utah

Lee Thornhill, 1965-, Fire Camp participant, Lakeside, Arizona

Trails Unlimited, Interactive Forest participant, Monrovia, California

Teresa Trulock, 1965-, Forest Service History participant, Pinedale, Wyoming

Gail Tunberg, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Francisco Valenzuela, 1957-, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant, Golden, Colorado

Dennis Vroman, 1943-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Grants Pass, Oregon

Linda Wadleigh, 1961-, Camp Foodways, Fire Camp, and Tree Doctors participant, Flagstaff, Arizona

Lee Webb, 1943-, Protecting Forests and Wildlife Habitats participant, Grants Pass, Oregon

Neil Weintraub, 1964-, Forest Landscapes participant, Williams, Arizona

Chuck Williams, 1934-, Forest Service History participant, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Don Wilson, Water, Woods, and Mountains participant

Marta Witt, 1955-, Forest Landscapes participant, Wilmington, Illinois

Keith Wolferman, Smokejumper Base participant, Missoula, Montana

Pat York, 1957-, Community Stage and Water, Woods, and Mountains participant, Jonesboro, Illinois

J.P. Zavalla, Smokejumper Base participant, Santa Ynez, California

Pete Zavalla, 1944-, Community Stage participant, Solvang, California

Tony Zavalla, 1970-, Fire Camp participant, Santa Barbara, Californiab
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2005 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2005, Series 3
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2005 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5c3c43a5b-ed9f-4112-ba75-036421ad96e2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2005-ref25

Apache and Kiowa Apache

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Young, Robert W., 1912-2007  Search this
Correspondent:
Bloomfield, Leonard, 1887-1949  Search this
Hoijer, Harry, 1904-1976  Search this
Haile, Berard, 1874-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Boxe
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Dictionaries
Date:
1936-1945
Scope and Contents:
This set of files contains Harrington's Apache and Kiowa Apache research and writings. Most of the materials consist of notes and drafts for his and Robert W. Young's unpublished manuscripts on the life of Geronimo, as well as their project to translate the Chiricahua Apache chief's published autobiography into Apache. Harrington's Apache notes provide a useful block of placenames and names of persons, with random linguistic, ethnographic, biographical, and historical observations. The notes are arranged according to topic, each probably corresponding to a proposed chapter heading in Harrington's write-up. Entries from secondary souces and the related information supplied by rehearings in the field and in Washington were clipped together. Wherever possible these groups of notes are now pasted on a single sheet. Harrington apparently hoped to use the notes for additional monographs under such headings as "The Etymology of Geronimo's Name," "The Etymology of the Word Apache," and a review of Clum's Apache Agent. There are several incomplete typed or handwritten preliminary drafts, but neither Harrington or Young published the proposed papers. The numbered typewritten slips filed with the Apache notes may be responses to a questionnaire (not found in his papers) that Harrington sent to Young and William R. Hill. Also present are Harrington's correspondence with Father Berard Haile and other scholars involved in Athapascan studies, such as Harry Hoijer and Leonard Bloomfield.

While Harrington did not compile an Apache dictionary, his papers do contain vocabulary collected from the historical and ethnographic observations he made on the tribe. There is a rough beginning of a dictionary collected from Howard Soontay in 1944, and from Philip Cosen and Raymond Loco in 1945.
Biographical / Historical:
Harrington's study of Apache and Kiowa Apache spanned almost a decade. It began with an examination of secondary sources in 1936 and culminated in 1945 with the recording of brief vocabularies from native speakers. Speakers of several dialects were interviewed. Asa Deklugie and Raymond Loco provided Chiricahua data while Percy Bigmouth and Victor Dolan gave Mescalero terms. White Mountain Apache words were obtained from Philip Cosen and Kiowa Apache items from Howard Soontay. Related Navajo and Yavapai terms were given by Adolph Dodge Bitanny, Howard Gorman, and Mollie Starr. Deklugie, the son of Geronimo's sister, served as the principal source of primary data on Apache.

In collaboration with Robert W. Young, Harrington evidently planned a linguistic treatment of the life of Geronimo, the famous Chiricahua Apache chief, and, even more ambitiously, hoped to translate Geronimo's published autobiography into Apache. Harrington was in Washington, D.C., for all of 1936 and 1937 and, in fact, was hospitalized for six weeks in January and February 1937. He therefore accumulated his initial facts principally from secondary sources, using particularly S. M. Barrett's Life of Geronimo, identified in the field notes as "Autobiography," and W. Clum, Apache Agent. In most cases he gave page references for the material he copied.

Between June 1936 and June 1937, Harrington carried on a lively correspondence with William R. Hill, Engineer-in-Charge at the Mescalero Indian Reservation. Hill's father worked for the Bureau of American Ethnology and was Harrington's friend. Robert Young also collected data for him in the fall of 1936 through interviews with Asa Deklugie and Eugene Chihuahua. Young and Hill reheard the copied entries from the secondary sources, and Harrington attempted to synthesize the historic and ethnological information into a coherent text. He also tried to establish definitive etymologies and orthography for Apache placenames and personal names.

Harrington was in touch with Father Berard Haile, a linguist and Navajo lexicographer at the Franciscan Mission in St. Michaels, Arizona. A limited number of letters were exchanged with several other scholars involved in Athapascan studies, such as Harry Hoijer and Leonard Bloomfield.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Apache languages  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Dictionaries
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 4.1
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers
John Peabody Harrington papers / Series 4: Native American History, Language, and Culture of the Southwest
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3248f0088-5aec-4682-b104-8fcc3cb9873b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14441

Maid of Cotton Records

Creator:
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee)  Search this
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
38 Cubic feet (91 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks
Reports
Programs
Photographs
Photograph albums
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Date:
1939-1994, undated
Summary:
The Maid of Cotton (MOC) beauty pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council, Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans from 1939-1993. The contest was held annually in Memphis, Tennessee until the National Cotton Council and Cotton Council International moved to Dallas, Texas. Beginning with the 1985 pageant (held December 1984) the competition was held in Dallas. The pageant was discontinued in 1993 due to lack of funds, a sponsor, and changes in marketing strategies. The records include files on contestants, photographs, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains the records for the Maid of Cotton pageant (1939-1993) sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The collection consists of approximately 38 cubic feet of records created by the NCC in the course of operating the Maid of Cotton contest from 1939 to 1993. The records form the complete archive of this fifty-four year program. The records include administrative files, scrapbooks, photographs, slides, and videotapes.

"One of the main values of the Maid of Cotton collection is its completeness. These are all of the official records of the program, documenting all of its activities throughout its entire existence from 1939 to 1993. As such, it represents a truly unique documentary record and opportunity for research.

Beauty contests have been the subject of serious scholarly study for many years. A search of WorldCat reveals over fifty books on the topic. Scholars have found the subject to be a fruitful springboard from which to study a wide variety of topics, primarily centered around issues of beauty, femininity, culture values, national identity, racism, and feminism.

Beauty pageants serve as symbols that reflect the values of American culture. For example, pageant winners have symbolized the advances made by formerly disenfranchised groups. Vanessa Williams, the first African American to win the Miss America crown (1983), rewrote the definition of beauty in America, and Heather Whitestone, the first deaf Miss America (1995), proved that physical handicaps need not hold anyone back from their dreams. Pageants can provide a focus for the re-examination of our society and culture. The tragic murder of six-year-old Jonbenet Ramsey in 1996 provided a window into what author Susan Anderson calls "the extravagant world of child beauty pageants," that led to public debate about issues of motherhood and adolescence.

In addition, beauty pageants can be viewed in advertising terms: they are the ultimate expression of the tried and true adage that sex sells. All pageants have sponsors and all sponsors want their products to be seen in a positive light. Some sponsors are content to contribute goods and services to the contestants --a new car, a trip to the Caribbean, a fur coat, etc. --so that their generosity can be noted in the publicity surrounding the contest. Others prefer to sponsor the entire program. The Miss Universe contest, for example, was created in 1952 by the Jantzen Company specifically to enable the company to showcase pretty girls wearing its swimsuits. Jantzen abruptly withdrew its previous support of the Miss America pageant when Yolande Betbeze refused to wear a bathing suit during her reign as Miss America 1951. The Maid of Cotton pageant is a highly organized, year-long, very visible public relations program that allows the National Cotton Council to showcase the wonders of cotton through the wonders of young beauty queens. Attractive young women are the perfect vehicle for promoting fashionable fabrics made from cotton.

Cotton --the product at the heart of the Maid of Cotton program --has been central to American economic and political history. NMAH's collecting and research interests reflect this. The Division of Work & Industry contains numerous cotton-related objects and much documentation on the subject. The Archives Center holds several cotton-related collections, including the Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1897-1935, documenting Haring's development of cotton picking machinery; the Lockwood Greene collection of thousands of engineering drawings, many of which were for textile mills; the Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for a 1939 biographical motion picture on Dr. George Washington Carver; and the Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, which documents modern cotton farming through photography and oral history interviews. In addition, all aspects of cotton production, from farm to factory to finished goods, are documented in several hundred photos in the Underwood & Underwood Agricultural Photonegative Collection, the Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, the Division of Work & Industry Lantern Slide Collection, and the Donald Sultner-Welles Photograph Collection. Cultural aspects of cotton can be discovered in both the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana and in the DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)

Series 1, Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. Files may contain correspondence, photographs, news clippings, radio commercial scripts, tear sheets, itineraries, trip reports, sheet music, legal documents, waivers, and permissions, and other material related to the Maid of Cotton pageant for that year. Files may also contain subsequent personal information on the Maid of Cotton for that year, for example change of address, news clippings, and the like. This series contains finalist files, trip files and tour report files.

Series 2, Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. This series contains photographs, slides, and transparencies related to the Maid of Cotton and her travels throughout the United States and overseas. It also contains photographs of the fashions worn by each Maid.

Series 3, Scrapbooks, 1951-1988, contains the scrapbooks created by the National Cotton Council office as well as scrapbooks created by the Maids themselves or others for her. Scrapbooks most often contain news clippings, ephemera, and sometimes correspondence.

Series 4, Audio-Visual, 1991-1993. This series contains video and audio related to the Maid of Cotton. It is currently unprocessed.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 1.1: Maid of Cotton files, 1939-1993

Subseries 1.2: Little Miss Cotton, 1956-1963, undated

Series 2: Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photographic Negatives and Transparencies, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Slides, 1939-1993, undated

Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1951-1988

Series 4: Audio-Visual, 1991-1993, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Maid of Cotton pageant began in 1939. The annual pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The pageant was held in Memphis, Tennessee, in conjunction with the Carnival until the 1980s.

In mid-December every year the NCC released a list of contestants. Contestants were required to have been born in one of the cotton-producing states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North and South Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas or Virginia. They might have also been born in the cotton-producing counties of Alexander, Jefferson, Massac, Pulaski, Williamson or Madison, Illinois or in Clark or Nye counties of Nevada. There were usually twenty contestants each year.

Contestants were judged on personality, good manners, intelligence, and family background as well as beauty and an ability to model. A Top Ten were chosen and then a Top Five, and finally second and first runners up and a winner. Winners served as goodwill and fashion ambassadors of the cotton industry in a five-month, all-expense tour of American cities. In the mid-1950s the tour expanded globally. In the late 1950s a Little Miss Cotton pageant was begun but lasted only until 1963 before being discontinued. In the mid-1980s Dallas,Texas took over the pageant, in conjunction with the NCC and its overseas division, Cotton Council International. In 1986, to bolster interest and participation, the NCC eliminated the rule requiring contestants to be born in a cotton-producing state. The pageant was discontinued in 1993, one of the reasons being that Cotton Inc. stopped contributing scholarship money as well as waning public interest and changing marketing strategies. (pageantopolis.com website accessed April 2012.)

"The National Cotton Council is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts have been found; as competition from synthetic fibers developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and in response to foreign competition in both farming and manufacturing . The NCC website states that its modern-day mission is "to ensure the ability of all U.S. cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and U.S.-manufactured product markets at home and abroad." Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusiness, and consumers.

One of the first NCC programs undertaken by to promote the versatility and value of cotton to consumers was the Maid of Cotton program, begun in 1939. This consisted of a beauty pageant open to young women born in one of the seventeen southern cotton growing states. The contestants were evaluated on the basis of beauty, personality, poise, good manners, and intelligence; a family background in cotton production was especially helpful. The girls had to apply for selection to compete in the program. At first this was done directly to the Memphis-based program but eventually a system of state Maid of Cotton programs were established, whose winners went on to compete in the national Maid of Cotton contest. The Maid of Cotton received numerous prizes, whose value and variety tended to increase over the years. In the late 1940s, the program added a scholarship prize, probably in emulation of the Miss America contest. The Maid of Cotton pageant was held each December in Memphis as part of that city's Cotton Carnival festivities. The winner was featured prominently on her own float in the Cotton Carnival parade, was feted at prestigious Carnival events, and was treated as royalty wherever she went. Selection as the Maid of Cotton carried a high degree of status and mature ladies in the South to this day proudly identify themselves as such.

The Maid of Cotton's main function, once crowned, was to serve as a goodwill and fashion ambassador for cotton; any publicity she gained was automatically positive publicity for the cotton industry. Accompanied by an NCC-appointed manager, the Maids embarked on an all-expenses-paid tour. The Maids appeared in full regalia at public events such as county fairs, parades, and holiday events; starred in fashion shows featuring all-cotton outfits; gave speeches to local chambers of commerce and other groups; and in general were the attractive personification of the cotton industry wherever they went. At first, the tours concentrated on the cotton states but they were later extended to major cities outside the cotton belt and came to include visits to legislators on Capitol Hill. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Maids began touring internationally and in the 1970s and 1980s they frequently headed up fashion shows in Asia.

Over time, however, the publicity value of an industry-anointed beauty queen lost its attraction both to the public and --more importantly --to the press. In addition, the role of cotton in the South, particularly in Memphis, declined. In 1986 the contest was moved from Memphis to Dallas. Eventually the cotton industry withdrew its support for the program's scholarships; the 1993 Maid of Cotton was the last to be crowned." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

National Cotton Council Records, circa 1960s-1980s (AC1177)

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1986-1991 (AC0773)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange on October 14, 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty contestants  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Reports
Programs -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Citation:
Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1176
See more items in:
Maid of Cotton Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f53d73b9-ea20-46d7-a006-fb4122e3ad71
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1176
Online Media:

Herb Grosch Papers

Creator:
Grosch, Herbert R. J.  Search this
Names:
General Electric Company  Search this
International business machines corporation  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Personal papers
Passports
Lantern slides
Drawings
Correspondence
Clippings
Audiotapes
Diaries
Date:
1938-1998
Summary:
The Herb Grosch Papers, 1948-1998, cover the life and career of an early computer professional. It consists of correspondence, clippings, photographs, computer disks, reports, and other printed materials.
Scope and Contents:
The Herb Grosch Papers, 1948-1998, cover the life and career of an early computer professional. It consists of correspondence, clippings, photographs, computer disks, reports, and other printed materials. The collection is approximately 5 cubic feet and is divided into six series: Series 1, Personal Materials, 1938-1998; Series 2, General Electric (GE), 1955-1968, 1993-1995; Series 3, Control Data Corporation, 1961-1966; Series 4, Other Employment, 1945-1997; Series 5, Professional Interests, 1954-1993; and Series 6, Computer History, 1945-1996. The largest and most comprehensive series within the collection focuses on Grosch's employment, in various capacities, by General Electric. The Control Data material is of special interest due to its in-depth studies of the European computer market in the early 1960s.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1938-1998, illustrates Grosch's personal life and consists of biographical sketches, identification and business cards, vaccination certificates, daily planners/diaries, flight logs, diplomas, a dissertation, correspondence, articles by and about him, photographs, and the manuscript of his autobiography, Computer,Bit Slices of a Life. The manuscript is of special interest, in that it is a description of Grosch's life up to the 1960s. Also providing personal descriptions of Grosch's life is an extensive chronology of employment written by Grosch. The bulk of the materials date from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s, with another smaller concentration of correspondence in the early 1990s.

Series 2, General Electric (GE), 1953-1968, 1993-1995, contains correspondence, clippings, photographs and printed materials related to Grosch's two tenures at GE. The series is divided into four subseries: General GE Materials, GE's Evandale plant, GE's Computer Department at Arizona State University, and GE's TEMPO think tank in Santa Barbara. The subseries about the Evandale plant and the Arizona Computer Department are most comprehensive, describing the projects from their inception until Grosch's departure. Also of interest to those studying GE history is the collection of letters between Grosch and his Arizona boss, H.R. Oldfield, discussing Oldfield's book about GE and its failure in the computer business.

Series 3, Control Data Corporation, 1961-1966, contains correspondence, reports and printed materials covering Grosch's consulting work with Control Data. The bulk of the material has to do with a survey of the European computer industry and market, undertaken by Grosch for Control Data. Included are over forty reports that Grosch composed from plant visits he made to various European computer companies. Also included is the overall summary of these individual reports.

Series 4, Other Employment, 1945-1994, contains correspondence, printed materials, clippings and photographs related to other employment pursued by Grosch. The series covers Grosch's work at IBM, the Corporation for Economic and Industrial Research (CEIR), and his editorial reign at Computerworld magazine. Of interest to IBM researchers are the photos of early IBM gatherings at Endicott, New York and early IBM machines at the Watson Scientific Computer Laboratory.

Series 5, Professional Interests, 1954-1996, consists of articles and other printed materials related to Grosch's scientific and technical interests. The majority of the series deals with Grosch's interest in computers, their applications and their effects upon society. A smaller set of material relates to other Grosch interests, notably astronomy and scientific standards.

Series 6, Computer History, 1949-1996, consists of clippings, reports, and correspondence illustrating Grosch's interest in the history of computing. Of special interest is a report from U.S. Department of Commerce that lists the technical specifications of a number of old computers. Also, in addition to many more famous computing pioneers, Grosch collected information on English mathematician, L.J. Comrie, including a biographical sketch, photographs and correspondence carried on with Comrie's widow and son.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1938-1998

Subseries 1.1, Biographical Materials, 1938-1996

Subseries 1.2, Correspondence, 1948-1998

Subseries 1.3, Travel and Chronology, 1959-1985

Subseries 1.4, Assorted Materials, 1947-1995, undated

Series 2, General Electric (GE), 1953-1968, 1993-1995

Subseries 2.1, General GE Materials, 1953-1966

Subseries 2.2, GE Evandale Plant, 1952, 1955-1956

Subseries 2.3, GE Computer Department, 1954-1958, 1993-1995

Subseries 2.4, GE TEMPO, 1963-1968

Series 3, Control Data Corporation, 1961-1966

Subseries 3.1, General Materials, 1961-1962, 1964, 1966

Subseries 3.2, European Computer Industry Survey, 1961-1963

Series 4, Other Employment, 1945-1997

Series 5, Professional Interests, 1954-1996

Series 6, Computer History, 1945-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Herb Grosch (1918-2010) was born in Saskatoon, Canada and became a United States citizen with his father's naturalization. He attended grade school in Ontario and Ohio and high school in Michigan. He attended the University of Michigan from 1934 to 1941, receiving his B.S. in 1938 and his PhD in 1942, both in astronomy. An outspoken and controversial figure, Grosch's professional career was marked with numerous jobs. In 1941-1942 he was an astronomer for the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. and later during World War II worked on fire control and optical engineering. Grosch's astronomical work required many calculations to be done by hand, thus he was well qualified to deal with the computational issues involved in early computer work. In 1945 he was hired by IBM for the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory in New York, first to do backup calculations for the Manhattan Project and then to help run the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC), an early computer. Grosch was fired in 1951 and moved on to MIT where he worked as a part of the design group for the WHIRLWIND II computer. In 1952 he joined General Electric (GE) and set up and oversaw computer operations in Ohio, Massachusetts, and Arizona. In 1958 he returned to IBM and was the manager of their space program, before being fired again in 1959. Following IBM he moved to Europe and began consulting, notably a survey of the European computer industry for Control Data in 1962-1963. He returned to the United States to work again for GE in 1965, heading the DEACON project at GE's TEMPO think tank. Grosch left GE again in 1967. From 1967 through 1970 he directed the Center for Computer Sciences and Technology for the National Bureau of Standards. From 1973 to 1976 he was the editor of Computerworld magazine. Since then Grosch has lived in both Europe and America and done both consulting work and writing. He wrote and published a autobiography, Computer: Bit Slices of a Life, that describes his rather tempestuous relationships with GE and IBM. Grosch is perhaps best known for Grosch's Law which says the computing power increases as a square of the cost, or more concretely, in order to perform a computation twice as cheaply you must do it four times as fast.
Related Materials:
Grosch was interviewed as a part of the Smithsonian computer oral history project and the taped interviews exist in Collection AC0196, the Computer Oral History Collection, in the Archives Center.
Provenance:
The materials in the collection were donated by Herb Grosch on October 13, 1999.

The Archives Center received an addendum of .50 cubic feet in March 2010 from Ella Doyle.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Computer industry  Search this
Computation laboratories  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 1950-2000
Passports
Lantern slides
Drawings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Diaries -- 20th century
Citation:
Herb Grosch Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0703
See more items in:
Herb Grosch Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep804182831-cd76-4bfa-8fc7-04b947f7727c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0703
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Knabenshue, A. Roy (Augustus Roy), 1876-1960  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1941-08 - 1941-12
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0136, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection / Series 2: Career / 2.2: National Park Service
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2239a20f5-748e-4e0c-8105-3a152d0df8cd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0136-ref58
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Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers

Creator:
Wedel, Mildred Mott  Search this
Wedel, Waldo R. (Waldo Rudolph), 1908-1996  Search this
Names:
American Antiquity  Search this
Extent:
13 Items (2 oversize boxes, 7 printing blocks, and 4 map drawers. )
51 Linear feet (115 document boxes, 2 card file boxes, 1 5x6x2.5" box, and 1 record storage box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1893-1994
bulk 1930-1993
Scope and Contents:
While these papers primarily consist of Waldo's archeological work in the field and his many publications, the collection also contains Mildred's correspondence and manuscripts, most of which concern her ethnohistorical and archeological work, conferences in which she participated, and her publications, particularly those on La Harpe. Most of the material dates between 1930 and 1990.

A useful way to consider these materials is to conceptualize them as a continuum from project proposals to funding, into fieldwork materials, and ultimately toward manuscripts and publications. These texts generate reputations in academic and museum circles, in this case, drawing Waldo into various organizations and conferences throughout his career. As he rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian, his responsibilities and visibility within the museum also increased. This gradual transformation is reflected in the correspondence, organizational and administrative, and research and field work series. Because these and other facets of Waldo's career both constantly and consistently interfaced, the boundaries between the various series and types of materials contained in this collection are highly permeable. This should be kept in mind when reviewing them.

Among Waldo's correspondence are letters from A.T. Hill, F.M. Setzler, and W.D. Strong. The Organizational and Administrative Material contains material from the Department of Anthropology, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Foundation, the River Basin Survey, and Tulumniu research. Also included is material from the 5th through the 44th Plains conferences, as well as material from Society for American Archaeology meetings and seminars. Writings include both published and unpublished works. The published works are mainly those by Waldo, however, there are several publications from Mildred. Many of the publications are articles from journals, such as the American Anthropologist and American Antiquity. Drafts and writing notes of both Waldo and Mildred make up the bulk of the writings series. The Research and Fieldwork Materials contains papers relating to Waldo's fieldwork on the River Basin Surveys, as well as his work in Kansas, Missouri and Michigan. In addition, there is material relating to his expert testimony in claims cases brought by the Missouri and Oto, Pawnee, and Kansa Indians (which also involved Mildred) during the 1940s and 1950s. The series of Photographs consists of lantern slides, prints, and negatives. There are extensive photographs of Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska, including field sites, artifacts, bones and landscape. The Personal series contains a miscellany of Waldo's materials, such as his business card and materials from his days as a study at UC Berkeley. Finally, there are several drawers of site maps, topographic maps, aeronautical maps and county maps of Kansas, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Missouri.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The papers of Waldo Wedel and Mildred Wedel are organized into the following series: Correspondence; Organizational and Administrative Material; Writings; Research and Fieldwork Materials; Personal; Photographs; Printing Blocks; and Maps.
Biographical Note:
Waldo R. Wedel was born in Newton, Kansas in 1908. He grew up in and around Newton with Emil Haury. He graduated from Bethel Academy in 1928 and earned his B.A. at the University of Arizona in 1930. It was at Arizona that Waldo began his development as a field archeologist, working under Dean Cummings and Haury. He continued his education at University of Nebraska, where he was a student of William Duncan Strong, who trained him in Plains archeology and introduced him to the direct historical approach. Through an apprenticeship under Strong, Waldo conducted fieldwork in Signal Butte, Loup River Valley, and in eastern Nebraska during 1930-1933. After earning his M.A. in 1931, he enrolled in the doctoral program at University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1936). During his education at Berkeley, although his chief mentor was Alfred Kroeber, he was strongly influenced by the ecological ideas of geographer Carl Sauer. In the late 1930's, Wedel began to concentrate on a survey of his native Kansas, a region little known archeologically. The Kansas survey began during the field seasons of 1937 and 1938. 1n 1938, he also excavated at a Hopewell site in Platte County, Missouri. In the summer of 1946, Wedel was detailed to establish and direct the Missouri Basin Project (MBP) of the Bureau of American Ethnology's River Basin Surveys (RBS). He continued as the MBP director until 1950 and was detailed each summer to the MBP headquarters in Lincoln, Nebraska. He also worked at sites in South Dakota, Colorado, and the Texas Panhandle from the 1950s to the 1970s.

Except for early work for the Nebraska Historical Society and Gila Pueblo Foundation, Waldo's institutional affiliation was with the Smithsonian Institution. In 1936, he was appointed assistant curator under Neil M. Judd in the Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (USNM). He was made associate curator in 1942. During World War II, he was detailed for a brief period to the Military Planning Division of the Quartermaster Corps, charged with analysis of captured foreign material. In 1950, he was named curator of archeology at the USNM. In 1962, he became head curator of the Department of Anthropology, and in 1964-1965, he was acting head of the newly organized Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. He became Senior Archeologist in 1965. In 1977, he retired from what had become the Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History and became curator emeritus. He continued activity with the department until 1990 when he moved to Boulder, Colorado. He died in 1996.

Mildred Mott was born in Marengo, Iowa on September 7, 1912. She was trained in history at the University of Iowa (A.B. 1934) and in anthropology with an emphasis on archeology at the University of Chicago (M.A., 1938). She also attended University of New Mexico Jemez Field School in the summer of 1933. She conducted fieldwork under Ellison Orr at Hill Mound Group (13AM105) and Brazell's Island Bear Effigy Mound (13AM81) in Allamakee County in 1936. In the following year, she worked at the Kincaid site in Illinois. She also assisted Florence Hawley in the University of Chicago Dendrochronology Laboratory (1937-38). In 1938, she served as field director for Charles Keyes' archaeological excavation near Webster City, Iowa.

In 1939, Mildred married Waldo Wedel and afterwards accompanied him on many trips to the field. In addition, she pursued an interest in ethnohistory that she developed in school. In particular, she worked on the ethnohistory of regions where her husband was working, often taking advantage of field seasons to retrace routes of early European explorers. Thus, she carried out intensive work on French explorations in the Plains areas (particularly Jean-Baptiste Bénard, Sieur de la Harpe; Pierre-Charles Le Sueur; Claude-Charles Dutisne; and Jean-Baptiste Teuteau). She also published on Plains Caddoan origins and on the Iowa and the Wichita. In 1978-1979, under contract with the Corps of Engineers, she studied the ethnohistory of a Wichita village and French post at the Deer Creek site, Kay County, Oklahoma.

In 1974, Mildred was appointed a Smithsonian Institution research associate in anthropology. In 1985, she was one of several women honored by the American Anthropological Association for their long-time involvement in anthropology. She died in 1995.

Waldo R. Wedel (see also Appendix A: Fieldwork of Waldo R. Wedel)

1908 -- Born in Newton, Kansas

1930 -- B.A. from University of Arizona

1930-1933 -- Apprenticeship under William Duncan Strong at Signal Butte, Loup River Valley, Nebraska

1931 -- M. A. from University of Nebraska

1936 -- Assistant Curator under Neil M. Judd, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (USNM) Ph.D. from University of California at Berkeley

1937-1938 -- Field work in Kansas

1938 -- Excavation at a Hopewell site in Platte County, Missouri

1939 -- Married Mildred Mott Wedel

1942 -- Associate Curator, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (USNM)

1946 -- Established Missouri Basin Project (MBP) of the Bureau of American Ethnology's River Basin Surveys (RBS), serves as Director

1946-1950 -- Served with Military Planning Division of the Quartermaster Corps

1950 -- Curator of Archeology, United States National Museum (USNM)

1962 -- Head Curator of the Department of Anthropology

1964-1965 -- Acting Head of newly organized Smithsonian Office of Anthropology

1965 -- Senior Archeologist, Smithsonian Office of Anthropology

1977 -- Curator Emeritus, retired from Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History

1977-1990 -- Continued involvement with Department of Anthropology

1990 -- Moved to Boulder, Colorado

1996 -- Died

Mildred Mott Wedel

1912 -- Born in Marengo, Iowa

1933 -- Attended University of New Mexico Jemez Field School during the summer

1934 -- A.B. from University of Iowa

1936 -- Fieldwork under Ellison Orr at Hill Mound Group (13AM105) and Brazell's Island Bear Effigy Mound (13AM81) in Allamakee County

1937 -- Fieldwork at Kincaid Site in Illinois Assisted Florence Hawley in the University of Chicago Dendrochronology Laboratory

1938 -- M.A. from University of Chicago Field director for Charles Keyes' archaeological excavation near Webster City, Iowa

1939 -- Married Waldo R. Wedel

1974 -- Research associate, Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History

1978-1979 -- Studied the ethnohistory of a Wichita village and French post at the Deer Creek site, Kay County, Oklahoma

1990 -- Moved to Boulder, Colorado

1995 -- Died
Appendix A: Fieldwork of Waldo R. Wedel:
This timeline was created by Waldo R. Wedel in the 1990s.

1929 -- Place: Arizona (Turkey Hill Pueblo, near Flagstaff)Organizational Affiliation: University of Arizona field party (BC)

1930 -- Place: Nebraska, eastern and southern (Rock Bluffs, Gates, Dooley, Hill sites)Organizational Affiliation: University of Nebraska field party (WDS)Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1935. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. SMC 93:10.

1931 -- Place: Nebraska, Loup valley (Burkett, Gray‑Wolfe, Sweetwater sites)Organizational Affiliation: University of Nebraska field party leaderReported in: Dunlevy, M. L. 1936. A Comparison of the Cultural Manifestations of the Burkett (Nance County) and Gray‑Wolfe (Colfax County) sites.Reported in: Chapters in Nebraska Archeology, pp. 147‑247.Reported in: Champe, J. L. 1936. The Sweetwater Culture Complex. Chapters in Nebraska Archeology, pp. 249‑299.

1932 -- Place: Nebraska (Signal Butte) and South Dakota (Leavenworth)Organizational Affiliation: Bureau of American Ethnology (WDS)Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1935. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. SMC 93:10.Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1933. Studying the Arikara and their Neighbors on the Upper Missouri. Explor. and Field­ Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1932.

1933 -- Place: Nebraska (Medicine Creek)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska State Historical Society (ATH)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1934. Preliminary Notes on the Archeology of Medicine Valley in Southwestern Nebraska. Nebraska History Magazine, 14:3:144-166. Place: Oklahoma (Comanche ethnography near Layton)Organizational Affiliation: Laboratory of Anthropology Fellow (R Linton)

1933-1934 -- Place: California (Buena Vista Lake)Organizational Affiliation: CWA relief expedition (WDS)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1941. Archeological Investigations at Buena Vista Lake, BAE Bulletin 130.

1934 -- Place: Nebraska and Kansas (Republican Valley; Minneapolis, Paint Creek)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska State Historical Society (ATH)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1935. Reports on Field Work by the Archeological Survey of the Nebraska State Historical Society, May 1 to July 23, 1934. Nebraska History Magazine, 15:3:130-256.

1935 -- Place: California (Sacramento Valley: Howells Point, Redding; San Francisco Bay shellmounds)Organizational Affiliation: University of California field party leader

1936 -- Place: Nebraska (survey in Loup River drainage)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska Historical Society and Gila Pueblo

1937 -- Place: Missouri and Kansas (Renner, Doniphan, Manhattan)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1943. Archeological Investigations in Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri. U.S.N.M., Bulletin 183.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An IntroductionReported in: To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.

1938 -- Place: Missouri, Colorado (Steed-Kisker, vault mounds; Purgatoire survey)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1943. Archeological Investigations in Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri. U.S.N.M., Bulletin 183.

1939 -- Place: Kansas (Scott and Lane Counties)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An Introduction To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.

1940 -- Place: Kansas (Rice and Cowley Counties)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An Introduction To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.

1943 -- Place: Mexico (La Venta)Organizational Affiliation: Smithsonian‑National Geographic Society expedition under MWSReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1952. Structural Investigations in 1943. In: La Venta, Tabasco, a Study of Olmec Ceramics and Art, by P. Drucker, BAE ‑ Bull. 153, pp. 34-79.

1946-1949 -- Place: Missouri River BasinOrganizational Affiliation: Field director Missouri Basin Project, River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian InstitutionReported in: Wedel, W. R., 1947. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program: Summary Report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1946. SMC. 107:6:1‑17.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1948. SMC 111:2.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1953. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 1; BAE ‑ Bull. 154, pp. 1‑59.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1953. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 2; BAE ‑ Bull. 154, pp. 61‑101.

1951 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1952 -- Place: Wyoming (Horner site)Organizational Affiliation: Archeologist on Smithsonian-Princeton expedition.Reported in: Frison, Geo. C. and L. C. Todd, eds. I987 The Horner Site: Type Site of the Cody Cultural Complex. Ch. 2 History of the Princeton and Smithsonian Investigations. Academic Press, Orlando, Fla.

1955 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1956 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1957 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST203)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1961-1962 -- Place: Littleton, Colo. (5DO201)Organizational Affiliation: Smithsonian archeological & paleont. exped. (NSF G‑17609: Lamb Spring)

1964 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Southwestern KansasOrganizational Affiliation: NSF grant GS-556

1965 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co)Organizational Affiliation: NSF grant GS-556

1966-1967 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co)Organizational Affiliation: NSF grant 05-556; Smithsonian Res. Award. 3301

1971 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co.)

1972-1973 -- Place: Archeological investigations at Chalk Hollow, Palo Duro Canyon, TexasOrganizational Affiliation: Smithsonian Research AwardReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1975. Chalk Hollow: Culture sequence and chronology in the Texas panhandle. Proceedings, XLI International Congress of Americanists, Mexico, Sept. 2-7, 1974, pp270-278.
Related Materials:
Additional correspondence from Waldo Wedel can be found in various collections at the National Anthropological Archives, including the William Duncan Strong papers, Albert Clanton Spaulding papers, Donald Lehmer papers, Frederick Johnson papers, Manuscript 4846, Manuscript 4192, Department of Anthropology records, River Basin Surveys records, Society for American Archaeology records, Central States Anthropological Society records, and Anthropological Society of Washington records. Photographs of Waldo can be found in Photo lot 33, Photo 83-13, Photo 58, Photo Lot 85-12, Manuscript 4261(1), Negative MHT 65124, Negative 728413, and the Source Print Collection. Manuscript 7450 is a recording of Waldo and others giving a talk on the history of anthropology at the Smithsonian. See Manuscript 2011-29 for an oral history interview with Waldo, conducted by Larry Banks.

Correspondence from Mildred can be found in the Robert King Harris papers and the William Duncan Strong papers. Manuscript 7293 is a recording of the Ewers-Wedel symposium, at which Mildred was a speaker.

At the Smithsonian Institution Archives, photos of Waldo can be found in the Kjell Bloch Sandved Photographic Files and the Smithsonian Institution Office of Public Information, Productions records.
Separated Materials:
The following films were separated from the collection and transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives:

6 reels of 16MM kodachrome film-original reversal 5 reels of Medicine Creek...1947-48 (includes Boysen Camp (1947) and Brule Flat site) 1 reel of Bison Kill (Powder River) Ghost Cave near Billings, MT., 1947

The following artifacts were separated from the collection and transferred to the ethnology and archaeology collections of the Department of Anthropology:

Sherds from Peppiatt-Lyons Metal ice shoe cleats Glass beads
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel in 1990. Additional materials were donated by their son, Waldo M. Wedel in 2011.
Restrictions:
The Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers are open for research. Personnel files and grant proposals sent to Waldo Wedel to review are restricted. Waldo and Mildred Wedel's monographs are stored at an off-site facility.

Access to the Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Identifier:
NAA.1990-20
See more items in:
Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d7ca58ad-ffbf-4771-96eb-ae42ae40ae03
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1990-20

How Are Universities Grooming the Next Great Innovators?

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Interviews
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 14 Jul 2015 14:44:56 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_c7fd59499f9dec52966ee27c14724158

Guy Consolmangno, the Vatican’s Chief Astronomer, on Balancing Church With the Cosmos

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Interviews
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 31 May 2016 13:32:23 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_e816a118d2fdd636bdab4825c79d4a91

Newspaper Clippings: Interviews about Jim Thorpe with Gail and Grace

Collection Creator:
Thorpe, Grace F.  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace F. Thorpe Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Grace F. Thorpe Collection
Grace F. Thorpe Collection / Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv44a7ace0b-9416-471d-94b0-37825f39d93f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-085-ref138
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Newspaper Clippings: Interviews about Jim Thorpe with Gail and Grace digital asset number 1

Black Aviators Videohistory Collection

Extent:
4 videotapes (Reference copies). 9 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1989-1990
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ted Robinson, an employee of the Federal Aviation Administration, held a two-year appointment at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum as a historian of black aviation. During that time he recorded two video sessions with five black aviators of the 1930s. The interviewees related how they became interested in flying, how they obtained airplanes and training, how they publicized their aviation skills at the local and national levels, and how they contended with the prejudices opposing them. Robinson was especially concerned with visually capturing the survivors of that era since there are few pictorial records of their past.

In Session One, recorded in Washington, D.C., in November 1989, Robinson interviews C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson, Janet Harmon Bragg, and Lewis Jackson on their social and technical experiences in aviation in the upper Midwest and at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. They discussed their struggles to become accredited pilots and open the United States Army Air Corps to black fliers.

Session Two was recorded in Chicago, Illinois, in March 1990, where Robinson interviewed Cornelius Coffey and Harold Hurd on their similar efforts in the Chicago metropolitan area and specifically on Coffey's organization of a licensed flight and mechanic's school before and during World War II. During both interviews Robinson used period photographs to stimulate and complement the recollections of the participants.

This collection consists of two interview sessions, totalling approximately 7:00 hours of recordings and 201 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
Black American men and women struggled throughout the 1930s to gain the opportunity and right to fly airplanes. Organization within African American communities, support by white individuals, and aeronautic feats by blacks working with limited resources all served to challenge the racism and sexism of American society. Despite institutionalized biases and the persisting effects of the Great Depression, the number of licensed black pilots increased about tenfold, to 102, between 1930 and 1941. This development helped move the federal government, though not the private sector, into sanctioning black men to operate the twentieth century technology of powered flight during World War II.

C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson was born in 1906 and had his first airplane ride in 1928. In 1933, he became the first African American to earn a transport, or commercial, pilot's license, and with Dr. Albert E. Forsythe completed a series of long-distance flights in 1933 and 1934 to promote black aviation. In 1940, Anderson instructed students from Howard University for the Civilian Pilots Training Program (CPTP) until he was recruited by Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to act as its chief primary flight instructor. In 1946, he organized Tuskegee Aviation, Inc., to service aircraft until he was forced out of business by the state's attorney general in the late 1950s. He has continued to fly and co-founded Negro Airmen International in 1970 to encourage others to enter the field of aviation.

Janet Harmon Bragg was a registered nurse inspired to fly by the exploits of Bessie Coleman, the first licensed black pilot in the United States. She earned her pilot's license in 1932 at the Aeronautical University, Inc., in Chicago, Illinois, and because she was one of the few black pilots still employed during the Depression, Bragg paid for most of the airplanes used by the Challenger Air Pilots Association during the 1930s. During World War II she was rebuffed by both the Women's Airforce Service Pilots and a license examiner in Alabama from contributing to the war effort as a pilot; the government also refused her services as a nurse. After the war, Bragg married and ran two nursing homes until she retired in Tucson, Arizona.

Lewis A. Jackson was born in 1912 and started flying in 1930. He gained his transport license in 1935; his barnstorming paid for the B.S. he received from Marion College in Indiana in 1939. Jackson joined Cornelius Coffey in Chicago as flight instructor before leaving for Tuskegee where he became director of training for their CPT Program. In 1948, he earned his M.A. in education from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and his Ph.D. from Ohio State University in Columbus in 1950. Jackson served in various teaching and administrative positions, including the presidency, at Central State University. He left in 1972 for an administrative post at Sinclair Community College in Dayton, Ohio. He has maintained an interest in flying, examining applicants for pilot licenses, and designing and building airplanes that could also be used on roads.

Cornelius Coffey was born in 1903 and had his first airplane ride in 1919. He graduated from an automotive engineering school in 1925 and an aviation mechanics school in Chicago, Illinois, in 1931. He co-organized the Challenger Air Pilots Association with John Robinson to promote flying among blacks in the Chicago area, built an airport in Robbins, Illinois, and opened an aeronautics school. In 1937 he earned his transport license and opened the Coffey School of Aeronautics. In 1939 the African-American communities in Chicago and Washington, D.C., successfully lobbied to have Coffey's school included in the CPT Program; Coffey trained black pilots and flight instructors throughout World War II. After the war, Coffey joined the Chicago Board of Education and established an aircraft mechanics training and licensing program in the city's high schools. Coffey retired in 1969 and has since acted as a licensed mechanic examiner and aircraft inspector.

Harold Hurd first saw a black man fly an airplane at an airshow in 1929. Three years later, he was one of the first class of all black graduates from Aeronautical University in Chicago. After graduation Hurd helped organize the Challenger Air Pilots Association and its 1937 successor organization, the National Airmen's Association of America, in efforts to expand black interest in flying. He underwrote his aviation interests by working at the Chicago Defender newspaper. He later worked for several local papers on Chicago's Southside.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Women -- History  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Military history  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9545, Black Aviators Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9545
See more items in:
Black Aviators Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9545

In the studio of Channel 18, Tucson, Arizona, featured Carleton, Hoffman, and Whipple discussing the origins of the MMT, c. 1960-1989, including: history and background of MMT; concern in early 1960s of photon collection at minimal cost; informal meeti...

Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9542, Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
See more items in:
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9542-refidd1e364

At the MMT Observatory, Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, featured Carleton, Chaffee, Foltz, Heller, Hege, and Williams discussing the technical design and engineering features of the MMT, c. 1970-1989, including: site selection; mechanical engineering of structur...

Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9542, Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
See more items in:
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9542-refidd1e301

Nemesis Air Racing Video Tapes

Extent:
0.39 Cubic feet (14 VHS tapes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Vhs (videotape format)
Date:
1991-1996
Summary:
This collection consists of fourteen VHS tapes documenting a portion of the racing career of Nemesis, a small mid-wing, single-seat tractor monoplane with fixed landing gear designed and built in 1991 by Jon Sharp, Cory Bird, Dan Bond, and Steve Ericson.
This collection is in English.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of fourteen VHS tapes documenting a portion of the racing career of Nemesis. Most of the tapes concern the National Championship Air Races and Air Show in Reno, Nevada, but there is also footage pertaining to the Phoenix 500 Air Races in Mesa, Arizona, as well as some additional interviews and press coverage.
Arrangement:
Collection is in chronological order.
Biographical / Historical:
Nemesis is a small mid-wing, single-seat tractor monoplane with fixed landing gear designed and built in 1991 by Jon Sharp, Cory Bird, Dan Bond, and Steve Ericson. The aircraft is built of pressure molded graphite epoxy foam core and is powered by a single Continental O-200, 100 horsepower air-cooled engine. The most successful aircraft in air racing history, Nemesis dominated its competition, winning 47 of its 50 contests from 1991 until its retirement in 1999. Flown by pilot and designer Jon Sharp, it won nine consecutive Reno Gold National Championships and 16 world speed records for its class. Nemesis was the International Formula One points champion every year from 1994 to 1998. In 1991 it won the George Owl Trophy for design excellence. Nemesis is also a three time winner or the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale's Louis Blèriot Medal for the greatest achievement in speed, and a four time winner of the Pulitzer Trophy for air racing speed records.
Provenance:
Jon and Patricia Sharp, Gift, 2019, NASM.2020.0007
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Genre/Form:
VHS (videotape format)
Citation:
Nemesis Air Racing Video Tapes, NASM.2020.0007, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0007
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2c9d67817-535b-48ce-a247-50a4a9a2a371
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2020-0007

Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection

Extent:
7 videotapes (Reference copies). 25 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1989
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
David H. DeVorkin, curator at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM), recorded six sessions with twelve participants to document this multi-institutional scientific program. He was particularly interested in design and construction of the MMT; in its operation (with basic structural and optical design elements); in how astronomers use the telescope; and in the phenomenon of "consortia." DeVorkin also visually documented the operation of the MMT, including a nighttime observing session, various artifacts and equipment, and the interaction of former colleagues during group discussions. Interviews took place on May 8, 10 and 11, 1989, at the observatory, in a studio in Tucson, Arizona, and at Flandrau Planetarium of the University of Arizona.

This collection consists of six interview sessions, totalling approximately 11:20 hours of recordings and 257 pages of transcript.

Please note that Session 6 is comprised of dual sets of tape from two cameras positioned at different angles.

Additional Information: See Record Unit 262, Records of the Mt. Hopkins Department, SAO, 1966-1967, and Record Unit 9520, Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews, 1976, Smithsonian Institution Archives. Also, consult records of the director and assistant director, SAO, for additional documentation on the MMT.
Historical Note:
Since 1979, completely new and radical designs for astronomical telescopes have emerged. The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) was the prototype, both technically and institutionally, for the next generation of large telescopes. The MMT was the world's first large-scale multiple mirror telescope, which used the combined light of six 72-inch reflecting telescopes in a single altitude-azimuth mount. Computers controlled all pointing and tracking of the MMT's individual telescopes. The MMT was located at the Smithsonian's Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. Development of this site was begun by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in the late 1960s as the Mt. Hopkins Observatory, renamed the Whipple Observatory in 1981. The MMT was jointly developed and run by SAO and the University of Arizona (UA). This arrangement was the first of several university and observatory consortia that have attempted larger multiple mirror and segmented mirror designs.

Session participants included astronomers, engineers and opticians who worked on virtually every facet of MMT design and development in the 1970s and 1980s. Nathaniel Carleton received an A.B. and Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University, the latter in 1956; he taught physics until 1962 when he was appointed a physicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He was primarily interested in physics of the Earth's upper atmosphere but became interested in astronomy and the study of other planets. He was involved with the development of the MMT from the beginning.

Frederic H. Chaffee was educated as a physicist at Dartmouth College and received a Ph.D in astronomy from the University of Arizona in 1968. Shortly thereafter he joined the stellar atmospheres group at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and, under Smithsonian auspices, returned to Arizona to help establish the first optical telescope on Mt. Hopkins. He became the first resident astronomer at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory and then resident director of the observatory during the 1970s, when the MMT was built. He became director of the MMT Observatory in July 1984.

Craig Foltz received an A.B. in physics from Dartmouth College in 1974 and a Ph.D. in astronomy from Ohio State University in 1979. He held postdoctoral, research associate, and teaching positions until he was appointed staff astronomer and project scientist for the MMT in 1984.

Carol Heller received a B.S. in biology from the University of Arizona and shortly thereafter became a night assistant at the 9-inch telescope on Mt. Hopkins. She began work with the MMT four years later and was one of the few control room operators of large-scale telescopes in the world.

Keith Hege did not appear on screen, but was interviewed during the observing session by speakerphone. Hege, associate astronomer at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, obtained a Ph.D in nuclear physics at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1965. Hege taught at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Hollins College before joining Steward Observatory in 1975. In 1978 he coordinated Steward Observatory's speckle interferometry program, which was applied to the MMT for cophased interferometric imaging.

Thomas Hoffman received a B.S. degree from the University of Rochester and M.S. and Professional M.E. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1954. He served over fourteen years as chief engineer and head of the Engineering Department of the SAO in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was program engineer for the MMT. He left the Smithsonian in 1979.

Aden Meinel, one of the key players in developing the MMT, received his B.S. and Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California, Berkeley. He held numerous appointments, including director of Kitt Peak National Observatory, Steward Observatory, and the Optical Sciences Center (University of Arizona). He was also professor at the Optical Sciences Center until 1985, when he became senior scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

Michael Reed was educated at Yale University and Stanford University, and received a Ph.D. in mathematics in 1969. He taught at Princeton University from 1968 through 1974, when he received an appointment at Duke University. He worked on the various aspects of the MMT, including selection of the alt-azimuth mount during the 1970s.

Robert Shannon received a B.S. in optics and M.S. in physics from the University of Rochester. He worked with the Itek Corporation as director of the Advanced Technology Labs before becoming professor and director of the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona in 1969.

Ray Weymann received a Ph.D. in astronomy from Princeton in 1959 and was a Research Fellow at the California Institute of Technology from 1959 through 1961. He taught at the University of Arizona in 1961, became an astronomer at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona in 1970, and was appointed director of Mt. Wilson Observatory in Los Angeles in 1986.

Joseph T. [J.T.] Williams designed, built, and operated astronomical instrumentation at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory sites worldwide for more than thirty years. He studied electrical engineering and served in the U.S. Navy submarine service before joining the Smithsonian at the Haleakala Observatory (Maui, Hawaii) in 1959. After holding several positions with SAO, Williams became manager for site planning and construction of the MMT from 1975 through 1979 and became assistant director for MMT operations and development, in collaboration with the University of Arizona, in 1980. In the 1990 he served on the committee to convert the MMT to a single mirror 6.5-meter telescope.

Fred L. Whipple was educated at University of California, Los Angeles, and received a Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1931. He joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1931 and became a teacher there in 1932. He ultimately became the Phillips Professor of Astronomy, 1970. Whipple was also appointed director of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1955 and shortly thereafter moved its headquarters to Cambridge, Massachusetts. During his tenure as director, Whipple selected and developed Mt. Hopkins as an observatory site. The observatory, initially known as the Mt. Hopkins Observatory, was dedicated the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in 1981. He worked closely with the University of Arizona and the U.S. Air Force in developing the MMT. He retired in 1977 and subsequently held the position Emeritus Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Astrophysicists  Search this
Observatories  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9542, Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9542
See more items in:
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9542

In the studio of Channel 18, Tucson, Arizona, featured Carleton, Chaffee, Hoffman, Reed, Shannon, and Williams discussing cooperation during construction and operations and use of MMT, c. 1970-1989, including: how astronomers and engineers worked toget...

Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9542, Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
See more items in:
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Videohistory Collection / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9542-refidd1e489

1931 National Air Races. Cleveland. Official Program. Mary Charles -- Participant. U.S. Air Pilot #17050

Collection Creator:
Charles, Mary  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1931
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Mary Charles Collection, Accession XXXX-0011, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Mary Charles Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg23f9d3772-2214-4fab-825d-c10a1c2283dd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0011-ref22
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View 1931 National Air Races. Cleveland. Official Program. Mary Charles -- Participant. U.S. Air Pilot #17050 digital asset number 1

Safko International, Inc. Records

Creator:
Safko, Lon S.  Search this
Extent:
12.6 Cubic feet (34 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Design drawings
Magnetic disks
Audiovisual materials
Financial records
Legal documents
Correspondence
Marketing records
Photographs
Business records
Floppy disks
Date:
1984 - 1996
Summary:
The records of Safko International, Inc., document an assistive computer technology company created by Lon S. Safko to produce and sell the environmental control systems he invented for the physically disabled, specifically quadriplegics. Through the use of a computer and alternative input devices, the physically disabled were able to overcome physical barriers which inhibited them from attaining an autonomous lifestyle.
Scope and Contents:
Spanning 1984 to 1998, the Safko International, Inc. Records are divided into seven series and consist of approximately 12.6 cubic feet. Collectively these series document the routine affairs of Safko International, Inc., a company created for the production and distribution of the assistive technology inventions of Lon S. Safko from its formation in 1986 to its dissolution in 1995. During the lifespan of this company there was a growing awareness of and sensitivity towards disability issues within American society. Two significant events associated with this change in American society, were the American with Disabilities Act, 1993, and Christopher Reeve's riding accident in 1995, documented within this collection. In addition to documenting the intersection of American society with the assistive technology field, this collection documents how one man's vision of society and that of his company, in conjunction with perseverance and sacrifices, can transform the lives of individuals such as Franklin Halwood and Liz Jimenez. Lastly, this collection documents the evolution of assistive technology devices to provide for the specific needs of the physically and cognitively disabled.

Executive Records, 1986-1998, is approximately 3.6 cubic feet of documents, the majority of which are correspondence and reports. Other documents include: business cards, faxes, form letters, printed emails, brochures, check stubs, invoices, photocopied newspaper and magazine clippings, blank applications, memoranda, license agreements, scrap paper notes, promotional materials, private placement memoranda, annual reports of other corporations, resumes, receipts, deposit slips, meeting notes, directories, press releases, stock listings, maps, non-disclosure covenants, organizational charts, airline ticket stubs, by-laws, stock certificates, and stock warrants. This series is subdivided into eight subseries, each documenting the operational affairs of Safko International, Inc.

Files within the first subseries, Corporate history and formation, provide background information on the incorporation of Safko International, Inc. and its reformation as Synosure, Inc. in 1996. Other files contain documents listing employees and their positions, biographical sketches, facts about the company and products produced, corporate structuring, and Safko International, Inc.'s by-laws. Files found within the second subseries, Administration, contain operational records, the majority of which deal with the company's relationship with its employees. The third subseries, Correspondence, also deals with operational issues, such as recycling and preparing for conferences. Note that correspondence is found throughout the collection, not just in this subseries. Safko filed most correspondence by names and topics, but correspondence found within this subseries was labeled general correspondence and arranged by year. The next subseries, Business plans, are of drafts and final copies of reports that were revised every two years providing information about officers, legal and financial advisors, descriptions of the SenSei system and its market potential, its business and marketing strategies, foreign business relations, cash flow, distribution, sales history, restructuring strategy, its reseller status of other computer products, and pilot projects. The fifth subseries, Minutes, is comprehensive in coverage except for the period between 1990 and 1992. The most information about company decisions and discussions made at these meetings can be found in the minutes spanning 1992 to 1995.

The next two subseries, Board of Directors and Personnel, are not comprehensive in coverage and contain very few documents. Also, files for some of the employees and Board of Directors are not found within these subseries. Employee files include: Founder, President, and Chief Executive Officer (Safko), SenSei Program Director (Martindale), Marketing Assistant (Montgomery), Computer programmer (Hirota), Chief Executive Officer and President after Safko resigned (Schembs), Vice President of Sales and Marketing (Zinn), Vice President of Sales and Marketing (Bowman), and Director of Sales (Owen). Within the two files about Safko is correspondence of a personal nature, his biographical sketch, and curriculum vitae. The final subseries, Business relationships, contains files about individuals and companies whose relationship to Safko International, Inc. was unclear or who had a relationship with the company that covered many areas of business. For instance, although Westinghouse Investment Management Company invested in other businesses, it had a "non-financial" interest in Safko International, Inc. Another example is the Apple Corporation, which provided technical support for Apple Computers that Safko International, Inc. resold, but it also marketed Safko's SenSei System in its Aisle 17 publication.

Financial Records 1987-1998, is approximately 1.3 cubic feet of documents, the majority of which are spreadsheets and reports about the company's financial status and correspondence with companies and individuals about investment opportunities. Other documents include: form letters, faxes, financial charts, resumes, memoranda, confidential summary memoranda, executive summaries, photocopied checks, photocopied newspaper clippings, handwritten notes, financial spreadsheets, stock warrants, agendas, private offering memoranda, confidential summary memoranda, drafts and final copies of financial statements, deposit slips, and business cards. This series is subdivided into four subseries, each documenting the fiscal difficulties that Safko International, Inc. encountered and its strategy for overcoming these difficulties.

The first subseries, Bookkeeping, includes records of liabilities, assets, expenses, inventories, payroll, stock transaction history, plans for preventing bankruptcy, and auditing procedures. The other three subseries deal specifically with the pursuit of Safko International, Inc. for financial assistance. The distinction between the third and fourth subseries is significant. The third subseries, Investors, documents individuals and companies that invested in Safko International, Inc. through loans or purchases of stock. The fourth subseries, includes files of individuals and companies from whom Safko requested financial assistance, but either rejected Safko's plea outright or never responded. It may be that some of these files are of companies and individuals that did in fact invest in Safko International, Inc., but there is no documentation within the files themselves to identify these individuals and companies as investors.

Legal Records, 1986-1997, is approximately 1.5 cubic feet of documents, the bulk of which is correspondence. Other documents in this series include: reports, licenses, payment vouchers, receipts, court summons, memoranda, photocopied newspaper clippings and magazine articles, newsletters, business proposals, faxes, promotional flyers for other products, brochures, meeting minutes, agreements, business cards, thirteen 5.25" computer diskettes, fourteen 3.5" computer disks, and phone messages. This series is divided into five subseries, each documenting the attempts of Safko International, Inc. to protect itself and its product.

The first subseries, Poor mans' patents, are packets of certified mail that Lon S. Safko sent to himself from 1986 to 1994 to provide proof of his status as the inventor of SoftVoice and other assistive technology devices. The second subseries, Legal documents, provide background information about the SenSei trademark and copyright application process. It also includes proof for the status of Safko International, Inc. as a legitimate and registered company having been granted the authority to conduct business. The third subseries, Legal representation and counsel, are files of documents created in the course of business between Safko International, Inc. and its various legal representatives pertaining to specific issues including: advice about copyrights and compliance with the American with Disabilities Act, capitalization, liability insurance program, loan and stock agreements, personal service agreements, pledge agreements, a prospective business venture with the Saudi Amoudi Group, articles of incorporation, and dissolutions. Most of the issues discussed within this subseries are administrative or financial.

The fourth subseries, Disputes, deals with legal battles that do not appear to have reached litigation. Documentation can be found about the contractual relationship with the Austin McDaniel Corporation and its subsequent dissolution, a challenge to the intellectual property copyright to "SenSei," Safko International, Inc.'s payment in arrears to other businesses, and the attempt of a board member to seek financial compensation from the company. The final subseries, Research file, is background research into the legal ramifications of the American with Disabilities Act, possible copyright infringements by other companies, copyright status of companies such as Microsoft, Apple and Motorola and their relationship to Safko International, Inc., information on how to deal with software licenses, and incoming and outgoing correspondence with software creators asking for their permission to incorporate their inventions as a part of the SenSei system.

Research Development, and Production Records, 1984-1996, is approximately one cubic foot of documents. It includes: correspondence, promotional materials, catalogs, drawings, photocopied newspaper clippings and magazine articles, manuals, circuit board diagrams, receipts, newsletter, brochures, six 3.5" computer disks, seventeen 5.25" computer floppy diskettes, invoices, faxes, business cards, agreements, photographs, fact sheets, and labels. This series is divided into five subseries, each documenting the revisions and adaptations of SoftVoice and the SenSei System for marketability purposes.

The first subseries, SoftVoice, consists of seventeen 5.25" computer floppy diskettes and some documents. The only documents found within this subseries are in two files, the majority of which are in the SoftVoice telephone file. In contrast, the second subseries, SenSei, consists mostly of documents and only one 3.5" computer disk. Among this subseries are files providing information on other complimentary products that Safko resold as a part of the SenSei System, instructions for installers and users of the system, adaptations of the system to meet particular needs, and information on suppliers, unit costs and suggested retail prices. As a part of the third subseries are five 3.5" computer disks. The strength of this subseries is its documentation of the Siptroller. The fourth subseries, Proprietary relationships, documents the pursuit of and/or actual relationship between Safko International, Inc. and other companies involved in selling, manufacturing, and/or distributing assistive technology devices. Depending on the individual needs of the client, Safko International, Inc. offered and sometimes sold these hardware devices and software programs as a part of the SenSei System. Ways in which the system was or could have been adapted through proprietary relationships include: establishing fire alarm and medical alert systems, programming languages, graphics, European modifications, word prediction software, iconic keyboards, and alternative input devices. The final subseries, Research concerning product development, is like the aforementioned subseries, but there is no documentation to prove that the companies contained within this subseries ever had a proprietary relationship with Safko International, Inc. In fact, within this subseries are files about companies that competed with Safko International, Inc. in the field of voice recognition and imitation. A third aspect of this subseries is that it contains research on technologies, like virtual reality, which were ways in which the SenSei system could be enhanced. This subseries contains documentation of Safko International, Inc.'s involvement in pilot studies to assess how assistive technology devices and systems like SenSei can make a difference in the work field.

Marketing, Publicity, and Sales Records, 1986-1996, is approximately 3.1 cubic feet of documents, including: correspondence, faxes, memoranda, drafts and final copies of agreements, reports, press releases, advertisements, fact sheets, agendas, photocopied newspaper clippings and magazine articles, transcripts, photographs, award applications, diagrams, annual reports, business cards, presentation outlines, notes, delivery slips, invoices, inventory lists, and diagrams. This series is divided into twelve subseries, each documenting an important part Safko International, Inc's. efforts to sell and create public awareness of their products. Also documented is that Safko International, Inc's. marketing to hospitals, rehabilitation facilities and consultants, nursing homes, insurance companies, government agencies, and individuals through mailings, advertisements, telephone calls, and personal relationships.

The first subseries, Product and company information, contains documents that are similar to those in the first subseries of Executive Records. The main difference is that these files are not the master copies. Also, very few files of this subseries actually focus on company history; the majority are documents created to assist individuals, other businesses, and company employees in providing background information about the product, finding funding to purchase a system, and understanding how the SenSei System works. The second subseries, Sales records, provides information on sales transactions. Some of the delivery slips and invoices within this subseries are also located in client files. The third subseries, Marketing agencies and agents, documents the relationship Safko International, Inc. had with public relations agencies. Of all the subseries, this is the one with the majority of information. It reveals the techniques the company and its public relations agents used in trying to initiate contact with other individuals and companies. For instance, there is detailed information about the construction of promotional materials along with timelines and progress reports assessing the work of the marketing agents in meeting the needs of Safko International, Inc. The fourth subseries, Promotional materials, contain documents whose purpose was to sell the Sensei system and other assistive technology inventions created by Lon S. Safko. Unlike the first subseries, Product and company information, the purpose of these documents was to persuade prospective customers. The fifth subseries, Advertisements and publicity, records publicity garnered through magazines, newspapers, video, television, and radio. The sixth subseries, Awards, documents publicity of a different sort. It documents the recognition Lon S. Safko and his inventions received for benefiting society. Within this subseries, one of the files documents the creation of a museum display at the Arizona Science Center. In addition to creating public awareness of the SenSei System, this series documents the training of sales representatives, sales transactions, and distribution.

The seventh subseries, Sales representatives' materials consist of documents used to assist in training the representatives. The eighth subseries, Sales representatives, is of files organized according to the name of the representative. Besides invoices for sales transactions, these files also contain agreements outlining responsibilities, a listing of who to go to for answers to legal questions, information on conventions, and definitions of pertinent medical terms necessary for a sales representative to know. Note that not all files are comprehensive or provide the same kinds of information. The ninth subseries, Conferences and demonstrations, are of presentations given by Safko International, Inc. to inform others about their products and to build relationships with other companies. Representatives of Safko International, Inc. attended to learn from other companies. One such conference was an Innovative Thinking Conference, in which the attendees were involved in brainstorming new marketing ideas.

The tenth subseries, Distribution, documents the expansion of the SenSei System into domestic and foreign markets. Included is background information about various companies and markets, agreements made with other companies, and the process for buying back equipment that distributors were unable to sell. The eleventh subseries, Prospective clients and business contacts, are files for which there is no definitive relationship built with Safko International, Inc. Within these files are letters to prospective clients asking to give them a demonstration, or letters of appreciation for a demonstration given, but no evidence of a follow-up.

Some of the files are of contacts initiated with marketing agencies or distributors that do not appear to have developed into an actual relationship. The last subseries, clients, is composed mostly of invoices and correspondence pertaining to the purchase or lease of SenSei Systems by school districts, individuals, churches, hospitals, and rehabilitation facilities. Information about: who the product was shipped to, the cost, representatives or distribution companies responsible for the sale, notes of adaptations to the system for individual needs, assessments by consultants, brief history of some of the individuals who purchased the systems, installation notes, and problems they encountered are found here. Like other files found elsewhere, this subseries is not comprehensive. Many files only include the invoices, but others include more information.

Photographs and Scrapbooks, 1987-1995, is approximately 0.9 cubic feet. Contained are: photographs, negatives, pins, thank you notes, photocopied newspaper clippings, agendas, programs, calendars, memoranda, correspondence, mailers, exhibitor ribbons, stickers, and newsletters. This series is divided into two subseries, each documenting the routine affairs of Safko International, Inc. and the individuals involved.

The first subseries, Photographs and negatives, is mostly promotional photographs of the products or individuals using the products. The second subseries, Scrapbooks, are mostly photographs, but includes other types of documents, and some artifacts. Most photographs found in the scrapbooks are not found elsewhere, but there is some overlap with the first subseries. Photographs in this subseries document board meetings, employees at work, assembling the mass mailings, wall hangings, inside and outside of Safko International, Inc.'s offices, Austin McDaniel Corporation offices, attorney's offices, meetings with TeleNova and InfoLogics, an investment reception, products Safko International, Inc. sold, system modifications, computer screens, the packaged product, setup for taking promotional photographs, setup for presentations, demonstration in a hospital setting, conferences, television interviews, Franklin Halwood, and unidentified individuals. In both subseries, very few of the photographs are captioned.

The seventh series, Audiovisual Materials, 1986-1996, is approximately one cubic foot of materials, encompassing twenty-nine 1⁄2" VHS tapes and four standard audio cassette tapes. Accordingly this series is divided into two subseries, Audio cassettes and Audio visual tapes, both documenting the marketing of the SenSei System. Additionally the second subseries also documents presentations given by Safko International, Inc. representatives and instruction manuals showing how to use the SoftVoice and SenSei systems.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Executive Records, 1986-1998

Subseries 1.1: Corporate history and formation, 1986-1997

Subseries 1.2: Administration, 1988-1996

Subseries 1.3: Correspondence, 1988-1995

Subseries 1.4: Business plans, 1989-1996

Subseries 1.5: Minutes, 1987-1997

Subseries 1.6: Board of Directors, 1988-1992

Subseries 1.7: Personnel, 1988-1998

Subseries 1.8: Business relationships, 1986-1998

Sub-subseries 1.8.1: Apple Corporation, 1986-1996

Sub-subseries 1.8.2: Consultants, 1989-1994

Sub-subseries 1.8.3: Professional contacts, 1987-1995

Sub-subseries 1.8.4: National, 1987-1996

Sub-subseries 1.8.5: International, 1988-1998

Series 2: Financial Records, 1986-1998

Subseries 2.1: Bookkeeping, 1986-1996

Subseries 2.2: Bookkeeping, 1988-1996

Subseries 2.3: Investors, 1987-1998

Subseries 2.4: Investors, 1987-1998

Series 3: Legal Records, 1986-1997

Subseries 3.1: Poor man's patents, 1986-1994

Subseries 3.2: Legal documents, 1987-1994

Subseries 3.3: Legal representation and counsel, 1988-1995

Subseries 3.4: Disputes, 1987-1997

Subseries 3.5: Research file, 1986-1995

Series 4: Research, Development and Production Records, 1984-1996

Subseries 4.1: SoftVoice, circa 1986

Subseries 4.2: SenSei, 1987-1995

Subseries 4.3: Other inventions, 1988-circa 1992

Subseries 4.4: Proprietary relationships, 1986-1996

Subseries 4.5: Research concerning product development, 1984-1995

Series 5: Marketing, Publicity, and Sales Records, 1986-1996

Subseries 5.1: Product and company information, 1986-1995

Subseries 5.2: Sales records, 1987-1995

Subseries 5.3: Marketing agencies and agents, 1989-1995

Subseries 5.4: Promotional materials, 1987-1995

Subseries 5.5: Advertisements and publicity, 1986-1995

Subseries 5.6: Awards, 1987-1996

Subseries 5.7: Sales representatives' materials, 1990-1995

Subseries 5.8: Sales representatives, 1988-1996

Subseries 59: Conferences and demonstrations, 1987-1995

Subseries 5.10: Distribution, 1986-1996

Subseries 5.11: Prospective clients and business contacts, 1987-1996

Subseries 5.12: Clients, 1986-1996

Series 6: Photographs and Scrapbooks, 1987-1995

Subseries 6.1: Photographs and negatives, 1987-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.1: Administration, circa 1988-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.2: Promotional, 1987-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.3: Demonstrations and trade shows, 1988-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.4: SoftVoice and SenSei System, 1988-1995

Subseries 6.2: Scrapbooks, 1986-1994

Series 7: Audiovisual Materials, 1986-1996

Subseries 7.1: Audio cassettes, 1991-1994

Subseries 7.2: Audio visual tapes, 1986-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Founded by Lon S. Safko in 1987, Safko International, Inc. was formed in response to the encouragement Safko received from demonstrating SoftVoice, his environmental control system. At first, Safko was merely fulfilling a promise to help a quadriplegic, Herb Smith, regain control of his environment. As Safko encountered the many difficulties of adapting existing voice recognition software to communicate with hardware devices, such as lamps, he understood that the only way to fulfill his promise was to invent his own system. Shortly after his first demonstration, on March 3, 1986, he was so inspired at the success of his invention that he decided to continue his work. In October of that year, Safko was contacted to install a system for Leon Mutch, a man who had lost his will to live after being paralyzed from an automobile accident. After installing the system, Safko heard nothing for a few weeks. Then after being telephoned to retrieve the system, he was surprised to find that Mutch had in fact regained some arm mobility, and more importantly, Mutch had regained the hope that he had lost. Less than six months later, on March 6, 1987, Safko International, Inc. was formally incorporated in Kennewick, Washington, to develop, produce, market, sell, and distribute Safko's inventions, primarily SoftVoice and its successor, the SenSei System.

Although Safko International, Inc. was officially incorporated in 1987, the company did not fully develop until its relocation to Chandler, Arizona, in 1989. During 1987 and 1988, Lon Safko continued to work in the computer retail business and as Senior Systems Engineer for the United States Department of Energy, under Westinghouse Electric Company, to produce an Artificial Intelligence computer system. From August to November, 1987, Lon Safko was repeatedly contacted by Debra Purcel, a physical therapist who wanted to purchase the system for one of her patients, a sixteen year old girl with a spinal tumor whose last request was to communicate her thoughts and feelings to others who were suffering from similar circumstances. Safko was reluctant to sell her the system because the girl was using a respirator and therefore would be unable to speak clearly enough for a computer to recognize her voice. Eventually, Safko realized the solution was to modify his system through the use of alternative input devices. He created HeadMouse, an input device modified from an existing model. He named the modified system SoftVoice II. In August, 1987, Safko's environmental control system was renamed the SenSei System. After modifying the system to provide for the needs of the young girl and its successful demonstration, Safko decided to give the system free of charge to her. Unfortunately when he returned to surprise her, he was too late. Her life support systems had been unplugged two days before.

Shortly thereafter, in March of 1988, Safko returned to Safko International, Inc. with a greater determination to reach those individuals trapped by circumstances beyond their control. Also in 1988, Safko International, Inc. was given office space in which to continue research and development of Safko's assistive computer technology systems through the assistance of Westinghouse Electric Company. As of 1988 Safko was President and Chief Executive Officer of the company, Stan Colson was Vice President and on the Product Development team, Bruce Jorgenson was the Secretary and Treasurer in charge of the Finance and Administration division, Bob Hennig was on the Product Development team, and Keith Fischer served as Director of Engineering. The Marketing and Sales division was composed of Roger McDowell and Melanie Strege.

During 1988, Safko International, Inc. began clinical testing at hospitals and rehabilitation facilities. In addition, the company signed a contract with Boyd Fricke of the Austin McDaniel Corporation granting an exclusive international sales and marketing rights to Safko International, Inc.'s products in exchange for financial assistance. Later, Austin McDaniel Corporation attempted to coerce Safko International, Inc. through financial pressure to give up product rights. In 1990 Safko regained sales and marketing rights of the SenSei System. In May of 1988 there was also an attempt to merge with Datex Inc, but the merger did not succeed.

On June 15, 1989, the company officially moved the corporate headquarters, along with the engineering and manufacturing division, to Chandler, Arizona. Also in 1989 the company signed Value Added Reseller agreements with computer companies such as Apple Computer, Inc. and Computerland/ DataPhaz of Phoenix, Arizona.

In the following year, Safko International, Inc. expanded from domestic to international markets. The company built relationships with TeleNova AB, a subsidiary of the Swedish Telecom Group of the Swedish government and InfoLogics, an artificial intelligence computer division. Through the marketing and distribution efforts of TeleNova and its president Tommy Naslund, Safko International, Inc. was able to install SenSei systems in Sweden. In 1990 Lon Safko traveled to Sweden to help InfoLogics translate the SenSei computer system software into Swedish.

In 1991 Safko International, Inc. acquired contracts to construct interfaces which correspond with hospital beds. In particular, the Borg Warner Electronic Hospital Bed interface was created on the behalf of the Veterans Administration Hospital and the Smith and Davis Electronic Hospital Bed interface on the behalf of the Rusk Institute. Additionally, the Environmental PAL was developed in 1991. In regards to corporate structuring Richard L. Bourke became Vice President and Chief Financial Officer and John B. Zinn was Vice President of Marketing.

On February 24, 1992, Safko International, Inc. became an official Arizona corporation. Also during this year, the portable Safko Server and Power Now System were created.

In May 1993, Allen J. Emsley became Secretary and Treasurer of the company and then became Chief Financial Officer from November 1993 until August 1994. In November of 1993 the research and development office was moved from Chandler to Tempe, Arizona.

In January 1994 Safko International, Inc. was acquired by Safko Industries Inc., of Wyoming and Safko Sales International was formed. By 1994 Safko International, Inc. had sales representatives covering Arizona, Florida, Tennessee, Washington, Illinois, California, and New York. Reflected in the company's active marketing campaign and its significant increase of personnel, from 1994 to1995 Safko International, Inc. was at its peak in terms of corporate growth.

In 1995 Safko International, Inc. received Veterans Administration and Medicare approval. In the research and development division the company enhanced the SenSei System to be functional for the visually disabled and blind. As of 1995 Sakfo, Bowman, Emsley, Fischer, Honacker, and Hirota remained at the company. New employees included: Teresa Caldwell, Michael Montgomery (Marketing Assistant), Kahn Beal (contract employee), Jill Lund (Secretary), Carl E. McKowan (Vice President Financial), Marjory Bain (Administrative Assistant). Due to financial difficulties, in October of 1995 the entire staff was laid off and only Safko, Bowman, and Fischer continued to work for the company. Conditions only got worse and in November of 1995 Safko, Bowman, and Fischer were forced to leave their office space and work out of their cars and homes.

On May 28, 1996 Lon S. Safko officially resigned from the company and shortly thereafter the company shut down. Immediately following Safko International, Inc.'s closure, Synosure, Inc. was formed and given all rights, copyrights, and trademarks to the Safko International, Inc. products. One of the significant aspects about the company during this time was its attempt to finalize distribution plans with Great Britain, but the momentum was lost. Synosure, Inc. only lasted a year. On June 23, 1997 it dissolved.

Lawrence "Lon" S. Safko was born on August 1, 1955, in Yonkers, New York. He completed his General Equivalency Diploma (G.E.D.) in 1976 and graduated from Westchester College in 1978 with a three year advanced degree in Civil Engineering. Safko also took courses at Mercy College, Pace University and Hofstra University.

In the spring of 1982, Safko began his entrepreneurial career by forming Civil Consultants, a firm to provide the first ever engineering services using computers. The company specialized in surveying, coordinate geometry, earthworks, highway and transportation design, traffic analysis, and hydrologic computations. In 1985, Safko sold Civil Consultants and relocated to the Pacific Northwest. Wanting to work more closely with computers, he became the general sales manager for two Apple Computer, Inc. retail outlets.

That same year, Safko designed a voice activated environmental control system for the disabled called SoftVoice Computer System. On March 6, 1986, Safko founded Safko International, Inc. and began field testing the SoftVoice Computer System. During 1987, Safko designed an artificial intelligence computer system for the United States Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Electric Company, on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, in Washington State. This system compiled thousands of reports developed by the five uranium and plutonium production companies on the nuclear reservation, analyzed this information, and reported to the operator any signs of potentially hazardous patterns that could result in a nuclear disaster. In 1988, Safko began research and development of a Macintosh-based SenSei Computer System for the Disabled.

Safko holds United States Patent # 7,072,949 for a, "System and method for providing paper models over a wide area computer network," and several copyrights and trademarks. Currently, Safko is a professional speaker, trainer, and consultant for Better Homes Seminar and Innovative Thinking, L.L.C. He also is President and founder of Paper Models, Inc., providing corporate specialty advertising and educational paper models.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Disbaility Reference Collection (NMAH.AC.1319)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA holds several artifacts related to Lon Safko. Accession Lot # X3342.2006 contains:

First RCA TV Sip Controller

First Hospital Bed Nurse Call

Sip Puff IR Controller

Production Version Sip Puff Controller

Smith & Davis Electric Hospital Bed Controller

Sip Puff Modified Mouse

Computer Controlled Telephone

HeadMouse

First SenSei Server (Mac)

Prototype SenSei Server (Mac)

Sip Puff IR Controllers

Sip Puff Accessory Pack

Final SenSei Server Production Model

Final SenSei Server Production Model

SyQuest SenSei Software Back Ups First CD SenSei Software Back Ups
Separated Materials:
The Division of Information, Technology, and Society (now Division of Medicine and Science) holds 18 artifacts related to this collection as accession number 2005.0291 including:

1 Computer, with detached cord

Apple II cpu/keyboard

External Drive, ""Apple Disk II""

External Drive, ""Distar""

Magnavox computer monitor 80

4 Diskettes, ""SoftVoice""

Super Disk Demo 1

Super Disk Demo 2

SoftVoice Trainer

1 PC Daughter Board, ""Speech Recognition for Apple II""

1 Mouse Emulator, ""Head Master,"" with parts and manual in shipping box made by Prentke Romich Company

1 Trackball, ""Kensington TurboMouse""

1 Siptroller Case, Prototype, ""Safko International Inc.""

1 Puff Stick Base, ""Gravis"" with a hand piece and a chin piece only

1 Production Sensei Server, ""Version 2.0 Safko International Inc.""

1 Nurse Call Box

2 Remote Chimes, X-10 Powerhouse, Model SC546

2 Modules: 1 for a lamp and 1 for an appliance

1 Headset, ""MicroMint""

1 Phone with appliance module, ""DuoFone 102, Electronic Telephone Amplifier System"" (appliance module, ""Model no. X10-Am286"")
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lon S. Safko, 2006.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Home automation  Search this
Social medicine -- Sweden  Search this
Assistive computer technology  Search this
User interfaces (Computer systems)  Search this
Computers -- 1950-2000  Search this
Computerized self-help devices for people with disabilities  Search this
Rehabilitation technology  Search this
People with disabilities  Search this
Genre/Form:
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Magnetic disks
Audiovisual materials
Financial records -- 20th century
Legal documents
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Marketing records
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Floppy disks
Citation:
Safko International, Inc. Records, 1984-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0911
See more items in:
Safko International, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a7780235-0be3-46ef-a620-b6da2f61ca23
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0911
Online Media:

New architecture on indigenous lands / Joy Monice Malnar and Frank Vodvarka

Author:
Malnar, Joy Monice  Search this
Vodvarka, Frank  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 259 pages : color illustrations ; 21 x 26 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2013
20th century
21st century
Topic:
Architecture and anthropology--History  Search this
Architecture and society--History  Search this
Indian architecture  Search this
Indian reservations  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1035167

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