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Church Songs of Black Americans 1740 - 1877

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Smith, Edward D.  Search this
Boyer, Horace Clarence, 1935-  Search this
Anacostia Museum  Search this
The Media Exchange, Inc.  Search this
Names:
African Harmonic Society (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
First African Presbyterian Church (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
First African Presbyterian Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Jubilee Singers  Search this
Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Shiloh Baptist Church (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Society of Negroes  Search this
St. George's United Methodist Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
St. Philip's Church (Harlem, New York, N.Y.)  Search this
St. Thomas' Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Allen, Richard, 1760-1831  Search this
Allen, William Francis, 1830-1889  Search this
Bliss, P. P. (Philip Paul), 1838-1876  Search this
Bradbury, William B. (William Batchelder), 1816-1868  Search this
Garnet, Henry Highland, 1815-1882  Search this
Garrison, Lucy McKim, 1842-1877  Search this
Hosier, Harry, approximately 1750-1806  Search this
Jones, Absalom, 1746-1818  Search this
Liele, George, approximately 1750-approximately 1825  Search this
Mather, Cotton, 1663-1728  Search this
Rush, Christopher, 1777-1873  Search this
Sankey, Ira David, 1840-1908  Search this
Spencer, Peter, 1782-1843  Search this
Turner, Henry McNeal, 1834-1915  Search this
Ware, Charles Pickard, 1840-1921  Search this
Watts, Isaac, 1674-1748  Search this
Wesley, John, 1703-1791  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
2 Video recordings (AV000962, AV003327, open reel, 1 inch)
1 Video recording (AV002642, VHS)
3 Sound recordings (AV002679, AV003345, AV003421, open reel, 1/4 inch)
1 Sound recording (AV003336, cartridge, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Documentary films
Place:
United States
Date:
1994, c1987
Scope and Contents:
This short documentary provides an overview of the development of church music alongside the growth of African American churches in the eastern United States from the arrival of black Africans in Jamestown in 1619 through 1877 and the Reconstruction era. The evolution of church music within African American churches included the formation of music programs and performances, hymnals, choirs, negro spirituals, and music education as well as the addition of organs to accompany the singing of psalms, hymns, and anthems. During the Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s, the Christianization of slaves and Africanization of Protestant hymns swept through the American colonies. European Christianity and the emotionalism of the African homeland were combined during the Second Awakening, which began in the late eighteenth century and lasted until the middle of the nineteenth century. The history of church music created by urban and rural congregations within New England and Southern states is explored.
Short documentary. Part of Climbing Jacob's Ladder Audiovisual Records. Complete production: AV000962, AV003327. Production elements: AV002679 [narration], AV003345 [outtakes - sound], AV003421 [music], AV003336 [music]. AV003421: 6 songs including We Are Climbing Jacob's Ladder [also known as Jacob's Ladder] and Battle Hymn of the Republic [also known as Glory! Glory! Hallelujah!]. AV003336: 2 recordings of We Are Climbing Jacob's Ladder. Dated 19940923 [AV000962]. Undated [all other recordings].
Biographical / Historical:
Church Songs of Black Americans 1740 - 1877 was created alongside the Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American Cities, 1740 - 1877 exhibition which explored the growth and central role of African American churches during the 18th- and 19th-centuries in the eastern United States: Boston, Savannah, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond. The exhibition was organized by the Anacostia Museum and held there from October 1987 to October 1988.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003327

ACMA AV002679

ACMA AV003345

ACMA AV003421

ACMA AV003336

ACMA AV002642
General:
Title transcribed from opening credits of video recording.
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American churches  Search this
Churches  Search this
Church history  Search this
Religion  Search this
Church music  Search this
Music  Search this
African American choirs  Search this
Choirs (Music)  Search this
Spirituals (Songs)  Search this
Shape-note singing  Search this
Music -- Instruction and study  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Slaves  Search this
Jacob's ladder (Biblical dream)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Documentary films
Citation:
Church Songs of Black Americans 1740 - 1877, Exhibition Records AV03-036, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-036, Item ACMA AV000962
See more items in:
Climbing Jacob's Ladder: the Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American cities, 1740 - 1877 Exhibition Records
Climbing Jacob's Ladder: the Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American cities, 1740 - 1877 Exhibition Records / Series 3: Audiovisual records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-036-ref885

W. A. Snow Iron Works, Boston, Massachusetts. Garden Furniture of Distinction

Collection Designer:
Florentine Craftsmen  Search this
Extent:
1 Trade catalog
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Trade catalogs
Date:
circa 1915-1930
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Florentine Craftsmen records.
See more items in:
Florentine Craftsmen records
Florentine Craftsmen records / Competitors' Trade Literature
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-flo-ref562

Boston -- Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

Former owner:
Gardner, Isabella Stewart, 1840-1924  Search this
Architect:
Sears, Willard Thomas, 1837-1920  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
2 Slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Suffolk County -- Boston
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum (Boston, Massachusetts)
Varying Form:
Also known as Fenway Court.
General:
001: Mrs. Jack Gardner's Palace, Boston, Mass. Postcard circa 1901-1915.

002: Postcard circa 1915-1990.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Mansions  Search this
Courtyards  Search this
Museums  Search this
statues  Search this
Flower beds  Search this
Indoor gardening  Search this
Palms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File MA058
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1393

Lenox -- Wyndhurst

Former owner:
Sloane, John W.  Search this
Architect:
Peabody & Stearns (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
4 Slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
Wyndhurst (Lenox, Massachusetts)
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Berkshire County -- Lenox
Varying Form:
Also known as a Cranwell and Wyndhurst Manor and Club.
General:
001: Myndhurst [sic] J. W. Sloane Residence, Lenox, Mass. 1124. Postcard circa 1915-1930.

002: Residence of John Sloane, Lenox, Mass. Postcard circa 1901-1915.

003: John Sloanes Garden, Lenox, Mass. 11. Postcard circa 1915-1930.

004: Entrance to Residence of John Sloane, Lenox, Mass. Postcard circa 1901-1915.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Lenox  Search this
Mansions  Search this
Awnings  Search this
Arbors  Search this
Climbing plants  Search this
Garden walks  Search this
Lawns  Search this
Garden ornaments and furniture  Search this
Terraces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File MA293
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1410

Lenox -- Elm Court

Former owner:
Sloane, William Douglas  Search this
Architect:
Peabody & Stearns (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903  Search this
Farrand, Beatrix, 1872-1959  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
2 Slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Berkshire County -- Lenox
Elm Court (Lenox, Massachusetts)
General:
001: Residence of W. D. Sloane, Lenox, Mass. Postcard circa 1901-1915.

002: Lenox, Mass. Elm Court, South Side. W. D. Sloan's Residence. Postcard circa 1901-1930.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Lenox  Search this
Mansions  Search this
Ivy  Search this
Lawns  Search this
Palms  Search this
Shrubs  Search this
Plants, Potted  Search this
Driveways  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File MA195
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1412

Lenox -- Wheatleigh

Creator:
Cook, Henry Harvey  Search this
de Heredia, Carlos, Count / Countess  Search this
Architect:
Peabody & Stearns (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted, Frederick Law, 1822-1903  Search this
Olmsted, Olmsted, and Eliot  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
4 Slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Berkshire County -- Lenox
Wheatleigh (Lenox, Massachusetts)
General:
001: Gardens of C. DeHeredia, Lenox, Mass. Postcard circa 1901-1915.

002: "Wheatleigh," Lenox, Mass. Postcard circa 1901-1915.

003: Gardens of C. DeHeredia, Lenox, Mass. Postcard circa 1901-1915.

004: Wheatleigh, Residence of Mrs. C. De Heredia, Lenox, Mass. Postcard circa 1915-1930.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Lenox  Search this
Mansions  Search this
Driveways, circular  Search this
Fountains  Search this
statues  Search this
Flower beds  Search this
Topiary work  Search this
Garden walks  Search this
Foundation planting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File MA236
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1424

Morton Family Collection

Creator:
Morton, William Thomas Green, 1819-? (dentist)  Search this
Morton, William J.  Search this
Extent:
2.3 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1849-1911
Summary:
The collection documents through correspondence, reprints of general articles, reports of Congressional committees, and materials relating to a U.S. patent and testimonials Morton's claims to priority in the discovery of the anesthetic properties of ether in medical and surgical procedures.
Scope and Contents:
The material in the collection was gathered by Morton's son, W. J. Morton, in defense of his father's character and work, and presented to the Smithsonian Institution by him on April 2, 1918. It includes correspondence, reprints of articles from medical and surgical journals, other publications, reports of congressional committees, materials relating to securing a U.S. patent, and testimonials on behalf of Morton's claim. Many of the articles and other publications relate to the controversy concerning priority in discovery of the anesthetic properties of ether in connection with medical and surgical procedures. A number are the work of contemporaries. Much of the material now in the collection is in reasonably good condition, particularly the books and many of the reprints. Many handwritten documents however show evidence of extensive water damage and some are illegible.

A report of a Smithsonian committee on condemnation on November 1, 1927 recommended destruction of' three trunks in which the Morton materials were shipped. These trunks had been stored in a damp cellar before coming to the Museum and many of the documents were so damaged as to be illegible. Such papers were destroyed with the trunks. Another committee on condemnation was appointed in April, 1955 to report on the disposal of duplicate printed materials in the Division of Medicine and Public Health no longer needed for either exhibit or study purposes. On April 20, 1955 this committee recommended transfer of such material from the Morton collection to the Armed Forces Medical Library for distribution to medical libraries throughout the country through their exchange services.

The material has been organized into two series: (1) letters and documents arranged alphabetically by subject and (2) publications arranged alphabetically by author if known or by subject if no author is designated. A bound volume of many of the pamphlets available as single publications is part of the collection. The numbers found at the end immediately following the # are the numbers stamped on the publications when they were received by the Archives Center.

Several of the documents which are listed as part of the collection are on exhibit in "Pain and Its Relief," an exhibition at the National Museum of American History. Several others, listed in the accession file or a descriptive list were not among the materials received by the Archives Center, and have been listed as missing. Where descriptive cards prepared by an intern were sent to the Archives Center, they have been filed with the pertinent document.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1: Letters and Documents, 1849-1866

Series 2: Publications, 1849-1911
Biographical / Historical:
William Thomas Green Morton was born on August 9, 1819 in Charlton, a village in Worcester Co., Massachusetts. He was the son of James Morton, a farmer of Charlton, and his wife Rebecca, a daughter of William Needham of Charlton.

Young William had a New England common school education at Northfield and Leicester Academies. In 1836 at the age of seventeen he went to work as a clerk and salesman in various business houses in Boston. Finding such employment of little interest, however, he enrolled in the College of Dental Surgery in Baltimore, Maryland in 1840. In the winter of 1842-1843, William Morton and Horace Wells, who had begun to practice dentistry in Hartford, Connecticut in 1836, practiced together in Boston. This partnership turned out to be unprofitable and was dissolved in the fall of 1843. Wells returned to Hartford; Morton stayed in Boston.

In March 1844 William Morton began studying medicine with Dr. Charles T. Jackson and later continued his studies at the Harvard Medical School. He also married in 1844. He did not complete Harvard's degree requirements but in 1852 was awarded an M.D. degree "honoris causa" by the Washington University of Medicine, later the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore.

During 1844 while the dentist and aspiring physician was studying with Dr. Jackson, Jackson demonstrated before his chemistry classes that inhalation of sulfuric ether causes loss of consciousness. William Morton who had continued his practice during his medical studies for financial reasons, was especially interested in the manufacture of artificial teeth and was, therefore, concerned with lessening the pain of extraction of roots. He had tried various methods such as intoxicants, opium and mesmerism but none was effective. Morton tried inhalation of sulfuric ether on himself and during the summer of 1846 he anaesthetized goldfish, a hen and his pet spaniel. They all recovered and the dentist was ready to use ether on patients. The painless extraction of an ulcerated tooth on September 30, 1846 was written up in the Boston Daily Journal of October 1, 1846. Following the newspaper accounts, Henry J. Bigelow, a Boston surgeon affiliated with Massachusetts General Hospital and John Collins Warren, the surgical chief at Massachusetts General invited Morton to demonstrate his discovery there. The removal of a tumor by Dr. Warren from the neck of a patient successfully anaesthetized by Dr. Morton on October 16, 1846 was followed the next day by a second successful anesthesia and surgery by Dr. George Hayward. After several weeks of further trials, H. J. Bigelow announced Morton's discovery in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal on November 18, 1846.

On October 27, 1846, shortly after the first demonstration, Morton and Jackson applied for a patent which was issued November 12, 1846. They did not reveal that the anesthetic agent was sulfuric ether although it soon became apparent. On the application for patent it was labeled "Letheon". Patent No. 4848 was issued on November 12, 1846.

In 1847 a memorial to the Congress of the U.S. by the physicians and surgeons of Boston requested compensation to the discoverer of the anesthetic uses of ether, William T. G. Morton. Since this petition resulted in no action, Morton himself petitioned the Congress for financial reward. Two bills appropriating $200,000 for the discovery of practical anesthesia were introduced into three sessions of Congress but none passed. Supporters of Charles T. Jackson, Horace Wells and Crawford W. Long, each of whom had participated to some extent in the discovery of inhalation anesthesia, started a controversy which continued for years. Congressional committee and subcommittee concern dragged on for nearly two decades without fruition. Dr. Morton's last twenty years were spent in controversy and litigation although several of the plans for compensating him resulted in honor if not in funds. He died of apoplexy at forty-nine, on July 15, 1869.

Among early honors awarded to Dr. Morton was the Montyon Prize of 5,000 French francs awarded jointly to him and Dr. Jackson by the French Academy of Sciences. Morton refused the award saying the discovery for which it was granted was his and his alone. A testimonial of $1,000 from the trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital was accepted. He received the Order of Wasa of Sweden and Norway and the Order of St. Vladimir of Russia for his contribution to science. There were testimonials by the medical profession in several cities. His name is inscribed among those of illustrious sons of Massachusetts in the Dome of the Hall of Representatives in the State House in Boston and among those on the facade of the Boston Public Library.

Crawford Long, Horace Wells and Charles T. Jackson all played a part in the discovery of surgical anesthesia but William T. G. Morton became the best known of the contenders for priority of discovery. The controversy among them continued for years and was never clearly resolved.

Dr. William H. Welch, Johns Hopkins University Medical School, gave a definitive address at the Massachusetts General Hospital on the introduction of surgical anesthesia on the 62nd anniversary of Ether Day (October 16, 1908). According to Dr. Welch, Dr. Crawford Long of Jefferson, Jackson Co. Georgia in March 1842 removed a small tumor from the neck of a patient anaesthetized with ether, and performed eight more minor operations under ether in the next Lcour years. He delayed publication however until several years after the universal acceptance of surgical anesthesia and published details are sketchy. Until Long's work became known, Horace Wells was generally credited with first using inhalation anesthesia--nitrous oxide. The failure of an important experiment resulted in Wells abandoning his experiments and withdrawing from the practice of dentistry. He later took his own life. Dr. Welch considered Wells' work "...a direct and important link in the chain of discovery which led ... to the universal adoption of surgical anesthesia."1 After careful review of the evidence and the opinions of Morton's medical contemporaries, Dr. Welch gave major honors for the discovery to Morton. 2

1. Welch, William H., M..D., A Consideration of the Introduction of Surgical Anesthesia, The Barta Press, Boston, undated, p. 11

2. Ibid.
Provenance:
Donated by William J. Morton, son of William T. G. Morton in 1921.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Dentists  Search this
Topic:
Medicine  Search this
Anesthesia  Search this
Ether  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Citation:
Morton Family Collection, 1849-1911, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0118
See more items in:
Morton Family Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0118
Online Media:

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection

Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1907-2000
bulk 1911-1924
Summary:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are slides dcoumenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. As scientific managers, the Gilbreth's introduced new techniques to analyze work, the workplace, and work practices with the goal of eliminating waste to maximize productivity. The collection illustrates these new techniques and their application to a wide variety of studies. The collection is diverse and provides insight into understanding how Gilbreth approached his studies. Also included are slides documenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.

Series 1, Background Information, 1892-1997, includes biographical materials about Frank B. Gilbreth; copies of some of Frank Gilbreth's patents, 1892-1916; and printed materials, 1907-1997, that contain articles, newspaper and magazine clippings about Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and time and motion study generally. Black-and-white photo prints of Gilbreth or work Gilbreth documented from collections held at Purdue University and Ohio State University are included.

Series 2, Glass plate stereo slides, 1910-1924, consists of approximately 2,250 glass stereo slides photographed by Frank B. Gilbreth and others and intended for viewing through an optical viewing machine. Some are positive black and white, positive color, and negative black and white. The subject matter of the slides covers the work undertaken by Frank Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Many of the images serve as documentation for the studies the couple performed as they were hired by firms in an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of inefficiency. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

The slides are numbered sequentially. For example, a glass plate slide numbered 318949.001 will have a corresponding photoprint 318949.001 in Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides. Note: not all glass plate slides have corresponding photoprints. Additionally, there are Office of Photographics Services, Smithsonian Institution negative numbers assigned to many of the photo prints.

Some subject categories include:

Frank B. Gilbreth: working in motion laboratories, on factory inspections, seated in offices, with family and friends, in World War I uniform, watching and monitoring shop operations.

Lillian M. Gilbreth: with family, during university graduation ceremonies, traveling and working with Frank and observing office workers.

Gilbreth Family: family on the road in an automobile, at home seated around the dinner table, in the parlor, in the garden, and with friends and relatives.

Gilbreth ship travel: contains views on steamer voyages to Europe, deck scenes, arrivals, departures, ship officers and crew, and other passengers.

Automobile assembly study: internal and external views of a warehouse/factory, including large piles or rows of metal car frames and other parts.

Benchwork study: images of a male worker standing or sitting in a chair while filing an object secured in a vice at a workbench.

Betterment: images of efforts whcih contributed to industrial betterment (the Gilbreth chair, employee library, and the home reading box).

Bricklaying study: view of men wearing overalls and caps, shoveling, and men laying bicks.

Business and apparatus of motion study: views of lectures, meetings, film showings, demonstrations, charts, drawings, motion models, charts amd some equipment.

Disabled study: views of partially blind World War I veterans, amputees using special tytpewriter, assembling machinery, use of cructhes, and a one armed dentist.

Factory bench work: table-top machines assembly operations, hand tools, orderly arrangement of parts prior to and during assembly and a variety of bench vises.

Factory documentation: various images of the interior and edterior of factories including heavy machinery.

Golfing study: various cyclegraphs of a man swinging a golf club.

Grid boards: back drops used by Gikbreth to isolate and measure worker motions. This includes walls, floors, desktops, and drop cloths divided into grids of various densities and scales.

Handwriting and cyclegraphs: finger lights moving in patterns of script.

Ladders: include step ladders and painters' ladders shown in use near shelving.

Light assembly study: wide variety of images ranging from cyclegraphs of women working, to the factory floor as well as tools and machinery.

Materials handling study: different angles of an empty cart, a cart oiled high with boxes, and a man pushing a cart illustrating different body positions.

Military study: illustrate work on the Army foot meausring machine, gun parts, men holding a rifle.

Motion models: images of simple wire motionmodels.

Needle trade study: views of textile machinery and workers.

Office study: various shots inside of an office with tables, desks, drawers, files, and typewriters. Some of the images are cyclegraphs of femal and male workers performing tasks, such as writing, both tin the context of an office as well as in front of a grdidded background. There are several close-ups of an organizer containing penciles, paperclips, pins and rubberbands.

Packing: methods of placing and arranging goods in boxes, such as soap packing.

Panama-Pacific Exposition 1915: contains views of statuary, fountains, and architecture of the exposition held in San Francisco.

Pure light cyclegraphs: no workers or grids visible only finger lights in motion.

Rubber stamping study: hand movements and access to ink pads and stamps.

Scenic views: views of buildings, landscapes, street scenes, and fountains from around the world documenting Gilbreth's travels.

Shoe making study: laboratory studies of shoe assembly operations with an emphasis on workers access to component pieces.

Shop machinery: various shots of machines and workers working with machines.

Signage: include organizational flow charts, shop floor plans, route maps, office layouts, numbering systems, exhibit display boards illustrating Frank Gilbreth's efficiency studies and techniques.

Stacking: views of the art and science of stacking boxes, clothing, equipment, containers, and vertical storage without shelves.

Stock bins: consists of storage pips, paper, other raw materials, shelves, and corridoe shots.

Storage: images illustrate contrast between old techniques and new.

Surgical and dental studies: thester views of surgeons, assistants, nurses, hand motions in grasping, placing surgical instruments, dental work and self inspection of teeth.

Tool cribs: storage of hand tools in shops with an emphasis on easy access and easy inventorying.

Typing study: various views of femaile s under observation using Remington typewriters.

Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides, 1910-1924, consist of black and white photoprints of the glass plate slides depicting the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

Series 5, Stereographs,1911-1914,

Series 6, Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 2000, and undated, is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated; Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1968 and undated; and Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990,. 2000 and undated. The series contains several formats: 7" open reel-to-reel audio tape, 1/2" VHS, Beta Cam SP, DVD, audio cassette, one inch audio tape, and 16 mm film.

Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1967-1968 and undated, consists of supplemental documentation for the film, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." Specifically, there are brochures and other printed materials detailing what the film is about and how copies may be obtained. This subseries also contains a copy of the book Cheaper by the Dozen, 1948. The book was written by Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey and tells the biographical story of Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth, and their twelve children. The book was adapted to film by Twentieth Century Fox in 1950.

Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1967, consists of one title, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." The film materials consist of the film's production elements: 16 mm black and white negative A-roll; 16mm black-and-white negative B-roll; and the optical track negative. Each is 800 feet in length.

The film presents a summary of work analysis films which were taken by Frank B. Gilbreth between 1919 and 1924 showing a number of industrial operations from which the motion study was developed. Demonstrates motion and fatigue study, skill study, plant layout and material handling, inventory control, production control, business procedures, safety methods, developing occupations for the handicapped, athletic training and skills, military training, and surgical operations as researched and developed by Gilbreth. Points out that Gilbreth created entirely new techniques on how to improve industrial efficiency, while at the same time significantly improving conditions for the workers. The film was produced by James S. Perkins in collaboration with Dr. Ralph M. Barnes and with commentary by Liilian M. Gilbreth and James S. Perkins. The film was presented on December 3, 1968 at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Annual Meeting in New York. The formats for this title include: 16 mm, Beta Cam SP, and DVD. Additionally, there is a one inch audio tape recording for the film.

Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000 and undated consist of a Smithsonian radio program titled "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," from 1980 and an recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Casey discussing Gilbreth Family photographs from 2000. Hosted by [Ann Carroll?], "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," featured Fred and Bill Gilbreth discussing their parents Frank and Lillian, Gilbreth, and the book Cheaper by the Dozen. The radio program coincided with the 100th Anniversary of the American Society of Mechancial Engineers (founded 1880)of which Lillian Gilbreth was the Society's first female member and showcased a single case exhibition at the Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) titled "Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: Motion Engineers." Inside Smithosnian Radio was a weekly program produced by the Office of Telecommunications. The recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Carey was recorded on July 9, 2000 and documents Ms. Carey's identification and discussion of Gilbreth Family photographs. David Ferguson assisted in the discussion. A hard copy index to the photographs Ms. Carey discusses is available.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1892-1997

Subseries 1.1: Frank B. Gilbreth, undated

Subseries 1.2: Frank B. Gilbreth patents, 1892-1916

Subseries 1.3: Printed Materials, 1907-1997

Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive), 1910-1924 and undated

Series 3: Photo prints of glass stereo slides, 1910-1924 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Photo Print Books, 1-9, undated

Subseries 3.2: Photo prints (duplicates), undated

Series 4: Stereo Autochromes, undated

Series 5: Stereograph Cards, 1911-1914

Series 6: Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 1990, 2000 and undated

Subseries 6.1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated

Subseries 6.2: Moving images, 1968 and undated

Subseries 6.3: Audio recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000, and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gilbreth is best known for his work on the efficiency of motion. Working with his wife and professional partner Lillian Moller Gilbreth, he applied modern psychology to his work with management. His innovative motion studies were used on factory workers, typists and the disabled. Gilbreth established the link between psychology and education to be succesful management.

Frank Gilbreth was born in Fairfield, Maine on July 7, 1868. His parents, John and Martha Bunker Gilbreth were New Englanders. John Gilbreth ran a hardware business, but died when Frank was only three. Bearing the responsibilty of raising her children alone, Martha moved the family twice in search of quality education for her children. Ultimately she decided to school the children herself. In 1885, Frank graduated from English High School in Boston. Despite gaining admission into the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Frank opted to enter the work world immediately as a bricklayer's apprentice with Whidden and Company, building contractors in Boston.

Smart and skilled, Gilbreth worked his way up in the company. He learned the trade quickly and soon was promoted to supervisor, foreman, and finally to the position of superintendent. To further his edcuation, he went to night school to study mechanical drawing.

At the age of 27, Gilbreth embarked upon his first business venture. He started his own contracting firm. His firm developed a fine reputation for quality work at a very rapid pace. He invented tools, scaffolding, and other contraptions to make the job easier. His company goals included the elimination of waste, the conservation of energy, and the reduction of cost. His work included canals, factories, houses, and dams. His clients came from all parts of the United States, and he performed some work in England.

In 1903, Frank Gilbreth met Lillian Moller (1903-1972) and married her on October 19, 1904. Lillian graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a BA (1900) and MA (1902). She later earned a Ph.D from Brown University (1915), earning a dissertation titled The Psychology of Management. Lillian's academic work, large family and integral role in Frank's consulting business kept her busy. Her contributions to the business led to a greater understanding of an individual's welfare in the work world. This becamme a key idea to increasing productivity through scientific management techniques.

Working together, the couple became leaders in the new field of scientific management. They published books, gave lectures, and raised tweleve children together: Anne, Mary (1906--912), Ernestine, Martha, Frank Jr., William, Lillian, Frederick, Daniel, John, Robert and Jane. Some of Gilbreth's books include Fields System (1908); Concrete System (1908); Bricklaying System (1909; Motion Study (1911); and Primer of Scientific Management (1911). Gilbreth co-authored with Lillian: Time Study (1916); Fatigue Study (1916); Applied Motion Study (1917); and Motion Study for the Handicapped (1919).

It wasn't long before Gilbreth moved away from construction. Together with his wife, they focused on the link between psychology and motion. With her strong psychological background, and his interest in efficiency, the Gilbreth's opened the School of Scientific Management in 1913. The school was in session for four years. Numerous professional attended the school, and soon the Gilbreth's had established a reputation as consultant's to the new field of scientific management.

In 1912, Frank won a contract with the New England Butt Company in Providence, Rhode Island. There he installed his system of scientific management in a factory setting for the first time. Contracts with the Hermann-Aukam handkerchief manufacturing company in New Jersey and the Auergessellschaft Company in Germany followed. Using motion study, Gilbreth studied and reoganized the factories, attempting to find "the one best way" to do work.

Gilbreth traveled to Germany to continue his work was a scientific manager. He visited factories and hospitals, working to improve procedures and eliminate waste. Using micro-motion study and the chronocyclegraph procedure, he analyzed and dissected motion, discovering therblings, the seventeen fundamental units of any motion. World War I slowed Gilbreth's progress abroad, so he focused his consulting business on firms n the United States.

After World War I, Gilbreth's business thrived. in 1920, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers instituted its Management Division, something Gilbreth had been demanding for years. He was now a famous American engineer, gaining financial rewards as as professional honors.

Frank Gilbreth died suddenly of a heart attack on June 14, 1924, still in the middle of three contracts. He was honored after his death in 1944 by the American Society of Engineers and the American Management Association with the Gant Gold Medal. After Frank's death, Lillian moved the family to California where she continued to work on efficiency and health in industry issues. She was a respected buiness woman and was hired by several companies to train employees, study working conditions, and reduce fatigue. She lectured at several universities (Newark College of Engineering and the University of Wisconsin), and joined the faculty at Purdue University in 1935 as the first woman professor in the engineering school.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth often used their large family (and Frank himself) as guinea pigs in experiments. Their family exploits are lovingly detailed in the 1948 book Cheaper by the Dozen, written by Frank Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey.
Related Materials:
Material in Other Institutions

Purdue University, Archives and Special Collections

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth papers, 1869-2000

The Gilbreth Papers documents the professional and personal lives of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth. The collection consists of personal papers, letters, correspondence, photographs, and other memorabilia that Lillian Gilbreth collected during her life regarding her youth, marriage, family, and career.

Collection of materials related to Lillian Gilbreth, 1964-2006

One folder of items relating to the life of Lillian Gilbreth, and her family, collected by her granddaughter, Lillian (Jill) Barley and Nancy Weston. Materials include clippings relating to the Lillian Gilbreth postage stamp (1984); obituaries and memorial programs for Peter Barney, Ernestine Carey, Lillian Gilbreth, Anne Gilbreth Barney, Charles Carey, and Frank Gilbreth Jr.; programs and photographs relating to Lillian Gilbreth's visit to Athens in 1964; and biographical information on Lillian Gilbreth.

Cornell University, Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives

Frank Gilbreth Papers on Microfilm, Collection Number: 5424 mf

Selected papers pertaining to industrial engineering. Original materials are held by Purdue University. Microfilm copied purchased from Purdue University in April 1968.
Provenance:
The collection materials were donated by several individuals: New Jersey Institute of Technology (1975); Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr., (1980); Ernestine Gilbreth Carey (1995); Daniel B. Gilbreth (1998); and James Secor Perkins in 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motion study  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0803
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0803

Hans Namuth photographs and papers

Creator:
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Names:
Exposition universelle et internationale (1958 : Brussels, Belgium)  Search this
Jewish Museum (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
Yale University. School of Art and Architecture  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Boynton, Jack, 1928-2010  Search this
Breuer, Marcel, 1902-  Search this
Cage, John, 1912-1992  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Copland, Aaron, 1900-1990  Search this
Davis, Stuart, 1892-1964  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967  Search this
Johns, Jasper, 1930- -- Photographs  Search this
Karpel, Bernard, 1911-1986  Search this
Koch, Kenneth, 1925-  Search this
Krasner, Lee, 1908-1984 -- Photographs  Search this
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 1886-1969  Search this
Navaretta, Cynthia  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988 -- Photographs  Search this
Norman, Dorothy, 1905-1997  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956 -- Photographs  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008 -- Photographs  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970 -- Photographs  Search this
Shaw, Elizabeth Roberts, 1921-  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009 -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Photographs
Transcripts
Place:
Massachusetts -- Boston
Date:
1945-1985
Summary:
The papers of New York photographer and filmmaker Hans Namuth measure 4.5 linear feet and date from 1945 to 1985. The bulk of the collection consists of photographs taken by Namuth of New York artists. Also included are papers regarding Namuth's film about Alfred Stieglitz and other professional files.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York photographer and filmmaker Hans Namuth measure 4.5 linear feet and date from 1945 to 1985. The bulk of the collection consists of photographs taken by Namuth of New York artists. Also included are papers regarding Namuth's film about Alfred Stieglitz and other professional files.

The first series contains materials related to the planning and production of Namuth's film Alfred Stieglitz, Photographer. Documentation includes articles, correspondence, exhibition materials, grant program request sheets, magazines and catalogs, photo requests, photographs and photographic materials, notes and research, shot lists, script drafts and fragments, interview transcripts, and correspondence. Interviewees include Ansel Adams, Arnold Newman, Aaron Copland, Dorothy Norman, and others.

The second series contains various writings and papers relating to Namuth's professional activities, including Namuth's exhibition at the 1958 Brussels World Fair, business and financial records, papers on The Construction of Boston by Kennth Koch, correspondence, a notebook, and various printed materials. Namuth's correspondence is with James Boynton, Bernard Karpel, the Museum of Modern Art, Cynthia Navaretta, Elizabeth Shaw, the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, and the Yale University School of Art and Architecture.

Photographs taken by Hans Namuth depict prominent American (primarily New York-based) artists, architects, writers, musicians, and art critics. Artists are shown in their studios or homes, either at work or posing for the camera, and include Alexander Calder, Stuart Davis, Willem de Kooning, Grace Hartigan, Edward Hopper, Jasper Johns, Lee Krasner, Isamu Noguchi, Jackson Pollock, Robert Rauschenberg, Mark Rothko, and Andrew Wyeth, among many others. Photographs of other individuals include Marcel Breuer, John Cage, Leo Castelli, Buckminster Fuller, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and others. Also found are photographs of exhibitions, openings, and art-related events from the 1950s and 1960s, such as a traveling Picasso exhibit and a Robert Rauschenberg opening at the Jewish Museum. Most photographs are black and white, but a few color prints are included.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 3 series.

Series 1: Alfred Stieglitz Film Project, 1945-circa 1981 (Box 1, OV 11; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 2: Professional Files, 1953-1985 (Box 1; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Photographs, 1945-1984 (Box 2-10; 3.4 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Hans Namuth (1915-1990) was a German-American photographer and filmmaker who lived and worked in New York. He was primarily known for his work photographing prominent American artists in the 1950s and 1960s.

Namuth was born in Germany but left for France in 1933 after the rise of the Nazi Party. While in France, he struck up a friendship with fellow German Georg Reisner. From 1935 to 1939, Namuth and Reisner worked together as photographers primarily in Paris. His first works to catch the public's attention came from an assignment in Barcelona that accidentally coincided with the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936. Following a short internment in Nazi-occupied France, Namuth left for the United States.

After taking photography classes with Alexey Brodovitch, art director of Harper's Bazaar, Namuth met Jackson Pollock at an exhibition in 1950 and asked to photograph the artist at work. His subsequent photographs of Pollock raised both artists' profiles. Namuth would spend the next three decades photographing major New York artists, architects, and art-related events for commission and for his own studio. He directed a number of films in collaboration with Paul Falkenberg and published several books of photographs. Namuth died in Long Island in 1990.
Related Materials:
Also at the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Hans Namuth, Aug. 12-Sept. 8, 1971. Additional Hans Namuth papers are located at the Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona.
Provenance:
The collection was donated 1972-1985 by Hans Namuth.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
All Photographs by Hans Namuth: All requests for image reproductions are to be sent to: Assistant Registrar for Rights & Reproductions; Center for Creative Photography. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Musicians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Transcripts
Citation:
Hans Namuth photographs and papers, 1945-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.namuhans
See more items in:
Hans Namuth photographs and papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-namuhans

METCO Inc. Materials

Creator:
Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (1 box, 8 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Brochures
Handbooks
Posters
Place:
Boston (Mass.) -- Social conditions
Massachusetts -- 20th century
Massachusetts -- 21st century
Date:
1977 - 2014
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes: annual METCO Parent Handbooks which detailed the services METCO provided and provided other information for parents of children attending the METCO supported schools, 1977-2004; event programs from METCO gatherings, 2007-2014; flyers and handouts; and posters, including 7 hand-made posters created to be displayed at meetings, featuring photographs and articles on some of the school districts METCO served.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Racial Imbalance Act of 1965 was passed by the Massachusetts General Court. It made the segregation of public schools illegal in Massachusetts, and stated that any public school in the Commonwealth whose student body was composed of over 50% of minority races was "racially imbalanced." The Boston School Committee was required to achieve "the complete integration of the Boston Public Schools" before September 1966. Significant civil unrest followed court-ordered busing to achieve the aims of this legislation, especially during the years 1974-1976. Against this background, METCO was started in 1966. METCO's mission was to enable voluntary integration in public schools in Metropolitan Boston, by enabling students who lived in the city to attend schools in the more affluent suburban areas, and provide better educational opportunities for minority students.
Provenance:
Collection donated by METCO Inc., through Jean McGuire, Director, 2016
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Busing for school integration -- Massachusetts -- Boston Metropolitan Area  Search this
Education  Search this
Race relations  Search this
School integration  Search this
Schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Brochures
Handbooks
Posters -- 1950-2000
Citation:
METCO Inc. Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1410
See more items in:
METCO Inc. Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1410

Albany, New York/Boston, Massachusetts

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1-2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1980s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref19

Boston, Massachusetts, Mt. Vernon Church

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1970s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref23

Boston, Massachusetts, Public Library

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7-9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970s-1997
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref24

Boston, Massachusetts, Public Library, Abbey

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1994
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref25

Boston, Massachusetts, Public Library, Our Lady of Sorrows

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1980
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref26

Boston, Massachusetts, Public Library, Photographic Material

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref27

Boston, Massachusetts, Public Library, State Capitol

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1970s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref28

Boston, Massachusetts, Public Library, Temple Israel

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1976
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref29

Boston, Massachusetts, Public Library, Trinity Church

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970s-1980s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 1: Mural Research Files / 1.1: Murals by City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref30

Boston, Massachusetts, Boston Public Library

Collection Creator:
Murray, Richard N., 1942-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 17, Folder 27-28
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1980s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States, 1896-2006, bulk 1970-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States
Richard Murray research material regarding mural painting in the United States / Series 4: Photographic Materials / By City
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-murrrich-ref726

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