The Leonard Mason papers mainly include material on the Swampy Cree and the Dunne-za (Beaver) from Mason's early anthropological research. Mason's research during the late 1930s to early 1940s among these communities is primarily focused on acculturation and material culture, but also includes a thorough bibliography of research on Swampy Cree culture. This collection consists of prints, slides, negatives, fieldnotes, manuscripts, receipts, and correspondence.
Scope and Contents:
The Leonard Mason papers reflect a portion of Mason's early anthropological work among the Swampy Cree and the Dunne-za (Beaver). From 1938 to 1940, while studying at the University of Minnesota, Mason researched among the Swampy Cree at the Hudson Bay Company's Oxford House in Manitoba, Canada. Following this research, Mason studied the Dunne-za of Alberta, Canada, while earning his PhD from Yale University. Most of this collection relates to Mason's research concerning his work among the Swampy Cree in the late 1930s. Mason's research is documented in this collection through prints, slides, negatives, fieldnotes, manuscripts, receipts, and correspondence.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Leonard Edward Mason (1913-2005) was an anthropologist who was active from the mid to late 20th century, best known for his research among the Swampy Cree and the peoples of Micronesia. Mason received his B.A. and M.A. from the University of Minnesota in 1935 and 1941 respectively. During his time at the University of Minnesota, Mason researched the Swampy Cree at the Hudson Bay Company's Oxford House in Manitoba, Canada. Before earning his PhD in Anthropology from Yale University in 1950, Mason held multiple governmental positions including the resident analyst at the Office of Residence and Intelligence at the United States State Department. While a graduate student at Yale University, Mason began his research in Micronesia among the Marshallese of the Marshall Islands.
After leaving Yale University, Leonard Mason became a faculty member at the University of Hawaii as first associate professor and later, professor. While there, Mason studied Pacific Island ethnology, with special interests in social and cultural change, resettled populations, and applied anthropology and research in Micronesia. Mason became an Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the University of Hawaii in 1969.
The Leonard Mason papers are open for research.
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Leomard Mason papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Images are of the following tribes: Assiniboine, Beaver (Tsattine), Blackfoot (Piegan), Bungi (Older Ojibwa), Chippewa (Older Ojibwa), Cree (Bush, Prairie, Wood, Woodland), Eskimo, Eskimo (Copper River), Kainah (Blood), Loucheux (Gwich'in), Zuni, Slavey (Dene Thá), Yellowknife (Ahtena).
Donald A. Cadzow worked on expeditions and archeological excavations for George Gustav Heye and the Museum of the American Indian from 1916 until 1927. Between 1917 and 1919, Cadzow, collected artifacts and archaeological materials from the Copper and Kogmollok Eskimo, the Loucheux, Slavey, and Woodland Cree of Alberta, Canada. In 1919, Cadzow assisted Alanson Skinner on an archeological excavation in Cayuga County, New York. Cadzow next worked with Mark Harrington: excavating a site on Staten Island, New York in 1920; on the Hawikku expedition to study Zuni Indian culture in McKinley County, New Mexico in 1921; and to Arkansas and Missouri in 1922. In 1924 and 1925 he conducted an expedition to a prehistoric Algonkian burial site on Frontenac Island, Cayuga Lake, in New York; traveled to the Bungi tribe in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, and the Prairie Cree in Saskatchewan, Canada. He continued this work in 1926 again visiting the Prairie Cree and also the Bush Cree in Saskatchewan, the Assiniboin in Saskatchewan and Alberta; the Iroquois and the Northern Piegan (Blackfoot) in Alberta. In 1927, the last year that Cadzow worked for Heye, he assisted George P. Putnam on an expedition to Baffin Island and the Hudson Bay district to visit the Sikosuilarmiut, Akuliarmiut, and Quaumauangmiut Eskimos.Donald A. Cadzow, the son of Hugh and Nellie Cadzow, was born in Auburn, New York in 1894. In 1911, at the age of 17, he traveled to the far Canadian Northwest to live with his uncle Daniel Cadzow at the Rampart House, a Hudson Bay Company trading post on the Alaska-Yukon boundary line. After five years there, Cadzow returned to the United States. He began working for George Gustav Heye in the fall of 1916, but enlisted as seaman in the U.S.N.R.F. on January 20, 1918, only to be released from service on December 22 that same year. He returned to work for Heye at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation on January 1, 1919, and worked there until 1928. In May of 1928 he took a job in the Bond Department of Lage & Co., a brokerage company in New York City. He was state archeologist for the Pennsylvania Historical Commission from circa 1929-39; and executive secretary from 1939-45. He was also treasurer of the Eastern States Archeological Federation from 1940-42. In 1945 he was named executive director of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and held the position until 1956. He died on February 9, 1960, in Pennsylvania. During his career Cadzow gave a number of lectures and radio talk programs, and published extensively in Indian Notes (Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York), for the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, in a variety of publications, and several books.
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