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Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers

Creator:
Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997  Search this
Names:
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Archives of American Art  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum  Search this
Kennedy Galleries  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Milwaukee Art Center  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
United States Information Agency  Search this
University of Michigan. Museum of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Allston, Washington, 1779-1843  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Bailey, Grace  Search this
Bailey, Truman E., 1902?-1959  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim, 1893-1967  Search this
Culver, Charles B. (Charles Beach), 1908-1967  Search this
Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Fleischman, Barbara  Search this
Gentle, Esther, 1900-  Search this
Krentzin, Earl, 1929-  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Pollack, Peter, 1909-1978  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Richardson, Constance, 1905-  Search this
Richardson, Edgar Preston, 1902-1985  Search this
Ryder, Albert Pinkham, 1847-1917  Search this
Sellers, Charles Coleman, 1903-  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Extent:
4.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Typescripts
Photographs
Date:
1837-1984
bulk 1935-1979
Summary:
The papers of art collectors, art patrons, and philanthropists Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman measure 4.9 linear feet and date from 1837 to 1984, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1935-1979. The papers are comprised mostly of correspondence with artists, museums, and arts organizations. Also found are scattered biographical materials, artists' autograph letters purchased by the Fleischmans, exhibition files, notes and writings, printed material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of art collectors, art patrons, and philanthropists Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman measure 4.9 linear feet and date from 1837 to 1984, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1935-1979. The papers are comprised mostly of correspondence with artists, museums, and arts organizations. Also found are scattered biographical materials, artists' autograph letters purchased by the Fleischmans, exhibition files, notes and writings, printed material, and photographs.

One folder of biographical material includes a biographical account and a certificate of appreciation from the Common Council for the City of Detroit.

The bulk of the collection is comprised of correspondence documenting the Fleischman's art related activities and interests primarily during the 1950s and 1960s. Individual correspondents include Aaron Bohrod, Charles E. Burchfield, Charles B. Culver, Philip Evergood, Earl Krentzin, John Marin, Jr., Abraham Rattner and Esther Gentle, Peter Pollack, Edgar P. and Constance Richardson, Charles Coleman Sellers, and Franklin Watkins. One letter from Charles E. Burchfield includes four etching plates used to create the color print of Hot September Wind.

Arts organizations and galleries represented in the correspondence include the American Federation of Arts, the Archives of American Art, the Arts Commission of the City of Detroit, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Detroit Institute of Art, Kennedy Galleries, M. Knoedler and Co., Inc., Kraushaar Galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Midtown Galleries, the Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery of Art, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the School of the Society of Arts and Crafts, the United States Information Agency, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Winterthur Museum.

Autograph letters purchased by the Fleischmans include letters written by artists Washington Allston (addressed to Thomas Sully), Albert Pinkham Ryder, and John Taylor Arms.

Exhibition files document the various exhibitions of art work from the Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman Collection at the University of Michigan Museum of Art; the Detroit Institute of Art; in Central and South America; in Greece, Israel and Russia; and at the Milwaukee Art Center. The files contain letters, notes, printed material, and photographs.

Three folders of notes and writings include "Introduction to Earl Krentzin Catalog" by Lawrence Fleischman and "Selection of Excerpts from the Soviet Press and Radio Attacking U. S. Culture" by unidentified authors.

Scattered printed material includes miscellaneous clippings and catalogs not connected with the Exhibition Files series. There is also a book John Marin: The Man and his Work by E. M. Benson that was autographed by Marin to the Fleischmans in 1953.

Photographs include portrait photographs of Lawrence Fleischman, photographs of Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman with colleagues, of art work from the Fleischman Collection, of Truman and Grace Bailey in their studio, and a copy photograph of Thomas Eakins as a boy.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1958 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1949-1984 (Boxes 1-4, 7; 3.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Autograph Letters, 1837-1942 (Box 4; 4 folders)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1953-1960 (Boxes 4-5, 7; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, 1957-1962 (Box 5; 3 folders)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1935-1969 (Box 5-6; 6 folders)

Series 7: Photographs, 1953-1965 (Box 6; 13 folders)
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence Fleischman (1925-1997) of New York City was an American art collector, patron, philanthropist, and benefactor. He and his wife, Barbara Greenberg Fleischman, assembled an impressive collection of art and artifacts that they shared with the public as part of their philanthropic activities aimed at fostering a wider appreciation of the arts around the world.

Lawrence Fleischman was born on February 14, 1925 in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Stella and Arthur Fleischman, the owner of a large carpet business. He attended the Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois, and studied engineering at Purdue University. In 1942, he interrupted his studies to volunteer for service in the U.S. Army during World War II. While serving in France, he met a doctor who further fostered Fleischman's ever growing interest in American art. Following the war, he graduated with a degree in physics from the University of Detroit. Fleischman met Barbara Greenberg in Detroit and they were married in 1948.

Beginning in the late 1940s, Fleischman established a fledgling television station, developed holdings in real estate, and began purchasing art work. Initially the Fleischmans collected undervalued 20th century American art and were friends with several artists, including John Marin, Charles Burchfield, Stuart Davis, and Ben Shahn. They also expanded the scope of their collection to include 19th century American works.

During the 1950s, Lawrence Fleischman realized how there were few American art historians and college departments, as well as a lack of primary source material. Fleischman worked with Edgar P. Richardson, then director of the Detroit Institute of Art, to raise funds and they founded the Archives of American Art at the Detroit Institute of Art in 1954. The Archives of American Art was, and still is, dedicated to the collection, preservation, and study of primary source records that document the history of the visual arts in the United States. Lawrence A. Fleischman is a founding Trustee of the AAA and served as the Chairman of the Board from 1958 to 1966. His wife, Barbara joined the Board of Trustees in 1997 and served as Chair from 2003 to 2007. She is a Trustee Emerita.

Lawrence Fleischman's business and philanthropic interests included the Arthur Fleischman Carpet Company, the Lee Plaza Hotel-Motel in Detroit, Art Adventurers, the Art School of the Society of Arts and Crafts in Detroit, the Friends of the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, the Cultural Committee of the United States Information Agency, and the Art Commission of Detroit, which governed the Detroit Institute of Art. He also served as an officer of the Board for many of the arts-related organizations.

In 1996, the Fleischmans moved their family from Detroit to New York City, where Lawrence Fleischman became a partner in the Kennedy Galleries.

The Fleischmans philanthropic activities include generous support of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Detroit Institute of Art, the Cleveland Museum, the British Museum, the Vatican Museum, and lifelong support of the Archives of American Art.

Lawrence Fleischman died on January 31, 1997 in London, England. Barbara Fleischman lives in New York City and continues to be an active supporter of the visual arts.
Related Materials:
Among the Archives holdings are two oral history interviews with Lawrence A. Fleischman. The first was conducted by Paul Cummings in 1970 and the second conducted by Gail Stavitsky in 1994 . Both interviews have transcripts available.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming, the majority of which was later donated, except for five letters on reel D197. These include one postcard from Constance Richardson, 1956; one letter from Constance Richardson, 1957; one letter from Franklin Watkins, 1955; one letter from Lawrence Fleischman to Wilbur H. Hunter, 1960; and one letter from Richard D. Tucker, 1960. This material remains with lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers were donated in several accretions by Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman from 1954 to 2007. Letters were also loaned for microfilming in 1965, but nearly all of them were subsequently donated.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Art patrons Michigan Detroit  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Philanthropists  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Typescripts
Photographs
Citation:
Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman Papers, 1837-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.fleilawr
See more items in:
Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw92905ad60-9c85-493f-90b7-272f1486ef69
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-fleilawr
Online Media:

John Ericsson

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-12-12T19:54:12.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_7gG1hYCHk0c

Philadelphia -- Boxly

Former owner:
Penn, William  Search this
Pastorius, Francis Daniel  Search this
Du Barry, Joseph  Search this
Sheridan, Owen  Search this
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 1856-1915  Search this
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, Mrs.  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G.  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G. Mrs.  Search this
Architect:
Fielding, Mantle, 1865-1941  Search this
Landscape architect:
Gallagher, Percival  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G.  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Civil engineer:
Vandu Zee, Harold (civil engineer)  Search this
Gardener:
Bender, Robert  Search this
Provenance:
The Garden Club of Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Boxly (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Scope and Contents:
The folders include worksheets, photocopies of newspaper and other printed references about the garden, and photocopies of photographs of the garden when it was owned by Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Winslow Taylor (before 1951).
General:
"Boxly" was originally established by Joseph Du Barry (a friend of Joseph Bonaparte) as "Mulberry Farm." The property was the center of an unsuccessful silk industry in the early 19th century. It was later purchased by the famous efficiency engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor, who built the first undulating putting green (for golf) in America at the property. He renamed it "Boxly" because of its then 100-year-old boxwood bushes. The property was redesigned in the 1950s and 1960s.
Persons associated with the property include: William Penn (former owner, 1681-1683); Francis Daniel Pastorius (former owner, 1683-?); Joseph Du Barry (former owner, 1803-?); Owen Sheridan (former owner, 1833-?); Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Winslow Taylor (former owners, 1901-1951); Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. G. Peck (former owners and landscape architect, 1951-1998); Mantle Fielding (architect, 1901-1905); the Olmsted Brothers (landscape architects, 1901-1910); Percival Gallagher (landscape architect, 1901-1910); Harold Vandu Zee (civil engineer, 1901-1915); and Robert Bender (gardener, 1902-?).
Related Materials:
Boxly related holdings consist of 3 folders (4 glass lantern slides; 63 35 mm. slides; 17 photonegatives)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 00168, F. W. Taylor (Clark, J.S.).
See others in:
Maida Babson Adams American Garden Collection, ca. 1960-1994.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA009
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6eecd6092-7c89-4e8f-9859-2299b3d74d87
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16501

Hamden -- Mill Rock

Engineer:
Blake, William P. (William Phipps), 1826-1910  Search this
Former owner:
Blake, William P. (William Phipps), 1826-1910  Search this
Blake, Whitney  Search this
Whitney, Stephen Mr. Mrs.  Search this
Fulton, John, MD  Search this
Fulton, Lucia Pickering  Search this
Gardener:
Fulton, Lucia Pickering  Search this
Photographer:
Radford, Jennifer  Search this
Owner:
Axion Cushing-Fulton Corporation  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of New Haven  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Mill Rock (Hamden, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- New Haven County -- Hamden
General:
"The English manor style house was built in 1870 by William Phipps Blake, a grand nephew of Eli Whitney. Blake was a geologist for the Union Pacific Railroad; later he became Director of the School of Mines at the University of Arizona. He was appointed by the Smithsonian Institution as Executive Commissioner for the Centennial Exposition of 1876 in Philadelphia. His late 19th century garden layout is down a sheltered southern slope. Massive retaining walls, masonry pillars linked by copper chains, and glazed brick paths, bricked-edged, have proved a very durable hardscape. Some features were added mid 20th century including the small fountain pool."
Persons associated with the property include: William Phipps Blake (former owner and engineer); Whitney Blake (former owner); Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Whitney (former owner);John Fulton, MD (former owner); Lucia Pickering Fulton (former owner); Axion Cushing-Fulton Corporation (owner); Jennifer Radford (photographer).
Related Materials:
Mill Rock related holdings consist of 1 folder (24 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Hamden  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File CT187
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb663dc62eb-162a-4e40-8877-7edda60b3c53
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21521

The Officers of the C.S. Army & Navy

Artist:
C. F. May, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Sitter:
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, 28 May 1818 - 20 Feb 1893  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin, 6 Aug 1811 - 6 May 1884  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham, 1813 - 1890  Search this
Braxton Bragg, 22 Mar 1817 - 27 Sep 1876  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge, 15 Jan 1821 - 17 May 1875  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner, 1 Apr 1823 - 8 Jan 1914  Search this
Franklin Buchanan, 1800 - 1874  Search this
Frederick Chatard, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, 1820 - 1886  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman, 27 July 1812 - 3 Nov 1897  Search this
Jefferson Davis, 3 Jun 1808 - 6 Dec 1889  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd, 01 Jun 1806 - 26 Aug 1863  Search this
Robert Selden Garnett, 1819 - 1861  Search this
William Joseph Hardee, 12 Oct 1815 - 6 Nov 1873  Search this
Roger Weightman Hanson, 1827 - 1863  Search this
Charles Frederick Henningsen, 1815 - 1877  Search this
Ambrose Powell Hill, 9 Nov 1825 - 2 Apr 1865  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman, 1828 - 1868  Search this
George Nichols Hollins, 1799 - 1878  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, 21 Apr 1809 - 18 Jul 1887  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, 21 Jan 1824 - 10 May 1863  Search this
Joseph Eggleston Johnston, 3 Feb 1807 - 21 Mar 1891  Search this
Robert Edward Lee, 19 Jan 1807 - 12 Oct 1870  Search this
John Letcher, 1813 - 1884  Search this
Mansfield Lovel, 1822 - 1884  Search this
John Bankhead Magruder, 1810 - 1871  Search this
Ben McCulloch, 1808 - 1895  Search this
James Murray Mason, 3 Nov 1798 - 28 Apr 1871  Search this
Humphrey Marshall, 13 Jan 1812 - 28 Mar 1872  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury, 14 Jan 1806 - 1 Feb 1873  Search this
John Hunt Morgan, 1 Jun 1825 - 4 Sep 1864  Search this
Mosby Munroe Parsons, 1822 - 1865  Search this
Albert Pike, 1809 - 1891  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow, 1806 - 1878  Search this
Leonidas Polk, 10 Apr 1806 - 14 Jun 1864  Search this
Sterling Price, 20 Sep 1809 - 29 Sep 1867  Search this
Edward Price, 19th century  Search this
Gabriel James Rains, 1803 - 1881  Search this
Raphael Semmes, 27 Sep 1809 - 30 Aug 1877  Search this
John Slidell, 1793 - 29 Jul 1871  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith, 16 May 1824 - 28 Mar 1893  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens, 11 Feb 1812 - 4 Mar 1883  Search this
David Emanuel Twiggs, 1790 - 1862  Search this
Lloyd Tilghman, 1816 - 1863  Search this
M. Jeff Thompson, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs, 2 Jul 1810 - 15 Dec 1885  Search this
Earl Van Dorn, 1820 - 1863  Search this
James S. West, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall, 21 Apr 1816 - 18 Feb 1874  Search this
Medium:
Albumen print on paper
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 17.8 × 25.5 cm (7 × 10 1/16")
Mount: 27.5 × 35 cm (10 13/16 × 13 3/4")
Type:
Print
Date:
c. 1861-65
Topic:
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Epaulet  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Male  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Literature\Writer  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Military and Intelligence\Soldier  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\Confederate President  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Mississippi  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\US Senator\Mississippi  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of War  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\Governor\Mississippi  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Male  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University president  Search this
John Hunt Morgan: Male  Search this
John Hunt Morgan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Male  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\College administrator\President  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Male  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Science and Technology\Engineer\Civil engineer  Search this
Earl Van Dorn: Male  Search this
Earl Van Dorn: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Male  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Politics and Government\Governor\Virginia  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Male  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Politics and Government\Governor\South Carolina  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Male  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Politics and Government\Vice-Presidential Candidate  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Politics and Government\Governor\Kentucky  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Insurance agent  Search this
Frederick Chatard: Male  Search this
Frederick Chatard: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Selden Garnett: Male  Search this
Robert Selden Garnett: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Roger Weightman Hanson: Male  Search this
Roger Weightman Hanson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Charles Frederick Henningsen: Male  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Male  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Politics and Government\US Senator\Virginia  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Politics and Government\Statesman\Confederate statesman  Search this
John Letcher: Male  Search this
Mansfield Lovel: Male  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Male  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kentucky  Search this
Mosby Munroe Parsons: Male  Search this
Mosby Munroe Parsons: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Albert Pike: Male  Search this
Albert Pike: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Albert Pike: Literature\Writer  Search this
Albert Pike: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Albert Pike: Literature\Writer\Poet  Search this
Albert Pike: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice  Search this
Edward Price: Male  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Male  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Literature\Writer  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
David Emanuel Twiggs: Male  Search this
Lloyd Tilghman: Male  Search this
M. Jeff Thompson: Male  Search this
James S. West: Male  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Male  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\US Senator\Texas  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\Statesman\Confederate statesman  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Texas  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\State Senator\Texas  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson: Male  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Male  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Literature\Writer  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Male  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\Presidential candidate  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of War\Confederate Secretary of War  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Kentucky  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\US Senator\Kentucky  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Male  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Literature\Writer  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\College  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Science and Technology\Scientist\Earth scientist\Oceanographer  Search this
Joseph Eggleston Johnston: Male  Search this
Joseph Eggleston Johnston: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Ambrose Powell Hill: Male  Search this
Ambrose Powell Hill: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Male  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Journalism and Media\Newspaper publisher  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Georgia  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\Governor\Georgia  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Georgia  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\Confederate Vice President  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Male  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Politics and Government\Statesman  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Georgia  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Planter  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Politics and Government\US Senator\Georgia  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Male  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Religion and Spirituality\Clergy\Prelate\Bishop  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Education and Scholarship\Founder\University  Search this
Gabriel James Rains: Male  Search this
Gabriel James Rains: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Sterling Price: Male  Search this
Sterling Price: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Sterling Price: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Sterling Price: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Sterling Price: Politics and Government\Governor\Missouri  Search this
Sterling Price: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Missouri  Search this
John Bankhead Magruder: Male  Search this
John Bankhead Magruder: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Male  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Male  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Politics and Government\Statesman\Confederate statesman  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Politics and Government\US Senator\Louisiana  Search this
Franklin Buchanan: Male  Search this
Franklin Buchanan: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Male  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Politics and Government\Congressman  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Journalism and Media\Editor  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Male  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Politics and Government\US Senator\North Carolina  Search this
Ben McCulloch: Male  Search this
George Nichols Hollins: Male  Search this
George Nichols Hollins: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer  Search this
George Nichols Hollins: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Male  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Literature\Writer  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Mexican War army officer  Search this
John Slidell: Male  Search this
John Slidell: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\Diplomat  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\Confederate official  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\US Senator\Louisiana  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Louisiana  Search this
James Murray Mason: Male  Search this
James Murray Mason: Politics and Government\Diplomat  Search this
James Murray Mason: Politics and Government\US Senator\Virginia  Search this
James Murray Mason: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
S/NPG.84.421
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm45ea8e948-d94c-46ab-b21a-e4047db4e069
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_S_NPG.84.421

Frederick E. Sickels

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-12-12T19:54:12.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_edGVNM06rUs

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records

Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
33 Cubic feet (76 boxes, 46 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tracings
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1827-1987
Summary:
The collection consists of correspondence, invoices, drawings, photographs, and negatives and other printed literature documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence, engineering drawings, notes, photographs, transparencies, negatives, glass plate negatives, printed materials, and newspaper clippings documenting the Baltimore and Ohio railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio in the 1960s.
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1827-1987

Series 2, Bridge Histories, 1867-1966

Series 3, President's Office, 1826-1880

Series 4, Correspondence, 1826-1859

Series 5, Business Records, 1894-1914, and undated

Series 6, Agreement, 1870

Series 7, Drawings, 1858-1957, and undated

Subseries 7.1, Indices and Lists, 1924-1943, undated

Subseries 7.2, Bailey's Station, 1887; 1899; 1901

Subseries 7.3, Baltimore Belt Railroad, 1895, undated

Subseries 7.4, Bay View and Canton Bridges, 1884-1885

Subseries 7.5, Big Seneca Creek Viaduct, 1905

Subseries 7.6, Bollman Bridges, undated

Subseries 7.7, Boyds, Maryland Station, 1886; 1927

Subseries 7.8, Bridewell Station, undated

Subseries 7.9, Bridges (general), 1893-1917

Subseries 7.10, Brunswick, Maryland, 1890-1907

Subseries 7.11, Building Materials List, undated

Subseries 7.12, Building Signs, 1911-1912

Subseries 7.13, Camden Station, 1881-1942 (not inclusive)

Subseries 7.14, Camden Station (related), 1881-1915

Subseries 7.15, Centenary Bridge Models, 1927

Subseries 7.16, Central Office Building, undated

Subseries 7.17, Chestnut Street Station, 1925-1952

Subseries 7.18, Coaling facilities, water tanks, turntables, and miscellaneous structures, 1888-1912

Subseries 7.19, Cumberland Station, 1910-1955

Subseries 7.20, Curtis Bay Branch, 1900-1911

Subseries 7.21, Frederick Station, 1908-1915

Subseries 7.22, Hyattsville Station, 1913

Subseries 7.23, Keedysville Station, undated

Subseries 7.24, Laurel Station, undated

Subseries 7.25, Ledger, undated

Subseries 7.26, Lieperville Station, 1889

Subseries 7.27, Locust Point, 1881-1957

Subseries 7.28, Maps, 1862; 1918

Subseries 7.29, Martinsburg, West Virginia, 1913-1927

Subseries 7.30, Miscellaneous Buildings, 1875-1956

Subseries 7.31, Miscellaneous Large Photographs, undated

Subseries 7.32, Miscellaneous Structures, 1890-1916

Subseries 7.33: Mt. Clare (general)

Subseries 7.34, Mt. Clare New Blue Line Stable, 1899; 1905

Subseries 7.35, Mt. Clare New Car Shops, undated

Subseries 7.36, Mt. Royal Station, undated

Subseries 7.37, Newton Falls and Fairpoint, Ohio, 1909

Subseries 7.38, Patapsco River Bridge, 1883

Subseries 7.39, Plans for house no. 1846 (N. Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland), undated

Subseries 7.40, Point of Rocks Station, 1951

Subseries 7.41, Scales, 1903

Subseries 7.42, Signal towers, 1900-1908

Subseries 7.43, Stations (general), 1866-1907

Subseries 7.44, Sykesville Station, undated

Subseries 7.45, Untitled, undated

Subseries 7.46, Warnings, 1894-1911

Subseries 7.47, Woodstock Station, undated

Subseries 7.48, Miscellaneous (rolled), 1858-1930 (not inclusive)

Series 8, Photographs and Copy Prints, 1872-1980s (not inclusive)

Subseries 8.1, Photographs, 1872-1980s

Subseries 8.2, Copy prints, 1901-1931, undated

Subseries 8.3, Indices and Lists, 1909-1920

Series 9, Negatives, 1850-1983 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.1, Glass plate negatives (unidentified), undated

Subseries 9.2, Glass plate negatives (numbered), 1850-1957 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.3, Negatives by number, undated

Subseries 9.4, Negatives by location, 1870; 1978-1983

Subseries 9.5, Negatives by subject, 1922-1930s, undated

Series 10, Stations and Buildings, 1884-1982
Biographical / Historical:
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was the nation's first extensive steam powered railroad. It was founded by Baltimore merchants in 1827 as a means of promoting trade and making Baltimore competitive with other east coast ports. The original intent of the founders was to provide direct and fast access to the Ohio River, and the markets that the river reached. The railroad, however, went beyond the Ohio River and its lines went as far west as St. Louis and Chicago. The B&O was also known for its use of an electric locomotive in the mid 1890s. It also had a completely air conditioned train, and it was a forerunner in the use of diesel-electric locomotives. Company activities paralleled those of other American railroads and over the course of its life included expansion, near bankruptcy, innovations, regulations, and finally buy out. In February 1963, the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) completed its purchase of the B&O. Today, B&O is part of the CSX Transportation (CSX) network.

John Work Garrett president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1858-1884, was born in Baltimore, Maryland July 31, 1820. He was the second son of Elizabeth Stouffer and Robert Garrett. He married Rachel Ann Harrison, the daughter of Thomas Harrison, a Baltimore merchant. They had one daughter, Mary and two sons Robert and Thomas Harrison Garrett.

After attending Lafayette College (Pennsylvania) for two years John W. Garrett left in 1836 to become associated with his father's commission business in Baltimore. The commission house which dealt in wholesale groceries, produce, forwarding and a commission business expanded to establish direct connections with Latin America, seek outlets in Europe and develop its own banking operations. In time its financial operations overshadowed the commission and shipping business.

When John W. Garrett began to invest heavily in Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, the road was in competition with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the stock was not popular. Its value rose steadily over the years. Mr. Garrett was elected a director of the railroad in 1855. His report as chairman of a subcommittee on the need for additional funds to complete the line to the Ohio River led to his election to the presidency of the road on November 17, 1858, a position he held for 26 years. New policies with emphasis on economy, personal supervision and gradual expansion were inaugurated and consistently maintained, in spite of a general financial crisis, Mr. Garrett's first year in office showed a net gain in earnings.

Sympathetic to his southern friends during the Civil War, Mr. Garrett nevertheless supported the Union. He recognized the inevitability of Confederate defeat by superior northern resources. Confederate leaders blamed him for their inability to seize Washington and he received warm appreciation for his services to the Union cause from President Lincoln. The railroad stretched along the theater of war and twice crossed Confederate territory. It was, therefore, a main objective for southern attack. Branches were frequently damaged by Confederate raids, but the main line to Washington became important for the transport of troops and supplies. The Baltimore and Ohio carried out the first military rail transport in history and the transfer of 20,000 men from the Potomac to Chattanooga in 1863 was a major triumph for its president.

With the advent of peace Mr. Garrett turned to rebuilding and strengthening the railroad. He replaced equipment and track damaged by the war, then extended the system by securing direct routes to Pittsburgh and Chicago and arranging an independent line into New York. Wharves were built at Locust Point for ocean liners and a system of elevators erected. The B&O. built its own sleeping and dining cars, established hotels in the mountains and created its own express company. By 1880, after battles over rates with other trunk lines, a costly rivalry with the Pennsylvania Railroad over the eastern route and charges of discrimination against local shippers Mr. Garrett was at the height of his success. He cooperated in establishing the B. and 0. Employees Relief Association for accident and life insurance, a hospital system, saving and building funds, and arrangements for improving sanitation in the work place. He was on friendly terms with Johns Hopkins, a trustee of John Hopkins Hospital, and with George Peabody, founder of the Peabody institute of which he was also a trustee. Garrett County, Maryland was named in his honor.

John W. Garrett died on September 26, 1884 within a year of his wife's death in a carriage accident. During his connection with the railroad the stock increased from $57 to $200; at the outbreak of the Civil War the railroad was operating 514 miles of rail, gross earnings were $4,000,097 and net per mile was $4246.1 By 1864 gross earnings were $10,138,876 and net per mile, $7113.2 By the end of his presidency mileage had increased to 1711 miles and net earnings were $4535 per mile.3

References

1 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

2 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

3 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Maryland Historical Society

Baltimore and Ohio Museum
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Engineering -- 19th century  Search this
Repairing -- Railroads  Search this
Railway engineering -- 1860-1890  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tracings
Correspondence -- 19th century
Drawings -- 1860-1890
Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1086
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e652d903-bb57-46a8-a205-c7cbfe89f444
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1086
Online Media:

Wurlitzer Company Records

Creator:
Rudolph Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Names:
All-American Mohawk Company  Search this
Apollo Piano Company  Search this
Beach-Carlisle Violin Company  Search this
Caldwell Piano Company  Search this
Central Discount Company  Search this
Dayton Photo Products Company  Search this
DeKalb Piano Company  Search this
Dekleist Musical Instruments Company  Search this
Deutsch Wurlitzer  Search this
Eagle Radio Company  Search this
Everett Piano Company  Search this
Fox Theatres Corporation  Search this
Lyric Piano Company  Search this
Milner Music Company  Search this
Morsatti, Inc.  Search this
North Tonawanda Barrel Organ Company  Search this
Robert L. Loud Music Company  Search this
Rudolph Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Southern Ohio Radio Corporation  Search this
Western Industries Corporation  Search this
Wunderlich Piano Company  Search this
Wurlbild Corporation  Search this
Wurlitzer Acceptance Corporation  Search this
Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Wurlitzer Company of California  Search this
Wurlitzer Grand Piano Company  Search this
Youngstown Music Company  Search this
Rolfing, R.C.  Search this
Wurlitzer, Farny  Search this
Wurlitzer, Rembert  Search this
Wurlitzer, Rudolph  Search this
Extent:
56 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Minute books
Account books
Financial records
Stock records
Reports
Advertisements
Sales records
Audits
Cashbooks
Ledgers (account books)
Annual reports
Photographs
Journals (accounts)
Price lists
Trade catalogs
Publications
Employee records
Marketing records
Commercial catalogs
Place:
DeKalb (Ill.)
North Tonawanda (N.Y.)
Corinth (Miss.)
Cincinnati (Ohio)
Date:
1860-1984
Summary:
The collection documents the history and development of the Wurlitzer Company and consists of company publications, business records, employee files, manufacturing records, sales and marketing records, product information, publicity, advertising, photographs, audiovisual materials, and organ installation drawings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the history and the development of the Wurlitzer Company. Materials include company publications, business records, employee files, manufacturing records, sales and marketing records, product information, publicity, advertising, photographs, audiovisual materials, and organ installation drawings. The material in the collection spans from 1856-1986, although information prior to 1899 is sparse.
Arrangement:
The Collection is arranged into fourteen series.

Series 1: Wurlitzer Company Histories, Company Events, and General Business Materials, circa 1880-1987; undated

Series 2: Publications, 1910-1989; undated

Series 3: Advertising and Promotional Materials, 1911-1978

Series 4: Product Information, 1860-1984; undated

Series 5: Photographs of Wurlitzer Manufacturing Plants, Employees, Stores, and Dealerships, 1869-1970; undated

Series 6: Photographs of Wurlitzer Products and Product Sales Promotions, 1900-1978; undated

Series 7, Photographs Used in Wurlitzer Advertising and Public Relations, 1904-1970; undated

Series 8: Wurlitzer Employee Records and Related Materials, 1909-1961; undated

Series 9: Production and Shipping Records, 1905-1987

Series 10: Shipping and Sales Records for Wurlitzer Dealerships, Wurlitzer Retail Stores, and Rembert Wurlitzer, Incorporated, 1917-1952

Series 11, Records of Stock Certificates, Meeting Minutes, and Related Financial and Legal Documents, 1907-1972

Series 12, Rudolph Wurlitzer Company Financial Records, 1893-1986

Series 13, Maps and Charts, 1931-1976

Series 14, Organ Installation Drawings, 1920-1931; undated
Historical Note:
The Wurlitzer Company began in 1856 when Rudolph Wurlitzer, a Cincinnati bank clerk, sold seven hundred dollars worth of musical instruments he had bought from family and friends in Germany. The busi¬ness was incorporated in Ohio in 1890 under the name the Ru¬dolph Wurlitzer Company." For the first fifty years, Wurlitzer was primarily a retail instrument business operating out of its Cincinnati Store headquarters. Although fire destroyed the com¬pany's headquarters in 1904, a new building was completed in time to celebrate Wurlitzer's fiftieth anniversary in 1906.

In 1908, the Wurlitzer Company bought the DeKleist Musical In¬strument Manufacturing Company in North Tonawanda, New York. The Rudolph Wurlitzer Manufacturing Company continued produc¬tion of automatic musical instruments including player pianos, military bands and pianorchestras. In 1910, the Wurlitzer Company bought the Hope-Jones Organ Company and began to manufacture unit-or¬chestra pipe organs at their North Tonawanda plant. These were pipe organs equipped with bells, gongs, horns and sirens. They became known as Mighty Wurlitzers and provided the musical back¬ground in silent movie houses all over the world and were also built for churches and private homes. In 1919, Wurlitzer bought the Melville-Clark Piano Company of DeKalb, Illinois. Wurlitzer pianos were then manufactured at the DeKalb facilities under a variety of names: the Apollo Piano Company, the DeKalb Piano Company and the Wurlitzer Grand Piano Company. Each name des¬ignated a different quality, price range and style.

With the decline of sales during the 1920s and 1930s, pro¬duction of automatic musical instruments ceased until the manu¬facture of the first jukebox in 1934. In 1930, the Julius Bauer Piano Company was purchased and continued to build pianos in that name until shortly before World War II. For a brief time, radios and refrigerators were made by the Wurlitzer controlled Air-Amer¬ican Mohawk Corporation. It was not a successful venture and ended in the mid-1930s. Many of the Wurlitzer retail stores were, at that time, in bad locations and needed repairs. The solutions to these problems came about with a reorganization of the company in 1935. With the reorganization, many retail stores were sold, piano manufacturing was consolidated in DeKalb and many subsidiaries were dissolved or absorbed completely into the Wurlitzer Company.

During World War II, Wurlitzer halted production of musical in¬struments. The company's defense production efforts were rec¬ognized in 1943 and 1944 when it is North Tonawanda and DeKalb plants received the Army-Navy "E" Award. In 1946, peacetime production resumed and the Wurlitzer Company introduced two new instruments: the electric organ in 1947 and the electric piano in 1954. In 1956, the Wurlitzer Company celebrated its centennial. That same year a new plant at Corinth, Mississippi, was completed. Later, plants were opened in Holly Springs, Mississippi (1961), Logan, Utah (1970) and Hullhorst, West Germany, (1960). The new facilities replaced those at North Tonawanda and DeKalb. The North Tonawanda plant ceased production of jukeboxes in 1974, becoming the company's engineering and research center. In 1973, the DeKalb plant ended production of pianos maintaining only mar¬keting and administrative offices. In 1977, the Wurlitzer Com¬pany's corporate headquarters moved to DeKalb, including the en¬gineering and research center from North Tonawanda.

Wurlitzer's three sons had assumed leadership of the company after his death in 1914. Each son acted as president then, chair of the board, successively. The company hired R.C. Rolfing in 1934 as vice-president and general manager. His re¬organization helped the company through the Depression years. Rolfing succeeded the last of the founder's sons in 1941 as pres¬ident of the company and in 1966 as chair of the board. Farny Wurlitzer, Rudolph's youngest son, died in 1972. A.D. Arsem succeeded Rolfing in 1974 as chair of the board. George B. Howell succeeded W. N. Herleman as president of the company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Steinway & Sons Records and Family Papers, 1857-1919 (AC0178)

Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985 (AC0264)

Sohmer & Company Records, 1872-1989 (AC0349)

William J. Lenz Piano Tuning Collection, circa 1903-1955 (AC0511)

Janssen Piano Company Records, 1901-1929 (AC0512)

John R. Anderson Piano Trade Literature and Ephemera Collection, circa 1850-1990 (AC1257)

Warshaw Collection of Business America's Piano and Organ related materials (AC0060)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Northern Illinois University, and Regional History Center, 1994, November 11.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Violin -- Manufacture  Search this
Radio -- Receivers and reception  Search this
Coin-operated machines  Search this
Accordion  Search this
Jukeboxes -- Manufacture  Search this
Harp -- Manufacture  Search this
Piano -- History  Search this
Player organ  Search this
Accordion -- Manufacture  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
Organ -- Manufacture  Search this
Organ -- History  Search this
Wurlitzer organ  Search this
Musical instrument makers  Search this
Mechanical organs  Search this
Mechanical musical instruments  Search this
Musical instruments  Search this
Genre/Form:
Minute books
Account books
Financial records
Stock records
Reports
Advertisements
Sales records
Audits
Cashbooks
Ledgers (account books)
Annual reports
Photographs -- 19th century
Journals (accounts)
Price lists
Trade catalogs
Publications
Employee records
Marketing records
Commercial catalogs
Citation:
Wurlitzer Company Records, 1860-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0469
See more items in:
Wurlitzer Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b6b1ed59-da9e-468e-ae2e-8bcd065f8cb2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0469
Online Media:

Columbia Parade Hat

Maker:
unknown  Search this
Physical Description:
painted (overall production method/technique)
fabric, pressed felt (overall material)
multicolored (decoration (eagle) color)
eagle (decoration (eagle) motif)
brown (overall color)
green; black (underbrim color)
gold (lettering color)
yellow (decoration (banner) color)
paint (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 6 1/4 in x 12 in x 13 3/8 in; 15.875 cm x 30.48 cm x 33.9725 cm
Object Name:
hat, fire
Place made:
United States
Date made:
1810-1860
Subject:
Anchors  Search this
Eagles  Search this
Fire Fighting  Search this
Fraternal Associations  Search this
Related Publication:
McCosker, M.J.. The Historical Collection of the Insurance Company of North America
Credit Line:
Gift of CIGNA Museum and Art Collection
ID Number:
2005.0233.0029
Catalog number:
2005.0233.0029
Accession number:
2005.0233
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Fire Hats
Work
Firefighting Collection
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-06c3-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1318657
Online Media:

Terrestrial Globe

Maker:
Cornell, Silas  Search this
Erastus Darrow & Brother  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
aluminum (overall material)
Measurements:
average spatial: 24.2 cm; 9 17/32 in
overall: 16 1/8 in x 11 1/2 in; 40.9575 cm x 29.21 cm
Object Name:
globe
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Boston
United States: New York, Rochester
Associated place:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Date made:
mid 19th century
Subject:
Geography  Search this
ID Number:
1986.0820.01
Catalog number:
1986.0820.01
Accession number:
1986.0820
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Physical Sciences
Globes
Measuring & Mapping
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-fc8d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1064464

Ralph and Bena Frank Mayer papers, [ca. 1920]-1964

Creator:
Mayer, Ralph, 1895-1979  Search this
Mayer, Bena Frank, 1898-1991  Search this
Subject:
Biddle, George  Search this
Bishop, Isabel  Search this
Brook, Alexander  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
Florsheim, Richard A.  Search this
Hammer, Victor Karl  Search this
Hirsch, Stefan  Search this
Hurd, Peter  Search this
MacKendrick, Lilian  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Sloan, John  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Citation:
Ralph and Bena Frank Mayer papers, [ca. 1920]-1964. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Artists' materials  Search this
Art -- Conservation and restoration  Search this
Art -- Technique  Search this
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7091
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209224
AAA_collcode_mayeralp
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209224

Ralph and Bena Frank Mayer papers

Creator:
Mayer, Ralph, 1895-1979  Search this
Mayer, Bena Frank, 1898-1991  Search this
Names:
Biddle, George, 1885-1973  Search this
Bishop, Isabel, 1902-1988  Search this
Brook, Alexander, 1898-1980  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim, 1893-1967  Search this
Florsheim, Richard A., 1916-1979  Search this
Hammer, Victor Karl, 1882-  Search this
Hirsch, Stefan, 1899-1964  Search this
Hurd, Peter, 1904-1984  Search this
MacKendrick, Lilian  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 1876-1952  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Linear feet ((partially microfilmed on 3 reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
[ca. 1920]-1964
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, writings, photographs, art work, subject files, scrapbooks, and printed material.
REELS D211-D213: Ralph Mayer's correspondence is with artists, conservators, museum directors, publishers, art organizations, and others. Notebooks contain data on 19th century canvas makers and dealers of artists' materials. Also included are correspondence and a ledger regarding restoration and conservation of paintings, 1929-1963; files on Columbia University, the National Academy of Design, the Newark Museum, The New York State Department of Commerce, the Whitney Museum of Art, subway murals, and other subjects; and correspondence with the U.S. Department of Commerce regarding standards for paints and pigments. Photographs are of Ralph Mayer's paintings. Correspondents include: George Biddle, Isabel Bishop, Alexander Brook, Charles Burchfield, Richard A. Florsheim, Victor Hammer, Stefan Hirsch, Peter Hurd, Lilian MacKendrick, Kenneth H. Miller, Walter Pach, Abraham Rattner, John Sloan, and David Smith.
Bena Frank Mayer's papers consist of biographical material, clippings, correspondence, exhibition catalogs and announcements, and photographs of her paintings. Two scrapbooks contain printed material, letters, and photographs regarding the Mayers' careers.
UNMICROFILMED: Correspondence includes Ralph Mayer's, 1930-1964, mainly concerning the use of artists' materials, Bena Frank correspondence, 1910-1977, and letters concerning Mayer's book, The Painter's Craft, 1948. Among his correspondents are Josef Albers, Thomas Hart Benton, Isabel Bishop, Georgia O'Keeffe, Walter Pach, Paul Sample, John Sloan, and Frederic Taubes. Subject files are on the Artists' Laboratory, the Art Students League, Gustav Berger, Huntington Hartford, the MacDowell Colony, the National Academy of Design, Diego Rivera murals, subway murals, and other subjects. Writings consist of papers on commercial standards of paint, a typescript of The Painter's Craft, and lecture notes from classes Mayer taught at the Art Students League and Columbia University.
Art work consists of sketchbooks and sketches. Photographs are of the Mayers, their studios, family, friends, and paintings. Printed material includes exhibition catalogs and announcements, brochures, clippings, and posters. There are also six scrapbooks, ca. 1930-1940, containing clippings, photographs, letters received, and printed material.
Biographical / Historical:
Ralph Mayer: conservator, restorer, painter. Died 1979. Bena Frank Mayer: painter. They lived in New York. Ralph Mayer was educated as a chemical engineer, and spent several years working in the manufacture of paints and varnishes. He also studied painting at the Art Students League. His work in conservation and artists' materials led him to found the Artists Technical Research Institute in 1959. Author of The Artists Handbook of Materials and Techniques (1940) and The Painter's Craft (1948), and numerous articles. Taught at Columbia University.
Provenance:
Material on reels D211-D213 was lent for microfilming in 1965 by Ralph Mayer. Portions were subsequently donated along with unmicrofilmed material, 1972-1979, by Ralph and Bena Frank Mayer.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Art restorers  Search this
Conservators  Search this
Restorers  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Artists' materials  Search this
Art -- Conservation and restoration  Search this
Art -- Technique  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.mayeralp
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9dd9999e2-6a80-4d08-9531-d0f9c0ecb497
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mayeralp

Philadelphia -- Boxly

Former owner:
Penn, William  Search this
Pastorius, Francis Daniel  Search this
Du Barry, Joseph  Search this
Sheridan, Owen  Search this
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 1856-1915  Search this
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, Mrs.  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G.  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G. Mrs.  Search this
Architect:
Fielding, Mantle, 1865-1941  Search this
Landscape architect:
Gallagher, Percival  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G.  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Creator:
Vandu Zee, Harold (civil engineer)  Search this
Gardener:
Bender, Robert  Search this
Collection Creator:
Adams, Molly, 1918-2003  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Boxly (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Scope and Contents:
The folders include worksheets, photocopies of newspaper and other printed references about the garden, and photocopies of photographs of the garden when it was owned by Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Winslow Taylor (before 1951).
General:
"Boxly" was originally established by Joseph Du Barry (a friend of Joseph Bonaparte) as "Mulberry Farm." The property was the center of an unsuccessful silk industry in the early 19th century. It was later purchased by the famous efficiency engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor, who built the first undulating putting green (for golf) in America at the property. He renamed it "Boxly" because of its then 100-year-old boxwood bushes. The property was redesigned in the 1950s and 1960s.
Persons associated with the property include: William Penn (former owner, 1681-1683); Francis Daniel Pastorius (former owner, 1683-?); Joseph Du Barry (former owner, 1803-?); Owen Sheridan (former owner, 1833-?); Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Winslow Taylor (former owners, 1901-1951); Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. G. Peck (former owners and landscape architect, 1951-1998); Mantle Fielding (architect, 1901-1905); the Olmsted Brothers (landscape architects, 1901-1910); Percival Gallagher (landscape architect, 1901-1910); Harold Vandu Zee (civil engineer, 1901-1915); and Robert Bender (gardener, 1902-?).
Related Materials:
Boxly related holdings consist of 3 folders (4 glass lantern slides; 63 35 mm. slides; 17 photonegatives)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 00168, F. W. Taylor (and J.S. Clark).
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Maida Babson Adams American garden collection.
Identifier:
AAG.ADM, File PA009
See more items in:
Maida Babson Adams American garden collection.
Maida Babson Adams American garden collection. / Series 1: Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6be08fde3-fe26-40ad-8b94-da06b91c20fb
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-adm-ref1485

Newspaper and Journal Articles: General

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2f9c2563e-5c4a-47d6-abbb-276111be86a4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref141
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Newspaper and Journal Articles: General digital asset number 1

Speeches

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1940 - 1945
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 2: Professional
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2834c8d49-a046-4aad-8f4c-60f3d801b422
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref134
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Speeches digital asset number 1

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs
Patents
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Addenda
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but Series 11 and films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audiovisual materials. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Communications equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Patents
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Specifications
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b72e8493-288c-4bd0-84d5-011155da30a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
0.82 Cubic feet (consisting of 1.5 boxes, 5 folders, 2 oversize folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
1848-1963
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Engineering forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
General materials consist of items related to engineering, covering topics such as professional associations, building plans, caricatures of famous engineers, and a sample engineer's celluloid protractor. Under associations, there is a list of membership candidates for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1897. There is also a preliminary list and a final ballot list of applications to be considered for the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1894. The material is arranged alphabetically by subject.

Publications contain published matter related to engineering, including articles, directories, pamphlets and periodicals. Articles include "On the Loss of Head Resulting from the Passage of Water Through a 24-inch Stop Valve" from the American Society of Civil Engineering (1892) and an 1890 sheet from Engineering News. There are three editions of "The Engineer" directory, 1908, 1914, and undated as well as an undated directory of the latest engineering books supplied by The Engineering News Publishing Company Pamphlets include "Power and the Engineer" (no date), "Engineers' License Law" (circa 1891), "Earthwork and its Cost" (1903), "Tables of Circles and Other Specimen Pages from Trautwine's Civil Engineers' Pocket-Book" (1893), "The Mechanical Engineer: His Preparation and His Work" (1875), "The Investigation of Engineering Education and Related Activities (1934), "Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers" (1893), and "Engineers of America: an Encyclopedia" (1913). Under periodicals, there is a 1962 and 1963 magazine "Reproduction Engineer", "Third Meeting of the Michigan Association of Surveyors and Civil Engineers" (1882), and the "Journal of the Western Society of Engineers" (1910). The bulk of the materials are from the late 19th century and early 20th century. Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Engineering is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Engineering
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep892a6ae22-edd7-4459-bb60-13a5499053c6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-engineering

Related Publications

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1875-1963, undated
Scope and Contents:
This subseries consists of published matter related to engineering, including articles, directories, pamphlets and periodicals. Articles include "On the Loss of Head Resulting from the Passage of Water Through a 24-inch Stop Valve" from the American Society of Civil Engineering (1892) and an 1890 sheet from Engineering News. There are three editions of "The Engineer" directory, 1908, 1914, and undated as well as an undated directory of the latest engineering books supplied by The Engineering News Publishing Company Pamphlets include "Power and the Engineer" (undated), "Engineers' License Law" (circa 1891), "Earthwork and its Cost" (1903), "Tables of Circles and Other Specimen Pages from Trautwine's Civil Engineers' Pocket-Book" (1893), "The Mechanical Engineer: His Preparation and His Work" (1875), "The Investigation of Engineering Education and Related Activities (1934), "Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers" (1893), and "Engineers of America: an Encyclopedia" (1913). Under periodicals, there is a 1962 and 1963 magazine "Reproduction Engineer", "Third Meeting of the Michigan Association of Surveyors and Civil Engineers" (1882), and the "Journal of the Western Society of Engineers" (1910). The bulk of the materials are from the late 19th century and early 20th century. Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Engineering, Subseries 3
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering / Business Records, Marketing Material, and Other
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d6df27b3-e8ff-4c1a-808d-1c4694247a9f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-engineering-ref607

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engines

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
3.01 Cubic feet (consisting of 6.5 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversized folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Trade cards
Business records
Commercial catalogs
Reports
Business ephemera
Catalogs
Periodicals
Legal documents
Manufacturers' catalogs
Invoices
Advertising mail
Printed ephemera
Ephemera
Publications
Sales records
Trade catalogs
Sales letters
Manuals
Business letters
Letterheads
Advertising
Advertising cards
Receipts
Advertisements
Print advertising
Commercial correspondence
Patents
Advertising fliers
Printed materials
Printed material
Sales catalogs
Illustrations
Catalogues
Business cards
Correspondence
Date:
1829-1957
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Engines forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Covers all manner of engines including: boilers, gasoline, steam, water motors, automatic shut off, self-oiling, portable, vertical, mining, marine, diesel, crude oil, stationary, generators, compound, pumping, silent, alcohol, turbine, kerosene, hydrolic, caloric pumping, sectional, gasolene, iron man, single cylinder, slide valve, apparatus, cut-off, wind, horse, air cooled, valueless, two cycle, and the Corliss engine. Some of the following include engines used in portable sawing outfits, powered mills for grinding grain, feed cookers, boilers, injectors, and generators.

Materials represent a sampling of catalogues, correspondence, invoices, receipts, advertising and marketing material, bulletins, advertising cards, caricatures, seals, product specifications, booklets, price lists, company histories, order forms, prospectus, a few photographs, contracts, a legal opinion on a patent dispute (Novelty Iron Works, 1856), an operations guide 80-foot Elco Submarine Chacer Instructions, Care and Operations of Machinery Plant (Standard Motor Construction Company, 1917), patents and patent circulars, and a promotional diary. Many items are illustrated with print drawings and schematics of engines and associated equipment, plus some images of manufacturing facilities. No extensive runs or complete records exist for any single company or brand, and no particular depth is present for any singular subtopic, although some publications may provide general and historical overviews of a person, company, or a facet of industry.
Arrangement:
Engines is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Engines is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Diesel engines  Search this
Engines  Search this
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
advertising -- Brand name products  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Marine engines  Search this
Rotary steam engines  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Corliss steam-engine  Search this
Advertising, Direct-mail  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Diesel motor  Search this
Genre/Form:
Trade cards
Business records -- 20th century
Commercial catalogs
Reports
Business ephemera
Catalogs
Periodicals
Legal documents
Manufacturers' catalogs
Invoices
Advertising mail
Printed ephemera
Ephemera
Publications
Sales records
Trade catalogs
Sales letters
Manuals
Publications -- Business
Business letters
Letterheads
Advertising
Advertising cards
Receipts
Advertisements
Print advertising
Commercial correspondence
Patents
Advertising fliers
Printed materials
Printed material
Sales catalogs
Illustrations
Business records
Catalogues
Business cards
Business records -- 19th century
Correspondence
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engines, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Engines
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep860336834-ce45-44c8-9472-11151d04605f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-engines

J. & W. Jolly Company Records

Creator:
J. & W. Jolly Company.  Search this
Names:
Holyoke Water Power Company.  Search this
Lombard Governor Company.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Reports
Photographs
Place:
Ashland (Mass.)
Holyoke (Mass.)
Date:
1880-1924
Scope and Contents note:
These records document the activities of the J. & W. Jolly Company of Holyoke, Massachusetts. Included are turbine test reports from the testing flume of the Holyoke Water Power Company, 1890-1912; photographs of vertical water turbine assemblies and parts, ca 1880; a record of wheels, and turbines, ca1896-1921; and tracings of governors for turbines from the Lombard Governor Company of Ashland, Massachusetts, ca1900-1924.
Arrangement:
1 series. Arrangement: By type of collection and chronologic thereunder.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hydraulic governors  Search this
Hydraulic turbines  Search this
Hydraulic testing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Reports
Photographs -- 19th century
Citation:
J. & W. Jolly Company Records, 1880-1924, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1009
See more items in:
J. & W. Jolly Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b238f689-1400-418b-bada-b62bd89af96a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1009

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