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Henry Leslie Osborn Manuscript

Creator::
Osborn, Henry Leslie, 1857-1940  Search this
Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
circa 1879-1881
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
This collection consists of portions of a manuscript written by Osborn while on board the Victor, a fishing vessel owned by Joseph O. Proctor, Jr., as an observer in the summer of 1879. The schooner set out from Gloucester, Massachusetts, and continued up the coast to fish off the banks of Newfoundland, Canada. Seven sections document the activities of the crew during their passage including the nationality of the crew, the crew at home, the routine of daily life on board, the routine of daily life while fishing off the banks, pastimes on board ship, the routine of life at baiting stations, and superstitions of the fishermen. A table of contents and list of illustrations are included, but the illustrations themselves are not contained in this copy of the manuscript.

Osborn records his own misconceptions about sailors as well as the facts he encounters aboard the Victor. Included are the figures for the summer trip, as an example of computing methods, supplied by the owner, Joseph O. Proctor, Jr., an example of a popular ballad sung by the fishermen and their opinions.

The manuscript was later published in sections IV and V of The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States (1887) with John Templeman Brown as Associate Author and George Brown Goode as Editor.
Historical Note:
Henry Leslie Osborn (1857-1940) was born in Newark, New Jersey. He received his A.B. from Wesleyan University in 1878, and the next year he became an agent with the United States Fish Commission. In 1881, Osborn returned to the classroom, and in 1884 he received his Ph.D. in zoology from the Johns Hopkins University. For the remainder of his career Osborn devoted himself to college life, first as a Professor of Zoology at Purdue University and later as Professor, Dean of the Faculty, and eventually Acting President of Hamline University.
Topic:
Ichthyology  Search this
Ichthyologists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7387, Henry Leslie Osborn Manuscript
Identifier:
Record Unit 7387
See more items in:
Henry Leslie Osborn Manuscript
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7387

Helen M. Duncan Papers

Creator::
Duncan, Helen M., 1910-1971  Search this
Extent:
4.5 cu. ft. (4 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
circa 1937-1966
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of Helen M. Duncan document her career with the USGS and her research on fossil Bryozoa. They include incoming and outgoing correspondence with colleagues mostly concerning the identification of specimens; reports on specimens examined; and notes, lists, drafts of papers, and related materials from her research.
Historical Note:
Helen M. Duncan (1910-1971) received her B.A. (1934) and M.A. (1937) degrees from the University of Montana. She joined the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in 1942 as an editor, and later worked on a World War II fluorspar project. In 1945 Duncan was appointed Geologist in the Paleontology and Stratigraphy Branch of the USGS. She remained in the position until her death. Duncan specialized in the study of fossil Bryozoa.
Topic:
Paleontology  Search this
Bryozoa  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7397, Helen M. Duncan Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7397
See more items in:
Helen M. Duncan Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7397

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs

Creator:
Pullman Palace Car Co.  Search this
Donor:
Pullman-Standard  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Pullman, George M., 1831-1897  Search this
Extent:
128.5 Cubic feet (147 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1882-1955
Summary:
Collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily early railroad Americana, including interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design. Historians, designers, railroad enthusiasts, model railroad hobbyists, scholars, and others will find this collection useful.

The glass plate negatives in this collection were produced using the wet collodion process, which was introduced to the United States in 1855 and used into the 1880s. The plates were coated with chemicals, sensitized, exposed and developed, all while the plate was wet. Later, Pullman photographers used the dry collodion process. This process involved using glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halides suspended in gelatin. This process had shorter exposure times.

George Pullman assembled a variety of photographers to document his company's work. The photography was primarily used as a record of work, especially for the Operating Department and Manufacturing Department at Pullman, as well as for prospective corporate customers.

Before establishing an in-plant photographic department in 1888, Pullman relied on local photographers. Some of the photographers included John Jex Bardwell, Wylie Dennison, Henry R. Koopman, J. W. Taylor, Thomas S. Johnson, Wylie Dennison, John P. Van Vorst, Clayton Ford Smith, Joseph McAllister, Melvin C. Horn, Ernie Stutkus, and Donald J. O'Barski. Many of the photographers signed the glass plates using their initials. For example, John P. Van Vorst signed his J.P.V.V.

Photography of Pullman activities began in the Detroit Shops (property of the Detroit Car & Manufacturing Co. which was purchased by Pullman in 1873 and operated as the Detroit Shops of Pullman) in the 1870s and expanded to include photographing the town of Pullman, steel car construction, shop accidents, workers, panoramic views, and in some instances, for company publications. In-plant photography was started with Wylie Dennison in 1888. Dennison was the first full-time Pullman photographer, and he created the Pullman Photographic Department. Dennison instituted the practice of recording each photograph, noting the negative number, description of the car, the type of view (typically one interior view and one exterior view) and lot number. All of Dennison's photography was done outside in the daylight.

The negative numbers assigned to the glass plates were identified with a "lot" number. The lot number identified the production order, and in later years, the plan number was added, designating the layout of the car. Photographing one car out of each new lot was the intital practice, but over-time, the Photographic Department began taking six or more views of the interior and exterior as well as end views.

Lot numbers include:

Lots 1 - 500 (Pullman Car Works - Chicago)

Lots 1 - 500 (Detroit Car Works)

Lots 500 plus (can be freight and passenger mixed)

Lots 1000 to 4999 (Pullman passenger equipment)

Lots 5000 to 5999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 5000 + Haskell and Barker (Pullman overlap)

Lots 6000 to 7000+ (Pullman and P-S passenger)

Lots 8000 to 9999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 10000+ (Pullman freight equipment)

Series 1, Original prints, circa 1880-1949, are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. The original prints begin with number 7343 and end with number 33091. The photographs document Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private, and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior views of the cars, and there are some views of porters and passengers. There is some documentation of the workmen constructing the cars. The prints are primarily 8" by 10" black-and-white and were originally bound into books and backed on linen. The prints were unbound at some time. Many of the original prints bear an embossed stamp "Built by Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation Chicago." Some photographs are sepia-tone and there are no negatives for these prints.

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955, consists of prints made from the glass plate negatives by the Smithsonian photographic services office. The copy prints were originally stored in loose binders but were re-housed into folders and arranged numerically according to the original Pullman Company number. The number is typically found in the lower right corner of the image. The copy prints are black-and-white and are either 5" x 7" or 8" x 10".

Series 3, Film negatives, 1917-1955, consists of film negatives (4" x 5" and 8" x 10") that are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. In some instances, information on the enclosure includes the type of car (e.g. sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). In some instances, "repro," or "broken glass" are recorded. For negatives that did not conform to the Pullman numbering system, the container list provides additional information. For example, Haskell and Barker Car Company (Haskell and Barker merged with the Pullman Company in 1922) machine shop views, or Pullman cars in St. Paul, Minnesota are recorded in the collection inventory listing.

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, [circa 1882-1948], is divided into two subseries, Subseries 1, 6" x 8" negatives and Subseries 2, 8" x 10" negatives. The series consists of approximately 13,500 glass plate negatives arranged by Pullman Company negative number. The negatives document primarily Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior and exterior views of the cars and some views of porters and passengers. The interior views include details such as seating, window treatments, lighting fixtures, bathroom fixtures, wood paneling, marquetry work, fabrics, floor treatments, and other furnishings. There is some documentation of the construction of the cars by workmen in the factory.

The negative numbers and lot numbers are etched on the glass plates. Overall the series is in good condition, although there are some broken plates which have been separated. The negatives are not inclusive and some plates are missing, or there are two copies. If plates are missing or additional copies exist, this is noted in the collection inventory. In some instances, plates are labeled 3937 and then 3937-A. This numbering distinguished two different views/angles of the same car.

Many of the envelope enclosures contain the negative number, sometimes preceed by the letter "P" (e.g. P9597), lot number (L4700), and in some instances, text describing the negative. Text typically includes the type of car (sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). If a copy print was created from the negative plate, the enclosure is stamped "printed." However, this practice was not consistent. Plates that were not printed are occasionally noted, but not with any consistency.

The 6" by 8" glass plates numbered 82-4130 to 82-4167, represent numbers assigned by the Office of Photographic Services, Smithsonian Institution. Previously labeled "Pullman" on the enclosures, the plates primarily document engines and passenger cars for the New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, 1870-1890 and undated. The plates do not have Pullman negative numbers etched in the lower left or right corners and it is unclear if these plates belong to this collection.

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated include bound, typescript indices to the Pullman negatives. Created by the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation (now known as the Division of Work and Industry), the indices include listings by railroad, private cars, freight cars, street cars and rapid transit, and Pullman negatives. The indices provide the name of the railroad/railway (e.g. Chicago & Alton), type of car (e.g. coal car or box car), number, lot, remarks (e.g. baggage area), year, type of view (e.g. exterior or interior) and frame number (for the laser disc).

One index is a supplemental guide listing sepia tone prints for which no negative exists in our collection. The indices for the negative listings on laser discs one and two are available. However, the actual lasers discs are missing.

References

Horn, Don. "The Pullman Photographers," Railroad Heritage, No. 7, 2003, pp. 5-13.

Arnold, Rus. "This Negative File was a Sleeper." Technical Photography. May 1970, pp. 21-XX.

Pullman State Historic Site, http://www.pullman-museum.org/theCompany/timeline.html (last accessed April 18, 2011)
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1, Original prints, 1904-1949

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955

Series 3, Film negatives, undated

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, circa 1882-1948

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Recognizing a market for luxurious rail travel, George M. Pullman, who had earlier experimented with sleeping car construction and was wealthy from the provisioning and transporting of Colorado miners in the early 1860s, incorporated the Pullman's Palace Car Company in 1867. By the 1870s his operations were already national and included the operation of sleeping cars under contract with the nation's railroads, the manufacture of cars at the Detroit Works, and the creation of subsidiary firms serving Great Britain and Europe. In the three decades before the turn of the century, the prosperous company grew enormously and included a much heralded model company town adjacent to the new car works at Pullman, Illinois. Acclaim turned to condemnation following the nationwide strike that originated at the Pullman Car Works in 1894. Pullman died in 1897, two years before his company absorbed its last major competitor, the Wagner Palace Car Company, which had been financed by the Vanderbilts.

The Pullman's Palace Car Company entered the twentieth century with a new name, the Pullman Company, and a new president, Robert Todd Lincoln. An extremely profitable virtual monopoly, the Pullman Company began replacing its wood cars with safer all steel bodied models (heavyweights) in its newly segregated manufacturing department and at the same time (1906) came under the regulation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. From 1918 to 1920, the United States Railroad Administration, citing the war emergency, assumed control of the operating arm of the firm, renamed the Pullman Car Lines for the duration of federal control.

The Pullman Company reached its peak during the 1920s, manufacturing new heavyweight cars at a rapid pace. Seeking to expand its freight car production, Pullman merged with the Haskell and Barker Car Company in 1922. Edward F. Carry and his Haskell and Barker associates assumed the presidency and other executive positions in the enlarged Pullman Company. More reorganization took place in 1924, when the Pullman Company Manufacturing Department became a distinct firm, the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation, and in 1927, when a parent or holding company, Pullman Incorporated, was created to oversee the two subsidiary firms. In 1929, following Carry's death, President David A. Crawford engineered the merger of the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation with the Standard Steel Car Company, forming the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company.

During the first three decades of the twentieth century Pullman sought to impede the unionization of its workers by offering new benefits, including a pension plan in 1914, a death benefit plan in 1922, and a plan of group insurance in 1929. F. L. Simmons' Industrial Relations Department, created in 1920, also directed the formation of company-sponsored occupationally-based unions under the plan of employee representation. A. Philip Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and other unions would not successfully organize company workers until the New Deal Railway Labor Act of 1934 forbade corporate interference in union matters. The Depression marked the end of Pullman prosperity. Both the number of car orders and sleeping car passengers declined precipitously. The firm laid off car plant and service workers, reduced fares, and introduced such innovations as the single occupancy section in an effort to fill its cars. During this decade the firm built fewer new cars, but it added air conditioning to its existing heavyweights and remodeled many into compartment sleepers.

In 1940, just as orders for lightweight cars were increasing and sleeping car traffic was growing, the United States Department of Justice filed an anti-trust complaint against Pullman Incorporated in the U. S. District Court at Philadelphia (Civil Action No. 994). The government sought to separate the company's sleeping car operations from its manufacturing activities. In 1944 the court concurred, ordering Pullman Incorporated to divest itself of either the Pullman Company (operating) or the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company (manufacturing). After three years of negotiations, the Pullman Company was sold to a consortium of fifty-seven railroads for around forty million dollars. Carroll R. Harding was named president of this new Pullman Company. The new Pullman Company started out optimistically in 1947 with good passenger traffic figures, but the years following brought steady and marked decline. Regularly scheduled lines were cancelled; all shops except St. Louis and Chicago were closed; employees were furloughed, and major railroad owners such as the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroad totally or partially withdrew from service. On January 1, 1969, at the age of 102, the Pullman Company ceased operation, though it maintained a small central office staff to wind up affairs and handle an equal pay-for-equal-work lawsuit (Denver Case) that continued in the courts until 1981.

John H. White (1933-), historian and curator, collected the Pullman photographs in 1969. White was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and graduated with a bachelors of arts in history from Miami University Ohio in 1958. Shortly after receiving his degree, He joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution as Assistant Curator of the Division of Transportation, Department of Science and Technology, Museum of History and Technology. White later became Associate Curator of the Division, 1961-1966, Curator, 1967-1985, and Senior Historian, 1986-1989. White specialized in land transportation, particularly the history of railroads.

White worked closely with Arthur Detmers Dubin (1923-) to acquire the Pullman photographs for the museum. Dubin was an avid train enthusiast and collector, and he frequently used the Pullman "archives" for his own research on railroads. Dubin was born in Chicago, Illinois and began his architectural education at the University of Michigan in 1941 but his education was interrupted by World War II, and he served with distinction in the United States Army until 1946. After completing his studies in 1949, Dubin joined his father's and uncle's architectural firm, Dubin and Dubin, as a second--eneration architect. The leadership of the firm soon passed to Arthur and his brother, Martin David, and in 1965 they were joined by John Black and in 1966 by John Moutoussamy. Arthur's life--ong interest in trains and transportation and their implications for architecture is evident in transit stations commissions and service on transportation--elated advisory boards (Dubin was a member of the Illinois Railroad Commission), as well as in his writings and personal collections.

In July, 1966, Dubin contacted then Vice President of Public Relations at Pullman-Standard E. Preston Calvert about the history and future of the photographic negative plates. Dubin appealed to Calvert to preserve these materials. Dubin and White were also in contact by correspondence and in June, 1967, White contacted Calvert also, stating that the Chicago Historical Society or Illinois State Historical Society should be offered the plates as a first option. Failing a local Illinois repository accepting the materials, White indicated that the Smithsonian would accept the negatives.

During the spring of 1968, White, working with Dubin and Nora Wilson, editor of the company's publications, coordinated a visit by White to Chicago to examine the photographic negatives at the Pullman Car Works factory in south Chicago. In April 1968, White examined the vast collection of glass plate negatives (approximately 20,000). From April, 1968 to August, 1969, Pullman-Standard and the Smithsonian negotiated acquisition details, including shipping and related costs. In August, 1969, White returned to complete the task of sorting the glass plates, discarding broken plates, and weeding repetitive views. He selected approximately 13,500 glass plates. Views of Pullman towns were donated to the Chicago Historical Society. Dubin appraised the photographic plates and film negatives, presumably on behalf of Pullman-Standard, and estimated the plates to be worth between $54,000 and $67,500 dollars.

References

Historical note courtesy Martha T. Briggs and Cynthia H. Peters, Guide to Pullman Company Archives, The Newberry Library, Chicago, 1995.

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Area Architects Oral History Project http://www.artic.edu/aic/resources/resource/734?search_id=1 (last accessed on February 23, 2011)

John H. White papers, 1959-1989, Record Unit 007384, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C.

Telephone conversation of Alison Oswald, archivist, with John H. White, April 14, 2011.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Pullman Palace Car Company Materials, 1867-1979 (AC0181)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990 (AC0523)

Materials in Other Organizations

•Art Institute of Chicago

•Bombardier Corporation

•California State Railroad Museum

•Chicago History Museum

•Arthur Dubin Collection at Lake Forest College

•Illinois Railway Museum

•Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives

Pullman-Standard Railroad Car Manufacturing Company Personnel Records—Personnel Record Series CRA 314 This index of employee names was created from the original personnel cards housed at Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives from the Indiana locations. Although the records are not complete from the Michigan City plant for the entire period from 1912 to the 1970's, there may be information that will assist researchers with finding key details of a family member. The Hammond Pullman plant was merged with the Haskell Barker Company of Michigan City in 1922.

•Newberry Library, Chicago

The Pullman Company archives at the Newberry Library consists of 2,500 cubic feet of records from the Pullman Company and Pullman heirs. The collection is comprised of business archives of the Pullman Palace Car Company from 1867 and includes records of the entire firm up to the 1924 split into operating (sleeping car operation, service, and repair) and manufacturing companies. From 1924 to 1981 the records chronicle the activities of the operating company only.

•Pennsylvania State Archives

•Pullman State Historic Site

•Pullman Technology (Harvey, Illinois)

•Smithsonian Institution Archives

•South Suburban Genealogical & Historical Society (South Holland, Illinois)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Pullman-Standard Company, through Nora Wilson, editor of employee publications for the Department of Public Relations and Advertising, on October 8, 1969.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Special arrangements required to view original glass plate and film negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Freight cars  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Roomette car  Search this
Hospital cars  Search this
Dining cars  Search this
Hotel car  Search this
Sleeping cars (Railroads)  Search this
Local transit  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass plate negatives
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1890-1900
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1175
See more items in:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1175
Online Media:

Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 15

Author:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (6.0" x 3.5".)
Container:
Box 19, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Biographies
Diaries
Place:
Yonkers (N.Y.) -- 1900-1910
Date:
1914 March 12-1914 August 16
Scope and Contents:
Inscription on flyleaf: "I / Journal of / Dr. L.H. Baekeland / Yonkers, NY [sic] / March 12, 1914 / to August 16, 1914." The diary details Baekeland's daily activities. He writes often of his visits and discussions, and the subjects of correspondence he has written and received. It sheds light on the use and distance of travel by automobile in the early twentieth century. In the notes, Baekeland explains increasing time spent in the laboratory in 1914.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Laboratories  Search this
Automobiles -- 1900-1910  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Biographies
Diaries -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Leo H. Baekeland Papers / Series 4: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref304
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William A. Smalley papers

Creator:
Smalley, William Allen  Search this
Extent:
18.11 Linear feet (19 boxes, 2 map folders, 40 sound recordings, and 3 computer disks)
Culture:
Hmong (Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Thailand -- Languages
Laos
Thailand
Vietnam
Date:
1943-1998
Summary:
William A. Smalley (1923-1997) was a missionary and anthropological linguist. This collection mainly concerns his work with Hmong scripts and the Khmu' language and contains correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William A. Smalley's work and research as an anthropological linguist and missionary, two roles that were often intertwined, through his correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings. Smalley's research on Hmong scripts, particularly Pahawh, and the Hmong people make up a significant portion of the collection. Noteworthy are a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh script and primers and writing samples of other Hmong scripts. Aside from some letters and 1953 conference reports by Smalley and G. Linwood Barney, there is little material from his work in developing Hmong RPA. Other materials relating to RPA include a Hmong-English dictionary by Ernest E. Heimbach and a Hmong-French dictionary by Father Yves Bertrais. Also in the collection are Smalley's research on Khmu' and Thai languages and dialects and several Khmu' primers. As a missionary linguist, Smalley created guides for missionaries learning Khmu' and Vietnamese, as well as a guide to pronouncing Egyptian Arabic, all of which are in the collection. Reprints for a large portion of his articles can also be found in the collection, reflecting his interests in linguistics, anthropology, missionary work, and Southeast Asia. In addition, the collection contains drafts of his unfinished book, Liberation of an Evangelical and his work editing The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective by Jack Loewen. Photographs in the collection are composed mostly of 35mm slides and some prints and negatives. Most of the images are of Southeast Asia along with some photos of Africa, Haiti, New Guinea, and Hong Kong. There are also photos of Hmongs in the United States and photos for his book, Mother of Writing: the Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script. The sound recordings are composed mostly of interviews he conducted for his research on Thailand, Hmongs in the United States, and the Pahawh Hmong script. Additional materials in the collection are his writings as a college student published in the Houghton Star, the school newspaper for which he also served as chief editor.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 11 series: (1) Correspondence, 1973-1999; (1) Hmong, 1952-1997; (3) Khmu', 1952-1997; (4) Thailand, 1960-1987; (5) Writings, 1949-1997; (6) Talks, 1974-1997; (7) Writings by Others, 1977, 1994-1998; (8) Houghton College, 1943-1945, 1982; (9) Photographs, 1950-1990; (10) Sound Recordings, 1976-1994; (11) Maps, 1977-1978
Biographical Note:
William A. Smalley was born April 4, 1923, in Jerusalem, Palestine. His parents were American missionaries for the Christian and Missionary Alliance, working among Arabs in Jerusalem and Transjordan. In 1934, Smalley and his family moved back to the United States. In reflecting upon his upbringing, Smalley writes, "My parents were thoroughly, deeply devoted both to Christ and to the Alliance, but they drew their boundaries more widely than many." According to Smalley, "My home was intellectually more open than some Alliance homes; my upbringing was somewhat less doctrinaire." (Smalley 1991)

Smalley attended Houghton College, where he developed an interest in anthropology, which he saw as relevant to missionary work. After graduating from Houghton in 1945 with a degree in English literature, he attended the Missionary Training Institute (1945-1946) and received linguistic training in Bible translation at the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) at the University of Oklahoma (1946-1947). In 1946 he also enrolled in Columbia University's graduate program in anthropology with a concentration in linguistics. According to Smalley, he discovered his "intellectual niche" studying at SIL, while "the anthropological training at Columbia gave linguistics a broader cultural context." "I became absorbed in the challenge to understand my faith in Christ in light of all I was learning about human culture." (Smalley 1991)

In 1950, Smalley was sent to Vietnam by the Christian and Missionary Alliance. There, Smalley worked on language analysis problems in the southern region of the country. The following year, he was sent to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language. While in Laos, Smalley also worked with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing a writing system for the Hmong people. Together, they developed the Hmong Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA), which is the most widely used Hmong writing system today.

With the outbreak of civil war in Laos, Smalley and his wife were forced to return to the United States in 1954. He completed his dissertation on the Khmu' language and was awarded his doctorate in 1956. An abbreviated version of his dissertation was later published in 1961 as Outline of Khmu' Structure.

Over the next several years, Smalley worked primarily in Southeast Asia as a translation consultant for the American Bible Society (1954-1969) and as a regional translations coordinator (1969-1972) and translation consultant (1972-1977) with the United Bible Societies. Due to his work, he resided in Thailand from 1962 to 1967 and from 1969 to 1972. (He also lived in Thailand as a Fulbright research fellow in 1985 and 1986.) In 1977, he decided to leave the United Bible Societies after 23 years. Unable to find employment, he worked briefly at a discount toy store.

In 1978, Smalley relocated to St. Paul, Minnesota, to accept a position as professor of linguistics at Bethel University (1978-1987). In Minnesota, he unexpectedly found that thousands of Hmong refugees were also settling in the Twin Cities, which guided his research over the next decade. As an Honorary Fellow (1982-1984) with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program, he took part in a project studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States, publishing "Adaptive Language Strategies of the Hmong: From Asian Mountains to American Ghettos" (1985) and "Stages of Hmong Cultural Adaptation" (1986). He also studied the different Hmong scripts that had developed since RPA, in particular Pahawh Hmong script, which was created in 1959 in Laos by Shong Lue Yang. Smalley published two books on the script and its creator— Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script (1990) and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing" (1990), both of which he co-authored with Chia Koua Vang and Gnia Yee Yang.

In addition to his work on the Hmong, Smalley researched the different languages and dialects of Thailand, publishing Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand (1994); "Thailand's Hierarchy of Multilingualism" (1988); and "Language and Power: Evolution of Thailand's Multilingualism" (1996). As a student at Columbia University, he had also studied Comanche phonology and morphology, coauthoring with Henry Osborn "Formulae for Comanche Stem and Word Formation" (1949).

In 1955, Smalley took over editorship of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology), which he edited from 1955 to1968. He also served as associate editor for Bible Translator (1957-59) and Language Sciences (1983-92).

When he retired from Bethel College in 1987, he was awarded the college's first annual Distinguished Teaching Award. In his retirement, he continued to write extensively and also edited Jacob A. Loewen's book, The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective, for which he wrote an introduction.

In 1997, Smalley died of a heart attack at the age of 74.

Sources Consulted

Smalley, William. "My Pilgrimage in Mission." International Bulletin of Missionary Research 15, no. 2 (1991): 70-73.

Beckstrom, Maja. "Scholar of Hmong language praised for 'invaluable' work." St. Paul Pioneer Press, December 21, 1997: 1B, 6B.

Chronology

1923 -- Born April 4 in Jerusalem, Palestine

1945 -- Earns B.A. from Houghton College in English Literature

1945-1946 -- Studies at Missionary Training Institute

1946-1947 -- Studies at Summer Institute of Linguistics at University of Oklahoma

1950 -- Serves as missionary linguist in Vietnam

1951 -- Assigned to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language

1951-1953 -- Works with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing Hmong RPA

1954-1969 -- Translation consultant for American Bible Society

1955-1968 -- Editor of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology)

1956 -- Receives doctorate in linguistic anthropology at Columbia University

1961 -- Publishes Outline of Khmu' Structure

1969-1972 -- Regional translations coordinator with the United Bible Societies

1972-1977 -- Translation consultant with the United Bible Societies

1978-1987 -- Professor of linguistics at Bethel College

1982-1984 -- Honorary fellow with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States

1985-1986 -- Fulbright Fellow studying linguistic diversity and national unity in Thailand

1990 -- Publishes Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing"

1994 -- Publishes Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand

1997 -- Dies of a heart attack at the age of 74 on December 16
Related Materials:
Smalley's Pahawh Hmong project was funded by the Indochina Studies Center, Social Science Research Council. Upon the completion of the project, the Indochina Studies Center arranged for some of his Pahawh Hmong research materials to be deposited at the Library of Congress as part of the archives of programs that the center has funded. The materials deposited at the Library of Congress include photographs, sound recordings, and a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh and Sayaboury script. Indices and descriptions of the materials deposited can be found in Series 2: Hmong, Sub-series 2.2 Pahawh, "[Pahawh Hmong Project]." Not all of the materials that were sent to the Library of Congress are present in this collection and vice versa. Among the materials absent from this collection are some of the photographs, four sound recordings, and most of the Sayaboury manuscripts.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jane Smalley.
Restrictions:
Three tape recordings and the associated transcripts of the interviews that Smalley conducted for his research on the Pahawh Hmong script are restricted until 2040.

Access to the William A. Smalley papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Vietnamese language  Search this
Missionaries  Search this
Anthropological linguistics  Search this
Hmong language -- writing  Search this
Khmu' language  Search this
Citation:
William A. Smalley papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2006-06
See more items in:
William A. Smalley papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2006-06

J. Parker Snow Collection

Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Snow, J. Parker  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Notebooks
Writings
Correspondence
Date:
1882-1933
bulk 1930-1933
Summary:
The J. P. Snow Papers document Snow's history of wooden bridges and his work as a civil engineer. The history was written in the 1930s with Robert Fletcher, Director Emeritus of the Thayer School of Civil Engineering at Dartmouth College.
Scope and Contents:
Snow's engineering notebook, 1882; notes relating to his writings on the history of wooden bridges; drafts and manuscripts for articles he wrote on the development of wooden bridges; and correspondence, especially with engineering journals relating to efforts to get his manuscripts published.
Correspondence, drafts of manuscript, notes, and an engineering notebook comprise the J. Parker Snow Collection.

Series 1, History of wooden bridges, 1930-1933, undated, contains material relating to Snow and Fletcher's unpublished manuscript. Snow corresponded with Fletcher regarding topics addressed in the book and the status of their writing. He also corresponded with John W. Storr, another civil engineer with an extensive knowledge of wooden bridges, and Sydney Wilmot, the editor planning to publish the history.

Series 2, Engineering projects, 1882, 1930-1931, consists of material related to various civil engineering projects, primarily bridges, with which Snow was associated. The engineering notebook contains detailed drawings of kilns and arches and information on various types of bridges, including railroad bridges.
Arrangement:
System of Arrangement: The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1, History of Wooden Bridges, 1930-1933, undated

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1930-1933, undated

Subseries 2, Drafts of manuscript, 1932-1933, undated

Series 2, Engineering projects, 1882, 1930-1931
Biographical / Historical:
J. Parker Snow was an American civil engineer with an interest in wooden bridges. He partnered with Robert Fletcher, the Director Emeritus of the Thayer School of Civil Engineering at Dartmouth College, to write a manuscript on the history of wooden bridges in the United States. This manuscript was not published. Both were members of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Llewellyn N. Edwards Collection (AC0959) contains extensive correspondence with J. Parker Snow regarding the history of wooden bridges.
Provenance:
Source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Wooden bridges  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 1850-1900
Writings
Correspondence -- 1930-1940
Citation:
J. Parker Snow Collection, 1882-1933, (bulk 1930-1933) Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1000
See more items in:
J. Parker Snow Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1000
Online Media:

Joan M. Gero records of the "Women and Production in Prehistory" Conference

Creator:
Gero, Joan M.  Search this
Conkey, Margaret Wright, 1944-  Search this
Extent:
0.42 Linear feet (2 boxes)
50 negatives (photographic) (1 folder)
26 Photographic prints (1 folder)
14 cassette tapes (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Cassette tapes
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Positives (photographs)
Photographs
Date:
1987-2001
Summary:
The Joan M. Gero papers of the "Women and Production in Prehistory" Conference primarily document the work of Joan M. Gero (archaeologist known for her work in feminist, socio-political, and Andean archaeology) and co-organizer, Margaret W. Conkey, to organize the "Women and Production in Prehistory" Conference that took place April 5-9, 1988 at The Wedge Plantation in South Carolina (sometimes referred to as the "Wedge Conference"). The collection comprises Joan Gero's documentation pertaining to the conference, as well as it's promotion and publication in the seminal volume Engendering Archaeology: Women and prehistory. The collection consists of grant proposals and reports, program and participant information, photographs of the conference, audiotape recordings of papers presented, conference publicity and press clippings, correspondence between Gero and co-organizer Margaret W. Conkey, correspondence with Blackwell Publishers about the publication and royalties, and reviews of Engendering Archaeology: Women and prehistory.
Scope and Contents:
This collection comprises Joan Gero's documentation pertaining to the "Women and Production in Prehistory Conference," also known as the "Wedge conference," as well as it's promotion and publication in the seminal volume Engendering Archaeology: Women and prehistory. The collection consists of grant proposals and reports, program and participant information, photographs of the conference, audiotape recordings of papers presented, conference publicity and press clippings, correspondence between Gero and co-organizer Margaret W. Conkey, correspondence with Blackwell Publishers about the publication and royalties, and reviews of Engendering Archaeology: Women and prehistory.
Arrangement:
The materials are largely arranged in the original order in which they were received. A chronological order was imposed on a few correspondence files, and a few original folders were split or renamed due to preservation or access considerations.
Biographical Note:
Joan Margaret Gero (1944-2016) was an American archaeologist and co-organizer, with Margaret W. Conkey, of the "Women and Production in Prehistory" Conference that took place April 5-9, 1988 at The Wedge Plantation in South Carolina (sometimes referred to as the "Wedge Conference"). The conference was, according to Gero (personal correspondence, 2015), "the first archaeological conference in the United States convened specifically to discuss women's roles in prehistory." The resulting book, Engendering Archaeology: Women and prehistory, was the first to consider women's roles in prehistory. It was re-printed six times, and has had a major impact on the archaeological field.

Gero was a specialist in feminist archaeology, the socio-politics of archaeology, the ethics of archaeological practice, global and community archaeology, and Andean prehistory. She was perhaps best known for her foundational work to create a field of gender archaeology alongside Margaret Conkey, Janet Spectre, Alison Wylie and others.

Gero was born in New York City in 1944. She completed her B.A. in English Literature at the University of Pennsylvania in 1968, her M.A. in Elementary Education from Boston College in 1970, and her degrees in Anthropology (M.A. in 1977 and Ph.D. in 1983) at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst.

During her career, Gero held professorships at the University of South Carolina (Assistant, 1984-1990, Associate 1990-1997) and American University (Associate 1998-2007; Emerita 2008-2016). She also held visiting professorships at the University of Cambridge (1991 and 2004-5), the Universidad Nacional del Centro de Buenos Aires, Olvarria in Argentina (1992), the Universidad Nacional de Catamarca in Argentina (1994), the University of Umeå and Uppsala in Sweden (1997), and was a Research Associate with Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) (1996-2016).

Most of Gero's fieldwork was carried out in Argentina and Peru. Gero served from 1994-2004 as co-director (with M.C. Scottolin) of Proyecto Cajón, including Excavations at Yutopian, Valle del Cajón, and Provincia Catamarca. She conducted formative work for those excavations at Valle del Cajón in 1992 and 1993. From 1985 to 1989 Gero was Director of the Callejón de Huaylas Archaeological Project (northcentral Peruvian highlands). Prior to that, Gero was a lithics analyst for the Huaricoto Project in Callejón de Huaylas, Peru (1978-1979), and a crew member on the Harvard Moche Valley/Chan Chan Project in north coastal Peru (1973). Her first fieldwork was in Hampshire, England as a crew member on an Iron Age/Roman Excavation. She also served as crew chief for a field school in the Connecticut River Valley (Massachusetts. 1976), co-director for a field school at Mulberry Mound (Camden, South Carolina, 1985), and research assistant to Smithsonian Maritime Archaic excavations in Labrador (1971 and 1983).

Gero was Head Series Editor for the One World Archaeology book series, and served on the advisory board for Archaeologies: The Journal of the World Archaeological Congress.

Gero was an active member of a number of professional organizations, including the World Archaeological Congress, where she was senior North American representative from 1999-2008, and member of a Standing Committee on Ethics from 2007 to her death in 2016.

Gero received a number of awards and honors during her career. In 2013, she was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from the World Archaeology Congress. In 2007, the American Anthropological Association presented Gero with the "Squeaky Wheel" Award for her work affecting change for women in archaeology. In 2016 the World Archaeological Congress created the Joan Gero Book Award in her honor.

The conference that this collection pertains to was planned with funds from two successful grants Gero wrote with Margaret Conkey. The first was from the National Science Foundation. The second was from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Both were entitled "Women's Production in Prehistory: An International Conference" and received in April 1988.

Gero was married to Stephen Loring, an Archaeologist in the NMNH's Department of Anthropology and Arctic Studies Center.

Chronology

1944 May 26 -- Gero born in New York City

1968 -- Gero receives B.A. in English Literature at the University of Pennsylvania

1970 -- Gero receives M.Ed. in Elementary Education at Boston College

1977 -- Gero receives M.A. in Anthropology at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst

1983 -- Gero receives Ph.D. in Anthropology at the University of Massachusetts-Amhearst

1988 April 5-9 -- Women and Production in Prehistory Conference

1991 -- Engendering Archaeology: Women and prehistory published

2016 July 14 -- Joan M. Gero dies in Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropolgoical Archives by Joan M. Gero in December 2015.
Restrictions:
The Joan M. Gero records of the "Women and Production in Prehistory" Conference are open for research.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Feminism  Search this
South America  Search this
Sex discrimination  Search this
Gender identity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Positives (photographs)
Photographs -- 1900-2000 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Photographs -- Color negatives -- Acetate film
Citation:
Joan M. Gero records of the "Women and Production in Prehistory" Conference, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2016-05
See more items in:
Joan M. Gero records of the "Women and Production in Prehistory" Conference
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2016-05

Henry Grattan Tyrrell and Mary Maude Knox Tyrrell Papers

Creator:
Tyrrell, Henry Grattan, 1867-1948  Search this
Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Author:
Tyrrell, Mary Maude Knox  Search this
Extent:
2.3 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Publications
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Date:
1886-1941
Summary:
Manuscripts, correspondence, business records, newspaper clippings and scrapbooks documenting the career of Henry Grattan Tyrrell, an early-twentieth-century civil engineer and bridge builder who was also a prolific self-published author of hundreds of journal articles and several books. Subjects include aesthetic bridge design, history of bridges, design of movable bridges, and the economical design of factories, shops, and mill buildings.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains typed manuscripts, correspondence, drawings, and business records written by and relating to Henry Grattan Tyrrell, civil engineer, bridge builder and prolific self-published author on the subjects of bridge engineering, aesthetics and history of bridge design, and the economical design of factories, shops and mill buildings.

The bulk of the collection consists of drafts and submission copies of his numerous published journal articles as well as early manuscripts of several of his books. Also included are two scrapbooks compiled by Tyrrell, containing many of his published articles, pamphlets, and letters to editors of engineering-related publications, as well as advertising material for both his engineering businesses and his books. There are many newspaper clippings related to projects Tyrrell worked on or expressed interest in, documentation of claims he brought against various companies for infringement or failure to pay, lists of his works, compilations of critical praise and personal endorsements, and general material relating to his experiences in publishing.

The collection presents a specific view of the trends and innovations in engineering at the beginning of the twentieth century, particularly focusing on bridges of all types and materials, as well as an early example of self-employment and self-promotion. It may be of interest to researchers in the areas of bridge and factory design in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, historical engineering publications, and the history of bridge building in the United States and Canada.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into seven (7) series:

Series 1: Personal, 1886; 1920s-1930s; undated

Series 2: Correspondence, 1895-1901; 1907; 1911-1917; 1928-1929; 1931-1941

Series 3: Business Records, 1899-1937

Subseries 3.1: Engineering, 1899; 1902; 1905; 1917-1919; 1923; 1935

Subseries 3.2: Publishing, 1900-1920

Subseries 3.3: Legal/Financial, 1901-1902; 1907-1908; 1914-1915; 1920-1932; 1937

Series 4: Proposals, Drawings and Sketches, 1900-1908; 1920-1921; undated

Series 5: Publications, 1886; 1900-1905; 1909-1916

Subseries 5.1: Books, 1911-1913; 1920-1921

Subseries 5.2 Articles, 1886; 1900-1905; 1909-1916; 1920

Subseries 5.3 Article drafts/submission copies, 1900-1905; 1912-1915; 1920

Series 6: Press Clippings, 1900-1921

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1901-1920
Biographical / Historical:
Henry Grattan Tyrrell (1867-1948) was born in Weston, Ontario, Canada and was educated at the University of Toronto School of Practical Science as a civil engineer specializing in bridge architecture and design. He worked for several architectural companies, including the Boston Bridge Company (Massachusetts), the Brackett Bridge Company (Ohio), as well as his own businesses the American Estimating Company, and Grattan Tyrrell & Co. His brief career as an engineer was superceded by his prolific career as a writer of both journal articles and books on the aesthetics of bridge design and practical designs for factories and mill houses.

The son of an avid outdoorsman and explorer, his early writings are about the Canadian wilderness. By the turn of the century, his writing focused on architectural engineering, specifically the design of bridges. Tyrrell was well-traveled and wrote at length about the beauty of a well-designed bridge, like those he had seen all over the world. He suggested that America's cities (Chicago, Seattle, Milwaukee and Cleveland), build attractive bridges, which, he argued, could also be economical. His books History of Bridge Engineering (1911) and Artistic Bridge Design (1912) spoke to these issues. He expanded his love of aesthetics to buildings as well, advocating for the economical and practical design of factory buildings and floors, as well as mill houses and shops (Mill Buildings, 1911; Engineering of Shops and Factories, 1912). His last (possibly unpublished) book, Movable Bridges (1921), explored the design of drawbridges, vertical lift bridges and suspension bridges. His wife, Mary Maude Knox Tyrrell, co-authored and illustrated many of the books.

Tyrrell was an avid self-promoter, writing reviews of his own books, including contents and endorsements of his achievements, and selling them in pamphlet form. He was a frequent contributor to many engineering journals, such as Canadian Engineer, Builders' Magazine, Engineering News, and The Engineering Magazine. His prolific writings on the subjects of bridge engineering and aesthetics are a lasting legacy of early-twentieth century ingenuity.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Grattan Tyrrell. Exact date of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories  Search this
Mill buildings  Search this
Mills  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Publications
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Citation:
Henry Grattan Tyrrell and Mary Maude Knox Tyrrell Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0948
See more items in:
Henry Grattan Tyrrell and Mary Maude Knox Tyrrell Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0948

U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums

Creator:
Aikins, Russell Chorley, 1896-  Search this
U.S. Steel Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1940s
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises of 21 albums depicting the steel making and finishing operations of the United States Steel Corporation. All of the images were made by Russell Aikins around 1940. The albums contain photographic prints (8" x 9-1/2"). The majority of prints are mounted on spiral-bound pages. The photographs were created for public relations purposes and provide visual documentation of American steel making technology, production practice, and worker manager relationships. Subject matter varies widely, depicting the process of manufacturing steel or steel-related products. The photographs have a strong human and dramatic emphasis. The strongest theme is industrial mobilization for the war effort. Many photographs document female wartime work in industry, and African American workers are also represented. The theme of worker safety is well documented with images depicting safety glasses and protective garments. Printed captions below each photograph usually identify workers by name and occupation.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series, chronologically by album number.
Biographical:
Russell Chorley Aikins was born in Philadelphia on December 7, 1896. He began his photographic career at the Philadelphia Inquirer as a news photographer in 1917. Two years later, Aikins joined the New York Times Sunday Rotogravure Section and the World Wide Syndicate as a staff photographer. In the early 1920s, Aikins organized and ran the New York Times Washington picture bureau. Aikins served briefly, in 1929, as an editor for the newly developing Associated Press (AP) photo service. Following the growing trend in the photo news industry Aikins left the AP and became a freelance photographer. He opened his studio in New York City and did work for Fortune, Time, Life, and Colliers.

Aikins career shifted in 1937 when he decided to "devote all my time to the portrayal of business and industry." Aikins noted the need for big business to be represented and saw his images as tools for business self-promotion: "It had been a growing conviction with me that industry in addition to its product advertising should promote its fitness to serve the public and its ability to make quality goods." He started to recruit companies to combat the stereotypical cold, unfeeling edge of big business. Aikins called this new style of photography "camera-reporting," which he thought could transport stockholders, customers, and the public into the mills, giving the viewer greater confidence in the corporation and its products. A few companies Aikins represented included Chrysler Corporation, General Electric Company, Johnson & Johnson, and the United States Steel Corporation. After World War Two the demand for the technique Aikins helped to pioneer began to diminish as public and labor attitudes changed. After 1948, there is no record of Aikins' activities.

Source

Division of Work and Industry staff.
Historical:
The United States Steel Corporation was created in 1901 by the purchase and consolidation of several companies by financier J.P. Morgan. At the time of formation, it was the largest company in the world. U.S. Steel represented Morgan's attempt to bring stability to the volatile steel market. Morgan purchased Andrew Carnegie's highly aggressive Carnegie Steel and brought it together with Federal Steel, National Tube, American Steel and Wire, American Sheet Steel, American Hoop Steel, American Tin Plate, American Bridge, and the Lake Superior Consolidated Iron Mines. Other companies were added later.

Capitalized at $1.4 billion, U.S. Steel was in 1901 the largest company in the world. It controlled over 50% of American Steel production but was in many ways hamstrung by its size. While the operation of Carnegie Steel was characterized by technological efficiency, US Steel avoided innovation. Some in the company referred to the Corporation's policy as "no inventions, no innovation." The company was thought by many to be driven by a banker's vision of protecting investment, not an industrialist's vision of increasing production. Always sensitive about public antitrust action, Elbert Gary, the leader of the company, sought to cast U.S. Steel as a "good trust." In 1936, the CIO formed the Steel Workers Organizing Committee (SWOC), and began a massive union drive. Although strongly antiunion, U.S. Steel, under Myron Taylor was the first major steel company to recognize the steelworkers union in 1937.

An industry once characterized by low wages and harsh conditions emerged by the late 1940s as one of the highest-paying blue collar employers, forced to negotiate with one of the nation's most powerful unions. Following recognition of the union U.S. Steel followed a corporate strategy of paying for wage settlements by increasing steel prices. This often put the giant company at odds with governmental economic policy.

Source

Division of Work and Industry staff.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School

1934 Art and Industry Exhibition photograph collection

The 1934 Art and Industry Exhibition photograph collection contains photographs that were on display in New York City and Chicago in an exhibition sponsored by the National Alliance of Art and Industry.

United States Steel Corporation photographs, circa 1940-1960

A large collection of black and white gelatin silver prints depicting the United States Steel Corporation's steel plants, works, personnel, machinery, mining operations, buildings, warehouses and production of the numerous products manufactured by the company, circa 1940-1960.

Industrial Life Photograph Collection, 1920-1941

Photographs collected by the Business Historical Society to document major industries in the United States and industrial processes.

Lowell National Historical Park

Youngstown Center for Industry and Labor
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- War work  Search this
Safety  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Citation:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1037
See more items in:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1037
Online Media:

Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Native Americans

Creator:
Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923  Search this
Names:
Phoenix Indian School  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Photographer:
Brady, Mathew B., approximately 1823-1896  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Gentile, Carlo, 1835-1893  Search this
Prando, Peter Paul Father  Search this
Sarony, Napoleon, 1821-1896  Search this
Extent:
171 Lantern slides
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Apache  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Montezuma Castle National Monument (Ariz.)
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1871-1913
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes hand-colored glass lantern slides collected by Dr. Carlos Montezuma and used for his lectures on Native American rights. Many of the photographs are portraits, some made at Ft. McDowell and Fort Apache. Other images show schools, reservations, dwellings, Charles Dickens (a Yavapai store owner), Montezuma's Castle, Casa Grande, and scenic views. A special series includes photographs made during a 1913 hunting and sightseeing trip that he organized, probably including photographs made by Montezuma's guests, John T. McCutcheon and Charles B. Gibson.

Some of the images were made by Charles (Carlos) Gentile, the photographer and benefactor of Montezuma in his early years. There are also several by Father Peter Paulus Prando and John N. Choate, and one portrait each by Napoleon Sarony and Matthew Brady. Otherwise, the photographers are unidentified.
Biographical/Historical note:
Carlos Montezuma (1866-1923, also called Wassaja) was an Native American activist and physician. He was Yavapai, though he often identified himself as Apache. He was captured by Pima Indians at a young age and sold in 1871 to Italian-immigrant and pioneer photographer Carlo (or Charles) Gentile, who adopted the child and took him to New York. Montezuma graduated from the University of Illinois (1884) and received his MD from the Chicago Medical College (1889). He developed a friendship with Richard Henry Pratt, head of the Carlisle Indian School, and took a post as reservation physician for the Bureau of Indian Services. During this time he developed an opposition to BIA policies and became an Native American advocate, speaking out against reservations. He gave numerous lectures on Native Americans at institutions around the United States, helped organize the Society of American Indians, and published a personal newsletter entitled Wassaja (1916-1922). In 1896, Montezuma established a medical practice in Chicago. He died in Arizona in 1923.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73
Varying Form of Title:
Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides
General note:
The handwriting on the slides has been identified as that of Dr. Carlos Montezuma by John Larner, the editor of Montezumaʹs papers. Information in this catalog record has been taken from Cesare Marino, Solving the Mystery: The Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides in the NAA : Report of Background Research and Interview with Mrs. Doris Collester, Donor of the Carlos Montezuma Collection of Hand-tinted Lantern Slides to the Smithsonian Institution, conducted in Williamstown, West Virginia, August 2013.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Correspondence from Montezuma is held in the National Anthropological Archives in the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Carlos Montezuma's papers are held in the Newberry Library, Roger and Julie Baskes Department of Special Collections; Arizona State University Libraries, Charles Trumbull Hayden Library; and University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 73, Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73
Online Media:

MS 4408 Jesse Walter Fewkes papers

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Extent:
13 Boxes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1873-1927
Summary:
This collection consists principally of Fewkes's archeological and ethnological field notebooks, 1890-1927. It also includes correspondence, 1873-1927; lectures, circa 1907-1926; and unpublished manuscripts by Fewkes and others, circa 1893-1923.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists principally of Fewkes's archeological and ethnological field notebooks, 1890-1927; and includes correspondence, 1873-1927; lectures, circa 1907-1926; and unpublished manuscripts by Fewkes and others, circa 1893-1923.

In the accompanying inventory, the catalog numbers under which each volume or part was originally catalogued is shown in brackets.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Correspondence, 1873-1927

Series 2: Field Diaries, Notebooks, and Maps, 1873-1927

Series 3: Lectures and Articles, mostly unpublished, circa 1907-1926, undated

Series 4: Manuscripts by Other Authors, collected by Fewkes, circa 1893-1923
Biographical / Historical:
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850‐1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist who served as chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (B.A.E.) from 1918 to 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877 and was curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. He became deeply interested in the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians while on a collecting trip in the western United States. In 1891, Fewkes became director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology. In 1895 he began working for the B.A.E., during which he conducted archaeological excavations in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida. During the summers of 1908-1909, 1915-1916, and 1918-1922, Fewkes worked almost exclusively on excavations and repair of ruins in Mesa Verde National Park. He was appointed chief of the B.A.E. in 1918 and played an important role in the creation of Hovenweep National Monument in Colorado and Wupatki National Monument in Arizona. He retired in 1928, after which he continued research for the B.A.E. under the title of Associate Anthropologist.
Related Materials:
Additional records created by and about Fewkes are contained in the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Fewkes correspondence held in the National Anthropological Archives is contained in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Fewkes photographs held in National Anthropological Archives are contained in in Photo Lot 1, Photo Lot 30, Photo Lot 86 (his negatives), Photo Lot 73-43B, and Photo Lot 4321.

Fewkes drawings held in the National Anthropological Archives are contained in MS 3427 Drawings of specimens, Heshota Uthla.

The Smithsonian Institution Archives also holds a field notebook by Fewkes, Record Unit 7350.

The Department of Anthropology collections holds several accessions of artifacts collected by Fewkes, including USNM ACC 048761 (relating to Casa Grande excavations) and USNM ACC 050765 (relating to Mesa Verde excavations).

Collection supplement files relating to the life and published work of J. Walter Fewkes are on file in the NAA Reading Room.
Provenance:
The original accession of Fewkes's papers was selected by Matthew W. Stirling at Fewkes's home after Fewkes's death in 1930. This accession consisted largely of archeological and ethnological field notebooks, correspondence, lectures, and unpublished manuscripts. These materials were originally cataloged in unrelated lots. NAA archivist Margaret C. Blaker brought these materials together in 1956 and cataloged them under MS 4408.

In March 1976, the Smithsonian Libraries transferred to the NAA papers largely concerning Fewkes's other scientific work. These were accessioned under the number NAA ACC 76-133. Another group of materials consisting of three volumes recording trip to the American West were transferred from the Smithsonian Institution Archives in December 1979.

Another acquisition to the Fewkes papers, consisting of a volume of photographs, a volume of correspondence, and another volume concerning Betatakin, were acquired from aņ unknown source. These materials appeared in James R. Glenn's office in the Department of Anthropology in April 1986. A notebook of graphite drawings of Taino culture was donated by Jordan Belfort of Old Brookville, New York via Alvin Abrams.
Restrictions:
The Jesse Walter Fewkes papers are open for research.

Access to the Jesse Walter Fewkes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4408 Jesse Walter Fewkes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4408
See more items in:
MS 4408 Jesse Walter Fewkes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4408

Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 4: Songwriters Volumes I and II

Creator:
DeVincent, Sam, 1918-1997  Search this
Extent:
251 Boxes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1847-1975
Summary:
Sam DeVincent loved music and art and began collecting sheet music with lithographs at an early age.

Series 4: Songwriters: A "songwriter" for this series is defined as a composer, a lyricist, or both.

An overview to the entire DeVincent collection is available here: Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music.
Scope and Contents note:
A "songwriter" for this series is defined as a composer, a lyricist, or both. The songwriters included in this online finding aid are arranged alphabetically in the Biography of Songwriters section and alphabetically in the Name and Select Title Index.

The song sheets associated with each songwriter in this series are generally arranged in the following order: General Songs; Ethnic Songs; Armed Conflict Songs or other Topical Headings; Ragtime; Instrumental; Musical Theater Production Songs; Motion Picture Production Songs; Specialized Song Sheets/Editions; Professional/Artist Copy Song Sheets; and Folios/Volumes. Songs of four or more editions (multiple editions) are usually placed in individual folders and listed separately under the appropriate category, i.e., General Songs, Topical songs, etc. Copyright dates listed in the Container List represent the latest date on any given song sheet, i.e., a song originally published in 1906, but copyrighted in 1946, will show the date 1946.

In the Container List the word "Contains" in a descriptive entry identifies a folder that contains only the song sheet titles specified. For example, Subseries 4.1, folder B "contains" three song sheets and only those three are contained in that folder. The word "Includes" in a descriptive entry identifies a folder that holds not only the song sheet title(s) named but also other song sheet title(s) not specified in the Container List. For example, folder E of subseries 4.1 "includes" (or specifies) three song sheets ("Magic Moments," "Sad Sack," and "Warm and Tender"), but, in addition, folder E contains fourteen other song sheets that are not specified.

Variations in the size of the sheet music in this series may indicate its publication date. Large song sheets-approximately 11" x 13"- were superseded in April 1919, when publishers adopted a new "standard" or "regular" size for song sheets-9 1/4" x 12 1/4"-as recommended by the National Association of Sheet Music Dealers. The probable motivation was that smaller song sheets were cheaper to produce--a conservation effort prompted by World War I.

Titles of Musical Theater Production Songs and Motion Picture Production Songs are in capital letters. Individual song titles are within quotation marks. Portraits of the artist or artists that contributed to a song's success are featured on many song sheets. Songs are filed alphabetically, by title, within each folder.

Dates after the songwriter's name in the Biography of Songwriters section of this Register refer to the songwriter's birth and death dates. Dates after a songwriter's name in the Container List of this Register refer to the dates of the song sheets in this collection for that songwriter. Where two or more songwriters were a notable team over an extended period of time, their collaboration is noted in the Biography of Songwriters and included in the Container List.

The dates in the Container List represent the latest copyright year on the song sheets. The dates are not necessarily the same as the year of the productions. Copyright dates in the Container List represent the latest date on any given piece of sheet music, i.e., a song originally published in 1906, but re-copyrighted in 1946, will show the date 1946.
Arrangement note:
Arranged alphabetically

4.1 - 4.217

4.218: Ephemera
Biographies of Song Writers:
4.42 ADAMS, STANLEY -- (8/14/1907-1/27/1994). Lyricist. Former President of ASCAP; was a leader in the successful effort for Congressional revision of copyright law. Best known song is "What a Diff'rence a Day Made."

4.43 AGER, MILTON -- (10/6/1893-5/6/1979). Composer, publishers, pianist, arranger, vaudeville accompanist, stage entertainer for silent movies. First hit was "Everything is Peaches Down in Georgia," sung by Al Jolson.

4.44 AHLERT, FRED E. -- (9/19/1892-10/20/1953). Composer, publisher. Arranger for Fred Waring. One of first songwriters to quit Tin Pan Alley for Hollywood. First hit was "I'll Get By."

4.45 AKST, HARRY -- (8/15/1894-3/31/1963). Composer. Professional pianist as a teenager. Met Berlin at Camp Upton, worked for him as staff pianist. Hits include: and "Baby Face" and "A Smile Will Go a Long, Long Way."

4.46 ALLEN, STEVE -- (12/26/1921- ). Composer, author, pianist, comedian. Toured with parents in vaudeville; worked in radio; founder and first host of NBC-TV's Tonight Show. Composed the theme from PICNIC.

4.47 ARLEN, HAROLD -- (2/15/1905-4/23/1986). Composer, author, pianist, vocalist. Played professionally at age 15. Signed by The Cotton Club to write with Ted Koehler, producing many hits. Also teamed with Yip Harburg. Write "Get Happy," "Stormy Weather," and the score for THE WIZARD OF OZ.

4.48 ARMSTRONG, HARRY W. -- (7/22/1879-2/28/1951). Composer, vocalist, pianist, producer, prize fighter. Hits include "I Love My Wife, But Oh You Kid" and "Sweet Adeline."

4.49 ASH, PAUL -- (2/11/1891-7/13/1958). Composer, author, conductor, pianist. Led his first band in 1910; became very successful bandleader. Wrote "I'm Knee Deep in Daisies."

4.50 AUSTIN, GENE -- (6/24/1900-1/24/1971). Composer, author. Sang in vaudeville, radio, films, and TV. Established as a recording star with "My Blue Heaven." Wrote "When My Sugar Walks Down the Street."

4.1 BACHARACH, BURT F. -- (5/12/1928- ). Composer and pianist. Collaborated with lyricist Hal David on a number of film scores (e.g., BUTCH CASSIDY AND THE SUNDANCE KID) and popular songs, many of which were recorded by Dionne Warwick.

4.51 BALL, ERNEST R. -- (7/21/1878-5/3/1927). Composer, pianist. Began as pianist in vaudeville, performing with his wife Maude Lambert; then worked as a song demonstrator. Successful songs include "Let the Rest of the World Go By"and "Mother Machree."

4.52 BARGY, ROY -- (7/31/1894-1/15/1974). Composer, pianist. Arranger for Paul Whiteman; led several radio show bands. Edited, played, arranged, and composed piano rolls; composed rags. From 1943-1963 was music director for Jimmy Durante.

4.53 BAXTER, PHIL -- (9/5/1896-11/21/1972). Composer, pianist, lyricist, vocalist. Bandleader in 20's and 30's. Wrote "Have a Little Dream on Me" and "I'm a Ding Dong Daddy from Dumas."

4.54 BAYES, NORA -- (1880-3/19/1928). Vocalist, composer, lyricist. Was a top performing star; known as "The Wurzberger Girl" after her first hit. The first edition of Cohan's "Over There" featured Bayes on the cover. Bayes and husband Jack Norworth wrote "Shine on Harvest Moon."

4.55 BERLE, MILTON -- (7/12/1908- ). Comedian, vocalist, lyricist, composer. Began performing in silent movies at age 5; worked in vaudeville; was a MC in clubs and theaters. Was the first big TV star. Wrote "Sam, You Made the Pants Too Long."

4.2 BERLIN, IRVING -- (5/11/1888-9/22/1989). Composer and lyricist. One of the most versatile and popular songwriters of the 20th century. Wrote songs for some of the most successful Broadway musicals and Hollywood films. Best songs were sentimental ballads performed in unique ragtime or popular styles.

4.56 BERNIE, BEN -- (5/30/1891-10/20/1943). Bandleader, composer. Was a monologist in vaudeville; played violin until he formed his own dance band in early 20's. Known as The Old Maestro. Wrote "Sweet Georgia Brown."

4.57 BRAHAM, DAVID -- (1834-4/11/1905). Composer. Born in London; moved to New York at age 18. Was orchestral leader and composer for minstrel shows, Tony Pastor's, Theatre Comique. THE MULLIGAN GUARD was the first of many collaborations with Ned Harrigan.

4.58 BREUER, ERNEST -- (12/6/1886-4/3/1981). Composer, pianist. Born in Germany, moved to US in youth. Vaudeville pianist. WWII interpreter and entertainer. Wrote "Does the Spearmint Lose Its Flavor on the Bedpost Overnight?"

4.59 BROOKS, SHELTON -- (5/4/1886-9/6/1975). Composer. Parents American Indian/African American. Pianist in Detroit cafes; moved to Chicago. Composed rages; worked as a mimic in vaudeville. Wrote "Darktown Strutters' Ball" and "Some of These Days."

4.60 BROWN, A. SEYMOUR -- (5/28/1885-12/22/1947). Author, composer, actor. Worked in vaudeville. Composed "Oh You Beautiful Doll."

4.61 BROWN, GEORGE -- ...

4.3 BROWN, LEW -- (12/10/1893-2/5/1958). Lyricist. Achieved success with a number of songs in collaboration with composer Albert Von Tilzer, and later as member of the Ray Henderson and Buddy DeSylva songwriting team on Broadway.

4.62 BROWN, NACIO HERB -- (2/22/1896-9/28/1964). Composer. First toured as piano accompanist; worked as a tailor and realtor before first successes in early 20's. One of the movies most important composers during early sound years and many years thereafter. Wrote "Singin in the Rain" and "You Are My Lucky Star."

4.63 BROWN, NACIO HERB, JR. -- (2/27/1921- ). Composer, author, publisher. Son of Nacio Herb Brown. Professional manager of publishing firms; manager of music catalogs. Songs include "Who Put That Dream in Your Eyes."

4.64 BUCK, GENE -- (8/8/1885-2/25/1957). Lyricist. Chief aide to Ziegfeld; wrote book for some of his shows. Pioneer designer of sheet music covers. Songs include "Hello Frisco" and "Tulip Time."

4.65 BULLOCK, WALTER -- (5/6/1907-8/19/1953). Lyricist. Wrote screenplays and songs for movies. Hits include "This Is Where I Came In" and "When Did You Leave Heaven?"

4.66 CAESAR, IRVING -- (4/4/1895-12/17/1996). Lyricist, composer. Wrote mostly for New York stage but began working for films in 30's. Wrote message-bearing songs for children. Wrote "Count Your Blessings" and "Tea for Two."

4.4 CAHN, SAMMY -- (6/18/1913- ). Lyricist. Wrote many successful songs for Hollywood films, notably for Frank Sinatra, and in collaboration with Charlie Chaplin, Jimmy Van Heusen, and Jule Styne.

4.67 CALLAHAN, J. WILL -- (3/17/1874-11/15/1946). Vocalist, lyricist. Started as an accountant, then singer of illustrated songs. Wrote "Smiles."

4.5 CARMICHAEL, HOAGY -- (11/22/1899-12/27/1981). Composer, lyricist, bandleader, pianist, and singer. Abandoned law profession to pursue career in songwriting. Contributed songs to a number of very popular motion pictures.

4.68 CARROLL, EARL -- (9/16/1893-6/17/1948). Composer. Produced and directed many revues. Built two theaters in New York and had a restaurant in Hollywood. Produced movies. Hits include "Give Me All of You" and "So Long Letty."

4.69 CARROLL, HARRY -- (11/28/1892-12/26/1962). Composer. Pianist in movie theaters, cafes and vaudeville. Wrote for Winter Garden productions; wrote several Broadway stage scores. Hits include "I'm Always Chasing Rainbows" and "Trail of the Lonesome Pine."

4.70 CHAMINADE, MME. CECILE -- (born in Paris. Pianist, composer. Toured the US in 1908.

4.71 CLARIBEL (CHARLOTTE ALLINGTON BARNARD) -- (1830-1869) Composer, lyricist. English. Enormously popular in her time. Her "Come Back to Erin" is often regarded as an Irish folk song.

4.72 COBB, GEORGE L. -- (8/31/1886-12/25/1942). Composer. Began as composer of rags. Wrote for Melody magazine. First hit was "All Aboard for Dixieland."

4.6 COHAN, GEORGE M. -- (7/4/1878-11/5/1942). Composer, lyricist, actor, playwright, and producer. Best remembered for elaborately choreographed dance music, flag-waving songs, and songs for musical comedies and vaudeville. Best known for his patriotic songs, "Over There" and "Yankee Doodle Dandy."

4.73 COLUMBO, RUSS -- (1908-9/2/1934). Composer; primarily a singer, featured in Gus Arnheims band. Theme song for own band was "You Call It Madness." Also wrote "Too Beautiful for Words."

4.74 CONFREY, ZEZ -- (4/3/1895-11/22/1971). Pianist, bandleader, composer. Cut many piano rolls. Solo piano pieces have become standards: "Dizzy Fingers" and "Kitten on the Keys."

4.75 CONN, CHESTER -- (4/14/1896- 4/4/1973). Composer. Manager of publishing companies before owning own firm of Bregman, Vocco & Conn. Hits include "Don't Mind the Rain."

4.76 CONRAD, CON -- (6/18/1891-9/28/1938). Composer, pianist. Worked as theater pianist and in vaudeville; wrote for stage and movies. Had publishing firm. Wrote "The Continental," first film song awarded an Oscar; also wrote "Ma" and "Margie."

4.77 CONVERSE, CHARLES CROZAT -- (10/7/1832-4/8/1918). Composer. Studied in Europe; practiced law upon return. Composed partriotic overtures and cantatas, vocal quartettes. Wrote on philosophical and philological subjects under pen name Karl Redan. Wrote "What a Friend We Have in Jesus."

4.78 COOTS, J. FRED -- (5/2/1897-4/8/1985). Composer, pianist. Accompanied vaudeville acts; worked as song plugger; composed for Schuberts shows but returned to club dates in composing independently. Wrote "Love Letters in the Sand" and "You Go to My Head."

4.79 COSLOW, SAM -- (12/27/1902). Composer, lyricist, vocalist. Wrote for Broadway and movies; co-partner in music publishing; co-founded Soundies, song-movie shorts for coin machines. Hits include "Cocktails for Two" and "Was It a Dream?"

4.80 COWAN, LYNN -- (6/8/1888- ). Composer, actor, director, vocalist, pianist. Worked in vaudeville and as a film actor. Composed background scores for early sound film, and songs for LADIES MUST LOVE. Manager of Castle Terrace Club in Okinawa. Wrote "Kisses."

4.80 COWAN, RUBEY -- (2/27/1891-7/28/1957). Composer. Pianist in film theaters at age 13. Co-founded publishing company; wrote first show for Paramount Theater in New York; headed NBCs radio talent dept. then Paramounts radio dept. Wrote "You Can Expect Kisses from Me."

4.80 COWAN, STANLEY -- (2/3/1918- 12/13/1991). Composer, author, director, publicist. Wrote special material for orchestras, musicals, films; Produced shows for USAF during WWII. Joined father's (Rubey Cowan) firm, Rogers and Cowan. Wrote "Do I Worry."

4.81 COWARD, NOEL -- (12/16/1899-3/26/1973). Composer, lyricist, actor, playwright, producer. Born in England; began professional career at age 11. Best known of many popular songs are "I'll Follow My Secret Heart" and "I'll See You Again."

4.82 CRUMIT, FRANK -- (9/26/1889-9/7/1943). Composer, author, singer, actor. Vaudeville and stage performer. Had radio series with Julia Sanderson. Known for novelty numbers such as "Abdul Abulbul Amir."

4.83 CUGAT, XAVIER -- (1/1/1900- 10/27/1990). Bandleader, composer. Born in Spain; moved to Cuba when young; studied in Berlin; gave concert tours. Worked as a caricaturist for the LA Times. Led orchestra specializing in Spanish and Latin American music. Wrote "My Shawl," his theme song.

4.84 DANIELS, CHARLES N. -- (4/12/1878-1/21/1943). Composer, publisher. Pseudonym: Neil Moret. One of most significant ragtime entrepreneurs. Wrote first motion picture title song: "Mickey." Other songs include "You Tell Me Your Dream," "Moonlight and Roses," and "Chloe."

4.85 DANKS, HART PEASE -- (4/16/1834-11/20/1903). Composer. Singer and conductor in New York churches and concert stages. Published sacred and choral works; collaborated on three operettas. Best known for popular songs such as "Silver Threads Among the Gold."

4.86 DAVIS, BENNY -- (8/21/1895- 12/20/1979). Lyricist, vocalist. Performed in vaudeville as a child. Toured with Benny Fields as accompanist to Blossom Seeley. Hits include "Baby Face" and "Margie."

4.87 DEKOVEN, REGINALD -- (4/3/1859-1/16/1920). Composer, conductor, music critic. America's first significant composer of operetta: ROBIN HOOD the first American operetta to be performed in London. Founded the Philharmonic Orchestra in Washington, D.C. in 1902. Best known song is "Oh Promise Me."

4.88 DELEATH, VAUGHN -- (9/26/1896-5/28/1943). Vocalist, pianist, composer, lyricist. Reportedly the first woman on radio, sometimes credited with originating crooning. Played vaudeville, performed on Broadway, and recorded frequently. Hits include "At Eventide" and "Ducklings on Parade."

4.89 DEMING, MRS. L. L. -- (may be wife of Legrand L. Deming, born in Connecticut 10/29/1812.

4.7 DeROSE, PETER -- (3/10/1900-4/24/1953). Composer. Formed a radio team, The Sweethearts of the Air, with May Singhi Breen, whom he subsequently married. His most famous piece, "Deep Purple," became a commercial hit when lyrics were added.

4.3 DeSYLVA, BUDDY -- (1/27/1895-7/11/1950). Lyricist. Produced a number of hit songs with George Gershwin and particularly for the singer, Al Jolson. Also worked with Jerome Kern, Victor Herbert, and later as member of the Ray Henderson-Lew Brown songwriting partnership.

4.90 DILLON, HARRY -- (1866- 2/5/1916). Brother of John and Will. Started performing career on minstrel shows.

4.90 DILLON, JOHN -- (12/5/1882-9/2/1953). Brother of Will and Harry. Followed brother Harry into ministrel shows; first vaudeville engagement was at Tony Pastor's; toured. Operated grocery store in hometown, Cortland, NY, after retirement.

4.90 DILLON, WILLIAM AUSTIN -- (11/6/1877-2/10/1966). Composer, author, actor, businessman. Worked in vaudeville, medicine and minstrel shows; toured with Harry Lauder. Successes include "All Alone" and "I Want a Girl Just Like the Girl That Married Dear Old Dad."

4.91 DIXON, HAROLD -- ...

4.8 DONALDSON, WALTER -- (2/15/1893-7/15/1947). Composer. Hired in 1919 as staff writer for Irving Berlin Inc. Wrote songs throughout the 1920s that made him one of the most popular composers of the decade. Had many collaborations, the most successful with Gus Kahn.

4.9 DRESSER, PAUL -- (4/22/1858-1/30/1906). Composer, lyricist, performer and publisher. One of the first American performers to enter the music publishing trade. Wrote songs for burlesque and vaudeville stage shows. Considered the leading American writer of sentimental ballads of the late 19th century. Best-known song: "My Gal Sal."

4.92 DUBIN, AL -- (6/10/1891-2/11/1945). Lyricist. Served overseas in entertainment unit in WWI. Biggest song successes when teamed with Harry Warren. Hits include "I Only Have Eyes for You" and "Tiptoe Through the Tulips."

4.10 EDWARDS, GUS -- (8/18/1879-11/7/1945). Composer, lyricist, impresario, and singer. Collaborated with lyricist Will D. Cobb producing several hit songs introduced in Broadway reviews, notably Ziegfeld's Follies of 1907 and 1910. Best-known songs include "School Days" and "By The Light Of The Silvery Moon."

4.93 EDWARDS, LEO -- (2/22/1886-7/12/1978). Composer, author, producer. Brother of Gus Edwards. Worked in vaudeville; was staff writer for music publishing firms; cabaret producer. Hit songs include "Isle d'Amour," "Inspiration," and the official Boy Scout song "Tomorrow's America."

4.94 EMMET, JOSEPH KLINE -- (3/13/1841-1892). Actor, composer. Performed in a minstrel company using a broken German dialect that made him famous. Several plays starring his 'Fritz' character were written for him. Successful songs were "Emmet's Lullaby" and "Sweet Violets."

4.95 ERDMAN, ERNIE -- (10/23/1879-11/1/1946). Composer. Was pianist in the Original New Orleans Jazz Band. Worked on professional staff of Chicago music publishers. Songs hits include "Nobody's Sweetheart" and "Toot, Toot, Tootsie, Goodbye."

4.96 FAIN, SAMMY -- (6/17/1902- 12/6/1989). Composer, vocalist, pianist. Was a self-taught pianist; began composing songs while in grammar school. Very successful partnership with Irving Kahal writing songs for movies. Hits include "Dear Hearts and Gentle People," "I'll Be Seeing You," and "That Old Feeling." Nominated for the Oscar 10 times; won twice.

4.97 FEIST, FELIX -- (Wrote "Can't You See Im Lonely."

4.97 FEIST, LEO -- (1/3/1869-6/1/1930). Publisher, lyricist. When early songs didnt sell well Feist partnered with Joe Frankenthaler to start what became one of the leading publishing firms. His successes include "Those Lost Happy Days" and "Smokey Mokes."

4.98 FIELD, EUGENE -- (9/3/1950-11/4/1895). Author. Newspaper columnist for Chicago Morning News. His poems were set to music.

4.99 FIELDS, DOROTHY -- (7/15/1905-3/28/1974). Author, lyricist. At age 15 sang in an amateur show by Rodgers and Hart; worked with brother Herbert as co-librettist on several Broadway shows. Most successful collaboration was with Jimmy McHugh. Wrote "I Can't Give You Anything But Love" and "I'm in the Mood for Love." Won an Oscar with Jerome Kern for "The Way You Look Tonight."

4.100 FIORITO, TED -- (12/20/1900-7/22/1971). Composer, conductor, pianist. Began as a song demonstrator. First hit song was "Toot, Toot, Tootsie, Goodbye." Formed band in early 20's and continued to lead an orchestra in the 60's. Other hits include "Alone at Last" and "Charley, My Boy."

4.101 FISHER, FRED -- (9/30/1875-1/14/1942). Composer, lyricist. Immigrated from Germany at age 25 but soon assimilated popular music idioms. Early success was "Come, Josephine, in My Flying Machine." Started composing for films in late 20's. Hits include "Dardanella" and "Your Feets Too Big."

4.11 FOSTER, STEPHEN -- (7/4/1826-1/13/1864). Composer and lyricist of popular household, plantation, and minstrel songs of the 19th century. Produced over 200 songs of two main types: sentimental ballads of hearth and home, and songs for the famous Christy's Minstrels.

4.102 FRANKLIN, DAVE -- (9/28/1895-2/3/1970). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Pianist in publishing house at age 13; vaudeville accompanist; played nightclubs in New York and European cities. Hits include "The Anniversary Waltz" and "When My Dream Boat Comes Home."

4.62 FREED, ARTHUR -- (9/9/1894-4/12/1973). Lyricist, producer. Wrote for vaudeville; managed theater in Los Angeles; produced shows. Began writing for movie musicals in 1929. Many hits include "After Sundown," "All I Do Is Dream of You," and "Singin' in the Rain."

4.103 FRIEDMAN, LEO -- (7/16/1869-3/7/1927). Composer. Studied in Chicago and Berlin. Two biggest hits were "Let Me Call You Sweetheart" and "Meet Me Tonight in Dreamland."

4.104 FRIEND, CLIFF -- (10/1/1893-6/27/74). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Wrote for Broadway and movies; was a pianist for vaudeville performers in US and England. Also worked as a test pilot. Hits include "Give Me a Night in June" and "The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down."

4.12 FRIML, RUDOLF -- (12/7/1879-11/12/1972). Composer and pianist. One of the principal exponents of traditional operetta and early musical comedy in the United States. Collaborated with Oscar Hammerstein II and others to produce the most popular American musicals of the 1920s.

4.105 FROST, JACK -- (11/25/1893-10/21/1959). Composer, lyricist. Writer with Chicago music company; wrote special material for Eva Tanguay and Trixie Friganza; worked in advertising. Hits include "When You and I Were Young Maggie Blues."

4.106 GARBER, JAN -- (11/5/1897-10/4/1977). Violinist, bandleader, composer. Played violin in Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra; formed dance band in early 20's; still conducting into the 60's. Wrote his theme song, "My Dear."

4.107 GAY, BYRON -- (8/28/1886-12/23/1945). Composer, author, explorer. Educated at US Navel Academy and was on 1933 Byrd Expedition. Successful songs include "The Little Ford Rambled Right Along" and "The Vamp."

4.108 GILBERT, L. WOLFE -- (8/31/1886-7/12/1970). Lyricist. Started as a singer in New York clubs, writing parodies of popular songs for entertainers such as Al Jolson. Moved to Hollywood where he wrote for films and the Eddie Cantor radio show. Had his own publishing firm. Hits include "Lucky Lindy" and "Waiting for the Robert E. Lee."

4.13 GERSHWIN, IRA -- (12/6/1896-8/17/1983). Lyricist. Collaborated with various composers throughout his life, at times using pseudonym, Arthur Francis. He collaborated with brother George from 1924 until the latter's death in 1937. Their first musical comedy together was LADY, BE GOOD.

4.13 GERSHWIN, GEORGE -- (9/26/1898-7/11/1937). Composer, conductor, and pianist. Composer of Broadway shows and one of America's most famous composers of popular concert music. Brought jazz and classical styles together in concert pieces, African American folk music and opera, e.g. PORGY AND BESS.

4.109 GILLESPIE, HAVEN -- (2/6/1888-3/14/1975). Lyricist. Left job as journeyman printer and began writing songs in the mid-20's. Wrote for film, theater and radio. Awarded Freedoms Foundation Award for "God's Country." Hits include "Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town" and "You Go to My Head."

4.110 GLOVER, CHARLES W -- (1806-3/23/1863). Composer. English. Violinist in orchestras of Drury Lane and Covent Garden; musical director of Queen's Theatre. "Do They Think of Me at Home" was one of his greatest successes in the USA.

4.111 GLOVER, STEPHEN -- (mid 1812-1870). Composer. English. One of his most popular songs was "What Are the Wild Waves Saying?"

4.112 GOETZ, E. RAY -- (6/12/1886-6/12/1954). Composer, lyricist, producer. Contributed to many Broadway musicals. Hits include "For Me and My Gal" and "Yaaka Hula Hickey Dula."

4.113 GOODHART, AL -- (1/26/1905-11/30/1955). Composer, pianist. Early career as radio announcer, vaudeville pianist, special material writer. With USO during WWII. Hits include "Auf Wiedersehen, My Dear," "I Apologize," and "Who Walks in When I Walk Out?"

4.114 GORDON, MACK -- (6/21/1904-3/1/1959). Lyricist, vocalist. Boy soprano in minstrel shows; comedian and singer in vaudeville. Hits include "Chatanooga Choo-Choo," "Time on My Hands," and "You'll Never Know" which won an Academy Award.

4.115 GREEN, JOHN W. -- (10/10/1908- 5/15/1989 ). Composer, arranger, pianist, ` bandleader. Accompanied various singers; formed own band. On many radio shows in New York then moved to Hollywood. MGM musical director for many years. Scored and conducted three Academy Award films. Hits include "Body and Soul" and "I Cover the Waterfront."

4.116 GUEST, EDGAR -- ( 8/20/1881-8/5/1959). Poet, Newspaperman for Detroit Free Press. Poems Syndicated in nearly 300 papers; 17 volumes of poetry published. Apeared on national radio for many years.

4.117 GUMBLE, ALBERT -- (9/10/1883-11/30/1946). Composer, pianist for publishers. Entertained troops during WWII. Hits include "Are You Sincere?" and "How's Every Little Thing in Dixie?"

4.118 HALL, WENDELL WOODS -- (8/23/1896-4/2/1969). Composer, author, singer, ukelele player. Known as "The Red-Headed Music Maker." Played the ukelele on radio and in vaudeville; made world radio tour in 20's. Worked as advertizing executive. Successful songs include "Underneath the Mellow Moon" and "Whispering Trees."

4.14 HAMMERSTEIN, OSCAR, II -- (7/12/1895-8/23/1960). Lyricist, librettist, producer, and publisher. Produced and wrote some of the most successful Broadway musicals in collaboration with composer Richard Rodgers and Jerome Kern. Many of his works later appeared in Hollywood films.

4.14 HAMMERSTEIN, OSCAR, I -- (5/8/1846-8/1/1919). Composer. An impresario who wrote several works, including orchestral pieces for use before or as intermezzi in his productions, a ballet, MARGUERITE (1896), and the operettas, SANTA MARIA (1896) and THE KOHINOOR (1893).

4.119 HANLEY, JAMES F. -- (2/17/1892-2/8/1942). Composer, pianist. Accompanist in vaudeville. Produced WWI army show TOOT SWEET. Wrote for early sound movie shorts. Hits include "Second Hand Rose" and "Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart."

4.57 HARRIGAN, EDWARD -- ...

4.15 HARRIS, CHARLES K. -- (5/1/1865-12/22/1930). Composer, lyricist, and music publisher. Known principally as a successful publisher of popular music. First publisher to use an illustration of a performer on a song sheet cover. Most successful song: "After the Ball." Cofounder of ASCAP.

4.120 HARRISON, ANNIE FORTESQUE -- (Lady Arthur Hill)(1851-1944). Composer. Best known songs include "In the Gloaming."

4.14 HART, LORENZ -- (5/2/1845-11/22/1913). Lyricist and librettist. Collaborated with composer Richard Rodgers on the scores of several successful Broadway musicals and Hollywood productions.

4.121 HAYS, WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. -- (7/19/1837-7/22/1907). Began writing songs at age 19. Very popular because of charming melodies, easy execution of music, and lyrics that projected authentic feelings.

4.122 HEMANS, MRS FELICIA DOROTHEA -- (1794-1835). Very prolific and popular English poet. Composer for some of the songs was her younger sister Harriet Mary Browne.

4.3 HENDERSON, RAY -- (12/1/1896-12/31/1970). Composer. Collaborated extensively with lyricists Lew Brown and Buddy DeSylva. Wrote many of the hit tunes of the 1920s and 1930s. Produced music of wide popular appeal performed by Al Jolson and others on stage and in films.

4.16 HERBERT, VICTOR -- (2/1/1859-5/26/1924). Composer, cellist, and conductor. Successful particularly as composer of American operettas, of which forty (40) were written between 1894 and 1924, mostly romantic and having happy endings.

4.123 HILL, DEDETTE LEE -- (11/2/1900-6/5/1950). Collaborated with her husband, Billy Hill, and later with Johnny Marks.

4.123 HILL, BILLY -- (7/14/1899-12/24/1940). Also used nom de plume George Brown. Composer, author, pianist, violinist, conductor. Worked as a cowboy and surveyors assistant in the west. Led first jazz band in Salt Lake City. Best known songs include "In the Chapel in the Moonlight" and "The Last Roundup."

4.124 HILLIARD, BOB -- (1/28/1918-2/1/1971). Lyricist. Wrote scores for Broadway. Successes include "Our Day Will Come" and "They've Got an Awful Lot of Coffee in Brazil."

4.113 HOFFMAN, AL -- (9/25/1902-7/21/1960). Composer, lyricist, drummer. Bandleader in hometown, Seattle; drummer in NY night clubs; songwriter early 30's through 50's. Hits include "Black Coffee" and "Mairzy Doats."

4.125 HOWARD, JOSEPH E. -- (2/12/1878-5/19/1961). Composer, author, actor, singer, producer, director. Boy soprano in vaudeville; wrote Broadway stage scores; also produced and directed on Broadway. Entertainer in night clubs, radio, TV. Hits include "Goodbye, My Lady Love" and "I Wonder Who's Kissing Her Now."

4.126 INGRAHAM, HERBERT -- (7/7/1883-8/24/1910) Music Director of touring theater companies. Led own orchestra. Staff composer for Shapiro Bernstein Publishing Co. Brother of Roy.

4.126 INGRAHAM, ROY -- (12/6/1893-?) Composer, author, singer. First song published at age 17. Had own orchestra; toured in vaudeville. Wrote for several motion pictures; radio broadcaster. Wrote special material for Sophie Tucher and others. Brother of Herbert.

4.17 JACOBS-BOND, CARRIE -- (8/1861-12/1946). Composer, lyricist, and music publisher. Called "the Riley of the Music World," her songs, such as "A Perfect Day," and "I Love You Truly," are beloved by many.

4.127 JENKINS, GORDON -- (5/12/1910-5/1/1984). Composer, author, conductor, arranger. Played organ in movie theater at age 10; quit high school to play piano in speakeasy. Pianist, arranger for leading bands; Broadway radio conductor. Grammy Award for arrangement of "It Was a Very Good Year" as recorded by Frank Sinatra. Hits include "P.S. I Love You" and "When a Woman Loves a Man."

4.128 JENTES, HARRY -- (8/28/1897-1/19/1958). Composer, pianist. Successes include "He May Be Old But He Has Young Ideas" and "Put Me to Sleep with an Old-Fashioned Melody."

4.18 JOHNSON, CHARLES L. -- (12/3/1876-12/28/1950). Composer and ragtime pianist. Known for his most popular ragtime piece, "Dill Pickles" (1906); also, piano pieces that evoked American Indian culture.

4.129 JONES, ISHAM -- (1/31/1894-10/19/1956). Composer, bandleader, pianist. Formed and led outstanding dance band, touring U.S. and Europe. Many radio appearances and recordings. Equally well known as composer. Two standards are "It Had to Be You" and "I'll See You in My Dreams."

4.19 KAHN, GUS -- (11/6/1886-10/8/1941). Lyricist. Writer of lyrical material for vaudeville performances and Hollywood film musicals. Collaborated with such leading composers as Donaldson, Gershwin, Romberg, Whiting, and Van Alstyne.

4.130 KALMAR, BERT -- (2/16/1884-9/18/1947). Lyricist, publisher. Worked in tent shows and vaudeville as a child. Wrote scores for Broadway and songs for movies; wrote screenplays. Hits include "I Wanna Be Loved by You," "Three Little Words," and "Who's Sorry Now?"

4.131 KASSEL, ART -- (1/18/1896-2/3/1965). Composer, author, vocalist, saxophonist, lyricist and bandleader. Early radio and TV appearances as bandleader after service in World War I. Composed his two theme songs, "Doodle Doo Doo" and "Hells Bells."

4.132 KENNEDY, HARRY -- (circa 1800-1894). Minstrel; ventriloquist who used two dummies simultaneously. Brother William H. Kennedy was his publisher and occassional collaborator.

4.133 KENNY, NICK -- (2/3/1895- ? ). Lyricist, newspaper reporter, produced early amateur radio show; radio editor of New York Daily Mirror. Successes include "Love Letters in the Sand" and "Gone Fishin'."

4.133 KENNY, CHARLES -- (6/23/1898- ? ). Composer, violinist, author. Collaborated with brother Nick.

4.20 KERN, JEROME -- (1/27/1885-11/11/1945). Composer. Considered the most prolific composer of Broadway musicals. He extended the popularity of the musical play form by introducing songs and themes, avoiding operatic styles, and using jazz rhythms and chords instead to characterize the dramatic demands of plot.

4.134 KING, ROBERT A. -- (9/20/1862-4/14/1932). Composer. Wrote under several noms de plume including Mary Earl ("Beautiful Ohio"), R. A. Wilson, and Mrs. Ravenhall. Staff composer for music publishers. Appeared in vaudeville. Hits include "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream."

4.135 KIPLING, RUDYARD -- (12/30/1865-1/18/1936). Author, poet. Best remembered for his celebrations of British imperialism, his tales and poems of British soldiers in India and Burma, and his children's stories. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907.

4.136 KLICKMANN, F. HENRI -- (2/4/1885- ? ). Composer, pianist, violinist; arranger for Broadway musicals, music publishers, dance bands, and performers. Professional violinist, pianist, and accordianist. Successes include "Sing Me the Rosary" and "Sweet Hawaiian Moonlight."

4.137 KOEHLER, TED -- (7/14/1894-1/17/1973). Lyricist. Began music career as pianist for nickelodeon, silent film theaters. Wrote for Cotton Club, other stage shows, and films. Most successful collaboration with Harold Arlen ("Stormy Weather"). Also wrote "I Love a Parade" and "I've Got the World on a String."

4.138 KRAMER, ALEX -- (9/13/1893-8/25/1955). Composer, arranger; cellist in theater orchestras; arranger for vaudeville and muscial comedy singers. Compiled and arranged many music folios. Collaborated with wife, Joan Whitney. Hits include "High on a Windy Hill" and "Candy."

4.139 KUMMER, CLARE (Clare Rodman Beecher) -- (1/9/1888-4/21/1958). Composer, playwright. Wrote scores and librettos for Broadway. Successes include "Bluebird."

4.140 LAWNHURST, VEE -- (11/24/1905- 5/16/1992). Pianist, singer, composer. Arranged piano rolls. Original member of Roxy's Radio Gang. Successful songs include "Sunday Go to Meetin' Time."

4.141 LAWRENCE, JACK -- (4/7/1912- ? ). Composer, lyricist. Organized bands for the armed services. Wrote "Tenderly," and English Lyrics for "Ay, Ay, Ay" and "Cielito Lindo."

4.142 LEONARD, EDDIE, -- (10/18/1875-7/29/1941). Composer, author, singer, actor; professional baseball player. Performed in minstrel shows, sang in variety shows. Fought in the Spanish American War. Wrote "Ida, Sweet as Apple Cider."

4.143 LESLIE, EDGAR -- (12/31/1885-1/20/1976). Lyricist, author, publisher. Wrote special material for performers and films. Hits include "For Me and My Gal" and "Moon over Miami."

4.144 LEWIS, AL -- (4/18/1901-4/4/1967). Composer, lyricist; became a music publisher later in career. Hits include "Now's the Time to Fall in Love."

4.145 LEWIS, SAM M. -- (10/25/1885-11/22/1959). Lyricist. Started as runner in a brokerage house. Sang in cafes; wrote material for self and other performers, also for stage and movies. Hits include "Dinah," "Five Foot Two, Eyes of Blue," and "How Ya Gonna Keep' Em Down on the Farm?"

4.146 LIEBER, JERRY -- (4/25/1933- ). Lyricist. Grew up in Baltimore hearing R&B. Struggled with acting in Hollywood when met and teamed with Mike Stoller to write many hits, including "Searching."

4.147 LITTLE, JACK -- (5/28/1900-4/9/1956). Pianist, composer, lyricist, vocalist, bandleader. Had a popular radio porgram in 20's. Led a band in the 30's. Successes include "In a Shanty in Old Shanty Town."

4.148 LOESSER, FRANK -- (6/29/1910-7/28/1969). Composer, lyricist, publisher. Wrote songs for college shows and later for Army shows. Worked as newspaper reporter and caricaturist in vaudeville. Became leading writer for Broadway and Hollywood musicals. Founded own publishing company. Won Oscar and Tony Awards and the Pulitzer Prize. Among many hits are "Two Sleepy People" and "On a Slow Boat to China."

4.149 LOGAN, FREDERICK KNIGHT -- (10/15/1871-6/11/1928). Composer. Wrote sentimental ballads in collaboration with his mother, Viginia. Wrote "Missouri Waltz."

4.149 LOGAN, VIRGINIA K. -- (1800's). Mother of Frederick Knight Logan.

4.150 LOMBARDO, CARMEN -- (7/16/1903-4/17/71). Arranger and composer in brother Guy Lombardo's dance band for forty years. Played sax with heavy vibrato and sang most vocals.

4.151 LYMAN, ABE -- (8/4/1897-10/23/1957). Composer, author, singer. Led own dance orchestra, The Californians.

4.69 MacDONALD, BALLARD -- (10/15/1882-11/17/1935). Lyricist. Began writing material for vaudeville after attending Princeton. Lyricist, librettist for Broadway musicals.

4.152 MANCINI, HENRY -- (4/16/1924-). Composer. Very popular composer of songs and themes for film ("Moon River" and "The Days of Wine and Roses") and TV ("Peter Gunn" and "Mr Lucky"). Began career in Pittsburgh dance bands pre-WWII.

4.153 MARKS, EDWARD B. -- (11/28/1865-12/17/1945). Publisher. Started company with focus on popular music but added the more serious composers. Bought the Cohan Publishing Company; and was the agent for Polish and English companies. His own early song success was "The Little Lost Child."

4.154 MASTERS, FRANKIE -- (4/12/1904- ). Composer, bandleader. Led hotel and ballroom bands in New York and Chicago; on the West Coast circuit in 30's and 40's; TV shows in the 50's. Active in the midwest into the 70's.

4.155 McGLENNON, FELIX -- ...

4.156 McHUGH, JIMMY -- (7/10/1894-5/23/69 ). Composer. Early fame with score for BLACKBIRDS OF 1928. Popular composer for movies during 30's-40's. Important collaboration with many songwriters, especially Dorothy Fields. Hits include "I'm in the Mood for Love" and "When My Sugar Walks Down the Street."

4.157 McKINLEY, MABEL -- (1879?-6/7/1937) Pseudonym: Vivian Grey. Daughter of President McKinley's youngest brother, Abner. Married Dr. Hermanus Baer of Reading, PA.

4.21 MERCER, JOHNNY -- (11/18/1909-6/25/1976). Composer and lyricist with a gift for incorporating southern vernacular speech and images of country settings into songs. Wrote lyrics for Broadway musicals and words and music to many popular songs.

4.158 MERRILL, BLANCHE -- (7/23/1895-10/5/1966). Author, lyricist. Wrote special material for Eva Tanguay, Fanny Brice, and other prominent singers; also wrote for musicals. Successes include "Jazz Baby."

4.159 MERRILL, BOB -- (5/17/1921- 2/17/1998). Composer, lyricist. Leading writer of novelty songs in the 50's, including "How Much Is That Doggie in the Window" and "If I Knew You Were Comin' Id've Baked a Cake."

4.145 MEYER, GEORGE W. -- (1/1/1884-8/28/1959). Composer of many popular songs during the first half of the 20th Century, including "For Me and My Gal," "Tuck Me to Sleep in My Old Tucky Home," and "Sittin in the Corner."

4.160 MILLARD, HARRISON -- (11/27/1829-9/10/1895). Composer. Singer early in career, studied in Italy and toured England and the Continent. Returned to U.S.; wounded in the Civil War. Wrote about 350 songs and many church works. Set UNCLE TOM'S CABIN to music.

4.161 MILLARD, MRS. P. -- ...

4.73 MILLER, NED -- (8/2/1899-1/26/1990)

4.22 MILLS, KERRY -- (2/1/1869-12/5/1948). Composer and music publisher. Specialized in ragtime songs and instrumental pieces. His ragtime cakewalks and the non-ragtime piece, "Meet Me in St. Louis," popularized by Judy Garland, were particularly successful.

4.162 MOHR, HALSEY -- ...

4.163 MOORE, THOMAS -- (6/28/1779-2/26/1852). Irish poet, composer, lyricist, musician.Provided words and music to a selection of Irish songs and did much to kindle an interest in little known Irish tunes. As poet, he appealed to a wide range of tastes.

4.23 MONACO, JAMES V. -- (1/13/1885-12/17/1945). Composer. Earned reputation as a Tin Pan Alley composer playing rag music in cabarets and nightclubs. Contributed several song hits to Broadway and Hollywood musical productions, among which is the song, "You Made Me Love You," made famous by Judy Garland in 1937.

4.164 MORGAN, CAREY -- (12/25/1885-1/6/1960). Composer. Wrote special material for vaudeville and scores for Broadway. Hits include "Rain" and "My Own Iona."

4.165 MORGAN, RUSS -- (4/19/1904-8/8/1969). Bandleader, composer. Arranger for Victor Herbert, Fletcher Henderson, Louis Armstrong, Chick Webb, among many others. Developed muted wha-wha trombone style with Freddy Martin. Wrote songs for Cotton Club Revues. Musical driector for Brunswick Records.

4.166 MORSE, THEODORA -- (7/11/1890-11/10/1953). Lyricist. Wrote under pseudonyms D. A. Esrom, Dorothy Terriss, and Dolly Morse. Most famous songs written in collaboration with husband Theodore Morse: "Three O'Clock in the Morning" and "My Wonderful One."

4.167 MORSE, THEODORE -- (4/13/1873-5/24/1924). Composer. Collaborated with several lyricists including his wife, Theodora. Successes include "M-O-T-H-E-R" and "Blue Bell."

4.168 MUIR, LEWIS F. -- (1884-1/19/1950). Composer. Ragtime pianist. Hits include "Take Me to That Swanee Shore" and "Waiting for the Robert E. Lee."

4.169 NELSON, STEVE -- ( ? ). Hits include "Frosty the Snowman."

4.169 NELSON, EDWARD G. -- (3/18/1885-3/30/1969). Composer, conductor; pianist in nightclubs and cabarets; orchestra leader. Wrote material for vaudeville and songs for movies. Successes include "Peggy O'Neil."

4.169 NELSON, EDWARD G., JR. -- (3/26/1916-). Composer, author. Served with Special Services during WWII.

4.24 NEVIN, ETHELBERT -- (11/25/1862-2/17/1901). Composer. Wrote songs and short piano pieces, sometimes overly sentimental but expressive of gentler and amorous moods.

4.170 NOBLE, RAY -- (12/17/1903- ). Composer, pianist, bandleader. Established as outstanding leader of dance bands in England and then in USA after emigrating. Radio work including Burns & Allen show. Successes include "Good Night Sweetheart" and "The Very Thought of You."

4.54 NORWORTH, JACK -- (1/5/1879-9/1/1959). Vocalist, Composer, lyricist. Entertainer in vaudeville and Broadway; blackface comedian in minstrel shows. Performed and collaborated with wife Nora Bayes. Their most famous song "Shine on Harvest Moon." Wrote lyrics to "Take Me Out to the Ball Game."

4.171 OLMAN, ABE -- (12/20/1888-1/4/1984). Composer, publisher. Started as a song demonstrator; established LaSalle Music Company. Wrote for early movie musicals. Hits include "Oh, Johnny Oh" and "Down Among the Sheltering Palms."

4.172 PALEY, HERMAN -- (5/5/1879-11/4/1955). Composer, publisher, radio executive. Studied music professionally. Worked as staff composer, then executive with music publishing companies. Director of New York Stage Door Canteen shows; talent scout and composer for Fox Films.

4.173 PARISH, MITCHELL -- (7/10/1900-4/2/1993). Lyricist. Attended Columbia and NYU. Staff writer for music publisher; began writing lyrics in 20's. Among the most famous songs are "Deep Purple," "Moonlight Serenade," and "Star Dust."

4.174 PETRIE, H. W. -- (3/4/1857-5/25/1925). Composer, vocalist. Performed in minstrel shows. Successes include "Asleep in the Deep" and "I Dont Want to Play in Your Yard."

4.175 PIANTADOSI, AL -- (7/18/1884-4/8/1955). Composer, pianist; accompanist in vaudeville. Popularized ragtime when touring US, Europe, and Australia. Worked for NY publishing house. Hits include "Pal of My Cradle Days."

4.25 PORTER, COLE A. -- (6/9/1891-10/15/1964). Composer and lyricist. One of the most thoroughly trained popular songwriters, whose theatrically elegant, sophisticated, and musically complex songs contributed to America's most popular music of the 20th century.

4.176 POWELL, W. C. -- (Pseudonym: Polla)

4.114 REVEL, HARRY -- (12/21/1905-11/3/1958). Composer and pianist. Born in London, had early classical piano training. Moved to USA and accompanied Mack Gordon in vaudeville. They started writing for Ziegfeld but were in Hollywood by 1933. The team broke up in 1939. He founded Realm Music Co., a publishing house, in 1949. Successes include "Did You Ever See a Dream Walking?"

4.177 ROBERTS, LEE S. -- (11/12/1884-9/10/1949). Composer, pianist. Worked in piano manufacturing business. Developed QRS artist-recorded music rolls and catalogs. Pianist on radio. Hits include "A Little Birch Canoe and You" and "Patches."

4.178 ROBINSON, J. RUSSEL -- (7/8/1892-9/30/1963). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Began performing and composing as a teenager. Played with Original Dixieland Band; wrote songs for London revues; made piano rolls; accompanied singers. Pianist and vocal coach for radio show CHILDRENS HOUR. Hits include "Margie."

4.179 ROBISON, WILLARD -- (9/18/1894-6/24/1968). Composer, lyricist, pianist, vocalist, bandleader. Radio performer most active in 20's and 30's. Formed Deep River Orchestra; often featured African American folk music and spirituals. Radio shows "Deep River Music" and "Plantation Echoes." Hits include "Cottage for Sale."

4.14 RODGERS, RICHARD -- (6/26/1902-12/30/1979). Composer. Collaborated with Lorenz Hart and Oscar Hammerstein II, whose partnership led to a series of musicals that enjoyed unprecedented artistic, critical, and financial success in both Hollywood and Broadway in the 1930's and 1940's.

4.26 ROMBERG, SIGMUND -- (7/29/1887-11/9/1951). Composer and conductor. Composed musical scores in the traditional style of the operetta of the 1920s. Proved to be more flexible than rival Rudolph Friml in adapting to the new tastes and musical styles emerging in American music of the 1930's.

4.180 ROONEY, PAT -- (7/4/1880-9/9/1962). Composer, vocalist. Dancer-singer in vaudeville and on Broadway, first with sister, then with wife Marion Brent. Successes include "You Be My Ootsie, I'll Be Your Tootsie."

4.27 ROOT, FREDERICK W. -- (6/13/1846-?). Composer and music teacher. He was the son of George Frederick Root. One of the country's most active and successful singing teachers, F. W. Root's School of Singing describes the first of his many singing methods.

4.27 ROOT, GEORGE F. -- (8/30/1820-8/6/1895). Composer and music educator. Pseudonym: G. Friedrich Wurzel. Best known for his songs of sentiment and patriotism published during the Civil War era. Also composed over 30 hymns and gospel songs rivaling Stephen Foster in number and popular success.

4.28 ROSE, BILLY -- (9/6/1899-2/10/1966). Lyricist and producer. Provided the lyrics to some of the most successful popular songs of the 1930's and 1940's. Also produced several Broadway musicals and perhaps known more for his editing, polishing, and promoting of songs than as a lyricist.

4.181 ROSE, VINCENT -- (6/13/1880-5/20/1944). Composer, pianist, vocalist, bandleader. Early training in Italy. Formed orchestra 1904. Successes include "Whispering."

4.182 ROSENFELD, MONROE H. -- (1861-12/13/1918). Pseudonyms: F. Heiser and F. Belasco. Composer, journalist. Credited with coining the term 'Tin Pan Alley.' Wrote more than 1,000 songs.

4.183 ROSSITER, WILL -- (3/15/1867-6/10/1954). Composer, publisher. Pseudonyms: Cleve Williams and W. R. Williams. Immigrated to USA from England in 1881. Appeared at Tony Pastor's. Very successful publisher of popular music; initiated innovative marketing techniques for sheet music. Wrote "I'd Love to Live in Loveland with a Girl Like You."

4.130 RUBY, HARRY -- (1/27/1895-2/23/1974). Composer. Professional pianist at age 16; song plugger for Tin Pan Alley publishers; vaudeville performer. Had many collaborators; partnership with Bert Kalmar produced many hits including score for Marx Brothers' ANIMAL CRACKERS; wrote theme for TV series THE REAL McCOYS.

4.130 RUBY, HERMAN -- (3/15/1891-7/31/1959). Composer. Older brother of Harry Ruby. Hits include "My Sunny Tennessee" and "Cecelia."

4.184 RUSSELL, HENRY -- (12/24/1812-12/8/1900). English. Composer, pianist; sang with children's opera troupe; studied composition in Italy. Came to US, worked as organist and choirmaster, then toured as one of the few major singers of his time to present unassisted entertainment. Wrote "The Old Arm Chair" and "Woodman! Spare That Tree!"

4.185 SANDERS, JOE -- (10/15/1896-5/15/1965). Composer, pianist, vocalist, arranger, bandleader. Co-leader of the Coon-Sanders Orchestra in 20's and 30's. Known as The Old Lefthander from early days as amateur baseball pitcher. Hits include "Got a Great Big Date with a Little Bitta Girl."

4.186 SCHWARTZ, JEAN -- (11/4/1878-11/30/1956). Composer, pianist. Prolific leading composer from turn of century. Pianist in cafes, publishing houses. Teamed with William Jerome on Broadway shows and performed with him in vaudeville. Successes include "Hello Central, Give Me No Man's Land."

4.140 SEYMOUR, TOT -- ( 10/23/1889-8/31/1966). Lyricist of the 30's. Worked for New York publishing house. Wrote special material for Fanny Brice, Belle Baker, Sophie Tucker, Mae West; also songs and scripts for raido shows.

4.187 SHAND, TERRY -- (10/1/1904- 11/11/1988). Composer, lyricist. Pianist in silent movie theaters early in career. Pianist/vocalist in 30's; later had own band. Hits include "Dance with a Dolly."

4.188 SHAY, LARRY -- (10/10/1897- 2/22/1988). Composer, arranger, pianist. WWI military service. Musical director for MGM; program director for NBC radio in New York. Hits include "Get Out and Get Under the Moon."

4.144 SHERMAN, AL -- (9/7/1897-9/15/1973). Composer, lyricst. As pianist provided mood music for silent movies; pianist for publishing house. Successes include "On a Dew-Dew-Dewy Day."

4.144 SILVER, ABNER -- (12/28/1899- 11/24/1966). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Dance band pianist; worked for publishing house. Song publisher. Composed many popular songs from 1920 into 60's, including songs for Elvis Presley movies JAILHOUSE ROCK, KING CREOLE, and G.I. BLUES.

4.189 SIMONS, SEYMOUR B. -- (1/14/1896-2/12/1949). Composer, lyricist, bandleader. Wrote Michigan Union operas while attending the University. In AAF during WWI, and with USO in WWII. Wrote material for revues in London and Paris early 20's, then led dance band in US. Later record company executive. Hits include "Breezin Along with the Breeze" and "All of Me."

4.190 SKYLAR, SUNNY -- (11/11/1913- ). Composer, lyricist, author; band singer with Abe Lyman, Paul Whiteman, and others; also worked as a single act. Wrote band material for Betty Hutton and others. Hits include "Besame Mucho."

4.191 SMITH, HARRY B. -- (12/28/1860-1/2/1936). Lyricist. Librettist-lyricist of Broadway musicals 1887-1932, one of most prolific. Brother of Robert B. Smith. Collaborated with DeKoven on first American comic opera. Music and drama critic for Chicago newspapers. Adaptations of French and German operettas. Successes include "The Sheik of Araby."

4.192 SMITH, LEE OREAN -- (1874-?)

4.191 SMITH, ROBERT B. -- (6/4/1875-11/6/1951). Lyricist. Reporter for Brooklyn Eagle. Publicity for Casino Theater, wrote material for shows there. Collaborated with brother Robert B. Smith in Broadway shows. Adapted some stage shows to musicals. Successes include "All the World Loves a Lover."

4.193 SNYDER, TED -- (8/15/1881-7/16/1965). Composer, lyricst, pianist. Early career pianist in cafes and publishing houses. Hired Irving Berlin as staff pianist for his publishing company; collaborated in early songs; Berlin later became partner. Successes include "Whos Sorry Now?"

4.194 SOLMAN, ALFRED -- (5/6/1868-11/15/1937)

4.29 SOUSA, JOHN PHILIP -- (11/6/1854-3/6/1932). Composer, bandleader, and writer. Known as the "March King" and as the most important figure in the history of American bands and band music. His contributions to band brass instrumentation includes the sousaphone and a bass tuba with bells, built in the 1890's.

4.195 SPENCER, HERBERT -- (5/27/1878-8/26/1944). Composer, arranger, singer. Studied voice with Enrico Caruso. In vaudeville for 12 years. Accompanist and arranger for prominent singers. Successes include "There's Egypt in Your Dreamy Eyes."

4.196 SPINA, HAROLD -- (6/21/1906-7/18/1997). Composer, lyricist. Pianist, arranger for publishing house; wrote special material. Founder-President of Telefilm. Director and producer for record companies. Hits include "Annie Doesnt Live Here Anymore."

4.197 STEPT, SAM -- (9/18/1897-12/1/1964). Composer, lyricist, bandleader. Pianist for publishing house. Vaudevile accompanist for Mae West and Jack Norworth among others. Led dance band in early 20's. Songwriting mainly in 30's and 40's. Hits include "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree" and "That's My Weakness Now."

4.30 STERLING, ANDREW B. -- (1874-1955). Composer and lyricist. Collaborated extensively with the popular Tin Pan Alley songwriter, Harry Von Tilzer, providing the lyrics to some of the most popular songs, including so-called coon songs of the early 1900's as "One Sunday Afternoon" and "Down Where The Cotton Blossoms Grow."

4.153 STERN, JOSEPH W. -- (1/11/1870-3/31/1934)

4.146 STOLLER, MIKE -- (3/13/1933-). Composer. Early piano lessons in New York. Moved to Los Angeles and met Jerry Lieber. First hits were "Kansas City" and "Hound Dog."

4.198 STRAIGHT, CHARLEY -- (1/16/1891-9/21/ or 10/17/1940). Composer, lyricist, pianist, bandleader. Early career in vaudeville. Leader of band in 30's. Musical director of company producing player-piano rolls. Hits include "Funny, Dear, What Love Can Do."

4.31 STYNE, JULE K. -- (12/31/1905- ). Composer. Collaborated with Sammy Cahn on several Broadway musicals. Became one of the most prolific theatrical composers of the post-WWII era, creating scores for over 20 musicals performed by such artists as Carol Channing, Mary Martin, Ethel Merman, and Barbra Streisand.

4.32 SULLIVAN, SIR ARTHUR S. -- (5/13/1842-11/22/1900). English composer and conductor. Composed comic operas whose music, written to librettos by W.S. Gilbert, represents a peculiarly English style of operetta that achieved exceptional renown in both England and the United States. One of the most widely popular of all British composers.

4.199 TAYLOR, TELL -- ...

4.200 THORNTON, JAMES -- (12/5/1861-7/27/1938). Composer, performer. Worked as a singing waiter, then toured in vaudeville, often performing with wife, Bonnie. Successes include "When You Were Sweet Sixteen."

4.201 TIERNEY, HARRY -- (5/21/1890-3/22/1965). Composer, pianist. Toured US and abroad as concert pianist. Worked for Remick publishing house. Wrote scores for several Broadway shows. Hits include "Alice Blue Gown."

4.202 TOBIAS, CHARLES -- (8/15/1898-7/7/1970). Lyricist, composer, vocalist. Prolific songwriter mid-20's into 50's. Collaborated with brothers Harry and Henry. Early career sang in vaudeville, for publishing houses, and on radio. Formed publishing company in 1923. Hits include "Those Lazy Hazy Crazy Days of Summer."

4.202 TOBIAS, FRED -- (3/25/1928-). Lyricist. Son of Charles Tobias. Wrote special material for Carol Burnett and Julius Monk, among others. Made Broadway debut as co-lyricist of Ellington's POUSSE CAFE. Wrote lyrics for TV specials THE GIFT OF THE MAGI and QUINCY. Songs recorded by Patti Page, Tony Bennett, Steve Lawrence, Elvis Presley and others.

4.202 TOBIAS, HARRY -- (9/11/1895-12/15/1994). Lyricist. Brother Charles among several collaborators; most songwriting in 30's and 40's. Wrote special material for movies. Hits include "It's a Lonesome Old Town."

2.202 TOBIAS, HENRY -- (4/23/1905 - 12/5/1997). Lyricist, composer pianist, vocalist. Wrote for vaudeville and night club performers and for radio. Pianist, singer and disc jockey; TV producer for CBS. Collaborated with brothers Charles and Harry. Directed and produced shows for summer stock and resort hotels. Hits include "What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life?"

4.33 VAN ALSTYNE, EGBERT -- (3/5/1878-7/9/1951). Composer and lyricist. Best known for his collaboration with lyricist Harry H. Williams, with whom he wrote songs exploiting Indian themes and the popular "In The Shade of the Old Apple Tree." Later joined forces with lyricist Gus Kahn.

4.203 VINCENT, NAT -- (11/6/1889-6/6/1979). Pianist on vaudeville circuit. One of radio's "Happy Chappies." Remained active in later years despite total blindness. Wrote "I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles."

4.34 VON TILZER, ALBERT -- (3/29/1878-10/1/1956). Composer, lyricist, and publisher. Wrote some of the most popular songs of the early 20th century, and contributed songs to a number of films and Broadway productions. Like brother Harry, Albert's songs incorporate dance rhythms and slang idioms typical of Tin Pan Alley that have since become standards.

4.35 VON TILZER, HARRY -- (7/8/1872-1/10/1946). Composer, lyricist, performer, and publisher. Wrote and published over 2,000 of his own songs and other sentimental and moralistic ballads. Also wrote so-called coon songs for blackfaced minstrels and vaudeville acts of the period. Plugged and published many of the Gershwin and Berlin songs that later became famous.

4.204 WALLACE, WILLIAM VINCENT -- (3/11/1812-10/12/1865). Irish composer, pianist, violinist. Debuted as composer at age 22. Moved to Australia, then various North and South American cities; finally settled in London where he had his great success with MARITANA.

4.36 WARREN, HARRY -- (12/24/1893-9/22/1951). Composer, lyricist. Wrote songs for Broadway reviews, including several co-authored and produced with Billy Rose. Considered one of the most successful composers of American films. The wide dissemination of his music through the film medium made him one of the most influential of all 20th-century songwriters.

4.205 WASHINGTON, NED -- (8/15/1901- 12/20/1996). Lyricist. Early career in vaudeville as M.C. and agent, and writing special material. Popular lyricist from late 20's into 60's; wrote for Broadway shows and movies, including title songs. Hits include "High Noo n" and "When You Wish Upon a Star."

4.206 WAYNE, BERNIE -- ( ? ). Composed "There She Is," the Miss America Pageant Theme Song.

4.207 WAYNE, SID -- (1/26/1923-). Composer, author. Wrote songs and comedy material for TV. Popular songs include "Nintey- nine Years" and "Two Different Worlds."

4.208 WEBSTER, JOSEPH PHILBRICK -- (2/18/1819-1/18/1875). Composer and performer. Toured in concerts of popular music. Managed a Connecticut troupe, The Euphonians, and composed many of their successful songs. Public opposition to slavery forced several moves. Published over 400 songs, ballads, patriotic songs and hymns.

4.209 WEBSTER, PAUL FRANCIS -- (12/20/1907- 3/22/1984). Lyricist. After college became seaman, dancing instructor. To Hollywood mid-30's for movie work. In 50's and 60's wrote many movie and title songs; had several Academy Award nominations and awards. Hits include "Giant" and "Love Is a Many Splendored Thing."

4.210 WEIL, KURT -- (3/2/1900-4/3/1950). German. Composer, arranger, pianist. Very successful career in Germany; left in 1933 with wife Lotte Lenya, first to Paris then to US in 1935. Composed many Broadway musicals in the 40's including KNICKERBOCKER HOLIDAY ("September Song") and THE THREEPENNY OPERA, first produced in Germany.

4.37 WENDLING, PETER -- (6/6/1888-4/8/1974). Composer, lyricist, and pianist. Wrote several hit songs of the post-WWII era in partnership with Bert Kalman and Edgar Leslie. Most popular song: "Oh, What a Pal Was Mary."

4.38 WENRICK, PERCY -- (1/23/1887-3/17/1952). Composer, lyricist, pianist, and singer. Best known for his pre-WWII popular songs such as "Put On Your Old Grey Bonnet," "Moonlight Bay," and others, that became favorites of barbershop quartets and sing-alongs. Known in Tin Pan Alley as "The Joplin Kid".

4.39 WHITING, RICHARD A. -- (11/12/1892-2/10/1938). Composer and lyricist. Among the most successful Tin Pan Alley songwriters of the 1920s and 1930s. He was one of the first important Hollywood composers to began writing music for silent film and later for sound productions such as the very successful movie, HOLLYWOOD HOTEL.

4.138 WHITNEY, JOAN -- (6/26/1914-7/12/1990). Composer, lyricist, vocalist. Own radio show; sang in clubs and hotels. Formed publishing firm with husband Alex Kramer. Hits include "Candy" and "High on a Windy Hill."

4.211 WILLIAMS, GUS -- (7/19/1847-1/16/1915). Composer, actor, singer. Performed at Tony Pastor's before playing legitimate leading roles. Toured in vaudeville.

4.212 WOOODBURY, ISAAC BAKER -- (10/23/1819-10/26/1858). Composer. Studied in London, Paris. Taught music; was conductor, editor, writer. Compiled music collections. Popular songs include "Be Kind to the Loved Ones at Home."

4.213 WOODS, HARRY -- (11/4/1896-1/14/1970). Composer, lyricist. Pianist and singer while student at Harvard. Wrote for English movies mid-30's. Hits include "When the Red, Red Red Robin Comes Bob-Bob-Bobbin' Along" and "Side by Side."

4.214 WRUBEL, ALLIE -- (1/15/1905-12/13/1973). Coposer, lyricist, bandleader. Saxman in bands; led own band; theater manager. Wrote for Warner Brothers, then Disney. Hits include "Gone with the Wind" and "Zip-a Dee-Doo-Dah."

4.40 YELLEN, JACK -- (7/6/1892-4/17/1991 ). Lyricist. Permanent lyricist for Tin Pan Alley songwriter, Milton Ager. Also wrote special material for entertainer Sophie Tucker for over 20 years. A famous song by the Yellen/Ager combination was "I Wonder What's Become of Sally." "Happy Days Are Here Again" was another great hit.

4.41 YOUMANS, VINCENT M. -- (9/27/1898-4/5/1946). Composer. Wrote and produced three successful Broadway musicals. Published fewer than 100 songs, but 18 of these were considered standards by ASCAP, including "Tea For Two," "Take A Chance," and "I Want To Be Happy."

4.145 YOUNG, JOE -- ...

4.215 YOUNG, VICTOR -- (b. Chicago, 8/8/1900-11/11/1956). Composer, violinist, conductor. Worked in radio and theater as violinist, arranger, conductor. Wrote over 200 scores for movies, including SHANE. Song hits include "Stella by Starlight" and "Sweet Sue."

4.216 YOUNG, VICTOR -- (b. Bristol, Tennessee, 4/9/1889-9/2/1968). Pianist and composer. Studied and toured in Europe. Accompanist to prominent singers. Music director in Thomas A. Edison's Experimental Laboratory. Composed for about 300 movies including some of the earliest sound productions.

4.217 ZAMECNIK, JOHN S. -- (5/14/1872-6/13/1953). Composer. Classical training included time under Antonin Dvorak. Violinist in Pittsburgh Orchestra under Victor Herbert. Wrote operettas.
Materials in Other Organizations:
Sam DeVincent Collection of American Sheet Music, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana

This collection contains duplicates of materials in the Smithsonian collection, as well as materials acquired by Mr. DeVincent after the donation to the Smithsonian. The phonograph records described above were transferred to the University of Missouri at Kansas City.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Donald J. Stubblebine Collection of Musical Theater and Motion Picture Sheet Music and Reference Material, 1843-2010 (AC1211)
Forms Part Of:
Series 4: Songwriters forms part of the Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music .

An ongoing, updated list of DeVincent topical series is available via the Smithsonian finding aid portal.
Provenance:
This collection was purchased by the Smithsonian Institution in 1988 from Sam and Nancy Lee DeVincent.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
The Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0300.S04
See more items in:
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 4: Songwriters Volumes I and II
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0300-s04
Online Media:

[Jackson, MS; Fall/Winter 1963 - Mass Meeting]

Collection Creator:
McNamara, Norris  Search this
Moon, Moses  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Item AC0556-OT_N57
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Content: "This Little Light of Mine" "Set on Freedom" "Everybody Wants Freedom" Matt Jones leads: "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" Unidentified speaker: -We are in the final stage Allard K. Lowenstein: -Jokes about police escorts and police behavior -Two party system in Mississippi -This is the last fighting stance of a losing battle for the white leaders -The rest of the human race is with us in this fight Reverend Ed King speaks -Candidate for lieutenant governor of Mississippi -Campaign goals and ideals -Arrest stories -Norman Thomas -Sharing letter others have written about the campaign

Digital reference copy in Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies must be used. Tapes noted in the container list have digital reference copies in the Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but copyright status unknown. Contact Archives Center staff for additional information. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection, 1963-1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection / Series 1: Original Tapes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0556-ref85
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  • View [Jackson, MS; Fall/Winter 1963 - Mass Meeting] digital asset number 1

Steinway & Sons Records and Family Papers

Creator:
Steinway, William  Search this
Steinway, Henry Ziegler  Search this
Steinway family  Search this
Steinway & Sons  Search this
Krüsi, Bartholomew, Rev.  Search this
Source:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Names:
CBS  Search this
German Presbyterian Church (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Lehman, Lilly  Search this
Steinway, Fred T., 1860-1927  Search this
Steinway, Henry (Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg), 1797-1871  Search this
Steinway, John  Search this
Steinway, Theodore (C.F. Theodore Steinweg), 1825-1889  Search this
Former owner:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet (12 boxes, including photographs and microfilm)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Diaries
Catalogs
Correspondence
Microfilms
Photographs
Minute books
Business letters
Love letters
Letters
Letter books
Date:
1857-1919
Summary:
Records of the Steinway & Sons piano company and a daily diary of William Steinway, a key figure in the rise of the company to international prominence in the nineteenth century. The records document overall operations of the company, individual piano serial numbers, and the business and personal life of William Steinway, a prominent figure in New York business, politics, and musical life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of an original diary (and microfilm copies) kept by William Steinway and microfilm copies of nineteenth century business records of Steinway & Sons. There also are business and family photographs and some miscellaneous documents.
Arrangement:
Series 1, William Steinway Diary, 1861-1896

Series 2, Steinway Business Records, 1858-1910

Series 3, Steinway Family Materials, 1877-1882

Series 4, Rev. Bartholomew Krüsi Materials, 1857-1919
Biographical / Historical:
Heinrich Engelhard Steinway (Steinweg) (born 1797, Wolfshagen, Germany; died 1871, New York City) made his first piano in 1836. In 1850 he immigrated to America and settled in New York City with his wife, three daughters, and four of his five sons. He and his sons Charles, Henry, Jr., and William at first worked for various New York piano makers until 1853 when they formed the partnership of Steinway & Sons. One year later Steinway & Sons' square pianos won first prize at the Metropolitan Mechanics Institute Exhibition (held at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.) and in 1855 won the Gold medal for the best piano (an over-strung iron-frame square piano) in the American Institute Fair at the Crystal Palace in New York City. In 1859, Henry, Jr. patented (patent no. 26,532, December 20, 1859) a design for a one-piece over-strung iron frame for the grand piano that won praise, a gold medal, and international recognition at the 1867 Paris Exposition.

The firm faced a crisis in 1865 when two of Heinrich's sons died: Henry (born 1831), who was responsible for the first seven patents, and Charles (born 1829). The family prevailed on the eldest son, C. F. Theodor (1825 1889), to sell his partnership as a piano manufacturer in Braunschweig, Germany, and to join his family in New York City. Not eager to sever all his ties in Germany, Theodor spent time in both countries until his death, contributing technical innovations that resulted in forty-one patents. One of these patents was for the duplex scale in 1872. Several of the following generation worked with the firm, including Fred T. Steinway (1860-1927), son of Charles, who served in London, Hamburg, and New York City.

C. F. Theodor Steinway's technical skills were matched by the entrepreneurial skills of his brother William (1835 1896). William was a creative businessman who played the piano, sang tenor, and supported the musical life of New York City. His promotional and marketing techniques, and his cultivation of eminent musicians and association with aristocratic patrons, helped to make Steinway & Sons so successful. William Steinway was prominent in New York City social and political life.

In 1880, Steinway & Sons opened a Hamburg branch. The firm was sold in 1972 to CBS. Subsequent owners include the Birmingham Brothers (Steinway Musical Properties, 1985-1995) and Steinway Musical Instruments, Inc. (1995-).
Related Materials:
The LaGuardia and Wagner Archives at LaGuardia Community College/CUNY is the largest repository of Steinway materials. It holds extensive business records as well as personal papers and photographs. The Steinway family loaned seventy folders of Steinway family correspondence to the National Museum of American History in October, 1984, and a program of transcription and translation was begun by the Steinway Diary Project. The original correspondence was transferred to the Archives Center in August 1985 and, at the request of Henry Z. Steinway, transferred to the LaGuardia and Wagner Archives in March, 1990. Additional Steinway materials are at the New York Historical Society, the University of Maryland Performing Arts Library, and other repositories. The control file for this collection has further information on the location of Steinway materials.

The Archives Center's N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records contains advertising proof sheets for Steinway & Sons from 1900 through 1963. The Piano series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana contains five folders of material on Steinway. The Industry on Parade Film Collection has a short, 1953 film (reel #156) on Steinway's manufacture of pianos in its Long Island plant. The Sohmer & Company Records contain three folders of trade literature from Steinway. These include catalogs, pamphlets, and booklets on the Steinway family genealogy and on the Steinway piano used at the White House. Sohmer, also a New York City piano manufacturer, collected copies of competitors' sales catalogs and other publications.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds several Steinway and Sons pianos.
Provenance:
Henry Z. Steinway donated the William Steinway diary on April 2, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must use positive microfilm copy of diary. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Keyboard instruments -- Manufacturing  Search this
Travel  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Politics -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Church Interiors  Search this
Piano  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records
Diaries
Catalogs
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Microfilms -- Negative
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Minute books
Business letters
Love letters
Letters
Letter books
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1910
Citation:
Steinway and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1857-1919, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0178
See more items in:
Steinway & Sons Records and Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0178
Online Media:

Joseph C. Farber Papers and Photographs

Creator:
Farber, Joan C., Dr.  Search this
Farber, Joseph C., 1903-1994  Search this
Names:
Independence Hall (Philadelphia, Pa.).  Search this
Raleigh's Tavern (Williamsburg, Va.).  Search this
Herodotus  Search this
Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Palladio, Andrea (architect)  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (90 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Contact sheets
Proofs
Correspondence
Proof sheets
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Boston (Mass.) -- Architecture
Cambridge (Mass.) -- Architecture
Villa Rotunda (Vicenza, Italy)
Springfield (Ill.) -- Architecture
White House (Washington, D.C.)
Monticello Va. -- Photographs
Maison Carree (Nimes, France)
New York (N.Y.) -- Architecture
New England -- Architecture
Greece -- Classical architecture
Essex (Conn.)
Italy -- Architecture
Hannibal (Mo.) -- Architecture
Date:
circa 1930-1990
Summary:
The Farber collection documents images of celebrated American buildings by photographer Joseph C. Farber.
Scope and Contents note:
The Farber collection is filled with well-crafted and often very beautiful images of celebrated American buildings. Many of the images, which for the most part take the form of 11" x 14" black-and-white photoprints, explore the European Renaissance origins of American architecture. The collection is also very rich in color transparencies. Nearly all the images are directly related to published projects, specifically photo-essays in the shape of articles , many of which appeared in the magazine Antiques or newspapers. Farber probably would have wished for all of his photographs to have been published. Many were shown in exhibitions, as evidenced by the large proportion of the photoprints that are mounted and also the existence of correspondence files relating to such matters. There are also files related to the processes of conceiving, executing, and publishing his photographic work.

The images for the books are nearly all black-and-white, whereas magazine work, especially the commissions from Antiques, generated the most transparencies. In addition to the images in print and transparency form, and the associated proof sheets and negatives, there is also a great quantity of slides related to travel in the collection, which predate Farber's second career as a professional photographer. A tiny sampling of earlier photographs, mostly with artistic or family-and-personal themes, is also included.

Black-and-white negatives, black-and-white prints, and color transparencies, mostly created for specific book projects, articles in Antiques magazine, etc. Generally, color was used for magazine articles, while black-and-white images were intended for books. Collection also includes photographs of personal or family significance, and some early artistic efforts. Non-pictorial portion consists primarily of material related to Farber's publications: correspondence, galley proofs, reviews, etc.

Photographs include projects related to Thomas Jefferson (e.g., Monticello), classical architecture, Essex, Connecticut, etc. Buildings photographed include Raleigh's Tavern, Williamsburg, Va.; Independence Hall, Philadelphia; Maison Carree, Nimes, France; St. Paul's Chapel, Boston, Mass.; White House, Washington; New York City landmarks; sites in Springfield and New Salem, Ill., associated with Abraham Lincoln; historic buildings in Boston and Cambridge,Mass.; Hannibal, Mo.; Deerfield, Mass.; New England churches and meetinghouses; and buildings and objects from ancient Greece, which were published with excerpts from Herodotus' History of the Pelopponesian Wars (Farber called this group of images "Herodotus"); and Italian villas designed by Andrea Palladio, such as the Villa Rotunda. Some pictures relating to themes of democracy were inspired by the U.S. Bicentennial celebration.
Arrangement:
Divided into five series.

Series 1: Photographs

Series 2: Photonegatives and Contact Sheets

Series 3: Textual Materials

Series 4: Color Slides and Transparencies

Series 5: Books
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1902, Joseph C. Farber he attended the New York Military Academy, and later Columbia College, where his formal studies included chemistry and art composition. While these were excellent preparation for subsequent employment in the family business, Friedman Blau Farber, Manufacturers of Knitted Outerwear, at Columbia he discovered the true love of his life, the art and craft of photography. He became involved in the New York Camera Club. For the rest of his life he would consider himself a protégé of the Club's resident guru, famed photographer Edward Steichen. Farber's work was first shown in the Fifth Annual Exhibition of Work by Cleveland Artists and Craftsmen at the Cleveland Museum of Art in late spring 1923, and he taught photography to summer campers. Later, throughout 39 years of employment in the garment business, he continued to enjoy and practice photography, especially in making portraits of good friends. He married Caroline Feiss, also a Cleveland native and a promising watercolor artist. In 1939 the Farber's moved to New York.

According to his daughter, Dr. Joan Farber, her father purchased a large format Linhof field camera during a 1958 visit with his son Thomas in Germany. The Linhof camera front can be shifted to provide corrections for architectural photography which are not possible with smaller cameras. After Joan headed to college the Farbers had time for increased travel. They were accompanied by their daughter on a trip to Greece in summer 1960 which included photographs of herself, an attractive, sophisticated college coed, stylishly dressed and coifed for the occasion, posed on the steps of the Parthenon. A trip to Spain the following year resulted in many dozens of 35mm color images, part of a large group of travel slides.

This was also the period in Farber's life that a whirlwind round-the-world trip was undertaken, with visits to Thailand, Japan, Hong Kong, Hawaii, and California. By the end of the next year, the Farbers were renting as a vacation home a converted button factory in Essex, Connecticut, a former shipbuilding town on the Connecticut River, as a vacation home. Within months Farber had retired from his design and executive responsibilities at the Campus Sweater and Sportswear Company in Manhattan to live for a year in Essex. There were also trips more abroad, particularly to Greece and Egypt, while the Farbers continued to maintain an apartment in New York. Climbing a mountain in Greece in summer 1967, Farber suffered a heart attack, from which he fully recovered.

In 1969 his new career was launched by the publication of Portrait of Essex by Barre Publishers. Local historian Marie Moore supplied the text to accompany Farber's evocative photographs of the ships, shops, shores, streets, and historic structures of this seafaring town. His brother-in-law Carl Feiss, F.A.I.A., furnished the Introduction.

In 1971, Farber and Wendell Garrett published his first Jefferson book, The Worlds of Thomas Jefferson followed by their second, Thomas Jefferson Redivivus Garrett, who edited the Adams Papers wrote the text, with the help of excerpts from the writings of Jefferson himself. The following summer one of Farber's Monticello views was featured on the cover of Antiques. In 1973 Farber was credited with three covers and a frontispiece for the magazine, as well as three photographic essays. The subjects ranged from Sculpture at the Boston Atheneum to The Villas of Andrea Palladio to The Architecture of Lavius Fillmore Garrett introduced Farber to Lincoln scholar Harold Holzer who hired Farber as photographer to help illustrate his Prints of Abraham Lincoln, which appeared in the annual presidents' birthday number of Antiques the next year, February 1974. Some Contemporary Paintings of Abraham Lincoln appeared twelve months later. Three more Lincoln-themed articles appeared in February issues of Antiques in 1978, 1979, and 1980: Sculptures of Abraham Lincoln From Life, George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, and Here Lincoln Lived: New Salem and Springfield, Illinois.

Two more books of Farber's photographs were published in 1975. Democracy's First Struggle was an account of the Peloponnesian Wars in the words of Herodotus, as edited from the Aubrey de Selincourt with translation by Farber. The photographic images dated back to the family trips to Greece in the early 1960s. Native Americans: 500 Years After was published by Thomas J. Crowell in 1975 with text by Michael Dorris. Following Native Americans came a series of exhibitions of photographs from the book including shows at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), Dartmouth College, and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History .

Also in the mid -1970s a cover story in Antiques entitled "The Architectural Heritage of New York City" led to an exhibition at the Abigail Adams Smith House. In the late '70s two more exhibitions were staged, featuring scenes of local color at the dedication of the East Haddam (Connecticut) Historical Society in the summer of 1979 and showing buildings by Palladio at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum (New York City.)

In 1980 Farber's interior view of a basilica, Palladio's Redentore church in Venice, was featured on the cover of Antiques. The photographs became the subject of a book, Palladio's Architecture and Its Influence authored by architectural historian, Henry Hope Reed.

Harold Holzer organized many joint photographic trips revolving around Holzer's career in the public relations department of Channel 13, New York's public television station. Each summer for four years in succession they set off to diverse spots to make publicity shoots for upcoming special programming. First was Missouri to photograph Mark Twain sites for a dramatization of "Life Along the Mississippi". The next summer they headed to the Berkshires to document The Mount, the home of Edith Wharton in Lenox, Massachusetts, around whose life and work a mini-series in three parts was planned. The summer trip of 1982 was a return visit to Massachusetts to photograph The Street, Deerfield's historic thoroughfare, combined with a side trip across the border to the Robert Todd Lincoln home, Hildene, in Manchester, Vermont.

In 1982 Farber was commissioned by Architectural Digest magazine to photograph the Mark Twain residence in Hartford. Farber and Holzer succeeded in the early to mid-1980s in getting Farber's out-takes from their Channel 13 trips published together with his carefully worded scripts in such periodicals as American History Illustrated and in Antiques & The Arts Weekly. Many of Farber's pictures were printed in articles in Antique Trader, to which Holzer was a regular contributor. In 1983, when Farber turned 80, his color images of the interior spaces of the Metropolitan Club of New York were published in a book by the same name, written by Paul Porzelt. In his travels in the last decade of his life he was often accompanied by family friend Ethel Phillips, including a tour of Great Britain in the summer of 1987. With Mrs. Phillips he at one time had contemplated publishing a book on the historic mansions of the Hudson River. Two other unrealized projects, upon his death in 1994 at the age of 91, were books on the classical architecture of New York City and on the history and daily lives of Hispanic Americans in the United States.
Biographical Time Line:
Biographical Time Line for Joseph C. Farber

Biographical Time Line

1903 -- Born Cleveland, Ohio

1910s -- At New York Military Academy

1920s -- At Columbia College, studying chemistry, art composition; studies photography with Edward Steichen in Camera Club; teaches photography as camp counselor

1923 -- Participates in Fifth Annual Exhibition of Work by Cleveland Artists and Craftsmen at Cleveland Museum of Art (May 1-June 3)

1926 -- Takes job as "salesman and experimental worker" at Friedman Blau Farber, Mfg. Knitted Outerwear," Cleveland; Marriage to Caroline Feiss, Cleveland native and watercolor artist

1933 -- Son Thomas Feiss born at Cleveland

1936 -- Daughter Joan born

1930s -- Family moves to New York

1958 -- Visit to son in Germany; purchase of Linhof camera; daughter off to college

1960 -- Trip to Greece, daughter along

1961 -- To Spain

1963 -- Death of son in mountaineering accident; to Thailand, Japan, Hong Kong, Hawaii, California

1964 -- Rents former button factory in Essex, Connecticut as vacation home

1965 -- Retirement from Campus Sweater & Sportswear Company; Living in Essex

1966 -- To Greece

1967 -- To Egypt and Greece; heart attack ; Essex (summer?)

1969 -- Portrait of Essex published, text by Marie Moore; into by Carl Feiss, AIA (Barre)

1970 -- Trip to Bermuda

1971 -- Thomas Jefferson Redivus published, text by Wendell Garrett, Editor of The Magazine Antiques (Barre); Farber introduced to "Jefferson circle"; Vacations in Essex and Florida

1972 -- Monticello images published in Antiques

1973 -- Photographs of sculpture at the Boston Atheneum, the Maison Carree at Nimes (France): the villas of Andrea Palladio in Vicenza and environs (Italy) and the architecture of Lavius Fillmore (Connecticut and Vermont) published in Antiques

1974 -- Images of Abraham Lincoln prints published in Antiques: accompanying article is by Lincoln scholar Harold Holzer; beginning of ten-year collaboration

1975 -- Photographs of Lincoln portraits in Antiques, Holzer text Democracy's First Struggle published, based on Herodotus' Histories of Greece (Crown); Native Americans: 500 Years Afterpublished (Thomas Crowell)

1976 -- Exhibitions of photographs of Native Americans at National Museum of Natural History, Dartmouth College, and Cleveland Museum of Natural History; Images of historic New York City buildings in Antiques, text by Elizabeth Donaghty Garrett; Exhibition of photographs of New York City landmarks at Abigail Adams House, New York City.

1978 -- Photographs of Lincoln sculptures, with Holzer, in Antiques

1979 -- Images of Lincoln and George Washington, sculpture of John Rogers, and sculpture of U.S. Capitol published in Antiques, with Holzer; Exhibition of photographs at East Haddam Historical Society; Exhibition of Palladio photographs at Cooper Hewitt Museum, New York City.

1980 -- Palladio's Architecture and Its Influence published, with Henry Hope Reed (Dover) ; Venice image (church interior) published on Antiques cover; Death of wife; "Caroline Fund" established at Cooper Union; Teaches photography in local high school; To Missouri with Holzer to photograph Mark Twain sites for Channel 13

1981 -- Images of Lincoln sites published in black and white in Antiques with Holzer (should have been in color); Summer trip to Berkshires with Holzer to photograph Edith Wharton home

1982 -- Commissioned to photograph Mark Twain house in Hartford for Architectural Digest; Images of The Mount, Edith Wharton's home in Lenox, Mass., published in American History Illustrated with Holzer; Summer trip to Massachusetts and Vermont with Holzer to photograph "The Street," Deerfield (Channel 13) and Hildene, Robert Todd Lincoln home in Manchester

1983 -- Images of Mark Twain sites in Hannibal, Missouri published in American History Illustrated with Holzer; Summer trip to Harpers Ferry, West Virginia with Holzer (Channel 13); Harper's Ferry images published in Antique Trader with Holzer Deerfield, Massachusetts images published in Antiques & The Arts Weekly with Holzer; The Metropolitan Club of New York published, with Paul Porzelt (Rizzoli)

1984 -- Images of Hildene published in Antique Traderwith Holzer

1985 -- Images of Rebecca Nurse Homestead, Old Salem, Massachusetts published in Antique Traderwith Holzer

1987 -- Tour of Great Britain with Ethel Phillips (summer?)

1994 -- Died, New York City, New York
Related Archival Materials:
Other Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

Joseph C. Farber photographs of American Indian life, circa 1970-1975

Photographs made as part of Joseph C. Farber's project to document modern American Indian everyday life. Represented tribes include the Acoma, Apache, Blackfoot, Chehalis, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Cocopa, Dakota, Eskimo, Haida, Kiowa, Kutenai, Lummi, Mohave, Mohawk, Navaho, Northern Athabascan, Onandaga, Pima, Pueblo, Quinalt, Seminole, Taos, Tlingit, and Zuni. Subject coverage is broad and varies from tribe to tribe. Included are portraits, as well as totem poles, carving, weaving, pottery, painitng, landscapes, boats and canoes, ceremonial regalia, camps, classes and vocational training, homes and traditional dwellings, construction projects, rodeos and powwows, dances, industries (including lumber), herding and ranching, agriculture, stores and storefronts, cliff dwellings, parades, crab cleaning, fishing, games, health care, legal processes, music, office work, sewing, vending, and a funeral. There are also photographs of R. C. Gorman (and a letter from Gorman to Farber) and Fritz Shoulder (some in color).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dr. Joan Farber, 1994.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographs published in Joseph C. Farber's books are still under copyright. Reproduction permission from the Joseph C. Farber's estate is required. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Architecture -- Greece  Search this
Architecture, Renaissance  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Churches -- New England  Search this
Churches -- Quaker  Search this
Ruins -- Greece  Search this
Architecture, Classical  Search this
Architecture, Italian  Search this
American Revolution Bicentennial, 1776-1976  Search this
Architecture, Ancient -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 1950-2000
Contact sheets -- 1960-1990
Proofs -- 1960-1990
Correspondence -- 1960-1990
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Proof sheets
Photographs -- Phototransparencies -- 1960-1990
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Joseph Farber Papers and Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. Joan C. Farber.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0520
See more items in:
Joseph C. Farber Papers and Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0520

Melody Golding Photoprints

Creator:
Golding, Melody  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 5 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Mississippi
Date:
2006-2012
Scope and Contents:
The collections documents the work of photographer, Melody Golding and two projects: Hurrican Katrina and Panther Tract.

The Hurrican Katrina photographs document some of the devastation along the Mississippi Gulf Coast and the towns of Biloxi, Ocean Springs, and Pearlington, Mississippi.

The Panther Tract material documents a 2011 book titled Panther Tract Wild Boar Hunting in the Mississippi Delta, about wild boar hunting in the Mississippi Delta. The photographs focus on the Delta landscape and the people and animals involved in the hunt including portraits of the hunters, and their interactions with one another and their dogs and horses. The textual material documents the photographer's personal involvement in these hunts as well as advertising and press releases for the book.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Hurricane Katrina Photographs, 2005-2006

Series 2: Hurricane Katrina Supporting Material, 2005-2007

Series 3: Panther Tract Photographic Prints, 2012

Series 4: Panther Tract Book Materials, 2012

Series 5: Audio Visual Materials, 2006, 2012
Biographical / Historical:
Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005. Katrina left a path of devastation and wiped out whole sections of the city of New Orleans as well as many small coastal towns. These prints were created for the photographer's traveling exhibition, "Katrina: Mississippi Women Remember." Ms. Golding is a photographer who documented the devastation in her home state of Mississippi after the Hurricane Katrina struck on August 29, 2005.

Golding, Melody; Pfister, Sally, editor. Katrina: Mississippi Women Remember. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi, 2007.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center by photographer Melody Golding in 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Disasters  Search this
Hunting  Search this
Hurricanes  Search this
Wild boar  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 2000-2010
Citation:
Melody Golding Photoprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1166
See more items in:
Melody Golding Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1166
Online Media:

Ken Rattenbury Collection

Composer:
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Collector:
Rattenbury, Ken, 1920-  Search this
Interviewee:
Anderson, William "Cat", 1916-1981 ((musician))  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
0.16 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcriptions
Audiotapes
Theses
Date:
1967-1991
Scope and Contents:
Five cassette audiotapes, master's degree thesis, and Billy Strayhorn music transcription to Duke Ellington's "Lotus Blossom.",Material documents the career and compositional techniques of Duke Ellington, and interviews with Duke Ellington and Cat Anderson.
Arrangement:
1 series. Unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Professional musician, author of "Duke Ellington Jazz Composer", editor of "Crescendo International", and member/organizer of the music group "Jazz Five."
Provenance:
Collection donated by Ken Rattenbury, June 15, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcriptions
Audiotapes
Theses
Citation:
Ken Rattenbury Collection, 1967-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0432
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0432

Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints

Creator:
Ostroff, Eugene, d. 1999 (NMAH Curator)  Search this
Salo, Matt, Dr.  Search this
Haberstich, David E., 1941-  Search this
Ahlborn, Richard E., 1933-2015  Search this
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Names:
China Daily News -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
China Daily News -- Photographs  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Davis, Earl  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Oral history
Interviews
Audio cassettes
Place:
Virgin Islands -- 1930-1940
New York (N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Bowery (New York, N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Chinatown (New York, N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
St. Thomas (Virgin Islands) -- 1930-1940
Date:
1985 - 1986
1930 - 1943
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 273 silver gelatin photoprints (Series 1), most of which apparently were made during the 1930s and early 1940s, contemporaneously with the original negatives. All are 8" x 10" or slightly smaller, unmounted except for flush mounted linen on the backs of some prints. The photographs were made primarily in two locations, New York City and the Virgin Islands. The Virgin Islands pictures were made as part of a special documentary project in 1939, as described above, whereas the New York photographs stem from Mr. Alland's largely self assigned documentation of various ethnic and religious groups in New York from approximately 1932 to 1943. The projects include photographs of the "Red Bandanna" Romany Gypsy group in the Bowery, a black Jewish congregation, Mohawk Indians in Brooklyn, and other groups, which required extensive exploration, research, and photographing over periods of many days or weeks. A variety of miscellaneous ethnic and religious groups are covered in the general "Other Religions" and "Nationalities" folders. The contents of the "Judaism" folder include primarily New York sites and people, but there are also additional views of a synagogue from the Virgin Islands project.

Series 2 of the collection contains four cassette tape recordings of two interviews with Mr. Alland, three made by Richard Ahlborn (with Eugene Ostroff and Matt Salo) in 1985, and one by David Haberstich and Richard Ahlborn, June 2-3, 1986 (at which time the photographs were donated). The tapes include readings from his autobiography, personal reminiscences on his experiences as an immigrant and a photographer, and commentary on the photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photoprints, 1930-1943

Series 2: Audiotape Cassettes, 1985-1986

The photographs are arranged topically and by nationality.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Alland, Sr., was born in Sevastopol, Crimea (formerly in the Soviet Union) on 6 August 1902. His last name originally was Landschaft, but he legally changed it to Alland following the birth of his son. Alland's interest in photography began at the age of twelve, when he helped a local photographer with darkroom work. He constructed his own camera from cardboard with a simple meniscus lens and exposed glass plate negatives with the device.

Toward the end of the Civil War in Russia in 1920, Alland relocated in Constantinople, Turkey, where he was hired as an apprentice by a graduate of the Vienna Academy of Photography. When the Union Nationale des Combatants Francais went on a pilgrimage to Gallipoli, a former battle zone on the Dardanelles, he was asked to accompany them in order to document events. After having his request for a pay increase refused, he left his employer two years later and opened his own portrait studio, "Photo d'Art Russe." When civil unrest threatened Constantinople in 1923, he decided to emigrate to the United States.

During his first years in the United States he worked in photo finishing businesses while engaged in home portraiture independently. He married in 1929 and a son, Alexander, Jr., was born. In the 1930s he became one of the best known photographers portraying the life of immigrants and various ethnic groups in New York. (1) In 1936 he was appointed supervisor of the Photo Mural section of the W.P.A. Federal Art Project, and worked as a free lance photographer for magazines and periodicals featuring the activities of various ethnic groups living in New York City. He specialized in making photomurals with montage techniques. (2)

In 1937 Alland became photography instructor at the American Artists' School and joined the American Artists Congress. In 1939, his first book, Portrait of New York, was published and he became president of the "Exploration Photo Syndicate" and went to the U.S. Virgin Islands as part of a project to produce a pictorial record of the West Indian Islands. His photographs appeared in publications and were exhibited at the New School for Social Research and at the Schomberg Collection. In 1942 he joined the staff of Common Ground magazine as photography editor and was appointed by the National Youth Administration to supervise their photography workshop. His book American Counterpoint appeared in 1943 and was selected as "One of the Fifty Best Books of the Year." The original prints from that book were exhibited at the Museum of the City of New York, which also exhibited a portfolio of his work on American Gypsies. In 1944 he became director of an agency, "Pictures for Democracy," and in 1945 his book The Springfield Plan was proclaimed another "One of the Fifty Best Books of the Year."

During World War II Alland did technical photography for the War Department, receiving a commendation for this work. After another book My Dog Rinty was published, he left New York City to establish a school of photography, combined with a school of dance directed by his wife, Alexandra, a professional dancer and choreographer. (3) He then began to exhibit his own photographs and to collect glass plate negatives and vintage prints by significant photographers. He is perhaps best known for locating a collection of Jacob Riis negatives and making them available. In 1974 Aperture published his biography, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen4. Because of his efforts in providing the Riis negatives to the Museum of the City of New York, that institution awarded a special commemorative medal to him in 1973. The Riis book was followed by two more studies of photographers, Jessie Tarbox Beals, First Woman News Photographer (5) and Heinrich Tonnies, Cartes de Visite Photographer Extraordinaire. (6)

Retrospective exhibitions of Alland's work were held in two major Danish museums in summer 1979 and he was honored for contributions to the cultural history of Denmark. In 1991 studies for his photomural work were included in an historical survey exhibition of American photomontage at the University of Maryland at College Park. (7).

Sources

1. My text is based upon the biographical information recorded on my taped interviews with Mr. Alland in this collection, but see also Bonnie Yochelson, The Committed Eye: Alexander Alland's Photography. New York: The Museum of the City of New York, Inc., 1991.

2. Merry A. Foresta, "Art and Document: Photography of the Works Progress Administration's Federal Art Project," in Official Images: New Deal Photography (essays by Foresta, Pete Daniel, Maren Stange, and Sally Stein), Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987, p. 153, based on an interview with Alland, January 1987.

3. Photographic historian Anne Peterson, contractor for three Archives Center photographic collection projects between 1986 and 1982, reports that she studied ballet as a child with Mrs. Alland.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid

7. See catalog by Cynthia Wayne, Dreams, Lies, and Exaggeration: Photomontage in America. The Art Gallery, University of Maryland at College Park, 1991 (exhibition at the gallery Oct. 21 Dec. 20, 1991).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Carlos de Wendler Funaro Gypsy Research Collection (AC0161)

Contains additional Alland photographs. De Wendler Funaro also photographed Steve Kaslov, his family, and his Bowery coppersmith workshop.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Alexander Alland, June 3, 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyrighted material: photographs may not be reproduced without written permission from the Estate of Alexander Alland, Sr.
Topic:
Synagogues -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York, N.Y.  Search this
Newspapers -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Muslims -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Minorities -- Housing -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Minorities -- Housing -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Judaism -- Customs and practices  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Immigrants -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Housing -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Buddhism -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Catholic Church -- Liturgy  Search this
Chinese drama -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Churches -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Clergy -- 1930-1940 -- United States  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Ethnic costume  Search this
Ethnic groups -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Falashas -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Fortune-tellers -- Gypsies -- 1930-1940 -- United States  Search this
Pluralism  Search this
Poverty -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Printing -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Protestant churches -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Religious and ecclesiastical institutions -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Singers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Synagogues -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints, 1932-1943, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0204
See more items in:
Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0204
Online Media:

Alan Harwood Papers

Correspondent:
Conklin, Harold C., 1926-2016  Search this
Greenberg, Joseph H. (Joseph Harold), 1915-2001  Search this
Creator:
Harwood, Alan  Search this
Extent:
27 Linear feet (60 boxes, 2 manuscript folders), 8 sound recordings, 35 computer disks, 1 oversize box, 1 oversize folder, 1 map drawer)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Chinese Americans  Search this
Irish Americans  Search this
Jamaican Americans  Search this
Puerto Ricans  Search this
Safwa (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilms
Sound recordings
Photographic prints
Field notes
Place:
Bronx (New York, N.Y.)
Boston (Mass.)
Mbeya Region (Tanzania)
Date:
circa 1940s-2001
bulk 1953-2001
Summary:
Alan Harwood is a Professor Emeritus at University of Massachusetts, Boston in the Anthropology Department. Trained in social anthropology he has studied illness and healing in Tanzania and communities in New York City and Boston. Harwood was the founding editor of Medical Anthropology Quarterly (new series, 1986-1991) and series editor of Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology (1999-2004) The bulk of this collection is composed of Alan Harwood's 1962-1964 ethnographic research among the Safwa in Tanzania (then known as Tanganyika); his research on health beliefs and medical practices of residents in a low-income area of the Bronx, New York (1967-1970); and his research in Boston, Massachusetts on different ethnic groups' conceptions of health (1994-1995). Also among his papers are materials from his involvement in the Centers for Disease Control and American Anthropological Association (AAA) Workgroup on "The Use of Race & Ethnicity as Scientific Categories" at the 1994 AAA meeting.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of the collection is composed of Alan Harwood's ethnographic research among the Safwa in Tanzania (then known as Tanganyika); his research on health beliefs and medical practices of residents in a low-income area of the Bronx, New York; and his research in Boston, Massachusetts on different ethnic groups' conceptions of health. The few photographs in the collection are aerial views of Isyesye, where he conducted his Safwa research, and images from Utengule taken by White Fathers and dating from the 1940s. The collection also contains Harwood's linguistic recordings of Kimalila and of Kisafwa and Kinyiha spoken in various dialects. In addition, the collection contains sound recordings of Safwa ceremonies and an audio letter from Harold Conklin, Mario Bick, Georgeda Buchbinder Bick, and Michiko Takaki. Also among his papers are his correspondence as the editor of Medical Anthropology Quarterly and of Ethnicity and Medical Care; materials from his involvement in the Centers for Disease Control and American Anthropological Association (AAA) Workgroup on "The Use of Race & Ethnicity as Scientific Categories" at the 1994 AAA meeting; and letters of recommendation (restricted until 2056) that Harwood wrote for students and colleagues. In addition, the collection contains Harwood's course notes as an undergraduate student at Harvard and as a graduate student at University of Michigan and Columbia University. The collection also contains Harwood's research notes on North Luzon as Conklin's student research assistant at Columbia University. Harwood's correspondence is spread throughout the collection and filed by project. Among his notable correspondents are Harold Conklin and Joseph Greenberg. Their letters can be found with the Safwa materials.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 8 series: (1) Safwa Research, 1961-1970; (2) Bronx Research, 1957-1986; (3) Boston Research, 1993-1996; (4) Professional Activities, 1975-2001; (5) Student Files, 1953-1962; (6) Microfilm; (7) Photographs, circa 1940s & 1963; (8) Sound Recordings, 1962-1964
Biographical/Historical note:
Alan Harwood was born on March 20, 1935 in Tarrytown, New York. He earned his undergraduate degree, magna cum laude, in Social Relations from Harvard University in 1957 and attended the London School of Economics on a one year fellowship the following year. When he returned to the United States, he began his graduate studies in anthropology at the University of Michigan, earning his M.A. in 1960. He went on to Columbia University for his doctorate, which he was awarded in 1967.

Under a pre-doctoral fellowship funded by the Social Science Research Council, Harwood conducted ethnographic research on the Safwa of the southwestern region of Tanganyika (now known as Tanzania). From September 1962 to 1964, Harwood carried out his research mainly in the village of Isyesye, near Mbeya, Southern Highlands Region. At the time, witchcraft accusations were common, and it thus became the subject of his dissertation, Witchcraft, Sorcery, and Social Categories among the Safwa, later published in 1970.

In 1967, Harwood was hired by the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center (formerly called the Neighborhood Medical Care Demonstration) in Bronx, New York. From 1967 to 1970, he directed a study on the health, illness, and medical beliefs and practices of residents in a low-income area of the south Bronx. One of the articles produced from this research was Harwood's "The Hot-Cold Theory of Disease: Implications for Treatment of Puerto Rican Patients" (1971). Harwood also looked at spiritism among the Puerto Rican community, which led to his publication, Rx: Spiritist as Needed: A Study of a Puerto Rican Community Mental Health Resource (1977).

From 1994 to 1995, Harwood was the co-principal investigator of a study conducted under the Tufts New England Medical Center on conceptions of health and well-being among 4 ethnic groups in Boston: African Americans, Mandarin-speaking Chinese Americans, Irish Americans, and Puerto Ricans. Harwood led the group studying Irish Americans.

In addition to his research, Harwood was the founding editor of Medical Anthropology Quarterly (new series, 1986-1991) and series editor of Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology (1999-2004) and of Studies in Medical Anthropology (2004-2006). He also edited Ethnicity and Medical Care (1981), a book geared towards health professionals.

In 1971, Harwood spent a year in New Zealand as a visiting senior lecturer at the University of Auckland. From 1972 to 2002, he was a professor of Anthropology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. During his tenure, he also served as adjunct professor in the Department of Psychology (1993-2002) and as associate dean for Undergraduate Education, College of Arts and Sciences (1998-2001). In addition, he was a lecturer in the Department of Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School (1992-present).

In 1982, Harwood was honored with the Wellcome Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland for Research in Anthropology as Applied to Medical Problems. He is also a Fellow of the American Anthropological Association and of the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Restrictions:
Materials that identify the participants in Harwood's Bronx and Boston studies are restricted until 2056.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Medical anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Microfilms
Sound recordings
Photographic prints
Field notes
Citation:
Alan Harwood Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2006-25
See more items in:
Alan Harwood Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2006-25

American Ethnological Society records

Correspondent:
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Ewbank, Thomas, 1792-1870  Search this
Fischell, A.  Search this
French, Kathrine S. (Kathrine Story), 1922-2006  Search this
Aginsky, Bernard W. (Bernard Willard), 1905-  Search this
Driver, Harold E. (Harold Edson), 1907-1992  Search this
Dwight, Theodore F.  Search this
Goodenough, Ward Hunt  Search this
Gould, Charles N.  Search this
Beals, Ralph L. (Ralph Leon), 1901-1985  Search this
Fried, Morton H. (Morton Herbert), 1923-1986  Search this
Friedl, Ernestine, 1920-2015  Search this
Garfield, Viola Edmundson, 1899-1983  Search this
Goldfrank, Esther Schiff  Search this
Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888  Search this
Turner, William W. (William Wadden), 1810-1859  Search this
Swadesh, Morris, 1909-1967  Search this
Woodbury, Natalie Ferris Sampson  Search this
Nelson, William Nelson  Search this
Nelson, N. C. (Nels Christian), 1875-1964  Search this
Ray, Verne F. (Verne Frederick), 1905-2003  Search this
Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews, 1874-1941  Search this
Steward, Julian Haynes, 1902-1972  Search this
Rouse, Irving, 1913-2006  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Rhodes, Willard, 1901-1992  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Smith, Marian W. (Marian Wesley), 1907-1961  Search this
Service, Elman R. (Elman Rogers), 1915-1996  Search this
Hoebel, E. Adamson (Edward Adamson), 1906-1993  Search this
James, Alice G.  Search this
Keur, Dorothy L. (Dorothy Louise), 1904-1989  Search this
Lesser, Alexander, 1902-1982  Search this
Macgowan, D. I.  Search this
McClellan, Catharine  Search this
Murdock, George Peter, 1897-1985  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Buckley, S. B.  Search this
Bunnell, F. H.  Search this
Codere, Helen F., 1917-2009  Search this
Collier, Donald, 1911-1995  Search this
Dole, Gertrude Evelyn, 1915-2001  Search this
Gulick, William H.  Search this
Creator:
American Ethnological Society  Search this
Anthropologist:
Thompson, Laura, 1905-2000  Search this
Names:
Indian Personality, Education and Administration Research Project  Search this
Institute of Human Values  Search this
United States. Office of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
7 Linear feet (14 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Fiji
Iceland
Guam
Germany
Date:
1834-1964
Summary:
The records of the American Ethnological Society (AES) document its activities from its founding in 1842 through the mid-1960s. The American Ethnological Society is the oldest anthropological association in America. It has been interested in publishing and promoting study of different cultures in the Americas from its founding in 1842 to the present. Materials include correspondence, reports, and financial records relating to the administrative functions of the organization.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the American Ethnological Society (AES) document its activities from its founding in 1842 through the mid-1960s.

The early years of the AES (1840s to 1880) are documented through correspondence, newspaper clippings, and proceedings. The bulk of the collection relates to the administrative functions of the AES from its reorganization in 1906 through 1965 including changes to the constitution and the elections of officers. The offices of Secretary-Treasurer and Editor are well documented through correspondence and reports. There is also a significant amount of correspondence to and from members, financial records, and information on the AES‟ interactions with other organizations such as the American Anthropological Association and the New York Academy of Sciences.
Arrangement note:
The material is arranged in the following series: (1) Early records, 1834-1886; (2) AES Meetings, 1910-1964; (3) Reports of the officers, 1925-1964; (4) Election records: Officer lists, constitutions, and amendments, 1917-1959; (5) Office correspondence, 1924-1956; (6) Membership records, 1862-1960; (6) Publication records, 1934-1962; (7) Financial records, 1902-1962; (8) Miscellany, 1860-1957.
History of the American Ethnological Society:
The American Ethnological Society is the oldest anthropological association in America. It has been interested in publishing and promoting study of different cultures in the Americas from its founding in 1842 to the present.

The American Ethnological Society was founded in 1842 by Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and founder of New York University. Early members were doctors, lawyers, businessmen and included Henry Schoolcraft, William Prescott and Theodore Dwight. Meetings were usually held at the home of the President and accounts of missionaries and explorers, who were "corresponding" members, were read. Local papers frequently covered these meetings. The Society published three periodicals in its early years including Transactions which first appeared in 1845. Interest in the Society declined after the Civil War. In 1906 a group of professional anthropologists led by Franz Boas joined the Society and reorganized it, adding the Office of Editor. Since then, the Society has been very active and has had a strong publications program, beginning with a linguistic series begun by Franz Boas. The Society holds annual meetings, usually in the spring at which prominent anthropologists present their findings. In addition to Franz Boas, the Society has included among its members such famous anthropologists as Ruth Benedict, E. Adamson Hoebel, Margaret Mead and Ward Goodenough.
Provenance:
The treasurer's records dating from 1916 to 1924 were transferred to the archives by the American Museum of Natural History. All other records came to the archives from the American Ethnological Society.
Restrictions:
This collection is stored off-site. Advance notice must be given to view the collection.
The American Ethnological Society records are open for research.

Access to the American Ethnological Society records requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Professional associations  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Citation:
American Ethnological Society records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2007-11
See more items in:
American Ethnological Society records
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2007-11

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