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Symposium Welcome and Opening Remarks: Lonnie G. Bunch III, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution

National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
YouTube Videos
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Education  Search this
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
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National Museum of the American Indian
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A Decade of United Action, 1935-1945, National Council of Negro Women brochure

National Council of Negro Women  Search this
Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry Preston, 1917-2002  Search this
1 Document (8 3/4 x 3 3/4 inches)
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment:
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
African American women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
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Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.7: Subject Files / National Council of Negro Women
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Ben Shahn papers

Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Baskin, Leonard, 1922-2000  Search this
Delano, Jack  Search this
Evans, Walker, 1903-1975  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley, 1904-1994  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Robbins, Jerome  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
25.1 Linear feet
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Video recordings
Sound recordings
bulk 1933-1970
The papers of social realist painter, photographer, printmaker, and teacher Ben Shahn (1898-1969) measure 25.1 linear feet and date from 1879-1990, with the bulk of the material dating from 1933-1970. The bulk of the collection consists of over 14 linear feet of incoming letters from artists, writers, colleagues, publishers, art organizations, galleries, and universities and colleges. Also found are biographical materials, project and source files, printed material, artwork by Shahn and others, photographs taken of and by Shahn, interview transcripts, sound recordings of interviews and a motion picture film.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of social realist painter, photographer, illustrator, printmaker, and teacher Ben Shahn (1898-1969) measure 25.1 linear feet and date from 1879-1990, with the bulk of the material dating from 1933-1970. The bulk of the collection consists of over 14 linear feet of incoming letters from artists, writers, colleagues, publishers, art organizations, galleries, and universities and colleges. Also found are biographical materials, project and source files, printed material, artwork by Shahn and others, photographs taken of and by Shahn, interview transcripts, sound recordings of interviews and a motion picture film.

Biographical material and family records include a 1924 passport for Shahn and his first wife, Tillie, biographical sketches of Shahn, and award certificates received by him.

Letters are primarily written to Shahn from family members, artists, writers, colleagues, publishers, art organizations, galleries, and universities and colleges. Notable correspondents include Leonard Baskin, Alexander Calder, Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Joseph Hirsch, Leo Lionni, John Bartlow Martin, George and Marian Nakashima, Clifford Odets, Charles Olson, Robert Osborn, Diego Rivera, Jerome Robbins, Selden Rodman, James Thrall Soby, Raphael Soyer, and William Carlos Williams. A small number of scattered letters from Shahn can also be found throughout the series.

Project files document approximately twenty-one of Shahn's commissions, including murals for the community center at Jersey Homesteads, the Bronx Central Annex Post Office, the Social Security Building in Washington D.C. , and the William E. Grady Vocational High School. The files also document his involvement in the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Roosevelt, in addition to projects for schools, temples and private homes.

Financial and legal records include consignment records, loan agreements, royalty statements and receipts for artwork sold.

Notes and writings are by Shahn and others including Alan Dugan, W. H. Ferry, Theodore Gusten, and John Bartlow Martin. They include lists of artwork, many of which are annotated.

Artwork includes a sketchbook and several unbound sketches and lettering by Shahn, in addition to drawings and prints by others including Shahn's children, Mario Casetta and Stefan Martin.

Source files contain printed material and photographs relating to topics depicted by Shahn in his artwork such as children, dams, farming, houses, industry, mines and miners, slums, war and workers. These files also contain scattered photographic prints by FSA and OWI photographers including Shahn, Jack Delano, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Russell Lee, Carl Mydans, Marion Post Wolcott, Arthur Rothstein, and John Vachon.

Printed material includes news clippings covering Shahn and his career as well as subjects of interest to Shahn. Also found are exhibition catalogs and announcements for exhibitions for Shahn and others, and reproductions of Shahn's artwork including publications illustrated by him.

Photographs are of Shahn, his family and friends and colleagues including Alexander Calder, Jerome Robbins, Charles Sheeler, David Smith and William Zorach. Also included are photographs taken by Shahn of New York City and for the FSA in the 1930s, as well as photographs of artwork by Shahn. Photographs by others include one photo each by Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Russell Lee and Arthur Rothstein.

The collection also contains transcripts of eight radio, television and motion picture interviews of Shahn and a reel of 16mm motion picture film from the BBC-TV program "Monitor," in addition to sound recordings of interviews of Shahn by Tony Schwartz and Arlene Francis. Artifacts include a Christmas greeting in the form of a sock.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 12 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical and Family Records, 1879-1984 (Box 1, OV 36; 0.2 linear ft.)

Series 2: Letters, 1929-1990 (Boxes 1-25, 35, 43, OVs 36-38; 14.5 linear ft.)

Series 3: Project Files, 1933-1975 (Boxes 25-26; OVs 36-37; 1.03 linear ft.)

Series 4: Financial and Legal Records, 1934-1988 (Boxes 26-27, 35; 0.81 linear ft.)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, circa 1933-1988 (Boxes 27-28, 43; 1.72 linear ft.)

Series 6: Artwork, circa 1930s-1965 (Boxes 28, 35; 11 folders)

Series 7: Source Files, circa 1900s-1960s (Boxes 28-30, 35; 1.81 linear ft.)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1912-1988 (Boxes 30-33, 35, OV 39; 3.22 linear ft.)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1900-1969 (Boxes 33-35; 0.86 linear ft.)

Series 10: Interview Transcripts, 1943-1968 (Box 34; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 11: Audio and Video Recordings, 1959-1968 (Box 34; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 12: Artifacts, circa 1930s-circa 1960s (Box 34; 2 items)
Biographical/Historical note:
Ben Shahn (1898-1969) was a social realist painter, muralist, printmaker, photographer, illustrator, and educator who worked primarily in Brooklyn, New York and New Jersey. He was most active in the 1930s through the 1950s and worked on several federally funded arts projects, including the Farm Security Administration's photographic documentation project of rural America during the Depression.

Ben Shahn was born in Kovno, Lithuania and immigrated with his family to the United States in 1906 where he settled in Brooklyn, and later Roosevelt, New Jersey, after becoming a naturalized citizen in 1918.

Following an apprenticeship as a lithographer from 1913-1917, Shahn studied at New York University, the City College of New York, and the National Academy of Design from 1919-1922. He married Tillie Goldstein in 1922 and they had two children, Judith and Ezra.

Two years after Shahn's first solo exhibition at the Downtown Gallery in 1930, his Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti, a series of 23 gouaches about the Sacco and Vanzetti trial of the 1920s, was exhibited at the Downtown Gallery to critical and public acclaim. The exhibition marked the beginning of Shahn's reputation as one of the most important social realist painters in America. Shahn's commitment to social and political justice found a natural outlet in mural painting when, in 1933, he was hired to assist Diego Rivera on the labor and industry mural Man at the Crossroads, for New York City's Rockefeller Center. The mural was destroyed amid controversy in 1933 before it was completed, but Shahn had learned much about the art of fresco painting during the project and was inspired by the potential of the mural as a unique art form for presenting life's struggles and stories to a large public audience. Between 1933 and 1937 Shahn worked on various murals for other buildings, including New York's Central Park Casino (circa 1934) and Riker's Island Prison (1934), none of which saw completion. In 1937, however, the Farm Security Administration (FSA) commissioned Shahn to execute a mural for the Community Center in the town of Jersey Homesteads, later Roosevelt, New Jersey, which Shahn completed in 1938. Shahn settled in Jersey Homesteads the following year and remained there for the rest of his life. Other important mural commissions followed for the Bronx Central Post office (1939) and the Social Security Building in Washington DC (1942).

One of Shahn's assistants on the Jersey Homesteads mural was Bernarda Bryson, whom he had met in 1933 when she came to New York to interview Rivera about the Rockefeller Center mural controversy for an Ohio newspaper. Shahn and Bryson became lifetime companions and had three children, Susanna, Jonathan and Abigail, although they did not marry until shortly before Shahn's death in 1969. Shahn and Tillie Goldstein were divorced in 1944.

Shahn had enrolled with the federal Public Works of Art Project in 1934, and between 1935 and 1938 he and Bryson travelled across country as Shahn photographed poverty-stricken areas and documented rural life for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and the Resettlement Agency. Shahn's interest in photography developed in the early 1930s when, encouraged by his friendship with Walker Evans, he began photographing street scenes and people in New York City. He later used the images as the basis for many of his prints and paintings.

In 1942 Shahn began working for the Office of War Information (OWI) and was instructed to produce posters and pamphlets explaining to citizens the necessities of wartime, such as the need for secrecy and food rationing. Ultimately, only two of Shahn's posters were ever used; the rest were rejected as being too harsh for their intended audience. Shahn later worked for the Congress of Industrial Organization Political Action Committee (CIO-PAC), producing posters for the 1944 campaign to re-elect Roosevelt, who he believed in deeply. He was promoted to director of the CIO's Graphic Arts Division for the 1946 congressional campaign following Roosevelt's death, but that job ended when the election went poorly for the Democratic party.

Shahn returned increasingly to painting and a retrospective of his work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in 1947. He also became more active in academia as an accomplished writer, teacher and lecturer. He received honorary doctorates from Princeton University and Harvard University, and become the Charles Eliot Norton professor at Harvard in 1956. Shahn's Norton lectures were collected and published as the influential The Shape of Content in 1957. He also began to work as a commercial artist for a variety of companies and publications including CBS, Time, Harper's, and the Container Corporation of America. Shahn believed, however, that the artist's ideas and integrity must always be reflected in his commercial art. He refused to compromise on this point and was very selective in his choice of commercial commissions. Shahn illustrated many books and articles, designed sets for stage productions such as New York Export: Opus Jazz, choreographed by Jerome Robbins, and designed mural mosaics for synagogues, universities and private homes.

Since the 1930s Shahn had been represented by Edith Halpert at the Downtown Gallery, but his relationship with her was always contentious on the subject of payments Shahn received for commercial work, and became increasingly so as his income from such sources increased. Finally, in 1968, Shahn wrote to Halpert telling her that after ten years of "an accumulation of ill-feeling, discomfort and recrimination between us" he felt compelled to end their dealer-artist relationship.

By the time of Shahn's break with Halpert his health had begun to fail. He died of a heart attack following surgery in a New York City hospital on March 14, 1969.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds four oral history interviews with Ben Shahn: 1964 Apr. 14 interview conducted by Richard K. Doud for the Archives of American Art New Deal and the Arts Project in which Shahn speaks of his travels and work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and the American image as portrayed by FSA; 1965 Jan. 17 interview; 1965 Oct. 3. interview conducted by Harlan Phillips for the Archives of American Art New Deal and the Arts Project; and 1968 Sept. 27 interview conducted by Forrest Selvig. Most of these interviews have transcripts available online.

The Archives also holds the Bernarda Bryson Shahn papers, circa 1947-2005, and two oral history interviews with Bernarda Bryson Shahn: 1983 Apr. 29 and 1995 July 3.
Separated Materials note:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel N70-6) including addresses and essays by Shahn, seven royalty statements, and three letters from publishers. Many of the writings found on this reel were included in subsequent donations. All other lent material was returned to the lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
The Ben Shahn papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in several installments between 1967-1991 by Shahn's widow, Bernarda Bryson Shahn who also lent materials for microfilming in 1969. Jean Shahn, Ben Shahn's daughter-in-law and estate representative, donated additional material in 2018 and 2021.
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Painters -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Photographers -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Printmakers -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Educators -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Muralists -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Social realism  Search this
Motion pictures (visual works)
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Ben Shahn papers, 1879-1990, bulk 1933-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records

Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Ford-Bartlett East Greenland Expedition 1930  Search this
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Huntington Free Library  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Former owner:
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Force, Roland W.  Search this
400 Linear feet
Indians of North America  Search this
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Annual reports
Field notes
Ledgers (account books)
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Scope and Contents:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
The MAI, Heye Foundation records have been arranged into 21 series and 50 subseries: Series 1: Directors, 1908-1990 (1.1: George Gustav Heye, 1863-1962, 1.2: Edwin K. Burnett, 1943-1960, 1.3: Frederick Dockstader, 1950-1976, 1.4: Alexander F. Draper, 1972-1977, 1.5:Roland W. Force, 1963-1990, 1.6: George Eager, Assistant Director, 1977-1990) Series 2: Board of Trustees, 1916-1990 (2.1: Board of Trustee Minutes, 1916-1990, 2.2: Individual Board Correspondence, 1943-1990, 2.3: Subject Files, 1917-1990) Series 3: Administrative, 1916-1989 (3.1: Subject Files, 1904-1991, 3.2: Personnel, 1956-1991, 3.3: Legal, 1900-1989, 3.4: Task Force, 1976-1986, 3.5: George Abrams, 1980-1991) Series 4: Financial, 1916-1990 (4.1: Ledgers, 1900-1962, 4.2: Correspondence, 1905-1985, 4.3: Subject Files, 1916-1990) Series 5: Expeditions, 1896-1973Series 6: Collectors, 1872-1981Series 7: Registration, 1856-1993Series 8: Collections Management, 1937-1988Series 9: Curatorial, 1963-1990 (9.1: Curatorial Council, 1973-1990, 9.2: Gary Galante, 1979-1991, 9.3: Mary Jane Lenz, 1974-1994, 9.4: James G. E. Smith, 1963-1990, 9.5: U. Vincent Wilcox, 1968-1984, 9.6: Anna C. Roosevelt, 1973-1988) Series 10: Exhibits, 1923-1991 (10.1: MAI Exhibits, 1923-1990, 10.2: Non-MAI Exhibits, 1937-1991) Series 11: Public Programs, 1935-1990Series 12: Publications, 1904-1994 (12.1: Annual Reports, 1917-1989, 12.2: Publications by MAI, 1904-1990, 12.3: Publications by Other Sources, 1881-1990, 12.4: Administration, 1920-1988, 12.5: Archival Set of Official Publications, 1907-1976) Series 13: Public Affairs, 1938-1991Series 14: Development, 1927-1991 (14.1: Administration, 1979-1990, 14.2: Donors, 1978-1990, 14.3: Fundraising, 1973-1990, 14.4: Grants, 1970-1990, 14.5: Subject Files, 1976-1990) Series 15: Other Departments, 1914-1990 (15.1: Archives, 1914-1990, 15.2: Conservation, 1972-1989, 15.3: Education, 1921-1990, 15.4: Indian Information Center, 1977-1989, 15.5: Museum Shop, 1947-1989, 15.6: Photography, 1918-1990, 15.7: Physical Anthropology, 1919-1956) Series 16: Huntington Free Library, 1926-1991Series 17: Museum Relocation, 1969-1992 (17.1: Subject Files, 1979-1990, 17.2: American Museum of Natural History, 1980-1987, 17.3: Dallas, Texas, 1984-1987, 17.4: Smithsonian Institution, 1979-1990, 17.5: U.S. Custom House, 1977-1990, 17.6: Other Locations, 1974-1987) Series 18: MediaSeries 19: PhotographsSeries 20: Miscellaneous, 1837-1990Series 21: Oversize, 1873-1972 (21.1: Maps, 1873-1975, 21.2: Miscellaneous, 1884-1982)
History of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation:
The Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation was established by wealthy collector George Gustav Heye in 1908. Heye began collecting American Indian artifacts as early as 1897 and his collection rapidly increased over the next several years. Based in New York, Heye bought collections and documentary photographs, sponsored expeditions, and traveled and collected items himself. In addition, once MAI was established he sponsored numerous expeditions across the Western Hemisphere, including North American, Canada, South America and Central America.

From 1908 to 1917 Heye housed his artifacts on temporary loan at the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, Pennsylvania, in lofts on East 33rd Street in New York City, and at other depositories. In 1917, the collections moved from his apartment to their permanent museum location at Audubon Terrace, at 155th Street and Broadway in New York City. The museum, containing ethnographic and archaeological collections from North, Central and South America, opened to the public in 1922. Less than ten years later, Heye completed a storage facility in the Pelham Bay area of the Bronx, known as the Research Branch. Heye served as Chairman of the Board and Museum Director until his death in 1957. After growing concern about the financial and other management of the collections came to a head, the museum became part of the Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and in 1994 opened exhibit space in the U.S. Customs House at Bowling Green near New York City's Battery Park. The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland later opened in 1999 and the main Washington, DC museum opened in 2004.

Please visit the following links for more information about the history of the museum; History of the Collection, Collections Overview, and Significance of the Collection. Moreover, for information about how the museum currently cares for and exhibits the collection, please see the Conservation department and recent entries regarding Exhibitions and Conservation on the NMAI Blog. In addition, see portions of the NMAI Archive Center's collections highlighted in the SIRIS Blog.
Related Materials:
In 2004, the Huntington Fee Library, once part of the MAI/Heye Foundation, was transferred to the Cornell University Library Rare Book and Manuscript Collection. While this collection mainly contained books, it also contained a significant amount of archival materials. The Huntington Free Library's Native American Collection contains outstanding materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America, as well as contemporary politics and human rights issues are also important components of the collection. Further information about the collection and links to finding aids can be found here:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Tennessee  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New York (State)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Panama  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Jersey  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Mexico  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Missouri  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Nevada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Indians of Central America  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Texas  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Ethnological expeditions  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Museums -- Acquisitions  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Cuba  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Ecuador  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Arkansas  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Canada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Guatemala  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Haiti  Search this
Administrative records
Annual reports
Field notes
Ledgers (account books)
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
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Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
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Glass Lantern Slide and Lecture Scripts

Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens:
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens:
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
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The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Railroads

Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
60.54 Cubic feet (consisting of 131 boxes, 13 folders, 17 oversize folders, 20 map case folders, 2 flat boxes (1 full, 1 partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Railroads forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Railroad materials comprise the largest subject category in the Warshaw Collection. These materials document a major industry and important transportation system that was instrumental in the western expansion of the United States. Railroads opened the way for the development of many other industries including mining, farming and manufacturing. The earliest materials document railroad lines operating on the east coast of the United States in the 1830s. The United States did not have the technical and manufacturing capabilities of some of the European nations. Cheaper land for railroad right of way and a government policy that guaranteed loans and provided grants to railroad companies based on the amount of track laid, however, encouraged rapid growth. Railroad companies in turn would sell land to settlers. Materials in this collection include the advertisements created to lure settlers west by promising this cheap and abundant land. The railroads were instrumental in transporting goods from the farm belt to the east coast and to Europe thus making the country a major trading post. Railroads also expedited the movement of troops during the Civil War which was the first war to employ the rails. Later in the century the growth of the far west is facilitated by passenger trains linking east and west. As the rail network became more efficient and capable of transporting raw materials, the United States became a world leader in coal and pig iron production. Evidence of the transporting of goods is found among these materials. The affluence of the late nineteenth century is reflected in the amount of materials in the collection that promoted luxury travel by rail. The rise of great railroad fortunes such as those of Vanderbilt, Harriman and Gould soon followed industry growth, as did scandal and corruption which in turn was followed by government regulation in the form of the Interstate Commerce Act and railroad legislation during Theodore Roosevelt's administration.

The twentieth century witnessed great efficiencies in locomotive car and track design and large increases in freight ton mileage as is reflected in the materials. There was, however, failure or downsizing of many railroad lines. Total passenger mileage declined over the years due to competition from other forms of transportation, the rise of the labor movement, increasing government control, a reduction in profits and the

The material consists primarily of correspondence, reports, patent records, pass books, resort guides, timetables, maps, periodicals, articles, printed advertisements, tickets, photographs, postcards and images from railroad companies. There is also a substantial amount of material from manufacturers and dealers of railroad equipment and supplies and from railroad organizations. Reference materials including articles and periodicals are also included among the materials. The materials are divided into six series.

Railroad Companies forms the largest amount of material in this category. This series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is American railroad companies and subseries two is foreign companies.

American Companies document transportation service throughout the United States by the railroad lines including Albany and Susquehanna Railroad Company, Northern Railroad Corporation, Concord and Claremont, Contoocook River Railroad, Illinois Central Railroad, New York Central Railroad Company, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Sullivan, Central Vermont, Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road Company, Providence and Worcester Railroad Company, Pennsylvania Rail Road Company, Southern Pacific, Vermont Central Railroad Corporation and Union Pacific Railroad. There is a substantial amount of material from each company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company or railroad line (s).

Foreign Companies includes companies servicing countries outside of the United States. Countries include Canada, England, France, India, Ireland, Scotland, Mexico and Switzerland. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company or railroad line (s).

Manufacturers and Distributors of Railroad Cars, Equipment and Supplies includes scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, printed advertisements, patents, catalogues, bills and receipts. Many of the companies produced cars for the railroad companies but also supplied equipment and parts. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company.

Organizations, Associations and Clubs includes material from groups that represented the interests of railroad companies, employees and tradesmen. Organizations include American Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents, American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers, American Association for Railroad and Locomotive History, American Electric Railway Association, American Electric Railway Manufacturers Association, American Electric Railway Transportation and Traffic Association, American Iron and Steel Association, American Railway Association, American Railway Bureau, American Railway Master Mechanics Association, American Street and Interurban Railway Accountants Association, Association of American Railroads, Association of General Freight Agents of New England, Association of Railway Executives, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen- Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood Railroad Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, Convention of Railroad Commissioners, Eastern Railroad Association, International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Master Car Builders' Association, National Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents, National Council of Traveling Salesmen's Association of America, New England Association of Railroad Superintendents, New England Association of Superintendents of Steam Railways, New England General Ticket and Passenger Agents Association, New England Railroad Club, New England Railway Car Accounting Association, New England Summer Resort Association, North-Western, Railroadmen, Railroadians of America, Railway Business Association, Railway Car Accountants' Association, Railway Clearing House Association, Railway Club of Pittsburgh, Railway Educational Association, Railway Officials of America, Railway Storekeeping Association, Railway and Supplymen's Mutual Catalog Company, South-Western Passenger Association, South-Western Railway Association, Street Railway Association, Terminal Railroad Association of Saint Louis, Train Central Corporation of America, Transcontinental Association, United American Mechanics, United States Railroad Administration, Western Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents, Western Land Association of Minnesota, Western Railroad Association, Western Railways' Committee on Public Relations, Western States Passenger Association and the Yard Master's Mutual Benefit Association.

Images includes unidentified photographs, postcards, lithographs and sketches of locomotive cars, bridges, tunnels, accidents, collisions, depot stations, equipment, freight and shipping alternatives, Hancock Junction, horse-drawn railroads, memorials featuring trains, menus, tracks, employees working with trains, trademarks, cartoons, caricatures, illustrations from children's books, West Point and the second locomotive built in the United States. The materials that can be identified to a railroad company or line are found in series one. Most of the material are undated and is arranged in alphabetical order by subject.

General Files includes audit reports, Windsor Vermont Convention, income and expense accounts, mortgage bonds, bond offerings, export and import documents, financial records and stock lists, Florence and Keyport Company charter, Interstate Commerce Commission, legal records from states such as Connecticut, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, United States and Vermont patent records, Philadelphia Company balance sheets, Railroad Administration, Rand's Rating Agency, taxation documents, Thompson and Bachedler track and switch specifications, pass, time sheets, freight documents, maps, destination literature, tours, ticket sales, passenger rate sheets, checks, receipts and invoices, tickets, guides, maps, timetables, transportation of freight documents, pass books, passenger proportions, freight rates, free pass policy of numerous railroad companies, freight rates, freight transportation documents for Empire Line Great Western, Great Central, Bitner's Despatch Line, Merchant's Despatch line, National Despatch line, and various companies, time sheets, transportation of freight documents, maps and destination literature, maps and destination literature, map of Great Britain, Dinsmore, map of the United States and Canada Railways, fares and schedules, official documents, special trip offers, tariffs for passengers, freight and grain, tariffs for livestock and merchandise, passenger rate sheets, Walker's Railway tables, baggage checks, checks, receipts and invoices, ticket sales, Dover, ticket agents, tickets,

Publications includes articles, reports, clippings, histories, fiction, periodicals for the railroad trade and general periodicals. The series is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Articles, Reports, Clippings, Histories, and Fiction; Subseries 2, Periodicals for the Railroad Trade; Subseries 3, General Periodicals.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Railroads is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Business ephemera
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Railroads, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
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Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Railroads
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Online Media:

Biographical Material

Collection Creator:
Gorelick, Shirley, 1924-2000  Search this
7 Folders (Box 1)
Archival materials
circa 1942-2000
Scope and Contents:
Records include documentation of a 1974 Eleanor Roosevelt award from the American Jewish Congress, Gorelick's membership certificate for the National Association of Women Artists, biographical notes and resumes, including those from SOHO 20, a survey partially completed by Gorelick, and Gorelick's obituary. Also found are records of Gorelick's employment as an elementary and high school teacher with the New Jersey and New York City boards of education, and a transcript from Brooklyn College from which Gorelick earned her B.A. in 1944.
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Shirley Gorelick papers, 1939-2008, 2016. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.goreshir, Series 1
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Shirley Gorelick papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

Dorothy Shaver Papers

Shaver, Dorothy, 1893-1959  Search this
Shaver, Elsie  Search this
Lord & Taylor  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Costume  Search this
14 Sound recordings
32 Cassette tapes
1 Electronic discs (CD)
6 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Cassette tapes
Electronic discs (cd)
78 rpm records
Phonograph records
Professional papers
circa 1920-1959; undated
bulk 1945-1959
This collection contains the personal and professional papers of Dorothy Shaver, one of the best-known female executives in the 1950s; Shaver became the first female president of Lord & Taylor in 1945.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the personal and professional life of Dorothy Shaver. Types of materials include correspondence, clippings, biographical narratives, interviews, statements to the press, event programs, speeches, certificates, obituaries, awards and honorary degrees, souvenir publications, advertisements, scrapbooks, planning documents, travel itineraries, notes, invitations, seating lists, photographs, and audio recordings. These materials range in date from 1920 to 1959, but the bulk date is from 1945 to 1959. Those interested in the history of women in business, fashion merchandising, the department store Lord & Taylor, the "American Look" as a fashion trend, and the creation of the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art will find this collection useful. An oral history interview was conducted with Elsie Shaver, sister of Dorothy Shaver, in 1973.
Series 1: Personal Papers, 1920s-1959; undated

Series 2: Professional Papers, 1927-1959; undated

Series 3: Social and Professional Activities, 1928-1959; undated

Series 4: Photographs, about 1920-1959; undated

Series 5: Audio Recordings, 1946-1948; 1956, 1973
Biographical History:
Dorothy Shaver was born on July 29, 1893, in Center Point, Arkansas to, Sallie Borden and James D. Shaver, a lawyer and judge. After graduating from Mena High School in 1910, Dorothy went on to study at the University of Arkansas and the University of Chicago. She moved to New York City with her sister Elsie, an artist, in the 1920s. Acting as an agent for her sister, Dorothy sold some of Elsie's fashion drawings to the department store Lord & Taylor. Dorothy also promoted Elsie's "Five Little Shaver" dolls, which became a major fad after Lord &Taylor introduced them.

Impressed, Lord & Taylor hired Dorothy Shaver to head its Comparative Shopping Bureau, the main purpose of which was to spy on other department stores. Shaver eventually reorganized this department to create a Bureau of Stylists in an effort to improve Lord & Taylor's merchandising strategy and set the pace for style in New York. Her career with Lord & Taylor skyrocketed from there. In 1927, Shaver became a member of Lord & Taylor's board of directors and in 1931, she was named a vice president. In 1937, she was elevated to first vice president and on December 19, 1945, she was named president of Lord & Taylor, becoming one of the first female executives of a large department store. One year later, she was elected to the board of directors of the Associated Dry Goods Corporation, of which Lord & Taylor was a division.

Under Shaver's direction, Lord & Taylor became one of the first department stores to sell clothing specifically designed for different subsets of their customer base; teenaged girls, young adult women, petite women, and career women. She also introduced a bridal shop and a maternity department. She was known for her unique merchandising techniques, such as spraying perfume from the store's marquee in an effort to sell perfume and attract customers. Six suburban branches were opened under her leadership in Manhasset, New York, 1941; Scarsdale, New York, 1948; Millburn, New Jersey, 1949; West Hartford, Connecticut, 1953; Bala-Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, 1954; and Garden City, New York, 1956.

Shaver was also known for her early recognition of American fashion designers. She promoted the "American Look" as a fashion trend, putting American designers on par with French designers. Her efforts fueled the careers of many American designers including Clare Potter, Claire McCardle, and Nettie Rosenstein. In 1937, Shaver established the American Design Awards, an annual event hosted by Lord & Taylor highlighting the achievements of innovators in the fields of design, the arts, housing, education, the sciences, and international relations.

Shaver also helped establish the Museum of Costume Art, which became the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1944. She was chairman of the institute's executive committee and was a member of the Museum's board of trustees. In 1942, as a merchandising consultant to the office of Quartermaster General, Shaver supervised the design of new uniforms and accessories for nurses in the military.

Shaver received numerous citations and awards over the course of her life, including honorary degrees from Syracuse University (1947), Bates College (1949), New York University (1950), Russell Sage College (1951), Lafayette College (1957), and Wheaton College (1957).

Shaver suffered a stroke and died soon after on June 28, 1959; she is buried in Texarkana, Arkansas. Her gravestone has the year of her birth as 1897, four years later than her actual birth date. This error apparently was done on the instruction of her sister, Elsie, because the two women enjoyed misrepresenting their ages.
Bibliographic references:
Lord and Taylor advertisement in: Museum of the City of New York, Paris, and New York. Design Fashion Culture 1925-1940 Monacelli Press, 1928, p. 166;
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Freda Diamond Collection, circa 1945-1984 (AC0616)

Estelle Ellis Collection, 1944-1994, #423, Brownie Wise Papers, circa 1928-1968 (AC0509) California Shop Records, 1938-1942 (AC0572)

Setting the Precedent: Four Women Who Excelled in Business, featuring Freda Diamond, Estelle Ellis, Dorothy Shaver, and Brownie Wise.
Related Artifacts:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds artifacts relating to S. Newman Darby and his invention of the windsurfer, including an original board, boom and mast, and sail dating from 1964. See accessions #1998.0086 and #1998.0323.
This collection was donated to the Museum's Division of Home and Community Life by Dorothy Shaver's sister, Elsie Shaver, in 1973.
Collection is open for research but the original audio acssettes are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Contact the Archives Center for information at or 202-633-3270.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Costume design  Search this
Women in business -- 20th century  Search this
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
78 rpm records
Phonograph records
Professional papers
Dorothy Shaver Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection

Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader)  Search this
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
4.3 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
West Virginia -- 1930-1950
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950
circa 1920-1975
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.

The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.

Print and Manuscript Materials

The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.

The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.

The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.

De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the New York Sun, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)

The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.

Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).

Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.

Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.

The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.

The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.

De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.

Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.

In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.

Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.

Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.

There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.

Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).

Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.

A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.

Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.

Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.
Collection is arranged into seventeen series.
Biographical / Historical:
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.

Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.
Gypsies in the United States:
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.


The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.

Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.


The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.


The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).

Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.

'Black Dutch'

Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*

Hungarian Gypsies

The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Collection is open for research.
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980  Search this
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980  Search this
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.)  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950  Search this
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980  Search this
Portraits -- Gypsies  Search this
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Journals -- 1930-1950
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
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Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
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Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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Marcel Breuer papers

Breuer, Marcel, 1902-  Search this
Bauhaus  Search this
Marcel Breuer Associates/Architects and Planners  Search this
37.6 Linear feet
0.14 Gigabytes
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
The Marcel Breuer papers, 1920-1986, contain biographical material, correspondence, business and financial records, interviews, notes, writings, sketches, project files, exhibition files, photographs, and printed material that document the career of architect and designer Marcel Breuer.
Scope and Contents note:
The Marcel Breuer papers span the years 1920 to 1986 and measure 37.6 linear feet and 0.14 gigabytes. They consist of biographical material, correspondence, business and financial records, interviews, notes, writings, sketches, project files, exhibition files, photographs, and printed material that document Breuer's career as an architect and designer. This material reflects the prolificacy and diversity of his creations, from tubular steel chairs to private residences, college campuses, factories, department stores, and international, municipal, and corporate headquarters and complexes.

The Biographical Material Series contains documents that list or certify significant events or associations attained by Breuer during his career, such as résumés, licenses, and certificates. The number of awards contained in this series attest to the esteem in which he was held by his colleagues.

Breuer's Correspondence Series illustrates the interaction of his various colleagues and the operation of his architectural offices in the execution of their projects, many of which were in progress simultaneously. This series includes letters from Joseph Albers, Jean Arp, Herbert Bayer, Alexander Calder, Serge Chermayeff, Naum Gabo, Sigfried Giedion, Walter and Ise Gropius, Louis I. Kahn, György Kepes, László Moholy-Nagy, Henry Moore, Eero Saarinen, and José Luis Sert.

The Business and Financial Records Series contains documents which reflect Breuer's commercial transactions that do not directly relate to one specific project. Two project books pertain to 36 architectural projects and record their basic physical and financial details, such as site measurements and cost projections. There are also miscellaneous invoices and receipts, and one of Breuer's personal income tax returns.

The Interviews Series contains typescripts of interviews. Of particular interest is the audiotape interview of Breuer, who discusses his early years as a student and his first impressions of the Bauhaus. There are also untranscribed audiotape interviews of his colleagues György Kepes and Harry Seidler, and his patrons Mr. A. Elzas, and the Koerfers, who discuss their business relationships with Breuer.

There are address lists of colleagues and patrons and résumés from architects contained within the series on Notes, while the Writings Series contains typescripts of lectures and articles written by Breuer concerning architecture and its history. Writings by others are about Breuer and his work, including typescripts, galleys, and photographs of architectural and design projects used in the publication of the book Marcel Breuer Buildings and Projects, 1921-1961 by Cranston Jones.

The Sketches Series consists of 3 small, hand-drawn depictions of unidentified floor plans.

The largest and most comprehensive series houses the Project Files, which consist of approximately 300 project files containing letters, legal documents, and photographs that record the planning and execution of many of Breuer's most important architectural projects. These include the UNESCO Headquarters Building (Paris, France), St. John's Abbey and University (Collegeville, Minnesota), the IBM Corporation Research Center (La Gaude, France), the HUD Headquarters Building (Washington, D.C.), the De Bijenkorf Department Store (Rotterdam, The Netherlands), and the third power plant and forebay dam for the Grand Coulee Dam (Washington state). The file for the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York contains an interesting set of photographs of Breuer showing Jacqueline Kennedy through the construction site.

Of equal importance are the additional Project Files for the 100 residences designed by Breuer, including prefabricated houses such as Kleinmetalhaus and Yankee Portables, and commissioned residences such as the two Gagarin Houses (Litchfield, Connecticut), the two Harnischmacher Houses (Wiesbaden, Germany), Koerfer House (Moscia, Switzerland), the Neumann House (Croton-on-Hudson, New York), the Saier House (Glanville-Calvados, France), the Staehelin House (Feldmeilen, Switzerland), the Starkey House (Duluth, Minnesota), and the three Rufus Stillman Houses (Litchfield, Connecticut). There are also files concerning the four houses Breuer designed for himself in Lincoln and Wellfleet, Massachusetts, and in New Canaan, Connecticut.

The Project Files for Breuer's furniture designs are not as comprehensive as those for his architectural creations but contain many photographs of his early conceptions for chairs, tables, desks, cabinets, rugs, and tapestries.

The Exhibition Files Series contains primarily photographs of exhibitions in which Breuer participated. The extent of his participation is sometimes difficult to determine, because it ranged from designing a single chair, designing rooms for an apartment or an entire house specifically to be shown in an exhibition, to designing an exhibition building. Breuer was also the subject of a retrospective exhibition sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This traveling exhibition was seen in New York City, Chicago, Paris, and Berlin.

Images contained in the Photographs Series are of Breuer, including one of him in Philip Johnson's house, Breuer family members, and colleagues, including Herbert Bayer, Alexander Calder, Serge Chermayeff, Walter and Ise Gropius, and Matta. Three photograph albums in this series contain more than 1,000 photographs of 59 architectural projects.

The Printed Material Series houses general clippings that concern groups of projects, rather than one specific project. There is also a scrapbook of tearsheets concerning architectural projects, exhibition announcements, and catalogs for others, and miscellaneous press releases and brochures.
The Marcel Breuer papers are arranged into 11 series, based on type of document. Each series, except Project Files, has been arranged chronologically. The Project Files Series has been divided into 19 subseries of related architectual and design project types. The overall arrangement reflects Breuer's original arrangement. Each subseries or file group within is arranged alphabetically according to the surname of an individual, or a location name of a university. The contents of each project file have been arranged according to material type and a chronology that best reflects the progression of the project toward completion.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1920-1981 (Boxes 1, 36; Reel 5708; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1923-1986 (Boxes 1-6, OV 47; Reels 5708-5717; 5.3 linear ft.)

Series 3: Business and Financial Records, 1933-1980 (Box 6; Reels 5717-5718; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 4: Interviews, 1963-1985 (Boxes 6-7; Reel 5718; 0.4 linear ft., ER01; 0.14 GB)

Series 5: Notes, 1934-1976 (Box 7; Reel 5718; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 6: Writings, 1923-1981 (Boxes 7-8; Reels 5718-5720; 1.0 linear ft.)

Series 7: Sketches, circa 1920s-circa 1980 (Box 8; Reel 5720; 1 folder)

Series 8: Project Files, 1921-1986 (Boxes 8-23, 36-40, OVs 43-57; Reels 5720-5737; 27.6 linear ft.)

Series 9: Exhibition files, 1922-1974 (Box 34, OV 49; Reels 5737-5738; 0.8 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographs, 1928-1979 (Boxes 34, 41-42; Reel 5738; 0.3 linear ft.)

Series 11: Printed Material, 1925-1984 (Boxes 35, 42; Reels 5738-5739; 1.0 linear ft.)
Biographical/Historical note:
Marcel Lajos Breuer was born on May 21, 1902, in the Danube valley town of Pécs, Hungary, to Jacques Breuer, a physician, and Franciska (Kan) Breuer. His siblings were Hermina and Alexander. Throughout his life, Breuer used his first name only on official documents and preferred that his friends use his middle name, the Hungarian form of "Louis." The diminutive form of this name was usually spelled "Lajkó" and pronounced "Lye-ko."

In 1920, Breuer graduated from the Magyar Királyi Föreáliskola in Pécs. He had received a scholarship to study art in Vienna but took an immediate dislike to the Art Academy there, so searched elsewhere for training. He started working in the studio of a Viennese architect and soon became interested in training in the cabinetmaking shop of the architect's brother. Breuer was not satisfied with this arrangement either, and, upon hearing about the year-old Bauhaus school in Germany, he departed for Weimar in 1921.

Founded and directed by Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus combined the teaching of the pure arts with training in functional technology. Breuer received a master's degree from the Bauhaus in 1924, then studied architecture in Paris, where he first met Le Corbusier.

In 1925, Gropius enticed Breuer to return to the Bauhaus, now relocated in Dessau, by offering him a post as master of the carpentry workshop and a commission to design the interiors of the new Bauhaus buildings. Inspired by his new bicycle's handlebars, Breuer designed his first tubular steel chair, the Wassily chair, named for his friend Wassily Kandinsky. This chair and dozens of other Breuer designs for furnishings were mass-produced by the Thonet Brothers in Germany.

Two years later, in 1928, Breuer left the Bauhaus to begin a private architecture practice in Berlin, emphasizing prefabricated housing and the use of concrete in building. During this time Breuer worked on a designs for the Potsdamer Platz, Spandau-Haselhorst Housing, and a hospital in Elberfeld, and he completed work on the Lewin House and the Harnischmacher Apartment. Due to the deteriorating economic and political conditions in Germany, Breuer closed his Berlin office in 1931 and traveled to Budapest, Zurich, Morocco, Greece, and Spain. Returning to Germany in the following year, he began designing furniture in aluminum. Breuer established his reputation as an architect upon completion of the Harnischmacher House in Wiesbaden, a house notable for the use of contrasting materials and distinctive interiors.

The Nazis closed the Bauhaus in 1933. The following year, Breuer designed the Dolderthal Apartments in Zurich for the Swiss architectural historian Sigfried Giedion. From 1935 to 1937, Breuer settled in London, and became partners with F. R. S. Yorke. During this time he designed for the Isokon ("isometric unit construction") Control Company laminated plywood furniture that became widely imitated.

In 1937, Breuer accepted an invitation from Walter Gropius to join the faculty of the School of Design at Harvard University to teach architecture, and he moved to the United States. Among his students were Edward Larrabee Barnes, Ulrich Franzen, Philip Johnson, I. M. Pei, and Paul Rudolph. Breuer formed a partnership with Gropius in Cambridge, Massachusetts, from 1937 to 1941. Their firm was engaged primarily in the design of private homes.

In 1946, Breuer moved to New York City, where he established an office in an East 88th Street townhouse. The number of his commissions began to grow slowly, and it was during this time he constructed his own notable residence in New Canaan, Connecticut. He developed the bi-nuclear, or "two-center" house, which was designed to meet the living requirements of modern families by creating functional areas for separate activities.

Breuer's architectural reputation was greatly enhanced when, in 1953, he was commissioned to design, in collaboration with Pier Luigi Nervi and Bernard Zehrfuss, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Headquarters in Paris. During this year, he also began work on a series of innovative buildings for St. John's Abbey and University in Collegeville, Minnesota.

Between 1963 and 1964, Breuer began work on what is perhaps his best-known project, the Whitney Museum of American Art, in New York City. He also established an office with the name Marcel Breuer Architecte, in Paris, to better orchestrate his European projects. Also during this time, Herbert Beckhard, Murray Emslie, Hamilton Smith, and Robert F. Gatje became partners in Marcel Breuer and Associates. When Murray Emslie left a year later, he was replaced by Tician Papachristou, who had been recommended by Breuer's former student, I. M. Pei.

After several moves to increasingly larger office space in New York, Breuer established his largest office at 635 Madison Avenue and 59th Street in 1965. After suffering the first of a series of heart attacks, Breuer reduced his travel to Europe, eventually leaving the management of the Paris office in the hands of Mario Jossa.

Between 1965 and 1973, Marcel Breuer and Associates continued to receive many diverse and important commissions, including the Department of Housing and Urban Development Headquarters Building (Washington, D.C.), showrooms for Scarves by Vera (New York City), the IBM Corporation (La Gaude, France), the Baldegg Convent (Lucerne, Switzerland), Bryn Mawr School for Girls (Baltimore, Maryland), a third power plant for the Grand Coulee Dam, the Australian Embassy (Paris, France), the Armstrong Rubber Company (New Haven, Connecticut), and the State University of New York Engineering Complex (Buffalo). Breuer also designed residences including a second Gagarin House (Litchfield, Connecticut), the Saier House (Glanville-Calvados, France), the Soriano House (Greenwich, Connecticut), and a third Rufus Stillman House (Litchfield, Connecticut).

Due to failing health in 1972, Breuer sold his New Canaan house and moved into Manhattan so he could more easily commute to the office. By 1976, Breuer's health had declined further, and he retired from practice. The name of his firm was subtly changed from Marcel Breuer and Associates to Marcel Breuer Associates, and later to MBA/Architects and Planners.

Marcel Breuer died on July 1, 1981, in New York City.

This chronology below is based on evidence found within the Marcel Breuer Papers. The dating of projects reflects the range of dates encompassed by the files for each project, not the project's actual construction time. Most architectural projects have several equally significant dates from which it is difficult to assign a single date. Significant dates for a building may include the date of groundbreaking, the laying of the cornerstone, or the first opening day. When a project's dates are unknown or uncertain, a question mark in brackets appears at the end of the entry.

Missing Title

1902 -- Marcel Lajos Breuer is born on May 21 in Pécs, Hungary.

1920 -- Breuer graduates from Magyar Királyi Föreáliskola (high school) in Pécs. Breuer travels to Vienna to study art.

1921 -- Breuer enrolls at the Bauhaus, Wiemar, Germany. Furniture designs: tea table; wooden cabinet.

1922 -- Furniture designs: poltrana chair; side chairs. Exhibition: Bauhaus Exhibition, Berlin, Germany Haus-am-Horn

1923 -- Architectural project: apartment house (multistory duplex with continuous terrace gardens). Furniture designs: miscellaneous bureaus.

1924 -- Breuer earns a master's degree from the Bauhaus. Breuer studies architecture in Paris, where he meets Le Corbusier. Furniture designs: desk and bookcase.

1925 -- Breuer returns to the Bauhaus, now located in Dessau, and takes post of master of the carpentry workshop. Architectural projects: Canteen, Bauhaus-Dessau, Germany; Kleinmetallhaus (prefabricated house in steel); Gropius House, Dessau, Germany; Wissinger Apartment, Berlin, Germany [1925?]. Furniture designs: Wassily chair; Rückenlehnstuhl ("back-leaning chair"); tubular steel stool; modular system for cabinets.

1926 -- Breuer marries Martha Erps. Architectural projects: Gröte Residence, Dessau, Germany; Moholy-Nagy Apartment and Studio, Berlin, Germany; Muche House, Dessau, Germany; Piscator Apartment, Berlin, Germany; Thost House, Hamburg, Germany. Furniture designs:(modular) system for unit furniture; dining room chair; tubular steel chair; office chair; storage wall unit. Exhibition: Bauhaus Exhibition, Dessau, Germany; table for Kandinsky's Master's Studio.

1927 -- Architectural project: Bambos Houses, Dessau, Germany. Furniture designs: folding chair; theater chairs; tubular steel and wood desks.

1928 -- Breuer leaves the Bauhaus and establishes business in Berlin. Architectural projects: Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany; Spandau-Haselhorst Housing, Spandau, Germany; Elberfeld Hospital, Elberfeld, Germany; Breuer Apartment, Berlin, Germany; Heinersdorff House, Berlin, Germany; Melder House, Mährisch-Ostrau, Czechoslovakia. Furniture designs: folding chair; Cesca dining room chair; tubular steel coffee table; tea wagon

1929 -- Architectural projects: Fuld Factory Competition, Frankfurt, Germany; Kharkov Theater, Kharkov, Ukraine, U.S.S.R.; De Francesco Apartment, Berlin, Germany; Harnischmacher Apartment, Wiesbaden, Germany; Heydt Apartment, Berlin, Germany; Lewin House, Berlin, Germany; Schneider House, Wiesbaden, Germany. Furniture design: armchair.

1930 -- Breuer meets György Kepes in Berlin. Architectural project: Boroschek Apartment, Berlin, Germany. Exhibitions: Bauhaus Exhibition, Berlin-Germany, House for a Sportsman, Cork Industry Display; Paris Werkbund Exhibition, Paris, France, Wohn Hotel, Vitrine and Cabinets, and Klubraum Gropius.

1931 -- Breuer closes the Berlin office and travels in Europe and North Africa. Architectural project: Reidemeister Residence, Berlin, Germany. Furniture design: bookcase. Exhibition: Bauausstellung Exhibition, Berlin, Germany, Mitarbeiter Hassenpflug Apartment.

1932 -- Breuer returns to Germany.

1933 -- Nazis close the Bauhaus. Architectural project: Harnischmacher House I, Wiesbaden, Germany. Furniture designs: aluminum chairs; aluminum tables.

1934 -- Breuer divorces Martha Erps. Architectural project: Dolderthal Apartments, Zurich, Switzerland. Exhibition Building Competition, Budapest Spring Fair, Budapest, Hungary.

1935 -- Breuer moves to London and forms partnership with F. R. S. Yorke. Furniture designs: Isokon chairs; plywood nesting tables; plywood dining table. Exhibition: Heal's "Seven Architects" Exhibition, London, England; Designs for two chairs.

1936 -- Architectural projects: Motley Fashion Shop, London, England; London Theatre Studio, London, England; Clifton House (Crofton Gane House), Bristol, England; Sea Lane House, Angmering-on-Sea, Sussex, England; Ventris Apartment, London, England. Exhibitions: Royal Show, Bristol, England, Gane's Pavilion; British Cement and Concrete Association Exhibition, London, England, Garden City of the Future (civic center).

1937 -- Breuer and Yorke dissolve their partnership. Breuer moves to the United States to teach at Harvard. Breuer and Walter Gropius establish Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer, Associated Architects. Architectural project: Obergurgl Ski Lodge, Obergurgl, Austria.

1938 -- Architectural projects: Wheaton College Competition, Art Center, Norton, Massachusetts; Fischer House and Studio, Newtown, Pennsylvania; Gropius House, Lincoln, Massachusetts; Haggerty House, Cohasset, Massachusetts; Margolius House, Palm Springs, California. Furniture design: cabinet with hinged drawers. Exhibition: "Marcel Breuer and the American Tradition in Architecture," Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1939 -- Architectural projects: Black Mountain College, Black Mountain, North Carolina; Breuer House, Lincoln, Massachusetts; Ford House, Lincoln, Massachusetts; Frank House, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Exhibition: New York World's Fair, Flushing Meadows, New York; Pennsylvania Pavilion.

1940 -- Breuer marries Constance Crocker Leighton. Architectural projects: Chamberlain Cottage, Wayland, Massachusetts; Weizenblatt House, Asheville, North Carolina.

1941 -- Breuer and Gropius dissolve their partnership. Architectural project: New Kensington Defense Housing, New Kensington, Pennsylvania.

1942 -- Architectural projects: Plas-2-Point Demountable Houses; Yankee Portables.

1943 -- Architectural projects: South Boston Redevelopment Project, Boston, Massachusetts; Stuyvesant Six (housing development), New York, New York; Wellfleet Housing Development, Bi-Nuclear "H" House, Wellfleet, Massachusetts.

1944 -- Architectural projects: Van Leer Vatenfabrieken N.V., Office Building, Amstelveen, The Netherlands; 1200 Square Foot House, Florida; Geller House I, Lawrence, Long Island, New York; East River Apartments, New York, New York; Long Beach Nurses' Residence, Long Beach, Long Island, New York.

1945 -- Architectural projects: Eastern Airlines Ticket Office, Boston, Massachusetts; Smith College Competition, Dormitories, Northampton, Massachusetts; Unidentified Memorial, [location unknown]; Cambridge War Memorial, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Florida House, Miami Heights, Florida; Tompkins House, Hewlett Harbor Village, Long Island, New York.

1946 -- Breuer and family move to New York City. Breuer establishes an office on East 88th Street. Architectural projects: Small House Competition; Martine House, Stamford, Connecticut; Preston Robinson House, Williamstown, Massachusetts.

1947 -- Architectural projects: Breuer House I, New Canaan, Connecticut; Scott House, Dennis, Massachusetts; Thompson House, Ligonier, Pennsylvania.

1948 -- Architectural projects: Ariston Club, Mar del Plata, Argentina; Breuer Cottage, Wellfleet, Massachusetts; Kniffin House, New Canaan, Connecticut; Witalis House, Saddle Rock, Kings Point, New York; Wise Cottage, Wellfleet, Massachusetts. Exhibition: Low Cost Furniture Competition, Museum of Modern Art, New York, Cutout plywood chair.

1949 -- Publication of book, Marcel Breuer: Architect and Designer, by Peter Blake. Architectural projects: United States Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Headquarters, Paris, France; Clark House, Orange, Connecticut; Herrick House, Canajoharie, New York; Hooper Residence Additions, Baltimore, Maryland; Marshad House, Croton-on-Hudson, New York; Smith House, Aspen, Colorado; Tilley House, Middletown, New Jersey; Wolfson Trailer House, Pleasant Valley, New York. Exhibition: Museum of Modern Art Exhibition, New York, New York, House in museum garden.

1950 -- Breuer moves his office to East 37th Street, New York. Architectural projects: Alaska Air Terminal, Anchorage, Alaska [1950?]; Sarah Lawrence College, Arts Center, Bronxville, New York; Vassar College, Dwight Ferry House (a cooperative dormitory), Poughkeepsie, New York; Aspen House, Aspen, Colorado; Englund House, Pleasantville, New York; Hanson House, Lloyd Harbor, Huntington, Long Island, New York; Lauck House, Princeton, New Jersey; McComb House, Poughkeepsie, New York; Mills House, New Canaan, Connecticut; Pack House, Scarsdale, New York; Rufus Stillman House I, Litchfield, Connecticut.

1951 -- Architectural projects: Grosse Pointe Public Library, Grosse Pointe, Michigan; Aufricht House Addition, Mamaroneck, New York; Breuer House II, New Canaan, Connecticut; Caesar House, Lakeville, Connecticut. Furniture design: Canaan desk.

1952 -- Architectural projects: Scarves by Vera, Showroom, New York, New York; Levy House, Princeton, New Jersey; George Robinson House, Redding Ridge, Connecticut; Tibby House, Port Washington, New York.

1953 -- Architectural projects: Bantam Elementary School, Litchfield, Connecticut; Litchfield High School, Litchfield, Connecticut; Northfield Elementary School, Litchfield, Connecticut; St. John's Abbey and University, Monastery Wing, Abbey Church and Bell Banner, Collegeville, Minnesota; Torrington Manufacturing Company, Oakville, Ontario, Canada; De Bijenkorf Department Store and Garage, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Calabi House, Lagrangeville, New York; Crall House, Gates Mills, Ohio; Gagarin House I, Litchfield, Connecticut; Neumann House, Croton-on-Hudson, New York; Snower House, Kansas City, Missouri; Edgar Stillman House, Wellfleet, Massachusetts. Exhibition: Tile Council of America Exhibition, New York, New York, Patio-Bathroom.

1954 -- Architectural projects: New London Railroad Station, New London, Connecticut; Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Grieco House, Andover, Massachusetts; Harnischmacher House II, Wiesbaden, Germany; Karsten House, Owings Mills, Maryland; Starkey House (formerly Alworth House), Duluth, Minnesota.

1955 -- Publication of book, Sun and Shadow: The Philosophy of an Architect, edited by Peter Blake. Architectural projects: New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad, Train "X," Budd "Hot Rod," Budd "Flying Cloud," and ACF Talgo Locomotives and Passenger Cars, Rye Railroad Station, Rye, New York [1955?]; Connecticut Junior Republic Association Dormitory, Litchfield, Connecticut; Torrington High School, Torrington, Connecticut; Hunter College, Library, Classrooms, and Administration Building, Bronx, New York; Annunciation Priory, Bismarck, North Dakota; O. E. McIntyre, Inc. Plant, Westbury, Long Island, New York; Laaff House, Andover, Massachusetts; McGinnis Apartment, Biltmore, New York, New York; McGinnis House, Charlmont, Massachusetts. Exhibition: Good Design Exhibition, Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, Hyperbolic Paraboloid.

1956 -- Breuer moves his office to Third Avenue and 57th Street, New York. Breuer is the first recipient of La Rinascente's Compasso d'Oro Prize. Architectural projects: U.S. Embassy, The Hague, The Netherlands; Boston and Maine Railroad, North Station Industrial Building; Boston and Maine Railroad, Fairbanks Morse Locomotive and Passenger Cars; New Haven Railroad Station, New Haven, Connecticut; New York University, University Heights Campus, Bronx, New York; Torrington Manufacturing Company, Van Nuys, California; Wohnbedarf Furniture Showroom, Zurich, Switzerland; Hooper House, Baltimore, Maryland; Krieger House, Bethesda, Maryland; Staehelin House, Feldmeilen, Switzerland.

1957 -- Breuer receives an honorary doctorate from the University of Budapest. Architectural project: Westchester Reform Temple, Scarsdale, New York. Exhibitions: International Autumn Fair, Vienna, Austria, U.S. Pavilion; "Amerika Baut" ("America Builds"), Marshall House, Berlin, Germany.

1958 -- Breuer becomes a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. Architectural projects: El Recreo Urban Center, Caracas, Venezuela; St. John's Abbey and University, St. Thomas Aquinas Residence Hall, Collegeville, Minnesota; Halvorson House, Dryberry Lake Area, Kenora, Ontario, Canada; Recreational Apartments, Tanaguarena, Venezuela. Exhibitions: "Ars Sacra" Exhibition, Louvain, France; Concrete Industries Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, The Pavilion.

1959 -- Architectural projects: Whitby Elementary School, Greenwich, Connecticut; Ustinov House, Vevey, Switzerland. Exhibitions: "U.S. Architecture in Moscow," Moscow, U.S.S.R.; "1960 National Gold Medal Exhibition of the Building Arts," Museum of Contemporary Crafts, New York, New York, Photographic Displays of Various Breuer Projects; "Form Givers at Mid-Century" (traveling exhibition), Photographic Displays of Various Breuer Projects.

1960 -- Architectural projects: Flaine Ski Resort Town, Haute-Savoie, France; St. John's Abbey and University, Library, Collegeville, Minnesota; Brookhaven National Laboratory (for Nuclear Research), Upton, Long Island, New York; Torrington Manufacturing Company, Rochester, Indiana; Abraham & Straus Department Store, Facade, Hempstead, Long Island, New York; McMullen Beach House, Mantoloking, New Jersey.

1961 -- Architectural projects: St. Francis de Sales Church, Church and Rectory, Muskegon, Michigan; Temple B'Nai Jeshurun, Short Hills, Millburn Township, New Jersey; One Charles Center, Baltimore, Maryland; International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Research Center, La Gaude, France; Fairview Heights Apartments, Ithaca, New York. Exhibitions: "Bauhaus" [location unknown]; "New Forms in Concrete," American Federation of Arts (traveling exhibition).

1962 -- Publication of book, Marcel Breuer Buildings and Projects, 1921-1961, by Cranston Jones. Architectural projects: Torrington Manufacturing Company, Machine Division, Torrington, Connecticut; Scarves by Vera, Showroom, Los Angeles, California; Kacmarcik House, St. Paul, Minnesota. Exhibition: "Fourth Biennale of Present-Day Christian Art," Salzburg Dome, Salzburg, Austria.

1963 -- Herbert Beckhard, Murray Emslie, and Hamilton Smith become partners in Marcel Breuer and Associates. Architectural projects: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Headquarters Building, Washington, D.C.; Hoboken Terminal Building, Hoboken, New Jersey; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York; Grand Central Air Rights Building, 175 Park Avenue, New York, New York; Torrington Manufacturing Company, Nivelles, Belgium; Koerfer House, Moscia, Tessin, Switzerland; Van der Wal House, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exhibitions: "Recent American Synagogue Architecture," The Jewish Museum, New York, New York; "Churches and Temples: Postwar Architecture," American Institute of Architects, Pepsi Cola Gallery, New York, New York; "On Campus: Recent Buildings," American Federation of Arts (traveling exhibition).

1964 -- Breuer establishes an office near the Parc des Expositions, Paris, France. Robert F. Gatje becomes a partner in Marcel Breuer and Associates. Murray Emslie leaves, and Tician Papachristou joins Marcel Breuer and Associates. Architectural projects: Boston Redevelopment Parcel 8 Competition, Boston, Massachusetts; ZUP (Zone à Urbaniser par Priorité/"Zone Designated for Priority Urbanization") Community, Bayonne, France; New York University, University Heights Campus, Technology Building II, Bronx, New York; St. John's Abbey and University, Science Hall, and Auditorium, Collegeville, Minnesota; Yale University, Becton Center for Engineering and Applied Science, New Haven, Connecticut; St. Luke's Church, Fairport, New York; Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, Washington, D.C.; Scarves by Vera, Showroom and Offices, 417 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York; De Gunzburg Houses, Megève, Haute-Savoie, France; Rufus Stillman House II, Litchfield, Connecticut. Exhibition: "Art in the United States" Part III, ("Architecture in the U.S.A."), Brearley School, New York, New York.

1965 -- Breuer's Paris office (Marcel Breuer Architecte) moves to 48 rue Chapon in the third arrondissement. Breuer's New York office moves to 635 Madison Avenue and 59th Street. Breuer suffers the first of a series of heart attacks while in New York in August. Architectural projects: Interama (Community for Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay), Miami, Fla.; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; State School for the Mentally Retarded, Nassau County, New York; Cardinal Stritch College (Tri-Arts Center), Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mary College, Bismarck, North Dakota; University of Massachusetts, Murray Lincoln Campus Center and Parking Structure, Amherst, Massachusetts; Laboratoires Sarget, Corporate Headquarters and Pharmaceutical Plant, Bordeaux, France; Purdue Frederick Company, Corporate Headquarters, Bordeaux, France; Torrington Manufacturing Company, Swindon, England; Torrington Manufacturing Company, Administration Building, Torrington, Connecticut. Exhibition: "Architecture of Industry," Architectural League of New York, (traveling exhibition).

1966 -- Breuer and Robert F. Gatje move back to the New York office. Eric Cercler and Mario Jossa are left in charge of the Paris office. Architectural projects: Sports Park, Corona-Flushing Meadow Park, Queens, New York; Charlotte Hungersford Hospital, Torrington, Connecticut; Stables Competition, Central Park, New York, New York; St. John's Abbey and University, Student Residence Hall II and Student Center and Swimming Pavilion, Collegeville, Minnesota. Furniture design: Tapestries. Exhibitions: Svoboda & Company Furniture Exhibition," Selection 66," Vienna, Austria; School of Architecture Exhibition, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma; "Rugs," Stephen Radich Gallery, New York, New York; "Bauhaus: A Teaching Idea," Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1967 -- Architectural projects: Campus High School, Secondary Education Complex, Madison Park Urban Renewal Area, Boston, Massachusetts; Kent School, Girls' Chapel, Kent, Connecticut; St. John's Abbey and University, Ecumenical and Cultural Research Center, Collegeville, Minnesota; Cleveland Museum of Art, Education Wing, Cleveland, Ohio; Baldegg Convent, Mother House Institute, near Lucerne, Switzerland; Cleveland Trust Company, Bank and Office Building, Cleveland, Ohio; Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia Basin Project Third Power Plant and Forebay Dam, Douglas County, Washington; Geller House II, Lawrence, Long Island, New York; Kreizel House Addition, [location unknown]; Soriano House, Greenwich, Connecticut.

1968 -- Breuer is awarded the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects. Breuer is awarded the Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture from the University of Virginia. Architectural projects: Olgiata Parish Church, Rome, Italy; Harrison-State Development Corporation, Office Building, Bristol Center, Syracuse, New York; Armstrong Rubber Company, New Haven, Connecticut; International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Expansion of Headquarters Facility, Armonk, New York; International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Offices, Laboratories, and Manufacturing Facility, Boca Raton, Florida; Scarves by Vera, Showroom, 1411 Broadway, New York, New York; Rosenberg House, [location unknown].

1969 -- Mario Jossa is made sole director of the Paris office. Architectural projects: West Queens High School, Long Island City, Queens, New York; Harvard University, Bio-Chemistry Building, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Boston Office Building, 60 State Street, Boston, Massachusetts. Exhibition: "Le Bauhaus: 1919-1969," Musée National d'Art Moderne et Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, France.

1970 -- Breuer receives an honorary doctorate from Harvard University. Publication of book, Marcel Breuer New Buildings and Projects, by Tician Papachristou. Architectural projects: Australian Embassy, Paris, France; Bryn Mawr School for Girls, Baltimore, Maryland; State University of New York at Buffalo, Engineering and Applied Science Complex, Buffalo, New York; University of Virginia, Physics Building, Charlottesville, Virginia. Exhibition: ["Marcel Breuer"?], Szépmuvészeti Múzeum (Museum of Fine Arts), Budapest, Hungary.

1971 -- Architectural projects: Acquitaine Coast Resort, Port Contis, France; Atlanta Central Library, Atlanta, Georgia; Pine Ridge High School, Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York, New York; European Investment Bank, Kirchberg Plateau, Luxembourg; Torin Corporation, Tech Center, Building 1, Torrington, Connecticut.

1972 -- Breuer suffers another heart attack in Kabul, Afghanistan. Breuer sells his house in New Canaan and moves to 63rd Street, New York. Architectural projects: Clarksburg Public Library, Clarksburg, West Virginia; Southern New England Telephone Company (SNET), Traffic Service Position; Systems Building, Torrington, Connecticut; American Press Institute, Conference Center, Reston, Virginia; Afghanistan Hotels, Kabul and Bamyan, Afghanistan; Picker House, Lake Carmel, New York; Saier House, Glanville-Calvados, France. Exhibitions: "Breuer en France," Knoll International, Paris, France; "Marcel Breuer at the Metropolitan Museum of Art" (traveling exhibition), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York.

1973 -- Architectural projects: Heckscher Museum, Expansion Project, Huntington, New York; Defendon Pharma, Limburg an der Lahn, Germany; Torin Corporation, Sculpture, Torrington, Connecticut; Torin Corporation, Assembly Plant, Lawton, Oklahoma; Gagarin House II, Litchfield, Connecticut; Rufus Stillman House III, Litchfield, Connecticut. Exhibition: "Marcel Breuer at the Metropolitan Museum of Art" (traveling exhibition), Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois.

1974 -- Architectural projects: Strom Thurmond Courthouse and Federal Office Building, Columbia, South Carolina; Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority, Red Line Subway Expansion, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Exhibitions: "The Flowering of American Folk Art," Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, Installation designed by Breuer and Hamilton Smith; "Marcel Breuer at the Metropolitan Museum of Art" (traveling exhibition), Centre de Création Industrielle, Pavillon de Marsan, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, France.

1975 -- Architectural projects: Lawton Community, Lawton, Oklahoma; Mundipharma, Limburg, Germany; Andrew Geller Shoes, Inc., Showroom, New York, New York; Mt. Tochal Hotel, Tehran, Iran. Exhibition: "Marcel Breuer at the Metropolitan Museum of Art" (traveling exhibition), Bauhaus-Archiv, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany.

1976 -- Breuer retires from practice. Marcel Breuer and Associates becomes Marcel Breuer Associates and later MBA/Architects and Planners. Architectural projects: Sadat City Ministries Complex, Cairo, Egypt; National Museum of American Amusement, [location unknown]; Torin Corporation, Penrith, Australia; Mideast Market (fish, meat, and vegetable market), Kuwait; Cairo Airport Hotel, Cairo, Egypt; Bratti House, New Canaan, Connecticut.

1977 -- Mario Jossa becomes a partner in MBA/Architects and Planners. Architectural projects: BAFO Warehouse, Springfield, Virginia; ITT Palm Coast Condominiums, Flagler Beach, Florida. Exhibition: "Art and Contemporary Architecture," David Findlay Galleries, New York, New York.

1978 -- Breuer receives the Grand Médaille d'Or from the Academy of Architecture, France. Architectural projects: Litchfield County Courthouse, Litchfield, Connecticut; Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia River Basin Project, Visitors Arrival Center, Douglas County, Washington.

1979 -- Architectural project: Boyarsky House, Lawrence, New York.

1980 -- Breuer receives an honorary doctorate from the Parsons School of Design. MBA/Architects and Planners moves to 26th Street, New York. MBA/Architects and Planners sells the Paris practice to Mario Jossa. Architectural projects: Pall Corporation, Headquarters and Parking Structure, Glen Cove, New York; Philip Morris, Inc., Manufacturing Facility, Cabarrus County, North Carolina; Pittsburgh Convention Center Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1981 -- Marcel Breuer dies on July 1 in New York City. Architectural projects: N F & M Corporation, Jericho, New York; Garces House, Cali, Colombia.

1982 -- Herbert Beckhard leaves the partnership in November. Architectural projects: Xerox Corporation, [location unknown]; General Electric Company, Waldorf Towers Apartment, New York, New York; General Electric Company, Chairman's Office Competition, New York, New York; General Electric Company, Corporate Guest Facility and Helipad, Lewisboro, New York.

1983 -- Partnership now called Gatje Papachristou Smith, and is located in offices on lower Fifth Avenue, New York. Architectural project: 44th Street Precinct House, Bronx, New York.

1986 -- Partnership of Gatje Papachristou Smith dissolved.
Related Archival Materials note:
Additional blueprints and drawings by Breuer are located at Syracuse University.

A presentation book for the IBM Research Center in La Gaude, France, is located in the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
The collection was donated to the Archives of American Art in five installments, 1985-1999, by Constance Breuer, widow of Marcel Breuer.
The microfilm for this collection has been digitized and is available online via the Archives of American Art website.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Architecture, German  Search this
Architecture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Architectural drawing -- 20th century -- Germany  Search this
Architectural drawing -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Architects -- United States  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Architects -- Germany  Search this
Design -- Germany -- Munich  Search this
Sound recordings
Marcel Breuer papers, 1920-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Marcel Breuer papers
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Archives of American Art
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Oral history interview with Bernarda Bryson Shahn

Art front
Bryson, Bernarda  Search this
Kirwin, Liza  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
John Reed Club  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
37 Pages (Transcript)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
1983 April 29
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Bernarda Bryson conducted 1983 April 29, by Liza Kirwin, for the Archives of American Art.
Bryson speaks of her family background and education; writing for the Ohio State Journal; teaching etching and lithography; meeting Diego Rivera and Ben Shahn; the formation of the Unemployed Artists Group and her role as secretary, 1933; the Gibson Committee, the John Reed Club, and the Artists' Union in New York City; founding Art Front magazine; pressure from the Communist Party; demonstrating at the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1934; lithography under Adrian Dornbush; assisting Ben Shahn; her work as an illustrator; and her painting since 1971.
Biographical / Historical:
Bernarda Bryson (1903-2004) was a printmaker and painter from Roosevelt, New Jersey. She is the widow of artist Ben Shahn.
Originally recorded on 1 sound cassette. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 26 min.
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Painters -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Illustrators -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Printmakers -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Sound recordings
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
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Oral history interview with Edwin and Louise Rosskam

Rosskam, Edwin, 1903-1985  Search this
Rosskam, Louise, 1910-2003  Search this
Doud, Richard Keith  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
United States. Farm Security Administration. Historical Section  Search this
Lange, Dorothea  Search this
Stryker, Roy Emerson, 1893-1975  Search this
Vachon, John, 1914-1975  Search this
Wolcott, Marion Post, 1910-1990  Search this
Wright, Richard, 1908-1960  Search this
70 Pages (Transcript)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
1965 August 3
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Edwin and Louise Rosskam conducted 1965 August 3, by Richard Doud, for the Archives of American Art, at their home, in Roosevelt, N.J.
Edwin Rosskam speaks of his background and youth in Germany; coming to the United States; his education in painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; the early development of his interest in photography; getting his photojournalism career started; joining the Farm Security Administration and working under Roy Stryker; the view of America presented by the work produced by the FSA; photography exhibits he has done; the effect upon him of the people he met and photographed during his FSA career; the political impact of the FSA; applications and uses of the photographs produced by the FSA; the project's strengths and weaknesses; books and other projects he has contributed to. He recalls Roy Stryker, Dorothea Lange, Marion Post Wolcott, John Vachon, and the novelist Richard Wright. Louise Rosskam discusses the impact upon her of the people who were photographed, propagandistic aspects of the work, and the impact of the FSA project on photojournalism.
Biographical / Historical:
Edwin (1903-1985) and Louis Rosskam (1910-2003) were photographers from Roosevelt, N.J.
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 49 min.
This interview conducted as part of the Archives of American Art's New Deal and the Arts project, which includes over 400 interviews of artists, administrators, historians, and others involved with the federal government's art programs and the activities of the Farm Security Administration in the 1930s and early 1940s.
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Documentary photography  Search this
Photographers -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt -- Interviews  Search this
Sound recordings
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
Online Media:


Collection Creator:
Lazzari, Pietro, 1898-1979  Search this
1.7 Linear feet (Boxes 1-2)
Archival materials
1895-1998, undated
Scope and Contents note:
This series consists of letters exchanged between Lazzari, family members, and colleagues. Over one hundred letters from the Federal Works Agency and the Treasury Department Section of Painting and Sculpture concern post office murals for towns in Florida, New Jersey, and North Carolina. Five letters from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration contain 23 photographs of astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt preparing for an Apollo 17 mission to the moon. Lazzari also received at least one letter each from Jacqueline Kennedy, Duncan Phillips, Eleanor Roosevelt, industrialist John Rust, and socialist Norman Thomas.

See Appendix for a list of selected correspondents in Series 2.
Arrangement note:
Correspondence is arranged chronologically.
Appendix: Selected Correspondents in Series 2:
Aguilera, Francisco: undated (1 letter)

Albergo Saturnia, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Alberts: Russell Alberts-Laura Langdon Antiques: undated (1 letter)

Alexander Gallery: undated (1 letter)

Allied Publications, Inc.: 1965 (1 letter)

Alterman, Selma: undated (1 letter)

Ambasciata d'Italia: 1950-1973 (3 letters)

Ambasciatore d'Italia: undated and 1971 (2 letters)

America-Italy Society: 1956 (1 letter)

American Academy in Rome: 1955 (2 letters)

American Artists Professional League: 1949-1955 (3 letters)

American Battle Monuments Commission: 1959 (1 letter)

American Commission for Cultural Exchange with Italy (Fulbright grant): 1950-1954 (2 letters)

American Federation of Arts: 1951-1956 (2 letters)

American Red Cross: 1943-1945 (6 letters)

American University: 1947-1967 (5 letters)

Amici, Alfredo: 1948-1959 (6 letters)

Amministrazione Erdi Saverio Patrizi: 1969 (2 letters)

Andori, Adolfo: 1913-1916 (3 letters)

Anderson, Wayne V.: 1956 (1 letter)

Andrade, Victor: undated (1 letter)

Angelelli, Augusta: 1972 (1 letter)

Angiolillo, Giuseppe: 1967-1972 (9 letters)

Anson, Cherrill: 1998 (1 letter)

Appleby, J. Scott: 1952-1961 (9 letters); see Life Insurance Company of Georgia

Aquil, Preta: 1921 (1 letter)

Architectural League of New York: 1955 (3 letters)

Aristide, Zio (?): 1926 (1 letter)

Arndal, Kersten: 1970-1977 (2 letters)

Art Direction -- magazine: 1956 (1 letter)

Art in Federal Buildings, Inc.: 1943 (1 letter)

Art Institute of Chicago: 1944-1956 (11 letters)

Artists Equity Association: undated and 1949-1972 (7 letters)

Artists for Victory: 1942-1943 (7 letters including a prospectus for "America in the War" exhibition)

Artists of Washington, D.C.: undated (1 letter)

Artist's Guild of Washington: 1960 (1 letter)

Associated Architects & Engineers: 1957 (1 letter)

Associated Artists Gallery of Washington: 1961 (1 letter)

Associazione Artistica Internazionale: 1950 (1 letter)

Atomic Energy Clearing House: 1963 (1 letter)

Bache, Martha Moffett: 1949 (1 letter)

Backus, Florence: 1955 (1 letter)

Bader: Franz Bader Gallery: 1950-1976 (3 letters)

Baltimore Museum of Art: undated and 1948-1956 (8 letters); see Breeskin, Adelyn

Banca Commerciale Italiana: 1969 (2 letters)

Bankok Insustries, Inc.: 1972 (1 letter)

Bashir, Mir: 1955 (2 letters)

Bazzanella, Albina: 1926-1928 (2 letters)

Bedi-Rassy Art Foundry: 1952-1962 (4 letters)

Beer, Elsie: 1926-1928 (3 letters)

Bergeson, Mrs.: 1951 (1 letter)

Berkman, Jack: 1949 (1 letter)

Berkowitz, Ida and Leon (Workshop Center of the Arts): 1953-1955 (2 letters)

Berrier, Jean: 1971 (1 letter)

Betts, Luici: 1928 (1 letter)

Birnbaum, Britta: 1963 (1 letter)

Blake, Margaret Day: [1956] (1 letter)

Blanc, Peter: undated and 1948-1950 (4 letters)

Bly?, Edith: undated (1 letter)

Borea, Raimondo: 1971 (1 letter)

Borzani, Gastone: 1918 (1 letter)

Boulner, Bartlet: 1927 (1 letter)

Bowen, Elizabeth: undated (1 letter)

Brambilla, Helen: 1945 (1 letter of recommendation for Lazzari)

Breeskin, Adelyn D. (Baltimore Museum of Art): 1953-1961 (4 letters)

Broders, Dr. Hy: 1941 (envelope only; enclosing photo of unidentified friends)

Brooklyn Museum: 1956 (1 letter)

Brooks Memorial Art Gallery: 1952 (2 letters); see Rust, John

Broude & Hochberg: 1969 (1 letter)

Brown, James W.: 1934 (1 letter)

Bruce, Edward: mentioned in 3 letters dated 1938-1943

Bryn Mawr Club of Washington: 1961 (1 letter)

Buckingham Palace: 1971 (1 letter)

Bureau of Copyrights and Patents, Library of Congress: 1936-1955 (3 letters)

Burleighfield International Arts Centre: 1977 (1 letter)

Buxton, P. S.: 1969 (1 letter)

Cahill, Holger: see Works Progress Administration

Caldwell, Henry Bryan: 1951 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Calfee, William H.: 1967 (1 letter)

California: University of California at Berkeley: 1986 (1 letter)

California: University of California at Los Angeles: 1970 (1 letter)

Canali, Paola: undated (1 letter)

Cani, Edward: undated (1 letter)

Capital Park Apartments: mentioned in a letter dated 1962

Carbela: 1929 (1 letter)

Carbonati, Antonio: 1927 (2 letters)

Carnassale, Enrico: 1914-1916 (2 letters)

Carolan, Anna B. (The Little Gallery): 1947 (2 letters)

Casella, E. and M.: 1917-1918 (4 letters)

Caserma, Luisa.: 1914-1917 (2 letters)

Catholic University of America: 1964 (1 letter)

Caulfield, Patricia: 1949 (1 letter)

Central States Joint Board: 1977 (1 letter)

Chapel, Maria: 1970-1973 (3 letters)

Chase, Ralph H.: 1959-1961 (2 letters)

Child, Col. Sargent B.: 1968 (1 letter from Corcoran)

City of New York Department of Correction (Riker's Island mural): 1936-1937 (2 letters)

Civil Service Commission Club: 1949 (1 letter)

Clark, Joseph (Senator from Pennsylvania): 1962 (1 letter)

Clemens, Cyril ( -- Mark Twain Journal): -- 1971 (1 letter)

Cohen, Evelyn: see Lazzari, Evelyn

Cohen, Lester: 1956 (1 letter)

Colladay, Edward F.: 1932 (1 letter)

Conant, Howard (New York University): 1956 (1 letter)

Connolley, Robert Emmet: 1947-1950 (8 letters)

Console Generale d'Italia: 1965 (1 letter)

Constantino, C.: 1967 (1 letter)

Cook, Elizabeth: [1946] (1 letter)

Cooke: Hereward Lester Cooke Foundation: 1974-1975 (3 letters); see National Aeronautics and Space Administration; see National Gallery of Art

Cooper, Alice J.: 1927 (1 letter)

Corcoran Gallery of Art: undated and 1951-1981 (37 letters)

Corsi, Emma and W. Edward: 1928 (1 letter)

Cosgrove, Jessica (Mrs. John O'Hara Cosgrove): 1928-1930 (22 letters)

Cosgrove, John O'Hara (editor of -- New York World): -- undated and 1927-1929 (7 letters)

Costintin, Celestino and Emilia: 1916-1971 (6 letters)

Cotzia, Pasquale: 1966-1968 (2 letters)

Coughlin, Clarence John: 1948 (1 letter)

Crimi: undated (1 letter)

Crosby, Caresse (Crosby Gallery of Modern Art): undated and 1945-1969 (14 letters)

Crossley, Kay A.: 1966 (1 letter)

Cullen, Amelia: undated (1 letter)

Cusumono, Stefano: 1947-1951 (3 letters)

Daloni, Edith B.: 1928 (1 letter)

Damer, Veffarghi: 1919 (1 letter)

Damiani, Angelo: 1921 (1 letter)

Dane, C. K.: 1965 (1 letter)

Dean, Edward: 1940 (1 letter)

Debs: Eugene V. Debs Foundation: 1965-1966 (3 letters including 6 photographs with Norman Thomas); see United Auto Workers

de Chetelat, Mr.: mentioned in letter dated 1928

de Chirico, Giorgio: mentioned in undated invitation from Ambasciatore d'Italia

DeLano, Agnes: undated (1 letter)

De Medio, Americo: 1963-1976 (32 letters)

De Medio, Vincenzo: undated and 1970-1977 (3 letters)

Demiddi, Alberto: undated and 1972 (3 letters)

De Mont, Nany and Eugene: undated (1 letter)

Dernay, Eugene: 1945-1959 (4 letters)

Design in Steel Award Program: 1972 (1 letter)

Dictionary of International Biography: 1974 (1 letter)

Diller, Burgoyne: see Federal Art Project

Dipanfilo, Pio: 1949-1968 (10 letters)

Di Raimondo, Vicenzo: 1920-1928 (7 letters)

District of Columbia Board of Commissioners: 1959 (1 letter)

District of Columbia Department of Public Welfare: 1958 (1 letter)

District of Columbia Juvenile Court: 1964 (1 letter)

District of Columbia Recreation Board: 1963 (1 letter)

Dole (?), Louis: 1923 (1 letter)

Dollinger, Josef: undated (1 letter)

Donaldson, Leota L.: undated (2 letters)

Donaldson, Renee: undated (1 letter)

Douglas, Paul F.: 1951 (1 letter)

Dretzin, S. C.: 1950 (1 letter)

Draper, Warren A.: 1944 (1 letter)

Dumbarton College: 1949-1951 (3 letters)

Duncan and Duncan Chinese Shop: 1964 (1 letter)

Dunham, Dr. G. C.: 1944 (1 letter re: portrait of Dr. Sawyer)

Duproix, Eunice: 1928 (1 letter)

Durbin, Jack: 1960 (1 letter)

Editions du Griffon, Neuchatel, Suisse: 1964 (3 letters)

Edsor, Mary: 1928 (1 letter)

Elenbrock, Gretel: 1927 (3 letters)

Elkins: Stella Elkins Tyler School of Fine Arts of Temple University: 1956 (1 letter)

Eng, Ernest: 1959 (1 letter)

Ernesto Desideri: 1915 (3 letters)

Evening Star -- newspaper, Washington, D.C.: 1957 (1 letter)

Farmers Educational and Cooperative Union: 1944 (1 letter)

Fasola, Roberto: 1948-1949 (2 letters)

Federal Art Project: 1938-1939 (4 letters)

Federal Works Agency, Public Buildings Administration: 1940-1947 (70 letters re: murals for the Brevard, N.C. post office, the North Bergen, N.J. post office, and the Jasper, Florida post office, including a contract, 2 photographs, and 2 sketches for a mural)

Federal Works Agency, Work Projects Administration: 1941-1942 (2 letters)

Fellowship of Reconciliation and War Resisters League: [1945] (1 letter)

Ferargil Gallery: 1941 (1 letter)

Ferreri, Elena: 1938 (1 letter)

Figoullo, Adriano: 1912 (1 letter)

Fiore, Ilario and Titta: 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Fitzwater, Aldace: 1950 (1 letter)

Florentine Gallery: 1956 (4 letters)

Fogle, Bruce: 1927 (1 letter)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 1956 (1 letter)

Force, Mrs.: undated (1 letter)

Foreign Service of the United States of America: 1950 (3 letters)

Foresti, Arnaldo: 1948-1949 (2 letters)

Fortas, Abe: 1956 (1 letter)

Fortune -- magazine: 1944-1956 (2 letters)

Francis, Emily A.: 1951 (3 letters)

Franco, Johan: 1966 (2 letters)

Frankel, Samuel: undated (1 letter)

Freeman: Carl M. Freeman Associates, Inc.: 1963 (1 letter)

Frisine, Robert: 1967 (1 letter)

Frost, Phillip: 1981 (1 letter)

Fujita, Mr.: 1957 (1 letter)

Fulbright grant: see American Commission for Cultural Exchange with Italy

Fuller, Eve Alsman (Miami, Fl. post office): 1938 (1 letter)

Gabetti: undated (1 letter)

Galarza, Ernesto and Mae: (National Farm Labor Union; National Agricultural Workers Union): undated and 1944-1978 (27 letters); see Landon School for Boys; see Perkins, Milo

Galerie Internationale: 1965 (1 letter)

Galerie Schindler: undated and 1965-1972 (12 letters)

Gallaudet College: 1963-1970 (14 letters, including a contract)

Gallenga: 1951 (1 letter)

Gaspari, Mario P.: 1966 (1 letter)

Georgetown University Fine Arts Club: 1960 (1 letter)

George Washington University: 1965 (1 letter)

Giovannetti, Alberto: 1966 (1 letter)

Giovanni, Sebastiani: 1921 (1 letter)

Giricosnelli, Emilio: 1918 (1 letter)

Gobbi, Adolfo: 1928 (1 letter)

Goldberg, Dorothy and Arthur: 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Goldsmith, Alberto R.: 1947-1968 (3 letters)

Gonzales, Angelino: 1951-1975 (11 letters)

Gotham Book Mart: 1968 (1 letter)

Graham, John: 1948 (1 letter)

Granati, Pasquale: 1918 (1 letter)

Grand Central Art Galleries: 1956 (1 letter)

Grant, Blanche C.: undated (1 letter)

Grebanier, Barnard: 1961 (1 letter)

Greene, Hope Margaret: 1926-[1927] (2 letters)

Gualdi, Luigi: 1947-1949 (11 letters)

Guarino, A.: undated letters to Mabel McMahon and Guiolitta Sartori

Guggenheim: John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation: 1937-1971 (5 letters)

Guggenheim: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum: 1956-1960 (3 letters)

Gutheim, Frederick: 1956 (1 letter)

Haarlem House, Inc.: 1926 (1 letter)

Hahn, Rosemarie E.: 1961 (1 letter)

Halle, Kay: 1972 (1 letter)

Hammerle, Brooke: 1966 (1 letter)

Hansen, Jane: 1954 (1 letter)

Hardman, Virginia: undated (1 letter)

Harrison & Abramovitz, Architects: 1956 (1 letter)

Harrison, Charles H.: 1949 (1 letter)

Hart, Earl: mentioned in an undated letter

Hartley, Bettina: undated (1 letter)

Hartman Galleries, Inc.: 1973 (1 letter)

Hayward: City of Hayward, California: 1965 (1 letter)

Health, Education, and Welfare Employees' Association: 1962 (1 letter)

Hechinger, June: undated (1 letter)

Heilbron, Edna: 1972 (1 letter)

Heinemann, Mark: undated (1 letter)

Herzbrunn, Josef: 1949 (1 letter)

Heywood, Carmen: 1948 (1 letter)

Hollander, Cornelia: undated (1 letter)

Holvey, Sam: undated (1 letter)

Holy See: Permanent Observer of the Holy See: 1966 (1 letter)

Hom Gallery: 1972 (1 letter)

Horrocks, E. Joan: 1971 (1 letter)

Hotel Beau Site, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel de la Ville, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel Hassler, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel Pension Alexandra, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel Windsor, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hough, Edith Louise: 1952 (1 letter)

Illinois State Historical Library: 1965 (1 letter)

Il Messaggero: 1928 (1 letter)

Immigration and Naturalization Service: 1976 (1 letter)

Institute for International Education: 1963 (1 letter)

Institute for the Arts of the Archdiocese of Washington: 1978 (2 letters)

Institute of Contemporary Art: 1956 (2 letters)

Institute of Gerontology: 1970 (1 letter)

International Directory of Arts: 1982 (1 letter)

Isherwood, Christopher: undated (1 letter)

Istituzione Maddalena Aulina: 1966 (1 letter)

Jacometti, Nesto: 1972 (1 letter)

Jaffe, Norman: 1964 (1 letter)

Janus, Virginia: 1929 (2 letters)

Jelleff: Frank R. Jelleff, Inc.: 1949 (1 letter)

Jennoff?, Peter L.: undated (1 letter)

Jewish Social Service Agency: 1967 (1 letter)

Johnston, L. R.: 1932 (2 letters)

Jones, Dorothea and Stuart E.: 1955 (3 letters)

Jones, George Lewis: 1961 (1 letter)

Jopp, Fred Gilman: 1936 (1 letter)

Josephy, Diane ( -- Time): -- 1968 (1 letter)

Junior Council of the Museum of Modern Art: 1956-1960 (2 letters)

Jurin, Benjamin M.: undated (1 letter)

Kagy, Virginia and Sheffield: 1948 (1 letter)

Kahles, Jessie: 1940-1948 (3 letters)

Kennedy, Jacqueline: May 19, 1960

Letters from White House Social Secretary: 1961-1963 (5 letters)

Kerensky, Alexander: 1965 (1 letter)

King Features Syndicate, Inc.: 1943 (1 letter)

King, Marion: 1952 (1 letter)

King, Rufus: 1975 (1 letter)

Kneifel, Mr.: 1956 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Kramer, Herbert (Congregazione del Preziosissimo Sangue): 1950 (1 letter)

Krishnamurti, Jack: 1959 (1 letter)

Kurzland, Toby: 1991 (1 letter)

La Follia: 1926 (1 letter)

La Galleria: 1972 (1 letter)

Landon School for Boys: 1944 (1 letter re: Ernesto Galarza)

Landu, Consuelo: 1948 (1 letter)

Lanier, Fanita: see Ruffiner, Willis E.

La Revue Moderne: 1961 (3 letters)

La Rocca, Principessa de: 1968 (1 letter)

Latif, Bilkeer: undated (1 letter)

Law, L. S.: 1932 (2 letters of recommendation for Lazzari)

Lawton, Thomas: 1974 (1 letter)

Lazzari, Attilio: 1922 (1 letter)

Lazzari, (Grace) Elizabeth Paine: undated and 1920-1951 (69 letters)

Letters from Pietro to Elizabeth: 1928-1929 (52 letters)

Lazzari, Evelyn Cohen: undated and 1948-1965 (6 letters)

Letters from Pietro to Evelyn: undated and 1932-1966 (49 letters, including one with a photograph of friends)

Lazzari, Fernanda (sister) and Vittoria: 1915-1949 (11 letters)

Lazzari, Leno: 1918-1929 (2 letters)

Lebanon: Embassy of Lebanon, Washington: 1956 (1 letter)

Lee, Amy: Nov 01, 1974 (letter from Lazzari); 1975 (1 letter)

Lee, Dal: 1954 (1 letter)

Lee, Pearl: undated (1 letter)

Levy, Sid A.: undated (1 letter)

Library of Congress: undated and 1965-1982 (6 letters)

Licciardi, Pietro: undated (1 letter)

Licinio Cappelli: 1949 (1 letter)

Life Insurance Company of Georgia: 1954 (2 letters)

Little Gallery: see Carolan, Anna B.

Lobatini, G.: undated (1 letter)

Loccatelli, Giulio: 1956-1958 (2 letters)

Lombaro (?), Patricia: 1961 (1 letter)

Loughlin, Dr. John J.: 1936-1940 (2 letters)

Lousine, L.: undated (1 letter)

Luccia, Enrico: undated and 1928-1977 (19 letters)

Lucibello, Luigi: Jan 12, 1965

Lucifero, Alfonso: Jan 13, 1912 (letter from Ministero delle Finanze)

Macpherson, Suzanne: 1957 (2 letters)

Maddux, Yolanda A.: undated (1 letter)

Maezawa, Kezuko: 1956 (1 letter)

Magrini, Livia: 1967-1970 (5 letters)

Makovich, L.: 1950 (1 letter)

Manca, Albino (sculptor): 1971 (1 letter)

Mangravite, Peppino (Columbia University): 1956 (1 letter)

Mann: Charles Z. Mann Gallery: 1966 (1 letter)

Mannarino, Matina: 1968 (1 letter)

Maresciallo, Mr.: undated (1 letter from Lazzari)

Mark, Ginevra: undated (1 letter)

Marlor, Clark S.: 1981 (1 letter)

Marquis Company: 1950-1981 (3 letters)

Maryland: University of Maryland: 1972 (1 letter)

Mattei, Cristina: 1950 (a death announcement)

Mayfield, Mrs. David: 1938 (1 letter)

McAfee, Don: 1955-1969 (3 letters); see Watergate Construction Corp.

McGinnis, Paul: 1988 (1 letter)

McIlhenny, Henry P.: 1949 (1 letter)

McIntyre, W. A.: undated (1 letter)

McKeogh, Elsie: 1954 (1 letter)

McKonish, Margaret: 1949 (1 letter)

McMahon, Mabel: undated (1 letter from A. Guarino)

Meert, Margaret Mullin: 1948 (2 letters)

Meeting House Gallery: 1972 (1 letter)

Meguin, A.: undated (1 letter)

Menard, G.: 1928 (1 letter)

Men of Achievement: 1974-1975 (2 letters)

Mensh, Elizabeth: 1978 (1 letter)

Merritt, Polly: undated (1 letter)

Messina, Joseph R.: 1971 (1 letter)

Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1951 (1 letter)

Miami Museum of Modern Art: 1965-1968 (7 letters)

Miki, Suizan: undated (1 letter)

Mills, Harrington: 1933 (1 letter)

Ming, Wang (National Art & Frame Co.): 1968 (1 letter)

Mitchell, Austin: 1946 (1 letter)

Montgomery County Art Association: 1961 (1 letter)

Moore, Norman Perry: 1927-1928 (2 letters)

Moore, Paul: 1970 (1 letter)

Morey, Mr.: [1950] (1 letter)

Morott, Aristodemi: 1918 (1 letter)

Morrison, Lillian: 1971 (1 letter)

Mortot, Virgilio: undated and 1962-1964 (4 letters)

Morvidi, Maria: 1918 (1 letter)

Moskin, Ruth: undated (1 letter)

Mullins, Mrs.: undated (1 letter)

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: undated and 1955 (2 letters)

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston: 1964 (2 letters)

Museum of Modern Art: 1949-1973 (3 letters); see Junior Council of the Museum of Modern Art

Myers, Eugene Ekander: 1976 (1 letter)

National Academy of Design: [1939] (1 letter)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: 1962-1973 (5 letters including 4 photographs of artwork and 23 photographs of astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt preparing for an Apollo 17 mission to the moon; an Apollo translunar/transearth trajectory plotting chart; an Apollo lunar orbit chart; and an Apollo earth orbit chart); see Cooke: Hereward Lester Cooke Foundation

National Cyclopedia of American Biography: 1979 (1 letter)

National Gallery of Art: undated and 1956-1974 (7 letters)

National Housing Center: 1961 (2 letters)

National Investigations Committee on Aerian Phenomena: 1957 (1 letter)

National Society of Arts and Letters: 1952 (1 letter)

National Society of Mural Painters: 1940-1963 (3 letters)

National Student Art Tour: 1949 (1 letter)

National Sugar Refining Company: 1938 (1 letter)

Neale, Rosamund: 1961 (1 letter)

Neilson, Robert Hude: 1928 (1 letter)

Nelson, Helen Ewing: undated (1 letter)

New American Library: 1953 (1 letter)

Newlin, Ben: 1979 (1 letter)

New Society for Art and Literature: 1947 (1 letter)

Nichol, Jean: 1926 (2 letters)

Nichol, Nella: 1929 (1 letter)

Nilsen, Laila: 1946 (1 letter)

Nobili, A.: undated letter written on reverse of photograph of Nobili painting

Nuova Critica Europea: 1969 (1 letter)

O'Connor, Don: 1960 (1 letter)

O'Connor, FrancisV.: 1968 (1 letter)

Oggi: 1967 (1 letter)

Okamoto, Yoichi R.: undated (1 letter)

Oklahoma Art Center: 1969 (1 letter)

Oklahoma Museum of Art: 1988 (1 letter)

Olson: Charles Olson Archives, University of Connecticut: 1975-1976 (3 letters)

Oregon State Library: 1957 (1 letter)

Orlando, Teresa: undated and 1949-1971 (3 letters)

Ottiani, Giuseppe: 1909 (1 letter)

Palmieri, Renato: 1928 (1 letter)

Park, Marlene: 1979 (1 letter)

Pavia, Dagoberto: 1959 (1 letter)

Pavia, Goffredo: 1921-1924 (7 letters)

Palmieri, Renato: 1957 (1 letter)

Palombi, Angelo: 1921 (1 letter)

Pan American Union: 1944-1945 (2 letters)

Parsons, Betty (Betty Parsons Gallery): undated and 1949-1973 (9 letters)

Passedoit Gallery: 1956 (1 letter)

Pensione Boos, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Pensione Girardet, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Perentine, Giuseppe (Nino): 1927-1950 (3 letters)

Peresson, I.: 1971 (1 letter)

Peretti, Luigi: undated (1 letter)

Perkins, Milo: 1944 (1 letter re: Ernesto Galarza)

Perna, Giorgio: undated (1 letter)

Peterson, Esther: 1978 (1 letter)

Philadelphia Department of Public Property: 1960 (1 letter)

Philadelphia Museum of Art: 1965-1966 (3 letters)

Phillips, Duncan: 1954 (1 letter)

Pirucchini, Maria: 1927 (1 letter)

Pope Paul VI: mentioned in 7 letters dated 1966, including 2 photographs of Lazzari with bust of the Pope; see Fiore, Ilario; see Giovannetti, Alberto; see Institute for the Arts of the Archdiocese of Washington

Preissler, Audrey: 1970 (1 letter)

Print Collector's Quarterly: 1949 (1 letter)

Print Council of America: 1963 (1 letter)

Prospersin, Eugenio: 1941 (1 letter)

Pyramid Club: 1956 (1 letter)

Quick, Robert B.: 1972 (1 letter)

Quinzi, Amerigo: 1920-1925 (2 letters)

Rady, Cabell: 1958 (1 letter)

Rahill, William Allen: 1954 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Raker, J. M.: 1928 (1 letter)

Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center: undated (1 letter)

Randall, Megan: 1975 (1 letter)

Rassegna Nazionale di Arti Figurative: 1948 (1 letter)

Rattu, Salvatore: undated and 1926-1966 (13 letters)

Reeves, Rosser: 1947 (1 letter)

The Reporter -- magazine: 1956 (1 letter)

Reuther, Victor: see United Auto Workers

Reynolds, D.: 1939 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Rhine, J. B.: 1949 (1 letter)

Ricca, Roberta: undated (1 letter)

Rieder (?), Baronessa: 1934 (1 letter)

Rioffo, Angela: 1959-1962 (2 letters including 2 photographs of friends)

River Road Gallery, Louisville, Ky.: 1941-1943 (4 letters)

Rivoi, Swami: undated (1 letter)

Robson, John: 1958 (1 letter)

Rocca Sinibalda: 1920 (1 letter)

Rockefeller, Nelson A.: 1946 (1 letter)

Rodman, Selden: undated (1 letter)

Rollins College: 1933-1942 (4 letters)

Roosevelt, Eleanor: Nov 09, 1945 and a letter dated 1964 concerns a viewing of the Roosevelt portrait bust); see White House; see Roosevelt Library

Roosevelt: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park: 1963-1965 (8 letters, including typescripts of speeches); see United Auto Workers

Ross, Fred: 1949 (1 letter)

Rosso, Giulio: undated letter of recommendation by Lazzari

Roth, Maurice: 1993 (1 letter including 2 photographs of Lazzari's work)

Rothschild, Anselm A.: undated (1 letter)

Rowan, Edward: see Federal Works Agency

Rowan, Leata: undated (1 letter)

Rowantrees Pavilion: see Thompson, Lin

Rowin, Fran: 1976 (2 letters)

Rowland, Creelman: undated (1 letter)

Ruffner, Willis E. (lawyer for Fanita Lanier): 1944 (1 letter)

Russell, N. F. S.: 1932 (1 letter)

Rust, John and Thelma: 1952-1954 (38 letters, including an application from Lazzari for a grant from the John Rust Foundation, including a clipping about Rust and 3 photographs of cotton pickers); see West Tennessee Historical Society

St. Louis, Bertha: undated (1 letter)

Sanderson, W. A. (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation): 1958 (1 letter)

San Francisco Museum of Art: 1967 (1 letter)

Sartori, Guiolitta: undated letter from A. Guarino

Satterlee & Smith, Architects: 1962 (1 letter)

Savini, Renata: 1965-1967 (3 letters)

Scheetz, June Rice: undated (1 letter)

Schoenberg, Rose: 1967 (1 letter)

Schurmer, Zaira E.: 1947 (2 letters)

Schwarz -- magazine: 1957 (1 letter)

Scigliano, Peppino Cosenza: 1910 (2 letters)

Sebastiani, G.: undated (1 letter)

Selmi, Gabriella: undated (1 letter)

Sevareid, Eric: 1956 (1 letter)

Sheen, Rev. Fulton J.: 1970 (1 letter)

Simotti, Aristide (friend who was prisoner of war): 1911-1925 (62 letters)

Sinisca: undated (1 letter)

Sirony, Simone: 1955-1964 (8 letters)

Smart: David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art: 1991-1996 (4 letters)

Smith, George: 1926-1927 (2 letters)

Smithsonian Institution: undated and 1947-1976 (8 letters)

Snyder, Nell H.: 1969 (1 letter)

Society of American Etchers: 1944 (1 letter)

Society of American Graphic Artists: 1956 (2 letters)

Society of Washington Artists: 1960-1961 (2letters)

Society of Washington Printmakers: 1976 (2 letters)

Sound View Press: 1991 (1 letter)

Spiral Group: see Strantin, Wally

Stevenson, Adlai: see White House

Stewart, George: 1932 (1 letter)

Strantin, Wally and Edward: 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Stroppoghetti, Arturo: 1923 (1 letter)

Stubbs, Kenneth: [1948] (1 letter)

Studer, Alfredo and Clara: 1947-1976 (15 letters)

Sweeney, James Johnson: 1949 (1 letter)

Syracuse University: 1964 (1 letter)

Taylor, Prentiss: 1972 (1 letter)

Teller, Douglas H.: 1963 (1 letter)

Terenz, Don Umberto: 1960 (1 letter)

Thames and Hudson, Ltd.: 1974 (1 letter)

Thomas, Norman: 1963-1965 (2 letters)

Thomen, Luis Francisco (Ambassador from Dominican Republic): undated (1 letter)

Thompson, Lin: 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Thurston, Charles D.: 1927-1928 (4 letters)

Tibet Society: 1975 (1 letter)

Timpenado, Cesare: 1927 (1 letter)

Tirrocelli (?), A.: 1917 (1 letter)

Toledo Museum of Art: 1957 (1 letter)

Toscanini, Arturo: mentioned in 2 letters dated 1928

Tosello, Alfredo: 1947-1949 (2 letters)

Tosi, Elisa: 1929 (1 letter)

Treasury Department, Section of Painting and Sculpture: 1936-1939 (53 letters concerning the Arlington, N.J. post office, the Sanford, N.C. post office, and the New York World's Fair Sculpture Competition)

Truman: Harry S Truman Library at Independence, Mo.: 1963 (1 letter)

Turkish Embassy, Washington, D.C.: 1958-1959 (4 letters including a photograph of Lazzari)

Tyler, Richard O.: 1958 (1 letter)

Ugolini, Luigi: 1969 (1 letter)

Ungar, Harold and Mildred: 1965 (1 letter)

United Auto Workers (U.A.W.): 1963-1971 (9 letters); see Debs: Eugene V. Debs Foundation

United Scenic Artists of America: [1939] (1 letter)

United States Civil Service Commission: 1944 (2 letters)

United States Department of Agriculture: 1945-1967 (10 letters)

United States Department of Labor: undated (1 letter)

United States Information Agency: 1959 (1 letter)

United States Information Service: Jul 09, 1964

University Settlement: 1946 (2 letters)

Upham, Elizabeth: 1948 (1 letter)

Van De Bries, Enri: 1973 (1 letter)

Vangell?, Raphaele: undated (1 letter)

Van Smith, Anne: 1949 (1 letter)

Venice Biennale: 1948-1954 (3 letters)

Vermont Marble Company: 1955 (1 letter)

Veschi, Signora: undated (1 letter)

Vickery, Ruth Bacon: 1929 (1 letter)

Victoria Hotel, Rome: 1928 (2 letters)

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts: 1956 (1 letter)

Visher, John: 1956 (1 letter)

Vosseller, Harold: 1948 (1 letter)

Wagner, Edward A. (Dell Publishing Co.) and Julia: 1954-1976 (5 letters)

Waldo, M. V.: 1945 (1 letter)

Warren, Susan and Louise: undated (1 letter)

Washington Gallery of Modern Art: undated (1 letter)

Washington is Wonderful: see Jones, Dorothea and Stuart E.

Washington-Lee High School: 1961 (1 letter)

Washington, Walter E. (Mayor of Washington, D.C.): 1976 (1 letter); Oct 19, 1976 (1 letter from Franz Bader)

Washington Water Color Association: undated and 1961 (3 letters)

Watergate Construction Corp.: 1968-1969 (4 letters); see Don McAfee

Watson, Ernest W. (editor, -- Art Instruction -- and -- American Artist -- ): 1939-1949 (3 letters)

Watson, Forbes: see Art in Federal Buildings, Inc.

Weil, Frank L.: 1926-1936 (2 letters)

Weinmann, Eric: 1980 (1 letter including a photograph of artwork)

Wells, John K. (Equitable Life Assurance Society): undated (1 letter)

West Tennessee Historical Society: 1952 (3 letters); see Rust, John

Weyhe: E. Weyhe Gallery: 1949 (1 letter)

White, Sarah: 1929 (1 letter)

Whitney Museum of American Art: 1939-1980 (11 letters)

Whyte Gallery: 1944-1950 (2 letters)

Widdemer, Kenneth D.: 1928 (1 letter)

White House: 1965-1968 (4 letters concerning the presentations of the busts of Eleanor Roosevelt and Adlai Stevenson)

Whittemore, Manvel: 1936 (1 letter enclosing poems)

Who's Who in America: 1979-1980 (2 letters)

Works Progress Administration: 1937-1938 (4 letters)

Workshop Center of the Arts: 1953 (1 letter); see Berkowitz, Ida and Leon

WRC Radio: 1966 (1 letter including a photograph of Lazzari)

WRC-TV: 1967 (1 letter)

Young, June: undated (1 letter)

Young, Louis Butler: 1971 (1 letter)

Zerega, Andrea: 1972-1976 (4 letters, including a résumé)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Pietro Lazzari papers, 1878-1998. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.lazzpiet, Series 2
See more items in:
Pietro Lazzari papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

Newsclippings (see also oversized, Boxes 154, 163)

Collection Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Box 6, Folder 14
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection / Series 2: Military Career / 2.3: Materials Arranged by Posting / 2.3.9: Lockbourne AAB/AAF/AFB (Lockbourne, OH), Base Commander
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
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Newspaper clippings

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Box 12, Folder 5
Archival materials
1944 - 1945
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
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Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 2: Professional
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
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Technology Review

Collection Creator:
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991  Search this
Box 10, Folder 17
Archival materials
November 1961
Scope and Contents:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, vol. 32, no. 8, July 1930; vol. 63, no. 7, May 1961; and vol. 64, no. 1, November 1961.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection, NASM.1989.0104, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection / Series 1: Professional Materials / 1.8: Magazines
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
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Shahn, Ben

Collection Creator:
Solomon, Alan R., 1920-1970  Search this
Box 5, Folder 28
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Alan R. Solomon papers, 1907-1970, bulk 1944-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alan R. Solomon papers
Alan R. Solomon papers / Series 6: Subject Files / Painters and Sculptors
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
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Collection Creator:
Berryman family (Washington, D. C.)  Search this
Archival materials
1829-1953, undated
Scope and Contents note:
This series includes a scrapbook of greeting cards to family members illustrated by Clifford and Jim Berryman, but primarily contains letters written by presidents, notable politicians, and other political cartoonists, discussing Clifford Berryman's work.

See Appendix for list of notable correspondents from Series 1.3
Appendix: Notable Correspondents from Series 1.3.:
Adams, Alva B. (Senator, Colorado): 18 Oct 1938, 05 Apr 1941

Akerson, George (Secretary to the President): 10 Jul 1929

Albright, Horace M. (Director, National Park Service): 02 Dec 1932

Alexander, D. (Congressman): undated

Allen, Henry J. (Senator, Kansas): May 13, 1930

Allison, William B. (Senator, Iowa): 03 Jun 1906

Alston, Frank H., Jr. (artist): 22 Jul 1947

Anderson, Clint (Sec. of Agriculture): 13 Sep 1945

Andrews, Marietta (illustrator): undated, 05 Feb 1925 (illustrated letter), 16 Sep 1928 (illustrated letter), Jan 1930

Arnold, Oren (writer): 04 Mar 1944

Ashurst, Henry F. (Senator, Arizona): 11 Feb 1941

Astor, Vincent: undated (letter from C. Berryman), 11 Nov 1932, 12 Nov 1932 (letter from C. Berryman), 14 Nov 1932, 17 Nov 1932, 12 Apr 1933

Auchincloss, James C. (Congressman, New Jersey): 12 Nov 1947

Austin, Warren R. (Senator, Vermont): 24 Oct 1941, 28 Oct 1941, 29 Oct 1941 (letter from Mrs. Austin)

Babcock, J. W. (Congressman, Wisconsin): 12 Jun 1903

Bailey, Josiah William (Senator, North Carolina): 26 Jan 1938, 14 July 1938, 21 Jun 1939, 26 Jun 1939

Baird, G. W. (cartoonist?): 20 Jul 1914?

Baker, James M. (Senator): 05 Aug 1916

Baker, Newton D. (Secretary of War): 10 Mar 1916, 08 Jan 1917, 10 Feb 1920, 27 Mar 1920, 06 Apr 1920

Baldwin, Stanley (Prime Minister): 19 Apr 1929 (letter about him)

Ballinger, Richard A. (Secretary of the Interior): 08 Mar 1909, 23 Sep 1911, 08 Apr 1916

Barclay: undated (illustrated letter)

Barkley, Alben W. (Senator, Kentucky): 19 Feb 1943, 01 Dec 1943

Barrett, John (Director, Pan American Union): 06 Mar 1915

Barrett, Robert ( -- Evening World -- ): 07 Oct 1927

Bartlett, John H. (Asst. Postmaster General and Governor of New Hampshire): 02 Apr 1924, 11 Nov 1927, 30 Jul 1932, 15 Dec 1949

Baruch, Bernard M.: 09 Mar 1938, 16 Sep 1943

Bassford, Wallace (secretary of Speaker's Room, House of Representatives): 12 Dec 1913

Bastedo, P. H. (Rear Admiral): 09 May 1947

Beckham, J. Crepps Wickliffe (Senator, Kentucky): 07 Mar 1916, 29 Mar 1916, 20 Dec 1919

Berger, Victor L. (Congressman, Wisc.): 05 Feb 1924

Beveridge, Albert J. (Senator, Indiana): 21 Feb 1907, 30 Mar 1907, 18 May 1935

Biddle, Francis (Attorney General): 09 Jan 1942, 23 Mar 1942, 20 Apr 1942, 08 May 1942, 25 May 1942, 09 Jun 1942

Bittinger, Charles: 30 Nov 1931, 13 Feb 1938

Blackburn, J. C. S. (Senator): 09 Jan 1906

Bland, Schuyler Otis (Congressman, Va.): 30 Dec 1941

Bliss, Edward Goring: 21 Feb 1936

Bloom, Sol (Congressman, New York): 09 Apr 1928, 26 Apr 1928, 05 May 1931, 19 Feb 1932, 07 May 1932, 09 Mar 1933, 22 Oct 1934, 09 Nov 1934, 21 May 1935, 07 Mar 1936, 26 Mar 1936, 08 Jun 1936, 31 Aug 1936, 15 Dec 1936, 03 Jan 1938, 10 Jun 1940, 18 Jan 1941, 10 Mar 1941

Boardman, Mabel: 14 Apr 1912

Bolton, Frances P. (Congresswoman, Ohio): 05 Mar 1942

Bone, Homer T. (Senator, Washington): 19 Apr 1944

Bone, Scott C. (editor, -- The Washington Herald -- and the -- Post-Intelligencier -- ): 27 Jan 1908, 05 Oct 5 1911

Bone, Scott W. (son of Scott C. Bone): 10 Oct 1932

Borah, William E. (Senator): 03 Oct 1921 (letter about him)

Brayman, Harold (President, National Press Club): 07 Mar 1938, 03 May 1944

Bridges, H. Styles (Senator, N. H.): 28 Feb 1938

Britten, Fred A. (Congressman, Illinois): 25 Dec 1934

Brooke, Frederick (architect): undated, 12 May 1945

Browne, Edward E. (Congressman, Wisc.): 17 Feb 1931

Bruker, John (Governor, Ohio): 21 Feb 1944

Bryan, William Jennings: undated, 09 Dec 1907, 19 Jan 1908, 16 Jan 16 1913, 15 Aug 1914, 24 Feb 1915, 02 Mar 1915 (letter about him), 11 Feb 1917, 02 Apr 1917, 20 Mar 1919, 27 Apr 1920

Buck, Mrs. Solon J.: 08 Mar 1942

Burke, James Francis (Republican National Committee): undated

Burkett, E. J. (Congressman): 21 Jan 1905

Burroughs, Nannie H.: undated

Burton, Theodore E. (Congressman, Ohio): 25 Feb 1927

Burwell, J. Baldwin (Leader Publishing Co.): undated

Butler?, Harold H. (Senator): 10 May 1944

Butler, Hugh (Senator, Nebraska): 03 Apr 1944

Byrd, Curley (President, U. of Maryland): 10 Jun 1944

Byrd, Harry Flood (Senator, Virginia): undated, 10 Nov 1925, 27 Dec 1927 (letter about him), 17 Jun 1934, 23 May 1935, 26 Feb 1936, 25 Mar 1936, 27 Aug 1936, 10 Sep 1936, 08 Dec 1936, 19 May 1937, 07 Mar 1938, 16 Mar 1938, 05 Aug 1938, 06 Feb 1939, 18 Feb 1941, 09 Jun 1941, 16 Jun 1941, 26 Sep 1941, 02 Mar 1942, 09 Oct 1942, 29 Nov 1942, 28 Sep 1944, 28 Mar 1945, 24 May 1948, 25 May 1948, 11 Jun 1948, 07 Apr 1949, 22 Dec 1949, 02 Aug 1949, 19 Sep 1949, 21 Apr 1950

Byrnes, James F. (Senator, South Carolina): 31 Jan 1938, 02 Jan 1939 (letter about him), 08 Jun 1940, Dec 1942, 11 Apr 1944, May 1944

Cable, John L. (Congressman, Ohio): 14 Aug 1922

Calder, William M. (Senator, New York): 16 Feb 1920

Calderon, Madame Alvarez (Peruvian Legation): undated

Camden, Johnson N. (Senator, Kentucky): 04 Mar 1915

Campbell, L. H. (Major General): 25 Jan 1943

Caniff, Milton (President, National Cartoonists Society): 13 May 1948, 14 Dec 1949

Cannon, J. G. (Speaker of the House): 02 Dec 1910 (letter about him)

Capehart, Charles (editor, -- The Cartoon -- ): 06 Apr 1908 (C. Berryman drawing of Cannon)

Capper, Arthur (Senator, Kansas): 13 Feb 1920, 06 Dec 1935

Carlson, Frank (Congressman, Kansas): 02 Feb 1944

Carnegie, Andrew: 14 May 1911 (letter from C. Berryman)

Caughey, J. M. (cartoonist): 12 Nov 1915

Chamberlain, George E. (Senator, Oregon): 11 Mar 1916

Chamberlain, K. R. (cartoonist): 23 May 1914

Chandler, Albert B. (Senator,Kentucky): 07 Jul 1942, 11 Aug 1942 (letter from his wife), 28 Jun 1943, 30 Mar 1944, 20 Apr 1944, 26 Apr 1945, 17 May 1945

Chapple, Joe Mitchell ( -- National Magazine -- , Boston): 31 Dec 1904

Chiperfield, Burnett M. (Congressman, Illinois): 22 Apr 1916, 12 May 1916, 03 Jul 1929

Choate, H. Lawrence: 09 Feb 1939

Clapper, Raymond: 18 Jan 1939 (letter to Charles Dawes), 27 Jan 1939

Clark, Champ (Speaker of the House): 29 Jun 1906

Clark, P. L. ("Skippy" cartoonist): 25 Nov 1935

Clay, Henry: 22 Apr 1829 (letter to Mark Hardin, Shelbyville Ky), 21 Jun 1843 (letter to a gentleman)

Clements (Governor, Kentucky): 07 Jan 1948

Coffeen, R. A. (cartoonist): 09 Dec 1940

Colby, Bainbridge (Secretary of State): 01 Apr 1920

Cole, Cyrenus (Congressman, Iowa): 01 Feb 1928, 10 Mar 1936

Coleman, Harry ( -- Pontiac Press Gazette -- ): 12 Oct 1914

Collier, William Miller (President, George Washington University): undated, 12 Jan 1921, 22 Mar 1921

Connally, Tom (Senator, Texas): 06 Nov 1943

Coolidge, Calvin: 03 Mar 1927, 01 Aug 1927 (letter about him)

Cooper, Henry Allen (Congressman, Wisconsin): 14 Feb 1907, 24 Feb 1925

Corby, William Stephen: undated calling card, 20 Oct 1916 (2), 14 Feb 1920 (2), 19 Jul 1926, 13 Aug 1932

Cousins, A. G.? (cartoonist?): Dec 1904

Cousins, Robert G. (Congressman): 02 Feb 1907

Craig, Donald Alexander (author): 30 Sep 1924

Crisp, Charles R. (Congressman, Georgia): 03 Oct 1932

Culberson, C. A. (Senator, Texas): 07 Jul 1906

Cummings, Homer S. (Attorney General): 29 Sep 1933 (letter about him), 30 Sep 1933, 21 May 1934, 28 Jun 1934 (letter from his wife), 02 Jul 1934, 22 Oct 1934, 12 Mar 1945

Curran, Edward M. (U.S. Attorney, D.C.): 28 Oct 1946

Cushman, Francis W. (Congressman): 25 Dec 1899, 05 Jan 1904

Dale, Mrs. Thomas H. (Congressman's wife): 27 Apr 1906

Daniel, J. (Senator): 23 Dec 1903 (illustrated letter)

Daniels, Jonathan (son of Josephus Daniels): 15 Mar 1933, 29 Jan 1934, 16 Aug 1941

Daniels, Josephus (Secretary of the Navy): undated calling card (from Mrs. Daniels), 25 Mar 1913, 15 May 1913 (letter about him), 25 Aug 1913 (letter about him), 31 Oct 1913, 26 Oct 1914, 12 Jan 1915, 22 Aug 1916, 08 Sep 1916, 27 Mar 1917, 22 Nov 1917, 27 Nov 1917, 24 Jan 1918, 12 Feb 1920, 29 Mar 1920, 03 Apr 1920, 20 Nov 1920 (3), 11 Jan 1921 (letter about him), 02 Mar 1921, 05 Jun 1926, 05 Apr 1927 (2), 04 Aug 1927, 10 Dec 1928, 15 Mar 1933, 19 May 1934, 11 May 1937, 19 Oct 1937, 18 Nov 1937, 25 Mar 1938, 18 May 1938, 09 Aug 1941

Darling, Jay Norwood "Ding": undated (letter about him), 19 Nov 1934

Davies, Joseph E.: 09 Jun 1944, 16 Jun 1944

Davis, James J. (Sec. of Labor and Senator, Pa.): Feb 9, 1923, 24 Dec 1925, 16 Feb 1931

Davol, Ralph (Cosmos Club): 30 Mar 1920, 06 Apr 1925 (illustrated letter), 06 Apr 1930

Dawes, Charles Gates (Vice President): 19 Jan 1928 (printed invitation), 24 Jan 1939 (letter to Clapper)

Dawley, Mrs. M. Webster (League of Republican Women): 08 Feb 1938

Debs, Eugene: 17 Aug 1912

Delano, Frederic A. (Washington National Monument Society): 03 Feb 1944, 23 Feb 1944

Delano, Victor: 06 May 1941 (on USS WEST VIRGINIA, Pearl Harbor), 25 Mar 1942 (on USS SAN JUAN)

De Leon, T. C. (cartoonist?): 04 Aug 1904

Denby, Edwin (Secretary of the Navy): 04 Mar 1922

Depew, Chauncey: undated (2 printed invitations), 05 Jul 1923, 10 Feb 1926

Dern, George H. (Secretary of War): 27 Jan 1935 (printed invitation)

Dewey, Thomas E. (Governor, New York): 10 Oct 1944, 23 Jun 1947 (letter about him), 21 Nov 1947

Dial, Nathaniel B. (Senator, S. C.): 17 Jan 1925

Dickinson, L. J. (Congressman, Iowa): 09 Dec 1926

Dillingham, William P. (Senator): 10 Mar 1904, 08 Mar 1916

Dirksen, Everett M. (Congressman, Ill.): 09 Jun 1942

Donahey, James Harrison ( -- Plain Dealer -- ): 02 Oct 1908, 30 Jan 1927

Doughton, Robert L. (Congressman, N. C.): 10 Jan 1948

Dowling, James J. (Democratic County Committee, N.Y.): 19 Dec 1934

Downing, Robert L.: 19 Dec 1930, 05 Nov 1932

Drewry, P. H. (Congressman, Virginia): 26 Feb 1935, 28 Mar 1935

DuBois, James T. (State Department): undated, 26 Jan 1905, 26 Feb 1905, 06 Mar 1905, 24 Nov 1905, 22 Mar 1907, 18 Jul 1917

Dugal, J. (Congressman): 19 Jan 1908

Durkee, J. Stanley (President, Howard University): 11 May 1922, 24 May 1922, 03 Nov 1924, 24 Nov 1924

Eccles, Marriner S. (Chairman, Federal Reserve System): 03 Oct 1941

Edison, Thomas: 13 Aug 1914 (letter about him)

Edwards, J. H. (Treasury Department): 18 Aug 1905

Elliott, Richard (Asst. Comptroller General, GAO): 01 Dec 1932

Ernst, Richard P. (Senator, Kentucky): 22 Dec 1922, 10 Nov 1925 (2), 15 Mar 1926, 19 Sep 1929, 15 Jun 1929

Estopinal, Albert (Congressman, La.): 21 Mar 1914

Evans, Silliman (Publisher, -- Chicago Sun -- ): 14 Apr 1942

Fall, Albert B. (Secretary of the Interior): 28 Feb 1923, 01 Mar 1923

Farley, James A.: 20 Dec 1932, 03 Jan 1934, 30 Jan 1934 (letter about him), 11 May 1934, 21 May 1934, 13 Sep 1934, 18 Oct 1934, 26 Oct 1934, 04 Dec 1935, 28 Oct 1937, 10 Aug 1940, 16 Jan 1942, 01 Apr 1942, 03 Aug 1942, 13 Oct 1942, 12 Nov 1942, 26 Feb 1943, 11 Mar 1943, 06 Jul 1943, 17 Nov 1943, 29 Nov 1943, 29 Dec 1943, 03 Jan 1944, 27 Jan 1944, 29 Jan 1944, 05 May 1944, 21 Nov 1944

Farnum Jno. (cartoonist): 03 Jun 1908

Faulkner, Robert R. (attorney): 03 Jun 1935

Fawcett, James Waldo ( -- Washington Star -- ): 02 Apr 1939

Fenn, E. Hart (Congressman, Connecticut): 09 May 1929

Fenning, F. A. (Inaugural Committee): 14 Jan 1925

Fess, Simeon D. (Senator, Ohio): 19 Apr 1928 (letter about him), 28 Apr 1934

Finch, Frank J. (cartoonist): 03 Feb 1905, 08 Apr 1910, 06 Jun 1910

Fish, Hamilton, Jr. (Congressman, New York): 19 May 1936, 22 May 1936, 04 Jan 1937

Fishback, Fred L. (Senator, Mass.): 26 Sep 1912

Fisher, Walter L. (Sec. of the Interior): 25 Jan 1912

Fitzgerald, Roy G. (Congressman, Ohio): 23 Feb 1925

Foch, Le Marechal: Jun 1906

Foley, E. H. (Asst. Sec. of the Treasury): 01 Nov 1947

Foraker, Joseph B. (Senator, Ohio): 30 Aug 1905 (letter about him), 03 Sep 1905

Frelinghuysen, J. S. (Senator, New Jersey): 04 Apr 1917 (letter about him)

Galbraith, Alfred ( -- Flint Daily Journal -- ): 02 Jun 1907

Gallinger, Jacob H. (Senator): 02 Feb 1905

Gallivan, James A. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 05 Mar 1923

Galloway, Ewing (news editor, -- Collier's -- ): 07 Sep 1916

Gard, Warren (Congressman, Ohio): 31 Mar 1916, 13 Feb 1917

Gardner, A. P. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 09 Apr 1910 (letter about him), 26 Jan 1911, 31 Jan 1913, 28 Jun 1916, 20 Jul 1916

Garfield, James Rudolph (Interior Dept.): 08 Nov 1907

Garner, John Nance (Congressman, Texas): 16 Jan 1930, 15 Mar 1935

Garrison, Lindley M. (Secretary of War): 19 Dec 1914, 25 Dec 1914, 11 Jan 1915, 28 Apr 1915, 30 Aug 1915

Gerry, Peter G. (Senator): 06 May 1941

Gerth, Arthur W. (President, American University): 02 May 1928

Gibson, Charles D. (Division of Pictorial Publicity): 28 Dec 1917

Gibson, Ernest W. (Congressman, Vermont): 19 Feb 1925

Gilbert, Ralph (Congressman, Kentucky): 20 Oct 1921, 07 Jan 1922

Gillett, Frederick H. (Senator, Massachusetts): 10 Feb 1928, 14 Feb 1928

Gillette, Guy M. (Senator, Iowa): 05 Aug 1943

Gittins, Robert H. (Congressman, N. Y.): 01 Aug 1914

Glass, Carter (Secretary of the Treasury): 26 Jun 1903, 20 Jan 1919, 20 Jan 1919, 11 Feb 1920, 02 Dec 1929, 09 Nov 1936, 15 Mar 1937, 05 Apr 1937 (letter about him), 10 Apr 1937, 19 May 1937 (letter about him)

Glover, Charles C. (Inaugural Committee): 09 Dec 1904, 21 Dec 1904, 20 Dec 1911

Godwin, E. ( -- Washington Times -- ): 30 Dec 1918

Goethals, General: undated (letter about him)

Goff, "Roy": Dec 1949

Gore, Albert (Congressman, Tennessee): 25 May 1942

Gorman, Arthur P. (Senator, Maryland): 03 Mar 1898, 28 Jan 1902, 07 Mar 1903, 02 May 1903, 28 Oct 1903 (letter from Mrs. Gorman)

Grant, U.S., III: 15 Mar 1926, 22 Jun 1927, 03 Nov 1927, 20 Jun 1930

Grayson, Cary T. (Inaugural Committee): 18 Feb 1933

Green, Theodore Francis (Senator, R. I.): 17 Oct 1944

[Gregory?], Tom (Attorney General): undated

Grew, Joseph: 09 Apr 1943 (illustrated letter)

Grey, Kenneth? (Dept. of the Treasury): 27 Mar 1945

Grosvenor, Bert (National Geographic Society): 17 Mar 1940, 15 Apr 1940

Grosvenor, Gilbert (National Geographic Society): 21 Mar 1921, 27 Apr 1921, 21 Dec 1921, 15 Nov 1927, 16 Nov 1931, 15 Mar 1935, 11 Nov 1935, 04 Nov 1938, 08 Nov 1944, 23 Dec 1949

Guffey, Joseph F. (Senator, Pennsylvania): 16 Jun 1943, 29 Mar 1944

Halleck, Charles A. (Congressman, Ind.): 02 Jan 1948

Halsey, W. F. (Admiral): 24 Dec 1942

Hamilton, Ernest? ( -- Judge -- magazine): 19 Mar 1913

Hamilton, Norman R. (Congressman, Virginia): 21 Jun 1938 (3), 22 Jun 1938 (2), 02 Jul 1938

Hancock, Clarence E. (Congressman, N. Y.): 19 Apr 1941

Hannegan, Robert E. (Democratic National Committee): 01 Mar 1945

Harding, Warren G.: 06 Jan 1917, 11 May 1921 (printed invitation)

Harriman, William Averill: 03 Jan 1939

Harris, William J. (Senator, Georgia): 01 Nov 1913, 11 Feb 1920, 06 Apr 1920, 18 May 1920, 12 Dec 1922, 12 Jan 1923

Harrison, William Henry: 13 Apr 1936

Harvey, George (US Ambassador to England): 15 Oct 1914

Hatch, Carl N. (Senator, New Mexico): 06 May 1937

Hawley, Willis C. (Congressman, Oregon): 15 Mar 1929, 25 Mar 1930

Hay, John (State Department): 31 Oct 1904, 02 Nov 1904

Hays, Arthur: 27 Feb 1912

Hays, Will H. (Postmaster General and President of the Motion Picture Producers & Distributors of America): 14 Jun 1921 (letter about him), 27 Jan 1922, 28 Feb 1922, 31 Aug 1922, 20 Dec 1922, 03 Mar 1937

Heinl, Robert D.: 05 Feb 1912, 20 Mar 1913, 28 Jan 1915, 29 Jun 1920, 04 May 1938

Hicks, Frederick C. (Congressman, New York): 19 Feb 1922, 01 Dec 1922, Nov 1923

Hildreth, Melvin D. (Inaugural Committee): 28 Dec 1948

Hilles, Charles D.: 23 Jul 1935

Hitchcock, Ethan A. (Secretary of the Interior): 28 Jan 1908, 07 Mar 1916?

Hitchcock, (Senator): undated, 10 Sep 1930 (letter about him)

Hodges, John G.: undated

Holt, Rush D. (Senator, West Virginia): 23 May 1935, 22 Nov 1937, 04 Aug 1940, 30 Aug 1940

Hoover, Herbert: 03 Jan 1923 (letter from Hoover's secretary, Richard S. Emmet), 16 Aug 1949

Hoover, J. (John) Edgar: 29 Aug 1933, 20 Oct 1934, 29 Oct 1934, 23 Mar 1936, 26 Mar 1936, 01 Oct 1936, 14 Apr 1937, 03 Feb 1942, 05 Feb 1942, 01 Jul 1942, 15 Jul 1942, 02 May 1944, 21 Jun 1949, 08 Jul 1949

Hoover, Lou Henry: undated

Hopkins, Harry L.: 10 Apr 1935, 24 Mar 1942

Houston, David F. (Sec Treas): 12 Feb 1920

Howard E. P. (N.Y. Press): 03 Apr 1927, 26 Mar 1927, 15 Apr 1927, 23 Jan 1928

Hubbard, Kin (cartoonist, -- Indianapolis News -- ): 10 Feb 1913, 15 Feb 1913, 31 Jul 1914

Hughes, Charles Evans (Secretary of State): 15 Apr 1921 (printed invitation)

Hughes, R. E. (La. Purchase Exposition): 15 Mar 1904

Humphrey, William E. (Federal Trade Commission): undated (illustrated letter), 20 Jan 1933

Hutchison, George W. (National Geographic Society): 09 Dec 1935, 01 Apr 1937

Ickes, Harold L. (Secretary of the Interior): 09 Mar 1935, 08 Nov 1935, 20 May 1936, 29 Nov 1938, 11 Dec 1939, 05 Jun 1941, 09 Jun 1941, 13 Jun 1941, 17 Jun 1941 (letter from Mrs. Ickes), 13 Feb 1942, 27 Apr 1942, 04 May 1942, 15 Jun 1943, 21 Jun 1943, 05 May 1944, 15 Dec 1949

Ireland, William A. ( -- Columbus Dispatch -- ): 21 Mar 1913, 16 Mar 1917 (letter of introduction for Will Rogers), 01 Mar 1926

Jackson, Robert H. (Attorney General): 08 Feb 1938, 05 Dec 1938, 05 Dec 1940

James, Ollie M. (Congressman?, Kentucky): 20 Jan 1910

Johnson, Albert (Congressman, Washington): 24 Nov 1913, 20 Feb 1915, 02 Jun 1926, 18 Apr 1929, 31 Mar 1932

Johnson, Andrew: 19 Aug 1861 (letter to A. M. Coffin not in Johnson's hand)

Johnson, Herbert (art editor, -- Saturday Evening Post -- ): 09 Sep 1913, 16 Sep 1913, 23 Feb 1928, 11 May 1934

Johnson, Herschel V. (US Representative to UN): 12 Sep 1937, 22 Oct 1947

Johnson, Hiram W. (Senator, California): 11 Feb 1920, 01 Nov 1940

Johnson, Nelson T. (Asst. Sec. of State): 21 Dec 1928

Johnson, Philander Chase: 03 Jan 1908

Johnston, John A. (General): 05 Apr 1919

Jones, E. Lester (US Coast & Geodetic Survey): 10 Mar 1920

Jones, Jesse H. (Secretary of Commerce): 24 Dec 1941, 29 May 1942, 13 Oct 1943, 04 Dec 1943, 02 May 1944

Jones, Marvin (Congressman, Texas): 24 Feb 1936

Jones, Wesley L. (Senator): 07 May 1920, 18 Feb 1925

Kahn, Julius (Congressman, California): 17 Mar 1920, 13 Apr 1920

Kauffmann, Rudolph Max ( -- Washington Star -- ): 05 Oct 1920, 16 Apr 1947, 12 May 1947

Kearns, (Senator): undated

Keefe, Frank B. (Congressman, Wisconsin): 29 Jul 1947

Kelly, Clyde (Congressman, Pennsylvania): 14 Feb 1928

Kelly, Hugh A. (Governor, New Jersey): 14 May 1938

Kelly, J. (editor, -- Chicago Tribune -- ): 02 Jun 1906

Kendrick, John B. (Governor, Wyoming): 30 Sep 1916 (letter about him)

Kennedy, Joseph P. (Chairman, US Maritime Commission): 24 Sep 1937

Kenyon, William S. (Senator, Iowa): 29 Mar 1916, 27 Sep 1916

Keyes, Frances Parkinson: 18 Jul 1921

Keyes, Henry W. (Senator, New Hampshire): 25 Feb 1925

King, Ernest J. (Admiral): 24 Nov 1942, 06 Nov 1944

Kirchhope, Alt? ( -- Buffalo Evening News -- ): 26 Mar 1927

Kitchin, Claude (Congressman): 06 Mar 1916, 31 Mar 1916

Knutson, Harold, (Congressman, Minnesota): 04 Mar 1948

LaFollette, Robert M., Jr. (Senator, Wisconsin): 03 Jul 1929, 09 Mar 1931 (letter about him)

La Gorce, John Oliver (National Geographic Society): undated, 27 Feb 1912, 18 Jun 1943, 02 May 1944, 31 May 1949

Land, E. S. (Chairman, US Maritime Commission): 10 Mar 1941

Land, George A. (Congressman): 03 Mar 1904

Landis, C. B. (Congressman, Indiana): undated, 11 Nov 1904

Landon, Alf M. (Governor, Kansas): 30 Oct 1935, 14 Jan 1936, 24 Mar 1936, 08 Aug 1936, 26 Dec 1936, 02 Feb 1937, 27 Feb 1937, 13 Oct 1943, 16 May 1944, 20 Nov 1944, 01 Apr 1948

Lane, Franklin K. (Secretary of the Interior): undated, 15 Mar 1913, 18 Mar 1913, 31 Dec 1913, 06 Mar 1916, 13 Mar 1916, 08 Jan 1917, 21 Dec 1918, 11 Feb 1920, 13 Feb 1918, 12 Mar 1918, 19 Mar 1918, 22 Mar 1920

Lansburgh, Henry: 30 Dec 1915

Lansburgh, Mark (Lansburgh & Bro.): 16 Apr 1931, 05 Nov 1932

Lansing, Robert (Secretary of State): 28 Mar 1916, 25 Jan 1917, 08 Feb 1918, 24 Feb 1920, 29 Apr 1924

Lauder, Harry: undated

Lewis, B. J. ( -- Knickerbocker News -- ): 13 Mar 1941

Lewis, Fulton (WOL Radio): 17 Aug 1938

Lewis, James Hamilton, (Senator, Illinois): 30 Mar 1916, 15 Jan 1919, 26 Feb 1919, 07 Feb 1930, 16 Feb 1933, 13 May 1937

Lewis, John L.: 17 Apr 1937

Lewis, William Mather (Pres., George Washington U. and Pres., Lafayette College): 19 Sep 1924, 11 Oct 1929, 09 Dec 1931 (letter about him), 24 Mar 1942, 31 Mar 1942, 07 May 1944

Lindsay, R. C. (British Embassy): 26 May 1939

Lineberger, Walter F. (Congressman, Ca.): 01 Jun 1926

Lobeck, C. O. (Congressman, Nebraska): 11 Mar 1916, 01 Apr 1916

Locke, M. E. (Brigadier General): 24 May 1941

Lodge, Henry Cabot (Senator, Massachusetts): 18 Feb 1907, 22 Jul 1910, 22 Jul 1942

Lohr, Lenox (NBC): 29 June 1938, 29 Jul 1938

Long, B. (Asst. Secretary of State): 11 May 1942

Loring, Paule: undated, 13 Oct 1936 (illustrated letter)

Lowden, Frank O. (Governor, Illinois): 26 Jan 1920, 14 Feb 1920

Ludlow, Louis (Pioneer Book Co.): 14 Feb 1925, 25 Dec 1926, 20 Nov 1941, 20 Dec 1941

Luther, Dr. Hans (German Ambassador): undated

MacVeagh, Franklin (Sec. of the Treasury): 18 May 1911

Mahony, Felix: undated (illustrated letter)

Maloney, Francis (Senator, Connecticut); 11 Sep 1941, 22 Sep 1941, 06 Jan 1943, 02 May 1944

Mann, James R. (Congressman, Illinois): Oct 28, 1913, 07 Dec 1918, 01 Mar 1921

Marshall, George Catlett (General): 13 Jun 1940, 01 Apr 1944 (letter from his wife)

Martin, Joseph W., Jr. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 05 Jan 1942 (letter about him), 09 Mar 1942, 17 Apr 1943, 05 May 1944

Martin, Thomas S. (Senator): 07 Feb 1912

Marvin, Cloyd H. (Pres., George Washington U.): 06 Apr 1944

Maxwell, G. T. (cartoonist?): 14 Jul 1914

McAdams, Clark (President, St. Louis Artists' Guild): 06 Jan 1914, 20 Jan 1914

McAdoo, William G. (Secretary of the Treasury): 06 Jun 1914, 11 Jan 1914, 15 Feb 1917, 02 Mar 1917 (letter about him), 03 Sep 1918, 21 Nov 1922, 09 Aug 1925

McCarran, Patrick (Senator, Nevada): 23 May 1941

McClellan, George S.: 14 Feb 1938

McClure, Samuel G. (editor, -- Ohio State Journal -- ): 23 Jul 1903

McCormack, John W. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 06 Aug 1944

McCumber (Senator, North Dakota): 29 Oct 1919

McCutcheon, John T. ( -- Chicago Tribune -- ): 02 Dec 1907, 04 Apr 1913, 30 Dec 1913

McDonald, C. P. ( -- Chicago Tribune -- ): 19 Aug 1909

McDonald, Eugene F. (President, Zenith Radio Corp.): 20 Jan 1940 (letter to R. D. Heinl re FDR), 13 Nov 1939

McDuffie, John (Congressman, Alabama): 16 Apr 1934

McKellar, Kenneth (Senator, Tennessee): 19 Mar 1942, 31 Mar 1944

McKelway, Ben M. (ed., -- Washington Star -- ): 20 Oct 1947

McKenna, Joseph (Supreme Court Justice): 27 Feb 1923

McKinley, William B. (Senator, Illinois): undated, 06 Feb 1913, 03 Mar 1913, 04 Aug 1920

McLean, Edward B. (Inaugural Committee): 23 Dec 1920

McNair, Lesley James (General): 19 Jun 1944, 19 Jun 1944 (letter from his wife)

McReynolds, James C. (Supreme Court Justice): 11 Feb 1920, 09 Feb 1937 (letter from Mrs.McReynolds)

Mellon, Andrew (Secretary of the Treasury): 13 Apr 1925 (letter about him)

Meredith, Edwin T. (Sec. of Agriculture): 13 Feb 1920

Merrick, Frank L. (Louisiana Purchase Exposition): 18 Aug 1903, 20 Aug 1927

Meyer, George von L. (Sec. of the Navy): 23 Jan 1911

Meyers, Eugene ( -- Washington Post -- ): 14 Jun 1938, 27 Feb 1941 (printed invitation), 11 May 1944, 29 Jul 1949

Michelson, Charles (Democratic National Committee): 16 Oct 1935 (2), 21 Sep 1936, 29 Sep 1936

Millard, Charles D. (Congressman, N. Y.): 21 Feb 1935

Miller, James M. (Congressman): 17 Mar 1909 (letter from Mrs. Miller)

Mills, Ogden L. (Undersecretary of the Treasury): 22 Apr 1931

Minnigerode, C. Powell (Dir., Corcoran Gallery of Art): 27 Dec 1918 (2), 18 Jun 1943 (illustrated letter)

Minor, Benjamin S. (Inaugural Committee): 15 Jan 1913

Mitchell, Mrs. William Dewitt: 02 Mar 1931

Mondell, Frank W. (Congressman, Wyoming): 08 Apr 1920

Montgomery, James Shera (Chaplain, House of Representatives): 06 Aug 1918, 19 Jul 1919, 14 Jul 1945

Moore, J. Hampton (Congressman, Pa. and Mayor of Philadelphia): 17 Mar 1905, 28 May 1908, 29 Dec 1909, 29 Mar 1910, 01 Apr 1910, 04 Apr 1910, 07 Apr 1910, 27 Apr 1911, 27 Jan 1914, 23 Feb 1914, 08 Feb 1918, 14 Feb 1923, 09 Mar 1923, 23 Oct 1923, 05 Mar 1925, 31 Mar 1925, 15 Apr 1925 (2), 28 Jul 1925, 17 Oct 1925

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. (Secretary of the Treasury): 05 Mar 1936, 10 Dec 1936, 23 Apr 1937, 12 Dec 1940, 18 Mar 1941, 22 Apr 1941, 09 May 1941, 03 Jul 1941

Moses, George H. (Senator, N. H.): 19 Jan 1922, 25 Jul 1923, 10 Feb 1927, 15 Dec 1927, 17 Dec 1927, 16 Jan 1929, 15 Aug 1929 (letter about him)

Murdock, Victor (Congressman, Kansas): undated (2), 01 Mar 1915, 18 Oct 1940

Murphy, Francis P. (Governor, N. H.): 27 Jan 1938 (2)

Murphy, J. E. ( -- Oregon Journal -- ): 14 Sep 1913

Murphy, William C. ( -- Philadelphia Inquirer -- ): 12 May 1941

Neely, Matthew M. (Governor, W. V.): 16 Jan 1941

New, Harry S. (Postmaster General): 30 Jul 1924, 10 Jan 1927

Newcome, W. A. (Ambassador to Italy): 13 Feb 1913

Nimitz, Chester W. (Admiral): 28 Nov 1942 (letter from his daughter Catherine), 15 Mar 1944

North, James (cartoonist?): 14 May 1921, 16 May 1921

Norton, Mary T. (Congresswoman, New Jersey): 09 Aug 1937, 13 Aug 1937, 06 Dec 1937, 30 Jun 1942

Noyes, Newbold: 13 Jan 1927 (letter from Mrs. Clarence Williams)

Noyes, Theodore W.: undated (3), 01 Jul 1918, 13 Mar 1920, 08 Jul 1929, 23 Apr 1930, 27 Feb 1934

O'Connor, John H. (Congressman, New York): 05 Jan 1937

Oliver, W. B. (Congressman, Alabama): 16 Feb 1924

Olney, Richard (Congressman, Mass.): 01 Apr 1920

O'Neal, Sam (Pres., National Press Club): 22 Jun 1944

Osborn, F. H. (Brigadier General): 16 Jan 1942

Ourand, Chas. H. (Isthmian Canal Commission): 20 Mar 1913

Owen, Ruth Bryan (Congresswoman, Florida): 09 Nov 1932

Palmer, A. Mitchell (Attorney General): 12 Feb 1920, 01 Apr 1920

Parsons, R. C. (editor, -- Cleveland Leader -- ): 04 Mar 1898

Patrick, Geo. H.: 01 Jun 1906 (re McClellan statue), 07 Jun 1906

Peaslee, Horace W. (architect): 25 Mar 1941

Penrose, Boies (Senator, Pennsylvania): 15 Jun 1906

Pepper, Claude (Senator, Florida): 13 Mar 1942, 03 Nov 1943, 17 Apr 1945

Perkins, Francis (Secretary of Labor): 24 Jul 1942

Pershing, John J. (General): 28 May 1945 (autographed card)

Phelan, James D. (Senator, California): 28 Jun 1918, 05 Jun 1920

Phipps, Lawrence C. (Senator, Colorado): 07 May 1920, 03 Mar 1923

Pike, Albert (Department of the Interior): undated

Poindexter, Miles (Senator, Washington): 13 Feb 1920

Polk, Frank L. (Undersecretary of State): 25 Mar 1920

Pomerene, Atlee (Senator, Ohio): 01 Jun 1911 (letter from Mrs. Pomerene), 20 Feb 1920 (letter from Mrs. Pomerene), 01 Mar 1920 (letter from Mrs. Pomerene), 08 May 1920

Porter, Laura (League of Women Voters): 28 Dec 1930

Pou, Edw. W. (Congressman, North Carolina): 30 Sep 1904, 07 Oct 1904, 10 Oct 1904, 17 Oct 1904

Powers, Samuel Leland (Congressman, Massachusetts): 17 Feb 1905, 30 Dec 1925

Proctor, Redfield (Senator): 21 Jun 1906

Radcliffe, George L. (Senator, Maryland): 15 Sep 1938

Rainey, Henry T. (Congressman, Illinois): 07 Mar 1916

Ralston, Samuel M. (Senator, Indiana): 30 May 1924

Ramspeck, Robert (Congressman, Georgia): 28 Nov 1941

Rankin, J. E. (Congressman, Mississippi): 14 Feb 1942

Rathbun, Richard (Asst. Secretary of Smithsonian): 11 Apr 1912, 07 Dec 1915

Rayburn, Sam: 24 Mar 1944

Reams, Frank (White House staff): 10 Jan 1929

Redfield, William C. (Secretary of Commerce): 31 Aug 1912, 07 Nov 1913, 07 Apr 1915, 07 Mar 1916

Reed, Daniel (Congressman, New York): Apr 28, 1920

Reed, Stanley F. (Supreme Court Justice): 13 Mar 1948

Reed, Stuart F. (Congressman, W. V.): 27 Mar 1922

Reid, Albert T. (American Artists Professional League): 02 May 1944

Rhodes, John D. (Senator): undated, 01 Nov 1943

Ritchie, Albert C. (Governor, Maryland): 15 Nov 1923 (2), 14 May 1924, 23 Dec 1925, 28 Dec 1926, 09 Jan 1927, 14 Jan 1927, 10 Feb 1927, 20 Jan 1931, 07 Aug 1931, 30 Jan 1936

Robertson, David A. (President, Goucher College): 15 Dec 1939 (letter from Anne Robertson), 19 Apr 1932, 18 Dec 1942, 14 Aug 1943

Robinson, Boardman ( -- New York Tribune -- ): 21 Mar 1913, 02 Jun 1913

Robinson, Joe T. (Senator, Arkansas): 10 Mar 1916, 29 Nov 1921, 25 Apr 1936

Rodman, Hugh (Admiral): 10 Nov 1937

Rogers, Edith Nourse (Congresswoman, Massachusetts): 15 Feb 1937, 16 Feb 1937

Rogers, W. A.: 19 Mar 1925, 10 Apr 1925

Rogers, Will: 16 Mar 1917 (letter of introduction from Bill Ireland), 19 Aug 1927 (invitation to Press Club dinner in his honor)

Roosevelt, Franklin D.: 26 Apr 1935 (letter about him), 20 Jan 1940 (letter about him), 08 Jul 1940 (photograph of letter)

Roosevelt, Theodore: 29 Dec 1902, 09 Jan 1912

Root, Elihu (Secretary of State): 14 Dec 1905

Roper, Daniel C. (Secretary of Commerce): undated, 18 Aug 1913, 16 Sep 1932, 15 Aug 1933, 07 Sep 1933, 11 Nov 1933, 14 Aug 1934, 10 Dec 1934, 18 May 1936, 16 Nov 1937, 05 Aug 1938

Ross, Nellie Tayloe (Democratic National Committee): 10 Dec 1932

Roteler, J. Allen: 23 Feb 1936 (letter re Andrew Mellon and the Corcoran Gallery)

Russell, K. L. (cartoonist?): 11 Jun 1906 (illustrated letter)

Russell, Richard (Senator and Governor of Florida): 29 Mar 1944, 22 Mar 1949

Sabath, A. J. (Congressman, Illinois): 24 Feb 1941, 19 Jan 1945

Sackett, Frederic M. (Senator, Kentucky): 24 Oct 1925

Saltonstall, Leverett (Senator, Mass.): 12 Apr 1948

Sanders, Everett (Congressman, Indiana): 19 Feb 1925, 02 Jul 1932

Saulsbury, Willard (Senator, Delaware): 21 Oct 1918 (letter to Col. E. A. Halsey)

Scott, Hugh D., Jr. (Congressman, Pa.): 10 Oct 1949

Seger, George N. (Congressman, N. J.): 13 Jan 1925

Seton, Grace Thompson (National League of American Pen Women): 12 Mar 1927, 12 Apr 1927, 11 May 1927

Shaw, Albert P.: 08 Nov 1901, 08 Nov 1926, 09 Nov 1926, 09 Jan 1933 (letter from C. Berryman)

Shaw, Leslie M.: 11 Oct 1905 (printed invitation)

Sheppard, Morris (Senator, Texas): 08 May 1920, 10 Oct 1924, 15 Nov 1924, 05 Sep 1933, 31 Dec 1937, 13 Oct 1938, 08 Nov 1938, 10 Aug 1940, 19 Sep 1940

Sherman, Lawrence Y. (Senator, Illinois): 08 Feb 1918

Shih, Hu (Chinese Embassy): 07 Dec 1939, 27 Nov 1941

Shoemaker, Vaughn (cartoonist, -- Chicago Daily News -- ): 29 Mar 1945

Shoppell, R. W. ( -- National Tribune -- ): 02 Dec 1904

Slemp, C. B. (Congressman, Virginia): 31 Aug 1914, 10 Mar 1916

Smith, Alfred (Governor, New York): 07 May 1924

Smith, John Walter (Senator, Maryland): 11 Mar 1916

Smoot, Reed (Senator): 29 Jun 1906, 07 May 1920

Smoot, William (Governor, Pennsylvania): 13 Jan 1922

Snell, Bertrand H. (Congressman): 31 May 1929

Snow, William J. (Major General): 06 Jan 1919, 14 Jan 1921

Snyder, John W. (Sec. of the Treasury): 23 Jun 1947

Somerville, Harry P. (The Willard): 01 Apr 1936, 09 Jul 1936, 10 Apr 1942

Spooner, John C. (Senator, Wisconsin): 07 Mar 1907

Stand, Bert (Democratic County Committee): 02 Jun 1936

Stanley, Augustus O. (Senator, Kentucky): 20 Feb 1907, 25 Mar 1920, 13 Aug 1921, 19 Aug 1921, 09 Nov 1935

Stettinius, Edward R. (Secretary of State): 15 Sep 1944, 26 Oct 1944, 13 Mar 1945, 29 Mar 1945

Stimson, Henry L. (Sec. of State and Sec. of War): 06 Feb 1912, 21 Dec 1932, 29 Apr 1943

Stone, Harlan F. (Supreme Court Justice); 02 May 1944

Strick (National Press Club): undated

Sulzer, William (candidate for Governor): 21 Jul 1914 (3), 21 Jul 1914 (letter from Mrs. Sulzer)

Suter, John Wallace (Dean, Washington Cathedral): 13 Feb 1945, 12 Mar 1945

Sutherland, Howard (Senator): 10 Feb 1920, 07 May 1920

Swanson, Claude A. (Senator, Virginia): 18 Aug 1910, 15 Oct 1919

Swing, Phil D. (Congressman, California): 20 Dec 1932

Sylvester, Arthur ( -- Newark Evening News -- ): 23 Jun 1947

Sylvester, Richard (Inaugural Committee): 31 Dec 1904

Taft, William Howard: 10 May 1907, 30 Jun 1908, 18 Mar 1925 (letter about him)

Taliaferro, Sidney F. (DC Commissioner): 13 Apr 1927

Tharin, Charles E. (White House staff): 14 Jun 1905

Thomas, Elmer (Senator, Oklahoma): 02 Jul 1936

Thompson, Charles Willis ( -- New York Times -- ): 13 Mar 1905

Thornton, J. R. (Senator): 16 Dec 1910, 10 Dec 1912, 12 Dec 1912, 22 Nov 1913, 18 Mar 1914, 21 Mar 1914, 11 Feb 1915, 15 Mar 1915, 01 Jul 1916

Tilson, John Q. (Congressman, Conn.): 18 Apr 1929

Tobey, Charles W. (Senator, N. H.): 12 Jan 1948

Tony, F. A. ( -- Strand -- magazine): 06 Nov 1914

Towner, H. M. (Governor, Puerto Rico): 14 Jul 1924, 15 Apr 1925

Treadway, Allen T. (Congressman, Mass.): 25 May 1935

Trimble, South (Congressman): 24 Nov 1915, 11 Mar 1938

Trinkle, E. Lee (Governor, Virginia): 04 Feb 1925, 02 Mar 1925, 22 Jun 1925, 08 Jan 1926

Truesdell, George: 08 Jun 1906 (re McClellan statue)

Truman, Bess: 31 May 1949

Truman, Harry S: 07 Jun 1945 (copy of letter to Col. Johnson), 29 Mar 1946

Tydings, Millard E. (Senator, Maryland): 10 May 1935, 14 May 1935, 10 Jun 1938, 17 Jun 1938, 09 Sep 1938, 20 Sep 1938, 07 Mar 1944, 01 May 1944, 09 May 1944

Underwood, Oscar W. (Congressman, Alabama): 26 Feb 1912, 10 Mar 1916, 06 Jan 1917, 11 Feb 1920

Vincent, B. M. (Congressman, Kentucky): 07 Sep 1940 (letter about him)

Vinson, Carl (Congressman, Georgia): 09 Jun 1920

Wadsworth, James W. (Congressman, N. Y.): 13 Feb 1941

Walker, Frank C. (Postmaster General): 26 Nov 1941, 05 Nov 1943, 06 Jul 1943

Wallace, Henry A. (Secretary of Agriculture): undated (2), one illustrated), 01 Feb 1937, 06 Dec 1937

Ward, H. S. (Congressman, North Carolina): undated

Warner, V. (Congressman): 14 Jan 1905

Warren, Francis E. (Senator): 10 May 1920, 15 Oct 1924, 18 Oct 1924 (letter about him), 24 Nov 1924, 17 Feb 1925

Warren, Lindsay C. (Congressman, North Carolina): 11 Mar 1935, 13 Mar 1935

Watterson, Henry ( -- Courier-Journal -- ): 22 Apr 1912 (2)

Webster, Harold Tucker: 17 May 1918, 01 Jul 1918, 17 Jul 1918, 29 Aug 1918 (2), 09 Oct 1918, 06 Nov 1918

Westerman ( -- Ohio State Journal -- ): undated

Wetmore, A. (Smithsonian Institution): 26 Jul 1944

Wheeler, Burton K. (Senator, Montana): undated (letter from Mrs. Wheeler), 27 Jan 1937, 05 Aug 1941

White, Edward D. (Supreme Court Justice): 06 Feb 1917

Wickard, Claude R. (Secretary of Agriculture): 30 Jan 1942, 11 Feb 1942, 16 Apr 1942

Wickersham, George W.: 23 Dec 1930, 17 Dec 1934

Wile, Frederic William: 12 May 1924 (letter of introduction for William Schofield), 15 Nov 1928

Williams, John Sharp (Senator): 14 May 1914

Willis, Frank B. (Senator, Ohio): 13 Feb 1928

Willkie, Wendell L.: 02 May 1944

Wilson, Charles R. (candidate for Mayor, Huntington West Virginia): 21 Mar 1928, 14 May 1932

Wilson, Edith Bolling: 26 Mar 1916, 10 Feb 1917

Wilson, James (Secretary of Agriculture): 30 Jan 1909

Wilson, Lyle C. (United Press Assocs.): 29 Mar 1945

Wilson, Woodrow: 04 Dec 1916

Winslow, Samuel E. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 13 Feb 1920, 20 Feb 1925

Wood, Edwin O. (Democratic National Committee): 09 Dec 1911 (2), 24 Jul 1914, 10 Sep 1914

Wood, Will R. (Congressman, Indiana): 20 Jul 1916, 03 Mar 1925

Woodin, William H. (Sec. of the Treasury): 07 Jun 1933

Woodward, Donald (Woodward & Lothrop department store): 17 Jan 1921

Work, Hubert (Secretary of the Interior): 31 Dec 1926, 12 Jan 1927, 23 Jun 1928

Works?, John D. (Senator): 29 Mar 1916

Young, George M. (Congressman, N. D.): 07 Oct 1925

Zears, Guy (Congressman): 28 Dec 1940

Zihlman, Frederick N. (Congressman, Md.): 10 Feb 1927

Zimmerman, Eugene ZIM"; (cartoonist): 02 Jul 1929 (letter about him from Freeman H. Hubbard), 05 Jul 1929 (letter about ZIM from C.Berryman)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Berryman family papers, 1829-1984, bulk 1882-1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.berrfami, Subseries 1.3
See more items in:
Berryman family papers
Berryman family papers / Series 1: Clifford and Kate Berryman Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

Erna Weill Papers

Collection Creator:
Weill, Erna, 1904-1996  Search this
0.4 Linear feet (Box 1)
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Biographical materials include a resume, a New Jersey Senate resolution honoring Weill, and a photocopy of a certificate of appreciation from the Teaneck Township Council. Correspondence is with American Friends of the Hebrew University, Leonard Bernstein, philosopher Martin Buber, Coretta Scott King, Martin Luther King, Fiorello H. La Guardia, Golda Meir, National Portrait Gallery, Linus Pauling, Kalman Yaron of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and others. The bulk of the letters are between Weill and potential subjects for sculpture.

Photographs depict Weill in her studio, and Martin Buber, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rudolph Serkin, and Elie Wiesel. Also found are photos of her portrait busts of Rabbi Leo Baeck, Leonard Bernstein, Martin Buber, Abraham Heschel, Fiorello H. La Guardia, King, Golda Meir, Linus Pauling, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Wiesel and others, and figural, architectural and ceremonial sculpture. Printed materials include clippings, exhibition announcements, and catalogs. Writings consist of a handwritten draft of Weill's speech given at a 1983 reception in her honor, and lists of Weill's sculpture and the collectors who own her works.
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Erna Weill papers, 1934-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.weilerna, Series 1
See more items in:
Erna Weill papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art


Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Crispus Attucks, American, 1723 - 1770  Search this
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Harriet Tubman, American, 1822 - 1913  Search this
Sarah C. Roberts, American, born 1844  Search this
Susan McKinney Steward, American, 1847 - 1918  Search this
Dred Scott, American, ca 1800 - 1858  Search this
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Booker T. Washington, American, 1856 - 1915  Search this
George Washington Carver, American, 1860s - 1943  Search this
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Scott Joplin, American, 1867 - 1917  Search this
Marcus Garvey, Jamaican, 1887 - 1940  Search this
James Weldon Johnson, American, 1871 - 1938  Search this
Father Divine, American, ca. 1876 - 1965  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
Rosa Parks, American, 1913 - 2005  Search this
Medgar Evers, American, 1925 - 1963  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Mary McLeod Bethune, American, 1875 - 1955  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Langston Hughes, American, 1902 - 1967  Search this
Paul Robeson, American, 1898 - 1976  Search this
Ezzard Mack Charles, American, 1921 - 1975  Search this
ink on paper
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1 cm)
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
U.S. History, Colonial period, 1600-1775  Search this
United States History  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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