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Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
69,244 digital files
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Digital files
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 78 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1909. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the North Carolina Assistant Commissioner, staff officers, and field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, orders and circulars, monthly reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and claims.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes include letters and endorsements sent and received, registers of letters received, unregistered letters received, general and special orders and circulars received, registers of claimants for bounties and pay arrearages, and registers of complaints of illegal apprenticeships. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters received and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general and special orders and circulars received. Note: The document titled "Tax List for Persons County, 1867," part of the records of the Hillsboro agent on roll 27, is missing.

A few series were created in 1863–64, prior to formation of the Bureau, by Union military commanders and U. S. Treasury agents, and included in the Bureau records. Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers in that period. On roll 15, for example, the Register of Complaints also contains a register of contracts. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the table of contents to make full use of these records.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1909.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870 the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN NORTH CAROLINA

ORGANIZATION

Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey, the first Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina, established his headquarters at Raleigh in June 1865. Whittlesey divided the state into four districts and thereunder into subdistricts. The districts included Newberne, Raleigh, Wilmington, and Goldsboro. The officers in charge of districts were designated superintendents, and those in charge of subdistricts were given the title of assistant superintendents. On July 1, 1867, the basic unit of organization for North Carolina was changed to the subdistrict. Eleven subdistricts were established, each containing from two to four subdivisions. The officers in charge of the subdistricts were designated subassistant commissioners, and those who administered smaller segments of the subdistrict were titled assistant subassistant commissioners. Each of the subassistant commissioners reported directly to the Assistant Commissioner.

March 1, 1868, marked the last change in the organization of the North Carolina Bureau. The state was divided into the four subdistricts of Morganton, Wilmington, Raleigh, and Goldsboro, but there were provisions for smaller subdivisions in each subdistrict. This new subdivision of the state resembled the first organizational structure, although titles for the various officers remained the same as those of the second. By May 1869 all of the Bureau offices and functions except education, were phased out in North Carolina, and the Assistant Commissioner closed his office the first week of that month.

The following officers succeeded Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey as Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina: Bvt. Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger, May–June 1866; Bvt. Maj. Gen. John C. Robinson, June–November 1866; Col. James V. Bomford, November 1866–April 1867 (acting assistant commissioner); Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles, April 1867–October 1868; Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob F. Chur, October 1868–January 1869; and Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton, April–May 1869.

ACTIVITIES

The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations and provided medical relief to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, and worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools.

When Col. E. Whittlesey assumed office as Assistant Commissioner for North Carolina in June 1865, he found large numbers of both freedmen and white refugees in desperate need of relief. To prevent widespread starvation and destitution in the state, the Freedmen's Bureau issued more than 500,000 rations from July through September. A large percentage of rations were issued to the families of white Confederate soldiers who died during military service. Despite a population of more than 300,000 by September 1865, only 5,000 freedpeople had received aid from the Bureau, mostly women and children. By January 1866, with aid being refused to those persons able to work, the number of rations issued to white refugees and freedmen diminished. However, because of crop failures and other emergencies, the Bureau at various periods between 1867 and 1868 issued food and clothing to those in dire need.1

To further aid and provide medical relief to the nearly 14,000 freedmen scattered in camps, settlements, and large towns, the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina provided physicians and medical supplies, and opened hospitals. The Bureau established hospitals at Raleigh, Newberne, Beaufort, Roanoke Island, Kinston, Wilmington, Salisbury, and Charlotte. To protect against the spread of smallpox throughout the state, special hospitals were opened at Beaufort, Newberne, Raleigh, Greensboro, and Wilmington. Thousands of freedmen were vaccinated, and the vaccine was distributed to plantation owners. Also, routine inspections were made at freedmen camps and settlements by assistant superintendents and medical officers, and Bureau subdistrict officers were instructed to work closely with civil authorities in matters concerning public health and safety.2

The regulation of written labor agreements between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Bureau in North Carolina. In a circular issued July 5, 1865 (Circular Number 2), Assistant Commissioner Whittlesey told his subordinates that freedmen should be free to bargain with their prospective employers, and both parties should sign written agreements in the presence of a Bureau official. Freedmen who failed to adhere to signed agreements were subject to forfeit all or part of their wages. Employers who dismissed employees without just cause and failed to pay them were required to either make payment or provisions for laborers and their families for the remainder of the contract. If necessary, requirements were to be enforced by military authorities. The average wage for employees was $10 per month for men and $6 per month for women. Although the less restrictive system of crop sharing was popular among freedmen, it was the subject of numerous complaints, and the Bureau advised against it because of such abuses as high costs for provisions charged by employers during the season.3

Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was also a priority of the Bureau in North Carolina. Following the Civil War, several Southern states, including North Carolina, enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes, and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard on May 30, 1865 (Circular Number 5), Assistant Commissioners were authorized, in places where civil law had been interrupted and blacks' rights to justice were being denied, to adjudicate cases between blacks themselves and between blacks and whites.4

On July 13, 1866, after receiving notice from the Governor of North Carolina that "there now exists under the laws of this State no discrimination in the administration of justice to the prejudice of free persons of color," then–Assistant Commissioner John C. Robinson issued General Orders Number 3. The orders directed Bureau officers and agents to refer all cases involving freedmen, with the exception of those concerning labor agreements witnessed or approved by Bureau officials, to the appropriate state or county court. Bureau officers were further ordered (General Orders Number 5, August 3, 1866) to attend trials held by state authorities involving labor contracts not approved by the Bureau, to insure fair treatment of freedmen. Cases determined to be unjust could be resumed under the jurisdiction of the Bureau. If civil authorities failed or neglected to arrest persons who committed crimes, regardless of color, Bureau officers were authorized to make arrests and hold such individuals for the appropriate court.5

Discriminatory clauses in the laws regarding the apprenticing of black children by North Carolina courts seriously hindered the Freedmen's Bureau's efforts to obtain justice for freedmen. Under North Carolina law, as part of the black codes, thousands of black children were bound out to their former owners without their parents' consent. Also, unlike white females who were apprenticed until the age of 18, black females were bound until age 21. Those black children whose parents were not considered by county courts to be regularly employed in "some honest, industrious occupation" could be bound out. The Bureau saw the North Carolina laws as a subtle attempt to re–enslave freedmen. In November 1866, with pressure from the Bureau, the clauses in the laws were removed and many of the apprenticeship agreements were cancelled. However, the practice of illegally apprenticing black children remained a major problem in many counties in North Carolina. Not until the North Carolina Supreme Court in January 1867 ruled "Null and Void" any apprenticeship contracts, whether the child was black or white, were black parents able to get significant relief regarding the illegal apprenticeship of their children.6

The Freedmen's Bureau's educational activities in North Carolina officially began with the appointment of F. A. Fiske as superintendent of schools on August 9, 1865 (Special Orders Number 21). The Bureau, for the most part, offered advice, protection, and financial assistance to local citizens interested in starting schools. Fiske frequently acted as an intermediary between freedmen and members of the benevolent societies that offered to provide teachers and aid for schools. He corresponded routinely with state and local authorities, members of benevolent societies, and with Bureau officers stationed in the subdistricts. In addition, he collected information about the schools and about the attitudes of the white populace toward the education of freedmen and reported his findings to Bureau headquarters at Washington. In November 1865, Fiske reported that there were some 61 schools and 97 teachers providing instruction for over 5,000 students. At the end of February 1866, there were 115 schools and 151 teachers providing education for more than 11,000 pupils. While the bulk of the aid for freedmen schools came largely from northern benevolent societies, freedmen themselves contributed significantly in the establishment and maintenance of their own schools.7

On July 31, 1868, Fiske resigned and H. C. Vogell succeeded him. The office of the Assistant Commissioner was terminated in the first week of May 1869, but the superintendent of education remained, and it was not until August 31, 1870 that Vogell's appointment was withdrawn.

ENDNOTES

1 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1255, p. 25; Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina, October 9, 1867, pp. 3 – 4, October 20, 1868 [pp. 2 – 3], Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Record Group (RG) 105, NARA.

2 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 107 – 108.

3 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, p. 4; Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, p. 104; For a discussion of wage and share contracts relating to the Freedmen's Bureau's activities in North Carolina, see Roberta Sue Alexander, North Carolina Faces the Freedmen; Race Relations During Presidential Reconstruction, 1865–67 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1985), pp. 96 – 112.

4 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess. Serial Vol. 1255, p. 45.

5 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 101 – 102.

6 Alexander, North Carolina Faces the Freedmen, pp.112 – 119; See also, Rebecca Scott, "The Battle Over the Child: Child Apprenticeship and the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina," Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives 10, No. 2 ( Summer 1978): 101 – 113.

7 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 104 – 105.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in North Carolina:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for North Carolina. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment-related records.

NORTH CAROLINA HEADQUARTERS

June 1865—May 1866 -- Assistant Commissioner Col. Elipahalet Whittlesey

May—June 1866 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger

June—November 1866 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. John C. Robinson

November 1866—April 1867 -- Acting Assistant Commissioner Col. James V. Bomford

April 1867—October 1868 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A Miles

October 1868—January 1869 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob F. Chur

April—May 1869 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton

ASHEVILLE

May-Nov. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Patrick E. Murphy

July 1867-Sept. 1868 -- Agent Oscar Eastmond

BEAUFORT

Dec. 1865-June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Richard Dillon

June 1867-Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Richard Dillon

Mar.-June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner, Owen Jay Sweet

July-Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner, E. C. Gaskill

Sept.-Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Louis E. Granger

CHARLOTTE

May—Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A.W. Shaffer

Sept.—Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner H.M. Lazalel

Oct. 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner T.O. McAlpine

Jan.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent T.O. McAlpine

EDENTON

July 1867—May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C.W. Dodge

June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner E.C. Gaskill

July—Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C.W. Dodge

Sept.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent C.W. Dodge

ELIZABETH CITY

Jan.—July 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent William H. Doherty

July 1867—Dec. 1868 -- Agent William H. Doherty

FAYETTEVILLE

Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Commissioner Nicholas Yeager

Dec. 1865—Mar. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent H. C. Laurence

Aug.—Sept. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Justin Hadger

May—Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner M. Gogswell

Jan.—Mar. 1868 -- Agent Manchester W. Weld

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Richard Dillon

FRANKLIN

Sept.—Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner George S. Hawley

Jan.-Aug. 1868 -- Agent George S. Hawley

FRANKLINTON

July 1866—July1867 -- Assistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay

GOLDSBORO

July—Aug. 1865 -- Superintendent J. Murray Hoag

Dec. 1865—May 1866 -- Superintendent G. O. Glavis

May—Aug. 1866 -- Superintendent J. W. Stickney

Feb.—May 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Hannibal D. Norton

May 1867—Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C. E. Compton

July—Sept. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Allison

GRAHAM

Mar.—May 1868 -- Agent Manchester W. Weld

May—Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Frederick W. Liedtke

GREENSBORO

July 1865—Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Asa Teal

Aug. 1866—May 1867 -- Agent A. Dilsworth

Jan.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent Hugo Hillebrandt

June—Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. W. Bolenius

Oct. 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Hugo Hillebrandt

HALIFAX

Apr. 1866—Apr. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent John M. Foote

HENDERSON

July 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay

Mar.—July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Frank A. Page

Aug.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent E. T. Lamberton

HILSSBORO

May 1866—Sept.1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Issac Porter

June—Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay

Feb. 1868 -- Agent James Carle

Mar.—May 1868 -- Agent Charles B. Whittemore

May—June 1868 -- Agent Manchester W. Weld

JEFFERSON

July—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William N. Thompson

Jan.—July 1868 -- Agent William N. Thompson

KINSTON

May—Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. Hillebrandt

Aug. 1866—Jan. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William F. Cox

Mar.—Sept. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. H. Foster

Dec. 1867—Jan. 1867 -- Agent J. D. Black

Mar.—Sept. 1868 -- Agent J. D. Black (also Goldsboro)

Sept.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent George S. Hawley (also Godlsboro)

LEXINGTON

Aug.—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. F. Henderson

Jan.—Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Austin W. Fuller

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent W. F. Henderson

LINCOLNTON

July—Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. O. McAlpine

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent William Birnie

LUMBERTON

Apr. 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Agent William Birnie

Feb.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Alfred Thomas

MAGNOLIA

Jan.—Dec. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent H. H. Foster

July—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner L. Echelberry

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent J. H. Curren

MORGANTON

May 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Hannibal D. Norton

Jan.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Hannibal D. Norton

NEWBERNE (Eastern District)

Aug.—Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent Horace James

Jan.—May 1866 -- Superintendent F.A. Seely

June 1866 -- Superintendent A. Brady

June—Aug. 1866 -- Superintendent William H. Wieget

Aug. 1866—July 1867 -- Superintendent Stephen Moore

July 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Commissioner Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)

Mar.—Oct. 1868 -- Agent Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)

Oct.—Dec. 1868 -- Bureau Officer Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)

NEWBERNE (Subdistrict)

Oct. 1865—Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Isaac A. Rosekrans

Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent A. W. McKillip

Jan.—Mar. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats

Jan.—Mar. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent A. W. Bolenius

NEWBERNE (Claims Division)

July—Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats

Sept.—Oct. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent William H. Doherty

Nov. 1866—Mar. 1871 -- Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats

Mar. 1871—Aug. 1872 -- Cashier C. A. Nelson

OXFORD

July 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent William Jones

PLYMOUTH

May 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent C. W. Dodge

July 1867—Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John M. Foote

Oct.—Dec. 1868 -- Bureau Officer John M. Foote

RALEIGH

July 1865—Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent Dexter E. Clapp

Jan.—Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent Aquila Wiley

Apr.—Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent A. G. Bready

Jan.—May 1867 -- Superintendent M. Cogswell

May—July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Asa Bird Gardner

Aug. 1866—May 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent T. D. McAlpine

June 1867—Aug. 1868 -- Agent H. C. Vogell

Aug.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent C. B. Whittemore

ROCKINGHAM

June—July 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner T. D. McAlpine

July 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Agent William MacFarland

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent William MacFarland (also Wadesboro)

ROCKY MOUNT

Dec. 1865—Jan. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Thomas Richards

Jan.—July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent William F. Cox

July 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent J.F. Allison

July 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Agent William A. Cutter

Feb.—Mar. 1868 -- Agent Gardiner Marriam

Mar.—June 1868 -- Agent A. W. Fuller

June—Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Robert G. Heiner

SALISBURY (Western District)

Feb.—May 1866 -- Superintendent Clinton A. Cilley

May—July 1866 -- Superintendent Stephen Moore

Aug. 1866—Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent John R. Edie

Jan.—Oct 1868 -- Superintendent William A. Cutter

SMITHFIELD

May 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent J. F. Curren

STATESVILLE

July 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. W. Jones

Jan.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent W. W. Jones

Nov.—Dec. 1868 -- Bureau Officer W. W. Jones

TRENT RIVER SETTLEMENT (James City, Newberne Subdistrict)

July 1866—May 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent and Assistant Quartermaster A. W. McKillip

WASHINGTON

Jan.—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Austin W. Fuller

July—Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Austin W. Fuller

Feb.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Isaac A. Rosekrans

WHITEVILLE

Jan.—May 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent E. H. McQuigg

June 1866—Feb. 1 -- Assistant Superintendent L. Echelberry

WILKESBORO

Sept.—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Allison

Mar.—June 1868 -- Agent James Carle

WILMINGTON (Southern District)

Sept. 1865—Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent Charles J. Wickersham

Feb.—Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent William Beadle

Mar.—Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent Charles J. Wickersham

Apr. 1866—June 1867 -- Superintendent Allan Rutherford

June—Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford

Sept. 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford (4th Subdistrict)

Mar. 1868—June 1869 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford

June 1869—Mar. 1870 -- Agent Allan Rutherford
Related Archival Materials note:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commerical use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
American South  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1909
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1909
Online Media:

Charles Townes Innovative Lives Presentation

Topic:
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Speaker:
Berger, Sondra  Search this
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Interviewee:
Townes, Charles, Dr., 1915-  Search this
Names:
Inventors -- Chronological subdivision--1930-2000  Search this
Physicists -- Chronological subdivision--1930-2000  Search this
Interviewer:
Nahory, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Videotapes
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Interviews
Date:
1998-12-02
Scope and Contents:
Videotaped interview with Charles Townes, inventor of the MASER (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). The interview was part of the "Innovative Lives" public program series. Videotapes include VHS and Beta Cam SP formats.
Arrangement:
Divided into four series.

Series 1: Original videos

Series 2: Master videos

Series 3: Reference videos

Series 4; Digital images
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Townes was born in Greenville, S.C., July 28, 1915. Graduated from Furman University (1935), Duke University (1936), and the California Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1939). Appointed to faculty of Columbia University, 1948, where he conceived the idea for the maser. Received Nobel Prize for physics for advances in quantum electronics, 1964.
Provenance:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.,Room 1016, MRC 604, 12th and Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20560.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use of Series 3 on site, by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Signed oral history releases on file.
Topic:
Electronics -- 1960-2000  Search this
Masers  Search this
Inventions -- 1950-2000  Search this
Physics -- 1960-1990  Search this
Astronomy -- 1960-2000  Search this
Nobel Prizes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Charles Townes Innovative Lives Presentation, 1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0673
See more items in:
Charles Townes Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0673

Playbill for 'Master Harold' …and the boys

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Lyceum Theatre, American, founded 1903  Search this
Subject of:
Danny Glover, American, born 1946  Search this
Zakes Mokae, South African, 1934 - 2009  Search this
Lonny Price, American, born 1959  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 1/2 x 5 5/8 in. (21.6 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1982
Topic:
African American  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Drama (Theatre)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.63
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd587833493-3e52-477d-947d-5b52493e7f97
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.63
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  • View Playbill for 'Master Harold' …and the boys digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Pseudophilomedes ferulanus

Collector:
Duke University Marine Laboratory  Search this
Expedition:
Beaufort Shelf Transect  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Depth (m):
130 - 130
Prep Count:
37
Preparation:
Slide
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Remarks:
Taxa card says 36 slides
Sex:
female
female
Stage:
ovigerous
Place:
off Beaufort, North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
6 Apr 1965
Common name:
Mussel Shrimp
Published Name:
Pseudophilomedes ferulanus Kornicker, 1958
USNM Number:
113020
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/34dd8ef7e-bda6-493d-a8a4-1d334e67ec14
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_889940

Pseudophilomedes ferulanus

Collector:
Duke University Marine Laboratory  Search this
Expedition:
Beaufort Shelf Transect  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Depth (m):
160 - 160
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
off Beaufort, North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
6 Apr 1965
Common name:
Mussel Shrimp
Published Name:
Pseudophilomedes ferulanus Kornicker, 1958
USNM Number:
113022
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a126d3d0-2311-4740-863d-68a16ad3c51c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_889957

"They called me 'race traitor'": Joan Trumpauer Mulholland's lifetime of resistance

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 11 Sep 2020 19:58:23 +0000
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_3becdde16290b419e91613a568f275c6

Clavelina oblonga

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Bluefin R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
30 - 30
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
Off North Carolina, North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
7 Feb 1981
Common name:
Tunicates
Published Name:
Clavelina oblonga Herdman, 1880
USNM Number:
23617
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Chordata
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b0882a7a-4c88-4b98-89f7-66a49911f7c6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_618607

Astropecten articulatus

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Dan Moore R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
28 - 28
Preparation:
Dry
Place:
Off North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
12 Aug 1981
Common name:
Asteroids
Published Name:
Astropecten articulatus (Say, 1825)
Astropecten comptus Verrill, 1915
USNM Number:
E29869
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Echinodermata
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3af1a3ebb-5b97-4c6e-8a28-bc014f208d88
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_337965

Scyllarus chacei

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Eastward R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
60 - 60
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
Off North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
4 Mar 1981
Common name:
Slipper Lobsters
Published Name:
Scyllarus chacei Holthuis, 1960
USNM Number:
220968
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3070cb46e-831d-4d2b-b3a1-e5b9763f3f77
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_174954

Scyllarus depressus

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Eastward R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
69 - 69
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
Off North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
4 Mar 1981
Common name:
Slipper Lobsters
Published Name:
Scyllarus depressus (Smith, 1881)
USNM Number:
220967
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/36cb22152-2d04-4850-bbfa-0fdd1746e0cc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_174953

Scyllarus depressus

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Dan Moore R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
116 - 116
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
Off North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
14 May 1981
Common name:
Slipper Lobsters
Published Name:
Scyllarus depressus (Smith, 1881)
USNM Number:
209670
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a6262971-6310-4e2d-8af8-f2b4f954818b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_164422

Scyllarus depressus

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Dan Moore R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
100 - 100
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
Off North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
14 May 1981
Common name:
Slipper Lobsters
Published Name:
Scyllarus depressus (Smith, 1881)
USNM Number:
209671
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/32d42aeac-5d57-4106-bf6b-bbdb79ca37fb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_164423

Scyllarus depressus

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Dan Moore R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
29 - 29
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
Off North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
19 May 1981
Common name:
Slipper Lobsters
Published Name:
Scyllarus depressus (Smith, 1881)
USNM Number:
209672
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/34c53fe86-0fa6-4251-8e8f-25edb1ffcfb2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_164424

Scyllarus depressus

Collector:
Duke University For BLM/ MMS  Search this
Expedition:
LMRS  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean  Search this
Vessel:
Cape Hatteras R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
100 - 100
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Place:
Off North Carolina, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
11 Nov 1981
Common name:
Slipper Lobsters
Published Name:
Scyllarus depressus (Smith, 1881)
USNM Number:
209673
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
BOEM Collections
South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Living Marine Resources Study
LMRS
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/36d93b5c1-1445-4aa7-b162-2fe571476a2d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_164425

Cyperus strigosus L.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Mildred G. Stites  Search this
Place:
Duke University, North Carolina, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Transcribed d/m/y: 22/11/34
Common name:
Umbrella Sedge
strawcolored flatsedge
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Cyperus strigosus L.
Barcode:
02250216
USNM Number:
152173
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3c5955a8f-74ee-48ca-8b19-955c5d4ecc54
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_13506798

Cyperus flavescens L.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Mildred G. Stites  Search this
Place:
Duke University, North Carolina, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Transcribed d/m/y: 14/12/34
Common name:
yellow flatsedge
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Cyperus flavescens L.
Barcode:
02215910
USNM Number:
259426
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/319c7732d-79b3-4e80-b05b-c4f875e00bf1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_13480291

Cyperus flavescens L.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Mildred G. Stites  Search this
Place:
Duke University, North Carolina, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Transcribed d/m/y: 23/11/34
Common name:
yellow flatsedge
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Cyperus flavescens L.
Barcode:
02215918
USNM Number:
341564
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37184ef33-d471-44bc-9057-f5a015ccfae8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_13480292

Cyperus polystachyos var. texensis (Torr.) Fernald

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Donovan S. Correll  Search this
Place:
Durham Co, In moist, low soil in Compartment #66, Duke University Forest, North Carolina, United States, North America
Collection Date:
6 Oct 1937
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Cyperus polystachyos var. texensis (Torr.) Fernald
Barcode:
02217901
USNM Number:
3164256
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3729da77f-6513-45af-8733-569d2df2da21
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_13478189

Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Mildred G. Stites  Search this
Place:
Duke University, North Carolina, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Transcribed d/m/y: 22/11/34
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud.
Barcode:
02218142
USNM Number:
152220
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3f365d484-97f0-43b9-8d61-dc0b4401d84f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_13478268

Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Mildred G. Stites  Search this
Place:
Duke University, North Carolina, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Transcribed d/m/y: 23/11/34
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud.
Barcode:
02218139
USNM Number:
818143
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38b0d0bce-3591-449c-801c-3b4d664e5461
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_13478266

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