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History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Videohistory Collection

Extent:
11 videotapes.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1992-1993
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the discovery, development, commercialization, and applications of PCR technology. Three sessions were recorded May 14 and May 15, 1992 at Emeryville, California; September 25, 1992 at Alameda, California; and February 25, 1993 at Norwalk, Connecticut.

This collection consists of three interview sessions, totalling approximately 19:00 hours of recordings and 346 pages of transcript.

Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are available through the Division of Medical Science, National Museum of American History.
Historical Note:
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique, invented in 1985 by Kary B. Mullis, allowed scientists to make millions of copies of a scarce sample of DNA. The technique has revolutionized many aspects of current research, including the diagnosis of genetic defects and the detection of the AIDS virus in human cells. The technique is also used by criminologists to link specific persons to samples of blood or hair via DNA comparison. PCR also affected evolutionary studies because large quantities of DNA can be manufactured from fossils containing but trace amounts.

Kary Mullis invented the PCR technique in 1985 while working as a chemist at the Cetus Corporation, a biotechnology firm in Emeryville, California. The procedure requires placing a small amount of the DNA containing the desired gene into a test tube. A large batch of loose nucleotides, which link into exact copies of the original gene, is also added to the tube. A pair of synthesized short DNA segments, that match segments on each side of the desired gene, is added. These "primers" find the right portion of the DNA, and serve as starting points for DNA copying. When the enzyme Taq DNA Polymeras from the bacterium, Thermus aquaticus is added, the loose nucleotides lock into a DNA sequence dictated by the sequence of that target gene located between the two primers.

The test tube is heated, and the DNA's double helix separates into two strands. The DNA sequence of each strand of the helix is thus exposed and as the temperature is lowered the primers automatically bind to their complementary portions of the DNA sample. At the same time, the enzyme links the loose nucleotides to the primer and to each of the separated DNA strands in the appropriate sequence. The complete reaction, which takes approximately five minutes, results in two double helices containing the desired portion of the original. The heating and cooling is repeated, doubling the number of DNA copies. After thirty to forty cycles are completed a single copy of a piece of DNA can be multiplied to hundreds of millions.

When completed manually, Mullis' PCR technique was slow and labor-intensive. Therefore, Cetus scientists began looking for ways in which to automate the process. Before the discovery of the thermostable Taq enzyme, scientists needed to add fresh enzyme to each cycle. The first thermocycling machine, "Mr. Cycle" was developed by Cetus engineers to address that need to add fresh enzyme to each test tube after the heating and cooling process. Purification of the Taq polymerase then resulted in the need for a machine to cycle more rapidly among different temperatures. In 1985, Cetus formed a joint venture with the Perkin-Elmer Corporation in Norwalk, Connecticut, and introduced the DNA Thermal Cycler. By 1988, Cetus was receiving numerous inquiries about licensing to perform PCR for commercial diagnostic purposes. On January 15, 1989, Cetus announced an agreement to collaborate with Hoffman-LaRoche on the development and commercialization of in vitro human diagnostic products and services based on PCR technology. Roche Molecular Systems eventually bought the PCR patent and associated technology from Cetus for $300,000,000.

Interviewees included scientists, engineers, and managers from Cetus Corporation, Roche Molecular Systems, and Perkin-Elmer Corporation. Norman Arnheim first became interested in the study of medicine in high school, as the result of a summer spent working at a hospital. He received his B.A. (1960) and M.A. (1962) from the University of Rochester, and his Ph.D. (1966) in Drosophila genetics from the University of California, Berkeley. A professor of molecular biology at the University of Southern California, Arnheim formerly worked at Cetus Corporation on PCR. John G. Atwood came to Perkin-Elmer Corporation in November 1948 with a masters' degree in electrical engineering from Columbia University (1948), and served as senior scientist for the biotechnology instrument group.

Peter Barrett received a B.S. in Chemistry from Lowell Technological Institute and a Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from Northeastern University. He joined Perkin-Elmer in 1970 as product specialist in the Instrument Division, was promoted to manager of the Applications Laboratory in 1982, and director of the Laboratory Robotics Department in 1985. In 1988, Barrett was named director of European Marketing and relocated to Italy. In 1989, he moved to Germany to set up the European Sales and Service Center. He returned to the U.S. in 1990 to serve as Division Vice-President of Instruments and was named Vice-President of the Life Sciences Division in 1991. In 1993, in conjunction with the merger with Applied Biosystems Incorporated, he moved to California to become Executive Vice-President, Applied Biosystems Division.

Joseph L. DiCesare received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Rhode Island. In 1976, he accepted the position of Assistant Product Line Manager at Perkin-Elmer Corporation and was appointed Product Line Manager of the Gas Chromatography Division in 1983. In 1987, he was promoted to the position of Research and Development Applications Manager of the Biotechnology Division. Henry Anthony Erlich received his B.A. in biochemical sciences from Harvard University in 1965 and his Ph.D. in genetics from University of Washington in 1972. He served as a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology at Princeton University from 1972 to 1975 and in the Department of Medicine at Stanford University from 1975 to 1979. He joined the Cetus Corporation in 1979 and was appointed Senior Scientist and Director of Human Genetics in 1981. After the dissolution of Cetus in 1991, Erlich transferred to Roche Molecular Systems to serve as director of Human Genetics.

A few years after graduating from high school, Fred Faloona began working as a research assistant under Kary B. Mullis at the Cetus Corporation, c. 1983. He assisted Mullis with the initial development and application of PCR. He followed Mullis to Xytronyx Incorporated in 1986 where he served as a Research associate working on DNA and RNA sequencing and further applications of PCR. In 1988, he returned to Cetus as a research assistant where he worked on the application of PCR to the discovery of new retroviruses and he further refined PCR detection techniques. In 1991, Faloona and a partner began Saddle Point System, a small company designing computer hardware and software.

David H. Gelfand completed his B.A. in Biology at Brandeis University in 1966. After receiving a Ph.D. in Biology from the University of California, San Diego in 1970, he began work as an assistant research biochemist at the University of California in San Francisco. He was offered the position of Director of Recombinant Molecular Research at Cetus in 1976 and was promoted to Vice-President of that division in 1979. He later accepted positions as Vice-President of Scientific Affairs and Director of Core Technology, PCR Division, in 1981 and 1988. In 1991, Gelfand also transferred to Roche Molecular Systems to serve as Director for the Program in Core Research.

Lawrence Allen Haff received his B.S. in Biochemistry from Michigan State University in 1969. After completing his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Cornell University in 1974, Haff served as a research fellow in the biological laboratories of Harvard University. In 1976, he accepted the position of Senior Research Scientist at Pharmacia. He transferred to Millipore Corporation in 1982 to serve as Technical Research Manager developing and supporting high performance separation techniques. He joined the Perkin-Elmer Corporation in 1985 as principal scientist and research manager to help develop the DNA Thermal Cycler.

After receiving his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California-Davis in 1978, David C. Jones worked as a stress engineer for the Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company. In 1980, he joined the Bio-Rad Laboratories designing and developing chromatography instruments. He accepted the position of Mechanical Engineer at Cetus Corporation in 1986 to work on thermocycling instrumentation. He also completed an M.B.A. in management from Golden State University in 1988.

Elena D. Katz was awarded her M.S. degree in Chemistry from Moscow University, Russia. From 1969 to 1972, she studied in the Ph.D. program at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. In 1973, she was appointed Associate Researcher in the physical chemistry department of Moscow University. After moving to the United States, Katz became Senior Staff Scientist at Perkin-Elmer in 1977 working on various multidisciplinary projects utilizing liquid and gas chromatography. After 1985, Katz concurrently pursued a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of London. Shirley Kwok began her career as a research associate with the Assay Department of Cetus Corporation after graduating from the University of California, Berkeley, with a degree in microbiology. Kwok was part of a group of researchers devoted to the use of PCR to detect HIV in human cells, and held the position of Research Investigator for Hoffman-La Roche at Roche Molecular Systems.

Richard Leath started with Cetus in 1980, after receiving a masters' degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University in 1974. Leath spent a decade developing machines like Mr. Cycle, and later worked as Senior Engineer at Maxwell Labs, Richmond, California, a firm which developed particle accelerators.

Kary B. Mullis received his B.S. in Chemistry from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1966 and his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California-Berkeley in 1972. In 1973, he was awarded a post-doctoral fellowship in pediatric cardiology at the University of Kansas Medical School. He returned to California in 1977 and was awarded another fellowship in pharmaceutical chemistry from the University of California, San Francisco to research endorphins and the opiate receptor. He accepted the position of Scientist at Cetus in 1979 to work in the chemistry department researching oligonucleotide synthesis and chemistry. He transferred to the Department of Human Genetics in 1984 to conduct research on DNA technology. In 1986, Mullis accepted the position of Director of Molecular Biology at Xytronyx, Inc. researching DNA technology, photochemistry, and photobiology. He left Xytronyx in 1988 and then served as a private consultant to a variety of companies in the field of nucleic chemistry. Mullis won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1993 for his invention of the PCR technique.

Lynn H. Pasahow graduated from Stanford University in 1969 and received his law degree from the University of California at Berkeley School of Law in 1972. He joined the firm of McCutchen, Doyle, Brown, and Enersen in 1973, where he chaired the firm's intellectual property group. He had advised clients and handled complex litigation involving patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, licensing, export-import, noncompetition, and trade regulation disputes, most involving biotechnology, computer hardware and software and other advanced technology products. He led the group of lawyers which successfully obtained a jury verdict upholding Cetus' landmark polymerase chain reaction patents against the Dupont Company challenge. Enrico Picozza began work with Perkin-Elmer in June 1985, shortly after receiving his degree from the University of Connecticut. He was a Senior Technical Specialist, devoted to specifying, developing, testing and evaluating instrumentation primarily for the PCR market.

Riccardo Pigliucci earned his degree in chemistry in Milan, Italy and graduated from the Management Program at the Northeastern University. He joined Perkin-Elmer in 1966 and held numerous management positions in analytical instrument operations in Europe as well as in the U.S. He was appointed General Manager of the U.S. Instrument Division in 1989 after serving as director of Worldwide Instrument Marketing since 1985. In 1988, Pigliucci was appointed a sector Vice-President in Connecticut Operations. The following year, he was elected corporate Vice-President of Perkin-Elmer Instruments. He became President of the Instrument Group in 1991 and was named Senior Vice-President of Perkin-Elmer Corporation in 1992. In 1993, he was elected President and Chief Operating Officer and also served as a Director of the Corporation.

After receiving his bachelors degree in Chemistry and Biology from the University of Washington in 1978, Randall K. Saiki served one year as a laboratory technician in their Department of Microbiology. In 1979, he transferred to Washington University to serve as a lab technician in the Biology Department. He joined the Cetus Corporation in late 1979 as a research assistant in the Recombinant DNA Group. In 1981, he was promoted to Research Associate in the Department of Human Genetics and was named Scientist in that department in 1989. Saiki transferred to Roche Molecular Systems in 1991 to serve as Research Investigator in the Department of Human Genetics. Stephen Scharf received a degree in bacteriology from University of California, Davis. He worked there as a biochemist for four and a half years until 1980, when he came to Cetus. Scharf was a Research Associate in the Department of Human Genetics at Cetus at the time PCR was developed and later served as Senior Scientist at Roche Molecular Systems.

Donna Marie Seyfried graduated from Lehigh University with a B.S. in Microbiology. Her professional career began as a microbiologist for the E.I. Dupont de Nemours Company. Seyfried joined Perkin-Elmer in 1985. From 1990 to 1993, she served as Business Director for Biotechnology Instrument Systems. In 1994, she was appointed Director of Corporate Business Development and Strategic Planning. She was responsible for managing the development, commercialization, and marketing of the PCR business as part of the Perkin-Elmer Cetus JointVenture, and the subsequent strategic alliance with Hoffman-LaRoche. She was also instrumental in the Perkin-Elmer Applied Biosystems merger.

After receiving his B.S. from Bates College in 1972 and his Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1976, John J. Sninsky accepted a postdoctoral fellowship from the Departments of Genetics and Medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine. In 1981, he accepted an assistant professorship at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He joined the Cetus Corporation in 1984 as a Senior Scientist in the Department of Microbial Genetics. In 1985, he was appointed Director of the Diagnostics Program and of the Department of Infectious Diseases. In 1988, he was promoted to Senior Director of both of those departments. Sninsky transferred to Roche Molecular Systems in 1991 to serve as Senior Director for Research. Robert Watson, who joined Cetus in 1977, was a Research Investigator with Roche Molecular Systems, working on nucleic acid-based diagnostics.

Thomas J. White graduated from John Hopkins University in 1967 with a B.A. in Chemistry. After serving for four years as a Peace Corps volunteer in Liberia, he received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1976. In 1978, he joined the Cetus Corporation as a scientist, and was promoted to Director of Molecular and Biological Research and Associate Director of Research and Development in 1981. He was appointed Vice-President of Research in 1984. He transferred to Roche Diagnostics Research in 1989 to serve as Senior Director and in 1991 was appointed Vice-President of Research and Development of Roche Molecular Systems and Associate Vice-President of Hoffman-LaRoche, Incorporated. Joseph Widunas, who graduated from the University of Illinois with a degree in engineering in 1975, came to Cetus in 1981 as a sound engineer. Later, as Director of new product development for Colestech Corporation, Hayward, California, he was instrumental in the development of the second Mr. Cycle prototype, "Son of Mr. Cycle."

Timothy M. Woudenberg received his B.S. in Chemistry from Purdue University in 1980. He worked as an electronics design engineer for Mulab Incorporated from 1980 to 1982. He served as a teaching and research assistant at Tufts University from 1982 to 1987 and there completed his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry in 1988. He joined Perkin-Elmer in 1987 as an engineer in the Instrument Division of the Biotechnology Department.

Also interviewed were Perkin-Elmer's Robert P. Regusa, biotechnology systems engineering manager for the biotechnology group responsible for the development of the thermocycler instrumentation; Robert L. Grossman, an engineer at Perkin-Elmer, involved with the design and manufacture of the thermocycler line; Senior Marketing Specialist Leslie S. Kelley; as well as Cetus' Senior Scientist, Richard Respess.
Topic:
DNA thermal cycler  Search this
Polymerase chain reaction  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Patents  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9577, History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9577
See more items in:
History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9577

Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 51

Author:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (6.0" x 3.5")
Container:
Box 21, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Date:
1932 May 31-1932 October 23
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Leo H. Baekeland Papers / Series 4: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref340
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 51 digital asset number 1

[Hattiesburg, MS; January 21-22, 1964]

Collection Creator:
McNamara, Norris  Search this
Moon, Moses  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Item AC0556-OT_N68
Box 4 (Reference)
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Scope and Contents:
Content: Prayer Speaker Lawrence Guyot, Hattiesburg Freedom Summer Project -Comments and announcements -How to behave when arrested; non-violent techniques to deal with arrest Question

Digital reference copy in Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies must be used. Tapes noted in the container list have digital reference copies in the Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but copyright status unknown. Contact Archives Center staff for additional information. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection, 1963-1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection / Series 1: Original Tapes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0556-ref125
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View [Hattiesburg, MS; January 21-22, 1964] digital asset number 1

Elaine Ostroff Universal Design Papers

Creator:
Ostroff, Elaine  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (37 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Grant proposals
Correspondence
Videocassettes
Reports
Audiocassettes
Theater programs
Date:
1965 - 2009
Summary:
Collection documents activist and educator Elaine Ostroff who advocated for improved access for people with disabilities in public places, co-founded the Adaptive Environments Center and who taught universal design in several institutions.
Scope and Contents:
The papers include correspondence, reports, photographs and slides, course-related materials, evaluations, printed publications, lectures and presentations, grant applications, conference materials, audiovisual materials and newspaper clippings documenting the career of Elaine Ostroff, an activist and educator of universal design.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series. The arrangement follows Ms. Ostroff's original file order which for the most part has been retained.

Series 1: Personal/Biographical Materials, 1967-2008

Series 2: Subject Files, 1965-2008

Series 3: Universal Design Education Project (UDEP) Files, 1993-2008 (bulk 1993-1998)

Series 4: Adaptive Environments, 1978-2009

Series 5: Japan, 1996-1999

Series 6: Photographs and Slides, 1971-2002

Series 7: Audiovisual Materials, 1974-2004
Biographical Note:
Elaine Phillips Ostroff was born on February 27, 1933 and grew up in Fall River, Massachusetts. She graduated from Durfee High School (1951), received a B.S. from Brandeis University (1955), was awarded a Radcilffe Fellowship (1970) and an Ed.M from Harvard University (1972). In 1978, Ostroff co-founded with Cora Beth Abel the Adaptive Environments Center (now the Institute for Human Centered Design (IHCD) to confront the barriers which prevent persons with disabilities and older people from fully participating in community life. In 1989, with support from the National Endowment for the Arts, she developed the National Universal Design Education Project (UDEP) at Adaptive Environments. A national project, UDEP sought to incorporate universal design in professional curricula. Ostroff coined the term "user/expert" in 1995 to identify individuals whose personal experiences give them unique critical capacity to evaluate environments.

As an educator, Ostroff has been involved with the accessible environments effort on a national and international level since 1971. She was the former director of training for the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health where she developed graduate programs and courses to sustain community based living for people with disabilities. In 1977, she was the United States representative to the United Nations meeting on the Rights of Children.

She convened the national seminar on Design for All People that provided the framework for the UDEP in 1982. In 1986, she developed the "Best of Accessible Boston," an awards program honoring the architects and owners of buildings that exemplified good as well as accessible design. Ostroff is internationally renowned for her role on the team that created the Principles of Universal Design. The Principles are taught to designers including architects, landscape architects, interior and product designers and their students and used in design, constructions and product development. In 2001, she was the senior editor of the "Universal Design Handbook" used as a textbook in educational settings. In 2004, she was the first American, and first woman, to receive the Misha Black Medal from the Royal College of Art. In 2006, the American Institute of Architects awarded her the Honorary AIA designation. Ostroff's experience emphasized creating educational programs for non-designers, facilitating their design advocacy as well as collaboration with design professionals. She has written and produced technical assistance materials on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that were used in the National Network for ADA Technical Assistance. She married Earl Carlton Ostroff (1931-2006) in 1953. The couple had three children, Rebecca, Joshua, and Sam.
Historical Note:
The Universal Design Movement is an international effort advocating design for disabled persons to enjoy access, independence, and convenience. It also is known as design-for-all, accessible design, inclusive design, and human-centered design. It is applied to buildings, consumer products, packaging, appliances, tools, and devices. It can aid persons with mobility, visual, hearing, cognitive, developmental, neurological, and other disabilities.

The Universal Design movement has its roots in the disability rights movement, in the post-World War II era. Previously and especially before the First World War people with disabilities were members of a small minority and persons with severe handicaps tended to have short lifespans. The world wars caused a huge influx of disabled veterans into the population. Advances in medicine and drugs and better sanitation enabled increased lifespans resulting in a higher population of older and disabled people. Awareness of the problems and limitations experienced by people with disabilities has increased.

The "Barrier-Free" movement in the 1950s was born of the demands by veterans and their advocates to participate equally in educational and employment opportunities enjoyed by the non-disabled population. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s influenced the rising Disability Rights Movement. Legislative changes in the 1960s and 1970s prohibited discrimination against persons with disabilities and mandated access to some, though not all, public spaces, public transit, and places of public accommodation.

The progression from the Barrier-Free movement to the Universal Design movement was aided by several pieces of national legislation and activism on the part of numerous organizations. The Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 required buildings designed, built, altered, or leased with federal funds to be made accessible. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was the first civil rights law for disabled people. It prohibited discrimination against people with handicapping conditions, but again, only applied to institutions or groups receiving federal funding. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 required educational institutions to provide a free education to handicapped children. The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 expanded the requirements of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 to include disabled people. This applied to both public and private properties. The biggest change came in 1990 with the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This broad and sweeping legislation raised public consciousness about disability rights as a civil rights issue. It prohibited discrimination in employment, access to public accommodations, services, programs, public transit, and telecommunications. The law mandated the removal of physical barriers and the development of non-discriminatory policies.

The Universal Design Movement sought to integrate people with disabilities into the mainstream, and to promote inclusion by reducing the physical and social barriers that exist between people with disabilities. As planners, builders and architects struggled to meet the demands of the ADA, they realized that segregated accommodations were costly, unattractive, and unfair. They also realized that improvements in the built environment not only that benefitted people with disabilities, they benefitted all users. According to the Center for Universal Design, "Recognition that many such features could be commonly provided and thus less expensive, unlabeled, attractive, and highly marketable, laid the foundation for the universal design movement."

Against this background, Ostroff's own special interest was improving the environment for people with developmental disabilities. She initially worked with teachers in the Department of Mental Retardation (State of Massachusetts) to help them transform their classrooms into more engaging and supportive environments for young children with disabilities. She was inspired by Gunnar Dybwad (1909-2001), a prominent international international advocate who fought for community living and the de-institutionalization of people with developmental disabilities and Raymond Lifchez (1932-), professor of architecture and city and regional planning at the University of California, Berkeley. She also worked closely with, and learned from, Ron Mace (1941-1998), FAIA, the architect who powered the accessibility movement through his personal experience of disability along with his architectural training and experience.
Related Materials:
The Universal Design News is a quarterly publication that Ostroff edited from 2000-2012 and wrote column on international design education. A full run of the newsletter is available the wesbite for Universal Designers and Consultants, Inc.
Materials at the Archives Center:
Target Stores Collection of Fashion Advertising Using Disabled Models (AC0436)

Accessible Snowboard Collection (AC0747)

Division of Medicine and Science Disability Reference Collection (AC1319)

Safko International, Inc. Records (AC0911)

Harriet Green Kopp Papers (AC1130)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Elaine Ostroff in 2015.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Reference copies for audio and moving images materials do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.

Social Security numbers and other personally identifiable information has been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Disabilities  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Playgrounds  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 1960-2000
Grant Proposals
Correspondence -- 1960-2000
Videocassettes
Reports -- 21st century
Reports -- 1960-2000
Audiocassettes
Correspondence -- 21st century
Theater programs -- 1970-1980
Citation:
Elaine Ostroff Universal Design Papers, 1965-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1356
See more items in:
Elaine Ostroff Universal Design Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1356
Online Media:

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection

Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1907-2000
bulk 1911-1924
Summary:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are slides dcoumenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. As scientific managers, the Gilbreth's introduced new techniques to analyze work, the workplace, and work practices with the goal of eliminating waste to maximize productivity. The collection illustrates these new techniques and their application to a wide variety of studies. The collection is diverse and provides insight into understanding how Gilbreth approached his studies. Also included are slides documenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.

Series 1, Background Information, 1892-1997, includes biographical materials about Frank B. Gilbreth; copies of some of Frank Gilbreth's patents, 1892-1916; and printed materials, 1907-1997, that contain articles, newspaper and magazine clippings about Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and time and motion study generally. Black-and-white photo prints of Gilbreth or work Gilbreth documented from collections held at Purdue University and Ohio State University are included.

Series 2, Glass plate stereo slides, 1910-1924, consists of approximately 2,250 glass stereo slides photographed by Frank B. Gilbreth and others and intended for viewing through an optical viewing machine. Some are positive black and white, positive color, and negative black and white. The subject matter of the slides covers the work undertaken by Frank Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Many of the images serve as documentation for the studies the couple performed as they were hired by firms in an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of inefficiency. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

The slides are numbered sequentially. For example, a glass plate slide numbered 318949.001 will have a corresponding photoprint 318949.001 in Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides. Note: not all glass plate slides have corresponding photoprints. Additionally, there are Office of Photographics Services, Smithsonian Institution negative numbers assigned to many of the photo prints.

Some subject categories include:

Frank B. Gilbreth: working in motion laboratories, on factory inspections, seated in offices, with family and friends, in World War I uniform, watching and monitoring shop operations.

Lillian M. Gilbreth: with family, during university graduation ceremonies, traveling and working with Frank and observing office workers.

Gilbreth Family: family on the road in an automobile, at home seated around the dinner table, in the parlor, in the garden, and with friends and relatives.

Gilbreth ship travel: contains views on steamer voyages to Europe, deck scenes, arrivals, departures, ship officers and crew, and other passengers.

Automobile assembly study: internal and external views of a warehouse/factory, including large piles or rows of metal car frames and other parts.

Benchwork study: images of a male worker standing or sitting in a chair while filing an object secured in a vice at a workbench.

Betterment: images of efforts whcih contributed to industrial betterment (the Gilbreth chair, employee library, and the home reading box).

Bricklaying study: view of men wearing overalls and caps, shoveling, and men laying bicks.

Business and apparatus of motion study: views of lectures, meetings, film showings, demonstrations, charts, drawings, motion models, charts amd some equipment.

Disabled study: views of partially blind World War I veterans, amputees using special tytpewriter, assembling machinery, use of cructhes, and a one armed dentist.

Factory bench work: table-top machines assembly operations, hand tools, orderly arrangement of parts prior to and during assembly and a variety of bench vises.

Factory documentation: various images of the interior and edterior of factories including heavy machinery.

Golfing study: various cyclegraphs of a man swinging a golf club.

Grid boards: back drops used by Gikbreth to isolate and measure worker motions. This includes walls, floors, desktops, and drop cloths divided into grids of various densities and scales.

Handwriting and cyclegraphs: finger lights moving in patterns of script.

Ladders: include step ladders and painters' ladders shown in use near shelving.

Light assembly study: wide variety of images ranging from cyclegraphs of women working, to the factory floor as well as tools and machinery.

Materials handling study: different angles of an empty cart, a cart oiled high with boxes, and a man pushing a cart illustrating different body positions.

Military study: illustrate work on the Army foot meausring machine, gun parts, men holding a rifle.

Motion models: images of simple wire motionmodels.

Needle trade study: views of textile machinery and workers.

Office study: various shots inside of an office with tables, desks, drawers, files, and typewriters. Some of the images are cyclegraphs of femal and male workers performing tasks, such as writing, both tin the context of an office as well as in front of a grdidded background. There are several close-ups of an organizer containing penciles, paperclips, pins and rubberbands.

Packing: methods of placing and arranging goods in boxes, such as soap packing.

Panama-Pacific Exposition 1915: contains views of statuary, fountains, and architecture of the exposition held in San Francisco.

Pure light cyclegraphs: no workers or grids visible only finger lights in motion.

Rubber stamping study: hand movements and access to ink pads and stamps.

Scenic views: views of buildings, landscapes, street scenes, and fountains from around the world documenting Gilbreth's travels.

Shoe making study: laboratory studies of shoe assembly operations with an emphasis on workers access to component pieces.

Shop machinery: various shots of machines and workers working with machines.

Signage: include organizational flow charts, shop floor plans, route maps, office layouts, numbering systems, exhibit display boards illustrating Frank Gilbreth's efficiency studies and techniques.

Stacking: views of the art and science of stacking boxes, clothing, equipment, containers, and vertical storage without shelves.

Stock bins: consists of storage pips, paper, other raw materials, shelves, and corridoe shots.

Storage: images illustrate contrast between old techniques and new.

Surgical and dental studies: thester views of surgeons, assistants, nurses, hand motions in grasping, placing surgical instruments, dental work and self inspection of teeth.

Tool cribs: storage of hand tools in shops with an emphasis on easy access and easy inventorying.

Typing study: various views of femaile s under observation using Remington typewriters.

Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides, 1910-1924, consist of black and white photoprints of the glass plate slides depicting the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

Series 5, Stereographs,1911-1914,

Series 6, Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 2000, and undated, is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated; Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1968 and undated; and Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990,. 2000 and undated. The series contains several formats: 7" open reel-to-reel audio tape, 1/2" VHS, Beta Cam SP, DVD, audio cassette, one inch audio tape, and 16 mm film.

Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1967-1968 and undated, consists of supplemental documentation for the film, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." Specifically, there are brochures and other printed materials detailing what the film is about and how copies may be obtained. This subseries also contains a copy of the book Cheaper by the Dozen, 1948. The book was written by Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey and tells the biographical story of Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth, and their twelve children. The book was adapted to film by Twentieth Century Fox in 1950.

Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1967, consists of one title, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." The film materials consist of the film's production elements: 16 mm black and white negative A-roll; 16mm black-and-white negative B-roll; and the optical track negative. Each is 800 feet in length.

The film presents a summary of work analysis films which were taken by Frank B. Gilbreth between 1919 and 1924 showing a number of industrial operations from which the motion study was developed. Demonstrates motion and fatigue study, skill study, plant layout and material handling, inventory control, production control, business procedures, safety methods, developing occupations for the handicapped, athletic training and skills, military training, and surgical operations as researched and developed by Gilbreth. Points out that Gilbreth created entirely new techniques on how to improve industrial efficiency, while at the same time significantly improving conditions for the workers. The film was produced by James S. Perkins in collaboration with Dr. Ralph M. Barnes and with commentary by Liilian M. Gilbreth and James S. Perkins. The film was presented on December 3, 1968 at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Annual Meeting in New York. The formats for this title include: 16 mm, Beta Cam SP, and DVD. Additionally, there is a one inch audio tape recording for the film.

Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000 and undated consist of a Smithsonian radio program titled "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," from 1980 and an recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Casey discussing Gilbreth Family photographs from 2000. Hosted by [Ann Carroll?], "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," featured Fred and Bill Gilbreth discussing their parents Frank and Lillian, Gilbreth, and the book Cheaper by the Dozen. The radio program coincided with the 100th Anniversary of the American Society of Mechancial Engineers (founded 1880)of which Lillian Gilbreth was the Society's first female member and showcased a single case exhibition at the Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) titled "Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: Motion Engineers." Inside Smithosnian Radio was a weekly program produced by the Office of Telecommunications. The recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Carey was recorded on July 9, 2000 and documents Ms. Carey's identification and discussion of Gilbreth Family photographs. David Ferguson assisted in the discussion. A hard copy index to the photographs Ms. Carey discusses is available.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Background Materials, 1892-1997

Subseries 1, Frank B. Gilbreth, undated

Subseries 2, Frank B. Gilbreth patents, 1892-1916

Subseries 3, Printed Materials, 1907-1997

Series 2, Glass plate stereo slides, 1910-1924 and undated

Series 3, Photo prints of glass plate slides, 1910-1924 and undated

Subseries 1, Photo Print Books, 1-9, undated

Subseries 2, Photo prints (duplicates), undated

Series 4, Stereo Autochromes, undated

Series 5, Stereographs, 1911-1914

Series 6, Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 1990, 2000 and undated

Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated

Subseries 2, Moving images, 1968 and undated

Subseries 3, Audio recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000, and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gilbreth is best known for his work on the efficiency of motion. Working with his wife and professional partner Lillian Moller Gilbreth, he applied modern psychology to his work with management. His innovative motion studies were used on factory workers, typists and the disabled. Gilbreth established the link between psychology and education to be succesful management.

Frank Gilbreth was born in Fairfield, Maine on July 7, 1868. His parents, John and Martha Bunker Gilbreth were New Englanders. John Gilbreth ran a hardware business, but died when Frank was only three. Bearing the responsibilty of raising her children alone, Martha moved the family twice in search of quality education for her children. Ultimately she decided to school the children herself. In 1885, Frank graduated from English High School in Boston. Despite gaining admission into the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Frank opted to enter the work world immediately as a bricklayer's apprentice with Whidden and Company, building contractors in Boston.

Smart and skilled, Gilbreth worked his way up in the company. He learned the trade quickly and soon was promoted to supervisor, foreman, and finally to the position of superintendent. To further his edcuation, he went to night school to study mechanical drawing.

At the age of 27, Gilbreth embarked upon his first business venture. He started his own contracting firm. His firm developed a fine reputation for quality work at a very rapid pace. He invented tools, scaffolding, and other contraptions to make the job easier. His company goals included the elimination of waste, the conservation of energy, and the reduction of cost. His work included canals, factories, houses, and dams. His clients came from all parts of the United States, and he performed some work in England.

In 1903, Frank Gilbreth met Lillian Moller (1903-1972) and married her on October 19, 1904. Lillian graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a BA (1900) and MA (1902). She later earned a Ph.D from Brown University (1915), earning a dissertation titled The Psychology of Management. Lillian's academic work, large family and integral role in Frank's consulting business kept her busy. Her contributions to the business led to a greater understanding of an individual's welfare in the work world. This becamme a key idea to increasing productivity through scientific management techniques.

Working together, the couple became leaders in the new field of scientific management. They published books, gave lectures, and raised tweleve children together: Anne, Mary (1906--912), Ernestine, Martha, Frank Jr., William, Lillian, Frederick, Daniel, John, Robert and Jane. Some of Gilbreth's books include Fields System (1908); Concrete System (1908); Bricklaying System (1909; Motion Study (1911); and Primer of Scientific Management (1911). Gilbreth co-authored with Lillian: Time Study (1916); Fatigue Study (1916); Applied Motion Study (1917); and Motion Study for the Handicapped (1919).

It wasn't long before Gilbreth moved away from construction. Together with his wife, they focused on the link between psychology and motion. With her strong psychological background, and his interest in efficiency, the Gilbreth's opened the School of Scientific Management in 1913. The school was in session for four years. Numerous professional attended the school, and soon the Gilbreth's had established a reputation as consultant's to the new field of scientific management.

In 1912, Frank won a contract with the New England Butt Company in Providence, Rhode Island. There he installed his system of scientific management in a factory setting for the first time. Contracts with the Hermann-Aukam handkerchief manufacturing company in New Jersey and the Auergessellschaft Company in Germany followed. Using motion study, Gilbreth studied and reoganized the factories, attempting to find "the one best way" to do work.

Gilbreth traveled to Germany to continue his work was a scientific manager. He visited factories and hospitals, working to improve procedures and eliminate waste. Using micro-motion study and the chronocyclegraph procedure, he analyzed and dissected motion, discovering therblings, the seventeen fundamental units of any motion. World War I slowed Gilbreth's progress abroad, so he focused his consulting business on firms n the United States.

After World War I, Gilbreth's business thrived. in 1920, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers instituted its Management Division, something Gilbreth had been demanding for years. He was now a famous American engineer, gaining financial rewards as as professional honors.

Frank Gilbreth died suddenly of a heart attack on June 14, 1924, still in the middle of three contracts. He was honored after his death in 1944 by the American Society of Engineers and the American Management Association with the Gant Gold Medal. After Frank's death, Lillian moved the family to California where she continued to work on efficiency and health in industry issues. She was a respected buiness woman and was hired by several companies to train employees, study working conditions, and reduce fatigue. She lectured at several universities (Newark College of Engineering and the University of Wisconsin), and joined the faculty at Purdue University in 1935 as the first woman professor in the engineering school.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth often used their large family (and Frank himself) as guinea pigs in experiments. Their family exploits are lovingly detailed in the 1948 book Cheaper by the Dozen, written by Frank Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey.
Related Materials:
Material in Other Institutions

Purdue University, Archives and Special Collections

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth papers, 1869-2000

The Gilbreth Papers documents the professional and personal lives of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth. The collection consists of personal papers, letters, correspondence, photographs, and other memorabilia that Lillian Gilbreth collected during her life regarding her youth, marriage, family, and career.

Collection of materials related to Lillian Gilbreth, 1964-2006

One folder of items relating to the life of Lillian Gilbreth, and her family, collected by her granddaughter, Lillian (Jill) Barley and Nancy Weston. Materials include clippings relating to the Lillian Gilbreth postage stamp (1984); obituaries and memorial programs for Peter Barney, Ernestine Carey, Lillian Gilbreth, Anne Gilbreth Barney, Charles Carey, and Frank Gilbreth Jr.; programs and photographs relating to Lillian Gilbreth's visit to Athens in 1964; and biographical information on Lillian Gilbreth.

Cornell University, Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives

Frank Gilbreth Papers on Microfilm, Collection Number: 5424 mf

Selected papers pertaining to industrial engineering. Original materials are held by Purdue University. Microfilm copied purchased from Purdue University in April 1968.
Provenance:
The collection materials were donated by several individuals: New Jersey Institute of Technology (1975); Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr., (1980); Ernestine Gilbreth Carey (1995); Daniel B. Gilbreth (1998); and James Secor Perkins in 2001.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Viewing film portion of collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio tape requires special arrangment. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motion study  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0803
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0803

Of Songs, Peace, and Struggle Series, Frozen in Black and White: Images of Challenges and Change from the Civil Rights Movement

Collection Collector:
Maltsby, Portia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Program in African American Culture  Search this
Container:
Box 25, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1998 January 18
Scope and Contents:
Annual commemoration of the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. Program presented in conjunction with the exhibition "We Shall Overcome: Photographs from America's Civil Rights Era", on Saturday, January 18, 1998, in the Carmichael Auditorium, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. The program included a welcome from Niani Kilkenny, images of challenge and change, slide lecture presentations, audience questions and discussion, a son workshop, and a museum tour related to the history of social change in America, including the "Field to Factory" exhibition and the Greensboro Lunch Counter.

Participants:

Adele Logan Alexander, Ph.D., assistant professor of history, George Washington University

Ira Berlin, Ph.D., professor of history, University of Maryland, College Park

Richard J.M. Blackett, Moores Distinguished Chair of History and African American Studies, University of Houston

David W. Blight, professor of history and black studies, Amherst College

W. Jeffrey Bolster, associate professor and director of the graduate program in history, University of New Hampshire

Laurence Glasco, Ph.D., associate professor of history and director of the Program for the Study of Race and Ethnicity in World Perspective, University of Pittsburgh

James Oliver Horton, Benjamin Banneker Professor of American Studies and History, George Washington University

Lois E. Horton, Ph.D., professor of sociology, George Mason University

Leon Litwack, Ph.D., Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of American History and chair of the Committee on the Library, Academic Senate, University of California, Berkeley

Marie Tyler-McGraw, Ph.D., historian and education specialist, History Office of the National Park Service, Washington, DC

Joanne Pope Melish, Ph.D., visiting assistant professor, Department of History, Brown University

Fred Morsell, president of Fremarjo Enterprises, Incorporated; a nonprofit organization that produces cultural events and seminars on race relations

Carla L. Peterson, Ph.D., professor, Department of English and the comparative literature program

Joseph P. Reidy, Ph.D., professor of history, Howard University

Richard Allen Singers, Evelyn Simpson Curenton, Director

Rita Roberts, Ph.D., associate professor, Department of History and Black Studies, Scripps College, Claremont, California

James Brewer Stewart, James Wallace Professor of History, Macalester College

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, professor of history and coordinator of graduate programs in history, Morgan State University

Program number AC408.103.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Use of reference audio and video cassette copies only.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Collection Citation:
Program in African American Culture Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Program in African American Culture Collection
Program in African American Culture Collection / Series 1: Program Files
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0408-ref1310

Between Slavery and Freedom: Free People of Color and the Coming of the Civil War

Collection Collector:
Maltsby, Portia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Program in African American Culture  Search this
Container:
Box 25, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1998 February 6-7
Scope and Contents:
The Program in African American Culture in conjunction with the African American Communities Project presented Free People of Color and the Coming of the Civil War on February 6-7, 1998, in the Carmichael Auditorium, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, in honor of the seventeenth annual national observance of African American History Month. The program included lectures, performances, and a book signing.

Participants:

Adele Logan Alexander, Ph.D., assistant professor of history, George Washington University

Ira Berlin, Ph.D., professor of history, University of Maryland, College Park

Richard J.M. Blackett, Moores Distinguished Chair of History and African American Studies, University of Houston

David W. Blight, professor of history and black studies, Amherst College

W. Jeffrey Bolster, associate professor and director of the graduate program in history, University of New Hampshire

Laurence Glasco, Ph.D., associate professor of history and director of the Program for the Study of Race and Ethnicity in World Perspective, University of Pittsburgh

James Oliver Horton, Benjamin Banneker Professor of American Studies and History, George Washington University

Lois E. Horton, Ph.D., professor of sociology, George Mason University

Leon Litwack, Ph.D., Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of American History and chair of the Committee on the Library, Academic Senate, University of California, Berkeley

Marie Tyler-McGraw, Ph.D., historian and education specialist, History Office of the National Park Service, Washington, DC

Joanne Pope Melish, Ph.D., visiting assistant professor, Department of History, Brown University

Fred Morsell, president of Fremarjo Enterprises, Incorporated; a nonprofit organization that produces cultural events and seminars on race relations

Carla L. Peterson, Ph.D., professor, Department of English and the comparative literature program

Joseph P. Reidy, Ph.D., professor of history, Howard University

Richard Allen Singers, Evelyn Simpson Curenton, Director

Rita Roberts, Ph.D., associate professor, Department of History and Black Studies, Scripps College, Claremont, California

James Brewer Stewart, James Wallace Professor of History, Macalester College

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, professor of history and coordinator of graduate programs in history, Morgan State University

Program number AC408.104.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Use of reference audio and video cassette copies only.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Collection Citation:
Program in African American Culture Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Program in African American Culture Collection
Program in African American Culture Collection / Series 1: Program Files
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0408-ref1311

Gilbert L. Friedlein Papers

Source:
Music, Sports and Entertainment, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Friedlein, Gilbert L., 1884-  Search this
Friedlein, Gilbert L., Jr., 1921-  Search this
Former owner:
Music, Sports and Entertainment, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Photographs
Clippings
Contracts
Date:
1880s-1961
Summary:
Collection documents the life of Gilbert L. Friedlein, semi-professional baseball player and grain elevator operator, and his son Gilbert Friedlein, Jr. It includes photographs, a baseball contract, and correspondence.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of photographs, personal papers, and newspaper clippings about Gilbert L. Friedlein and his family. Topics include his membership on the Drake semi-professional baseball team, his employment with Farmers Elevator Company in Lewistown, Montana, and his son's membership in the University of California band. Highlights include several photographs of the grain elevator after its destruction by fire, a 1908 baseball contract, and a letter written from Freidlein, Jr. to his parents.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged by type of materials.
Biographical / Historical:
Gilbert L. Friedlein was born February 2, 1884, in Osterdock, Iowa, the son of Frederick and Harriet Friedlein. He received his education in Guttenberg, Iowa, and married Tressa Kathryn Akers from Charleston, West Virginia, on June 17, 1914. He was a pitcher for the semi-professional baseball team from Drake, North Dakota, before retiring from the sport in 1913 and working fulltime for Farmers Elevator Company. He resided in the area of Lewistown, Montana, for fifty-three years and served as a member of the City Council and the Elks Lodge before his death on May 1, 1961.

Friedlein's son, Gilbert Friedlein, Jr., was born on July 12, 1921. He attended the University of California-Berkeley, where he was a member of the university band. Friedlein, Jr. wed LeVita (Pat) Bernstein of San Jose, California. He was employed with the San Francisco Port of Embarkation and worked in the personnel department of the wage administration section in Oakland. Friedlein, Jr. died November 18, 1958.
Provenance:
Found in the collection of the Division of Music, Sports and Entertainment, now Division of Cultural and Community Life.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baseball players  Search this
Bands (Music)  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Grain elevators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Photographs -- 19th century
Clippings -- 19th century
Contracts
Citation:
Gilbert L. Friedlein Papers, 1880s-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0943
See more items in:
Gilbert L. Friedlein Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0943

Gordon D. Goldstein Collection

Creator:
Goldstein, Gordon D.  Search this
Names:
ENIAC.  Search this
Electrical Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC).  Search this
Remington Rand.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Design drawings
Date:
1948 - 1957
Summary:
Papers relate to Gordon D. Goldstein, a computer engineer and frequent seminar speaker and participant, especially in the fields of linguistics and machine translation.
Scope and Contents:
The Goldstein Collection documents an interesting and important period in the development of the early computer industry. Many of the items in the collection are technical in nature; others, however, provide an interesting perspective on the development of post-war American culture. Items in the collection include design and training materials, operational manuals, professional literature, advertisements and promotional items, photographs, business and office documentation, and conference and seminar materials.

The collection is divided into five series. The first three series correspond to Goldstein's employment history; the fourth series includes notes and minutes from UNIVAC and computer conferences attended by Goldstein; and the fifth series contains general computer publications and computer advertisements. Of particular interest in the last series is a copy of the 1954 Report to the Association for Computing Machinery: First Glossary of Programming Terminology. This item was edited by Grace Murray Hopper.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series.

Series 1, National Bureau of Standards, Electronic Computers Section/Standards Eastern Automatic Computer, 1948-1953

Series 2, U.S. Navy/Applied Mathematics Laboratory, 1950-1957

Series 3, UNIVAC-Remington Rand Corporation/Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, 1948--956

Series 4, UNIVAC Conferences, 1950-1956

Series 5, Publications and Competitor Materials, 1950-1955
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1917, Gordon D. Goldstein graduated from Clarkson College of Technology with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. In 1941, Goldstein took a job with the Army Signal Corp as a civilian inspector of radio and navigation equipment. After leaving the Army Signal Corp, Goldstein took a job as development engineer at the Washington Institute of Technology where he was employed until 1950. From 1950 to 1951 he worked as chief engineer with computers for the Census Bureau in Philadelphia.

In 1951, Goldstein left the Census Bureau and took a job with the Navy Department. During his tenure there, Goldstein worked in three offices or divisions: the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (electronics scientist), the David Taylor Model Basin's Applied Mathematics Laboratory, and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), Information Systems Program where he was involved with applications of UNIVAC I. Goldstein worked in the Office of Naval Research from 1956 until his retirement in 1980.

Sources

Berkeley, Edmund C., ed. Who's Who in Computers and Data Processing 1971: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Computer Professionals. New York: The New York Times Book and Educational Division, 1971.

Gordon D. Goldstein Papers, 1950-1979. Charles Babbage Institute: Center for the History of Information Processing.

Williams, Michael R. A History of Computing Technology. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997.
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

The Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing houses the Gordon D. Goldstein Papers, 1950-1979, http://special.lib.umn.edu/findaid/xml/cbi00068.xml

Archives Center, National Museum of American History houses the Computer Oral History Collection, 1969-1973, 1977 http://invention.smithsonian.org/resources/fa_comporalhist_index.aspx
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Gordon D. Goldstein on December 13, 1978.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Seac computer  Search this
Systems engineering  Search this
Univac computer  Search this
Computers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Design drawings
Citation:
Gordon D. Goldstein Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0554
See more items in:
Gordon D. Goldstein Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0554
Online Media:

Eleanor Dickinson Pentecostal Videotape and Audiotape Collection

Producer:
Dickinson, Eleanor, 1931-  Search this
Collector:
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Interviewee:
Mayes, Harrison  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes, 6 videotapes, 1 audiotape)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Audiotapes
Place:
Appalachian Region
Date:
1967-1977
Scope and Contents:
Videotapes of Pentecostal ceremonies, such as snake handling, laying on of hands, baptisms, foot washing, casting out of devils, dancing in ecstasy; a video interview with Brother Harrison Mayes at his home in Middleburg, Kentucky; and an audiotape of revival meetings.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged in one series:

Series 1, Audiovisual
Biographical / Historical:
Eleanor Creekmore Dickinson, artist, produced several exhibits as well as a book on Pentecostal worship in the South entitled Revival! She documented Pentecostal and Baptist ceremonies using videotape, audiotape, line drawings and velvet painting.

Dickinson was born February 7, 1931, in Knoxville, Tennessee. She was educated at the University of Tennessee (B.A., Fine Art, 1952); the San Francisco Art Institute (painting and printmaking, 1961-1963); the Académie Grande Chaumière, Paris (drawing, 1971); the University of California at Berkeley (history, 1967 and 1981), and the California College of Arts and Crafts (Master of Fine Arts in Video, 1982). She began teaching at the California College of Arts and Crafts as Professor of Art in 1971.

She has had numerous solo and group exhibitions, has received grants in connection with her work, and is represented in more than a dozen public collections, including the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Library of Congress, and the Oakland Museum.

A resume and selected bibliography, compiled in 1986, are in the Archives Center's collection control files.
Related Materials:
Related artifacts in Division of Community Life, NMAH (see accessions 306082, 306787, 1981.0570, and 1978.0344); related materials in the SI Archives of American Art and the Library of Congress.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Eleanor Dickinson in 1980 and transferred to the Archives Center from the National Museum of American History Division of Community Life in 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. No reference copies exist. Orginals are not accessable.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baptists  Search this
Evangelistic work  Search this
Religion -- Videotapes  Search this
Religion and culture -- Videotapes  Search this
Foot washing (Rite)  Search this
Ecstatic dance  Search this
Imposition of hands  Search this
Foot -- Religious aspects  Search this
Revivals  Search this
Exorcism  Search this
Baptism  Search this
Snake cults (Holiness churches) -- Videotapes  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Videtoapes  Search this
Pentecostal churches  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Audiotapes -- 1940-1980
Citation:
Eleanor Dickinson Pentecostal Videotape and Audiotape Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0199
See more items in:
Eleanor Dickinson Pentecostal Videotape and Audiotape Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0199

Enrique Chagoya papers

Creator:
Chagoya, Enrique  Search this
Names:
California State University, Hayward -- Faculty  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1990-1995
Summary:
The papers of Mexican born painter, printmaker, and educator Enrique Chagoya measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1990 to 1995. The collection includes four dossiers compiled by Chagoya for evaluations of his professorship at California State University in Hayward, California. The dossiers contain resumes, student evaluations, correspondence, exhibition announcements and catalogs, clippings, transparencies of artwork, class syllabi, lists of accomplishments as an educator, and lists of exhibitions.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Mexican born American painter, printmaker, and educator Enrique Chagoya measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1990 to 1995. The collection includes four dossiers compiled by Chagoya for evaluations of his professorship at California State University in Hayward, California. The dossiers contain resumes, student evaluations, correspondence, exhibition announcements and catalogs, clippings, transparencies of artwork, class syllabi, lists of accomplishments as an educator, and lists of exhibitions.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as one series.

Series 1: Enrique Chagoya papers, 1990-1995 (Boxes 1-2; 0.8 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Enrique Chagoya (1953- ) is a painter, printmaker, and educator in San Francisco, California.

Chagoya was born in Mexico City. His father, also an artist, encouraged Chagoya's interest in art from a young age. Chagoya studied political economics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It was during this time that he worked in rural areas on development projects. The projects helped shape the political and social perspective that often appears in Chagoya's artwork. After emigrating to the U.S. in 1977, he began working as an illustrator and graphic designer. Chagoya attended the San Francisco Art Institute where he received his bachelor's degree in 1984 and received a master's degree from the University of California at Berkeley in 1987. He also taught at the University of California at Berkeley, as well as California State University at Hayward, and Stanford University.
Related Materials:
Also found at the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Enrique Chagoya conducted by Paul Karlstrom in San Francisco, California from July 25 to August 6, 2001 for the Archives of American Art.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by Enrique Chagoya in 2016.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Rights:
The donor has retained all intellectual property rights, including copyright, that he may own.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Printmakers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art teachers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Topic:
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Mexican American artists  Search this
Citation:
Enrique Chagoya papers, 1990-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.chagenri
See more items in:
Enrique Chagoya papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-chagenri

Waterman, Waldo D.

Collection Creator:
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies Collection, Acc. XXXX-0450, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection / Series 1.1: Biographies of Flying Pioneers 1.1
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0450-ref343
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Emmy Lou Packard Papers, 1900-1990

Creator:
Packard, Emmy Lou, 1914-1998  Search this
Subject:
Covarrubias, Miguel  Search this
Edmunds, John  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Reynolds, Malvina  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Lange, Dorothea  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
O'Higgins, Pablo  Search this
O'Gorman, Juan  Search this
American Civil Liberties Union  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Photographs
Interviews
Diaries
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Printmakers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, Mexican  Search this
Muralists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5519
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211816
AAA_collcode_packemmy
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Women
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211816
Online Media:

The Buddha as the Yogin: The Making of a Nationalist Art History

Creator:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-01-27T16:44:32.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
See more by:
FreerSackler
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
YouTube Channel:
FreerSackler
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_KRNBXyFSEoE

Ed Gerjuoy, "Recollections of Oppenheimer and Schwinger"

Creator:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2011-04-11T18:52:55.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
See more by:
ITAMPhysics
Data Source:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
YouTube Channel:
ITAMPhysics
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_QO7JdhkF5EM

Eldredge Prize: Kirk Savage "When the Ivory Tower Meets The Real World"

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-12-10T22:33:10.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_6U9GZt0t96w

“Chiura Obata: American Modern” at the Smithsonian American Art Museum

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-11-21T23:17:21.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_7_IbPsRVhAA

Panel Discussion - A Closer Look at African American Artists in SAAM’s Collection

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-02-09T00:32:31.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_XMjaL11vpXE

Artist Respond: A Symposium - Afternoon Session

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-03-15T22:11:06.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_pWeGxsxEhpk

Hawaiian Sovereignty Symposium 2: Williamson Chang

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-02-19T16:16:19.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_6ZWO0you8JM

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