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Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection

Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Extent:
3,710 Photographic prints (29 photograph albums)
3 Linear feet
1430 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
325 Lantern slides (colored)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Osage  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Rincon Band Luiseño  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Pala Band Luiseño (Agua Caliente)  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Bering Strait Inupiaq  Search this
Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Lantern slides
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Utah
Alaska
Oklahoma
Washington
Florida
Montana
Arizona
Arkansas
Missouri
North Carolina
Minnesota
New Mexico
California
Date:
1880-1928
bulk 1899-1909
Summary:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.

Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.

Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).

Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.

Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).

Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.

Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
Arrangement:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.

Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire. In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.

In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.

Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903

1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.

1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.

1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.

1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.

1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.

1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).

1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.

1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.

1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.

1902, May-June -- Visit to Winnebago Agency, Omaha Agency, Santee Agency.

1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.

1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.

1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.

1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.

1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.

1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.

1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.

Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905

1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.

1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).

1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.

1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).

1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.

1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.

1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.

1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.

1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.

1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.

1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.

1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.

Travels in Alaska, 1905

1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.

1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.

1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.

1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.

1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.

1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907

1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.

1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.

1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.

1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.

1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.

1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.

1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.

1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.

1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).

1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).

1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.

1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.

1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.

1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.

1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).

1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909

1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.

1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove

1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.

1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.

1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.

1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.

1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.

1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.

1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.

1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.

1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Provenance:
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Boarding schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45e31a2d8-afd7-4320-96c7-1f596f51c142
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-058
Online Media:

Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Extent:
11 Photograph albums
357 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Osage  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1899-1903
Scope and Contents:
Between 1899 and 1903 Frank Churchill was assigned to various locations in what was then called Indian Territory. Starting in June 1899, Churchill was appointed by President McKinley as Revenue Inspector to the Cherokee Nation. Under President Roosevelt, he was appointed as a Special Agent to plan a system of taxation for public schools in Indian Territory. Though based in Muskogee for a majority of their time in Indian Territory, the Churchills traveled quite a bit and the photographs reflect many of the different locations and tribal communities they visited. The negatives have been organized (where possible) chronologically. The albums, most likely put together at a later date by Mrs. Churchill, are not in any particular order although they tend to have date ranges.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058, Series 1
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4c842f557-a16b-4450-b216-39d7df2dfb4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref13

Pawhuska (Osage), Wyandotte, Quapaw, Sulphur Springs and Other Views in Indian Territory (Oklahoma)

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph album
150 Photographic prints
Container:
Box 7
Culture:
Osage  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Photographic prints
Date:
1901-1903
Scope and Contents:
This album contains 105 photographic prints taken by Frank Churchill from 1901to 1903 and later compiled by Clara Churchill. The majority of the photographs were taken in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in 1901 at the Osage, Wyandotte and Quapaw agencies and in 1902-1903 in Sulpher Springs, Platt National Park. The photographs are not arranged in chronological order (see the chronology for a timeline). The largest number of photographs in this album are from Pawhuska on the Osage reservation in June 1901 around quarterly payments (see also Album 6, P23358). These images include—Osage agency buildings, camp grounds, and street shots during quarterly payments. Other photographs of note include—Wyandotte students at the Seneca Training school and views at the Quapaw Agency. Additional views include—Spring River, Lost Creek, Grand Creek, Neosha River, Peoria and Baxter Springs (KS).
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058, File P23374
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection / Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments / 1.1: Photograph Albums
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv44cbc929a-c5c3-4026-8063-e7ee78476697
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref29

Moccasin part/fragment

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Nancy Dushane (Welabise'), Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Moccasin part/fragment
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, ribbon, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9845
Barcode:
019845.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62334f5be-3f19-481b-8c91-9faf153dd12d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20767
Online Media:

Leggings part/fragment

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Nancy Dushane (Welabise'), Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Leggings part/fragment
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, silk ribbon, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork, edge beaded
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9846
Barcode:
019846.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6751ff1e9-760b-4e43-af14-6bc7c7ef9b54
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20769
Online Media:

Garters/Legbands

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
John Mohawk, Oklahoma Shawnee, 1850-1929  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Garters/Legbands
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, ribbon, glass bead/beads, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork, edge beaded, appliquéd
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Native Term:
ga ka the pi tho wa
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9848
Barcode:
019848.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws68138283f-36c6-47fa-9ea3-81a00955e35b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20771
Online Media:

Sash/Belt

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
John Mohawk, Oklahoma Shawnee, 1850-1929  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Sash/Belt
Media/Materials:
Glass bead/beads, wool yarn, twine/string
Techniques:
Loom beadwork, braided
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Native Term:
ki ta bi tho wa na
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9849
Barcode:
019849.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b7396267-f5f8-47bd-aac9-8ca346902737
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20772
Online Media:

Garters/Legbands

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
John Quapaw, Quapaw  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Garters/Legbands
Media/Materials:
Glass bead/beads, wool yarn
Techniques:
Loom beadwork
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9850
Barcode:
019850.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws690e8df71-f74c-492c-bc57-993248c0adc5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20773
Online Media:

Tobacco bag

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
John Pascal, Oklahoma Delaware  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Tobacco bag
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Overlay beadwork
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Native Term:
ne ma pi ta ga
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9851
Barcode:
019851.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6f94aa5ee-eb33-416a-aad5-662cc99ad1e1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20774
Online Media:

Sash/Belt

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Nancy Dushane (Welabise'), Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Sash/Belt
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Fingerwoven
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Native Term:
skwa thap ya
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9841
Barcode:
019841.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws68ed0ecad-163b-477e-b7f7-48a06725d57c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20787
Online Media:

Stirring paddle

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Nancy Dushane (Welabise'), Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Stirring paddle
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food Gathering and Preparation
Native Term:
la hi za'
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9868
Barcode:
019868.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Food Gathering and Preparation
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6cd38489d-eb03-497e-901c-a9eea55e336e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20791
Online Media:

Needle

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Nancy Dushane (Welabise'), Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Needle
Media/Materials:
Metal needle
Techniques:
Hammered
Object Type:
Sewing Tools and Equipment
Native Term:
me tsi gun e go wa s'i
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9872
Barcode:
019872.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Sewing Tools and Equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d41f6492-4689-4a92-a540-46da2871b7bb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20795
Online Media:

Wampum string

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Carrie Bluejacket, Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Wampum string
Media/Materials:
Whelk shell beads (white wampum), cordage
Techniques:
Strung
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Native Term:
bet swa gi
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9874
Barcode:
019874.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6f0520d53-40a3-4e83-87ba-66b790bd86a6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20797
Online Media:

Wampum string (No image available)

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Carrie Bluejacket, Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Wampum string (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Shell beads, cordage
Techniques:
Strung
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Native Term:
bet swa gi
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9875
Barcode:
019875.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60ffe02fd-e3e8-4c93-a40c-bb0ef9580ccd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20798

Man's leggings

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
John Mohawk, Oklahoma Shawnee, 1850-1929  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Man's leggings
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, silk ribbon, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, ribbonwork appliqué
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Native Term:
ma te wa li
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9832
Barcode:
019832.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6ffc4f3a6-9af9-41de-ba6d-ae22129de98e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_21104
Online Media:

Spoon

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Nancy Dushane (Welabise'), Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Spoon
Media/Materials:
Buffalo horn
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Native Term:
wi wi sa's
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9981
Barcode:
019981.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6db99c620-dc82-4fd0-89bf-756d5e09a1ff
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_21174
Online Media:

Spoon

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
John Mohawk, Oklahoma Shawnee, 1850-1929  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Spoon
Media/Materials:
Buffalo horn
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Native Term:
ham kwa
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9982
Barcode:
019982.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws642d5758c-9763-4122-84cf-837ad0810e06
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_21175
Online Media:

Spoon/Ladle

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Nancy Dushane (Welabise'), Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Spoon/Ladle
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Native Term:
te' gwem
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9984
Barcode:
019984.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws624acc30e-9beb-4d78-bb91-653dd1ea56d3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_21177
Online Media:

Gorget

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Carrie Bluejacket, Oklahoma Shawnee  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Gorget
Media/Materials:
Conch shell/shells
Techniques:
Cut
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Native Term:
wa wi ya ha
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
2/54
Barcode:
020054.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws682129fee-f859-43d7-b0e3-4aebae37e3da
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_21248
Online Media:

Tweezers

Culture/People:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Edna W. Barnard (Edna A. Woehrmann/Mrs. William Clark Barnard), Non-Indian, 1887-1968  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Julius Carlebach (Julius Hirsch Carlebach), Non-Indian, 1909-1964  Search this
Object Name:
Tweezers
Media/Materials:
Metal
Techniques:
Hammered
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
20/7418
Barcode:
207418.000
See related items:
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b0a47eb7-3b76-4b22-8417-130a690418e3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_221215
Online Media:

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