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Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection

Artist:
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Names:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Extent:
196.8 Linear feet
186 Nitrate negatives
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Photographs
Place:
New York, New York
Date:
1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972
Summary:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.
Scope and Contents:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.

Correspondence is with collectors, museums, galleries, artists, friends, family, charity organizations, admirers and those admired by Cornell, and World War II European pen pals. Discussions about the appreciation, donation, sale, purchase, and exhibition of Cornell's works are frequent, with the inclusion of shipping and loan documentation or notices of payment installments. Galleries and museums frequently request that Cornell agree to an exhibition, which he often declines, and fans request free works be mailed or affordable works be sold to them. With friends, artists, and those he admired, Cornell discussed topics that fascinate him, included bits of poetry or philosophical musings, sent clippings or a collaged letter, and occasionally discussed a project or work in process. After World War II, when so many were displaced by the war in Europe, Cornell answered ads for pen pals in the "Christian Science Monitor," often responding to requests for clothing or other goods, and sometimes exchanging many letters over several years. Family correspondence is with his mother, sisters, brother, and others, and often notes activities of the day, foods eaten, and general musings, as well as occasionally mentioning a project or artwork. Correspondents of note include Stan Brakhage, Betty Freeman, Charles Henri Ford, Allegra Kent, Yayoi Kusama, Roberto Matta, Marianne Moore, Octavio Paz, Sonia Sekula, Pavel Tchelitchew, Parker Tyler, Dorothea Tanning, and Betsy von Furstenberg, among others.

Cornell was often preoccupied with his thoughts, feelings, memories, a project or thematic "exploration," and jotted notes on seemingly any surface available. Notes and musings are on napkins, the backs of envelopes, newspaper clippings, and paper bags from record and magazine stores. Frequently, an observation would trigger a lengthy nostalgic moment, or a "feé," fairy-like child or girl, would capture his imagination and lead him to thoughts of 18th-century ballerinas and silent film stars. Cornell wrote longer diary notes, sometimes expanding on an earlier notation or emotion, and often wrote when he experienced trouble sleeping or woke early. Drafted letters to imaginary muses or admired individuals are interspersed among diaries, often revealing Cornell's yearnings to find emotional intimacy and human connection. Over time, Cornell revisited his notes and occasionally made further notations about renewed thoughts on a topic, dating the note with "revisited" or "reviewed." Notes are often written in a stream-of-consciousness style, for example, jumping from the mention of a record album or composer, to a ballerina of the same period, a note about a French poet, the memory of childhood, or an observation made earlier in the day, all in the space of a few lines. Notes about artistic processes or meanings behind works or images do occasionally emerge from the tangled, poetic notations. Notes also often provide insights into Cornell's internal emotional state and give clues about his intentions behind an artwork or a particular thematic fixation.

Financial materials document Cornell's professional and personal business activities, including the sale of artworks, annual expenses for supplies and household incidentals, payments and schedules for personal assistants, receipts for donations to charities and nonprofits, and tax documents. There is also information about who worked as assistants, or "helpers," in his later years and where Cornell purchased art supplies. Additionally, specific details are documented through receipts and invoices, such as what kind of paint he purchased. Estate records include preparations made for Cornell's artworks after his death, and clippings about other deceased artist's estates show that he thought often about such arrangements in his later years.

Exhibition files highlight several select solo exhibitions for Cornell, as well as preparations and planning for the "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" in honor of his brother in 1966. Also included are several early exhibition catalogs and announcements, including "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932) and "Exhibition of Objects (Bibloquet) by Joseph Cornell" (December 6-31, 1939) at the Julien Levy Gallery, and "Romantic Museum: Portraits of Women, Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946) at the Hugo Gallery.

Film projects and collected film materials consist of files related to Cornell's various experimental film projects: "Aviary," "Cappuccino," "Centuries of June," "Fable for Fountains," "Nymphlight," "Serafina's Garden," and unrealized film scenario "Monsieur Phot." Files include film-making notes, correspondence, and photographs. Cornell's interest in film also led him to collect film-related materials, such as film stills, film posters, and screening programs. Scattered correspondence documents the interest other institutions and individuals had in purchasing and viewing his collection. Though most of his collected film stills and movie posters were donated to the Anthology Film Archives, film stills from "Escape Me Never" (1935) and "The Passion of Joan of Arc" (1928) are still within the collection, as well as film-screening programs for Cornell's collection of films.

Writing and design projects document Cornell's work authoring articles and designing issues of specialty dance magazine "Dance Index," and his layouts for popular magazines like "Good Housekeeping," "House and Garden," and "Mademoiselle." Other writing projects include brochures dedicated to opera singers Maria Malibran and Giulia Grisi, "Maria" and "Bel Canto Pet." Materials used for these brochures, such as copper photo engraving plates, are also found. Design work includes a series of Christmas cards created with The Museum of Modern Art as well as traced patterns ("textile tracings") and design clippings from Cornell's time working as a "textile designer" for Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio.

Cornell acquired troves of source material from bookstalls, antique stores, sporting good and department stores, hardware stores, and magazine and record shops. He kept boxes and files of material on admired individuals, such as actresses, artists, dancers, and singers, as well as on art projects or thematic "explorations." Files are on general topics such as American history, scientific phenomena, animals, plants, and humankind, as well as on series of artworks, such as "Castles," "Homage to the Romantic Ballet," and "Medici Slot Machines." Focused "exploration" projects include "Celestial Theatre," "Colombier," "GC 44," and "Switzerland," among others. Materials include photographs, photostats, maps, book fragments, autographed letters, notes, collage clippings and cutouts, collected prints and engravings, box and collage fragments, and scattered artifacts.

Collected ephemera includes large amounts of blank postcards and greeting cards, stamps, collected bus and train tickets, food labels and packaging, decals, and other materials. Artifacts are three-dimensional collected objects and source objects, which include found objects from the streets, dried flowers, and pieces of nature gathered from walks around his neighborhood. Cornell may have gathered materials because they inspired a memory or nostalgic feeling, or because they fit with a bin of other similar objects to select from for an artwork in progress.

Photographs found within the collection are of Cornell at work and as a child with family. Also found are assorted personal and family photographs, photographs of Cornell's attic and garage storage, and photographs of his Utopia Parkway house. Photographs of artwork include few installation photographs, in addition to photographs of Cornell's boxes and collages. Collected photographic materials include vintage photographs, such as tintypes, a cyanotype, stereoscopic glass slides, albumen prints, cabinet cards, and cartes-de-visite. Cornell also collected cased photographs, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and one opalotype. Negatives and photostats were often produced from various prints and even other photographs and used in Cornell's boxes and collages. Images are of men and women, actors, authors, dancers, performers, well-known men and women, royalty, places, and artwork. Photographs of note include those by Hans Namuth of Willem and Lisa de Kooning and of Edward Hopper's bedroom; photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson; a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron; photographs by Brassai; and a photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz from "Camerawork."

Also found in the collection are works of art by others, including a sketch by Pavel Tchelitchew, as well as artwork by Cornell, such as unfinished collages, Rorschach drawings or ink blots, and childhood artwork. Printed material includes assorted bulletins, flyers, exhibition materials for other artists, journals, and sent printed membership and charity materials. Magazines, including "View," are also included, and often have annotations by Cornell or a note to "cut" or "review" with page numbers. A large amount of magazine and newspaper clippings are in the collection, sometimes collected with a group of like material by Cornell, and at other times simply gathered in heaps. Occasional annotations are also found on the clippings.

Cornell's personal library and book collection includes over 2500 titles, ranging from fiction, poetry, and cinema, to history, science, and travel. Notable among the titles are "Baedeker's" travel guides that Cornell often sourced for his "Hotel" box series, as well as an influential publication by Max Ernst, "La Femme 100 têtes," which includes a typed letter and exhibition flyer tucked within. Books often have annotations, some fairly extensive, by Cornell, and assorted collected items, notes, and correspondence tucked between pages. Pages were often cut by Cornell, either to make photostats and use in a box, or to file with other thematic "explorations." A wide range of authors and topics provide insight into Cornell's interests and to ideas behind artwork and diary notes. Cornell's collection of record albums includes over 145 records. These contain inserted notes and clippings and are often referenced in diary notes Cornell made, noting a recent album or song listened to while at work in his studio.

The papers of Cornell's mother, Helen Storms Cornell, and his brother, Robert Cornell, are also included in the collection. Both lived with Cornell his whole life, spending the most time with him at their home at 3708 Utopia Parkway. Financial materials document shared responsibilities for billing, utilities, household fixes and chores, and expenditures, and Helen kept detailed financial records in a series of ledgers. Robert notes when he borrowed money from Cornell, or when he means to pay Cornell back for the purchase of a typewriter. Activities documented in diaries also occasionally cross paths with Cornell, noting his visitors or an exchange of letters continued after introductions through Cornell. Personal activities, such as Robert's interest in his train collection and his drawing projects and cartoon series, are also documented.
Arrangement:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection is arranged into 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1972 (Boxes 1, 98, OV118; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1813, 1934-circa 1973 (Boxes 1-8, 86; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Notes, 1940-1976 (Boxes 8-10, 98-99, 135, OV108, OV119; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business and Estate Records, 1950-1978 (Boxes 10-14; 4.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1932-1973 (Box 14; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Film Projects and Collected Film Materials, circa 1924-1972 (Boxes 14-16, 100, 133; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Writing and Design Projects, circa 1910s, 1936-1962 (Boxes 16-18, 86, 100, 131-132, OV109-OV111, OV120-OV122; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Source Material, 1750-circa 1911, 1926-1972 (Boxes 19-49, 86-92, 96, 100-105, 126-130, 132-137, OV112-OV115, OV125; 42.2 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, 1768, circa 1839-1972 (Boxes 49-52; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1800s-1972 (Boxes 52-56, 80-86, 93, 106, 128, 133, OV116, OV123-OV124; 7.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1810-1972 (Boxes 56-57, 107, OV117; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1855-1972 (Boxes 57-76, 94-96, 107; 16 linear feet)

Series 13: Book Collection and Personal Library, 1722-1980 (99.8 linear feet)

Series 14: Record Album Collection, circa 1925-1974 (3.2 linear feet)

Series 15: Cornell Family Papers, 1910-1980 (Boxes 77-79, 97, 107; 3.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) was a self-taught assemblage and collage artist, and filmmaker, active in New York City. He was born in Nyack, New York on December 24, 1903, and died of heart failure at his home in Queens, New York on December 29, 1972. The oldest of four children, he was born Joseph I. Cornell to his mother, Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), and his father, Joseph I. Cornell (1875-1917). Cornell had two younger sisters, Elizabeth ("Betty") Cornell Benton (1905-2000) and Helen ("Sissy") Cornell Jagger (1906-2001), as well as one brother, Robert Cornell (1910-1965), who had cerebral palsy.

Cornell attended the Phillips Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, beginning shortly after his father's death in 1917. He attended for four years but did not receive a diploma, and soon began work as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in Manhattan. His work took him, by foot, through the city, visiting secondhand bookshops on Fourth Avenue, browsing music stores and magazine shops, and catching early shows at the Metropolitan Opera House. He would occasionally wait outside the stage doors for favorite singers and dancers to emerge, requesting signatures on photographs or bits of costumes.

Around 1926, Cornell joined the Christian Science Church, joined by his brother Robert shortly thereafter, and both continued to be lifelong members. Cornell kept a number of books in his personal library on Christian Science teachings and regularly subscribed to "The Christian Science Monitor."

After living in several rental houses in Bayside, New York, Cornell's mother purchased a house for the family in 1929 in Flushing, Queens. Cornell, along with his mother and brother, would live at 3708 Utopia Parkway, for the rest of their lives. His two sisters soon married and moved away, eventually settling in Westhampton, Long Island and in the poultry-farming business.

With no formal art training to speak of, Cornell's first work was a Max Ernst-inspired collage, "Untitled (Schooner)," created in 1931. He was especially inspired by Ernst's collage novel, "La Femme 100 têtes," published in 1929. French artist Odilon Redon was also among the few artists Cornell named as an influence on his art. His first sculptural works were small, cardboard pill boxes with bits of ephemera, costume adornments, and nature hidden inside. Cornell also created a series of glass bell jar works, placing small trinkets and Victorian-era-like compositions within. It was these early collages and bell jar works that were included in Cornell's debut exhibition, "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932), a group show at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell designed the announcement for the show and exhibited alongside Max Ernst, Man Ray, Pierre Roy, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Atget, George Platt Lynes, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dalí. Months later, Cornell was invited to have his first solo show, "Objects by Joseph Cornell: Minutiae, Glass Bells, Shadow Boxes, Coups d'Oeil, Jouets Surréalistes" (November 26-December 30, 1932), also at the Julien Levy Gallery.

In 1932, after eleven years of work, Cornell was laid off from the William Whitman Company due to the Great Depression. Soon after, he took on more responsibility in the church, working part-time as an attendant in the Christian Science Reading Room in Great Neck, New York. Beginning in 1933, he taught Sunday school classes for three years and in 1935, became the Sunday school librarian. However, his religious activities and artistic ventures continued to remain separate.

In the early 1930s, Cornell progressed from movie lover to filmmaker. When Julien Levy began his New York Film Society in 1933, holding screenings of various experimental films in the gallery, Cornell began buying and collecting films and film stills in earnest. He set up a 16-millimeter projector in his home to screen favorites, such as those by Georges Méliès, D.W. Griffith, and Louis Feuillade. His collection quickly grew to over 2,500 film stills and several hundred films, and included silent era films, such as nature documentaries, goofy newsreels, travelogues, early cartoons, and slapstick comedies, as well as several feature films. In 1933, Cornell wrote a screenplay, or "scenario," entitled "Monsieur Phot." Between 1935 and 1937, Cornell also occasionally created publicity photomontages for Universal and Columbia studios. Of the nearly thirty films Cornell created, periods of activity can generally be separated into two areas: collage films of the late 1930s, consisting of combined elements from films in his own collection, and films he directed in the 1950s, which were collaborations with other filmmakers set in New York City. "Rose Hobart," Cornell's most celebrated collage film, was created and shown in the Julien Levy Gallery in 1936 and includes clipped footage from "East of Borneo." Later films were directed and filmed with cinematographers Stan Brakhage, Rudy Burckhardt, and Larry Jordan.

In 1934, Cornell began a job at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio as a "textile designer," a job he held for six years. Continuing to work at his kitchen table in the evenings, Cornell completed his first assemblage box construction, "Untitled (Soap Bubble Set)," in 1936. It was first exhibited at The Museum of Modern Art's show, "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" (December 9, 1936-January 17, 1937). This work was also the first to be acquired by a museum, purchased for $60.00 by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Massachusetts in 1938. Cornell's European debut was also in 1938, as one of three Americans represented in the "Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" (January 17-Febuary 24, 1938) at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris, alongside Man Ray and Anne Clark.

At the end of 1939, Cornell began corresponding with poet Charles Henri Ford, founder of avant-garde magazine "View," Pavel Tchelitchew, and Parker Tyler. After his "Soap Bubble Sets," this period saw the development of Cornell's homages to singers and actresses, including "Untitled (Fortune-Telling Parrot for Carmen Miranda)," the destroyed "Garbo (Greta Garbo in the Legendary Film 'The Crystal Mask,' c. 1845)," and "Dressing Room for Gilles." He also began using photostats of art reproduction prints, as with the print of Jean Antoine-Watteau's painting, "Pierrot" (circa 1719), used in his "Gilles" box.

In the 1940s, the Romantic ballet emerged as Cornell's new topic of interest. Through his friend Pavel Tchelitchew, Cornell was introduced to the School of American Ballet and New York City Ballet founders, Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine. Cornell collected dance memorabilia and had a great love of the Romantic ballet. His favorite dancers were primarily ballerinas of the nineteenth century, including Fanny Cerrito, Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Lucille Grahn, and Carlotta Grisi. Cornell's "Homage to the Romantic Ballet" works largely took the shape of jewel-box style wooden boxes with glass overlays and included bits of velvet, tulle, sequins, crystals, and chiffon, occasionally collected from dancers themselves. His most well-known work of this series is "Taglioni's Jewel Casket" (1940). Cornell also admired several living ballet dancers, including Tamara Toumanova, Zizi Jeanmaire, and Allegra Kent, who would all make their way into Cornell's box works and/or collages. Collecting for the "exploration," "Portrait of Ondine," Cornell's cased portfolio dedication to Fanny Cerrito and her role in the ballet "Ondine," began in the 1940s, though not completed until around 1960.

In late 1940, Cornell quit his job at Traphagen to concentrate on freelance commercial magazine design and editorial work during the day and his artwork at night. That same year, Charles Henri Ford started "View" magazine to promote Surrealists and Neo-Romantics in New York City and often asked Cornell to contribute. Published in the December 1941-January 1942 issue, one of his early contributions was a collage dedication to stage actress Hedy Lamarr: "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (1941). Along with writing the accompanying text, he created a photomontage of Lamarr with her face overlaying the painted portrait of a Renaissance boy by Italian painter Giorgione. Peggy Guggenheim, at the advice of Marcel Duchamp, purchased multiple Cornell works prior to opening her new gallery, Art of This Century. Cornell also befriended Roberto Matta Echaurren, another Surrealist living in exile, who introduced him to Robert Motherwell.

After deciding to fully dedicate his time to his art in early 1940, he set up a studio in his basement. Complete with floor-to-ceiling wooden shelving, he kept his large collection of boxed source material stacked with handwritten labels in cardboard boxes. Themed folders of materials such as "Stamps" or "Maps" were kept in stacks and works in progress and finished works were stored in the basement, garage, and attic. Entering a renewed period of productivity, Cornell embarked on many new and important box projects in 1942. One of the first boxes created in his new basement studio, and the first of the "Penny Arcade" or "Medici Slot Machine" series, was "Medici Slot Machine" (1942), which includes a photostat of "Portrait of Marquess Massimiliano Stampa" (1557) by Sofonisba Anguissola. Another work from this time is the first of his "Castle" or "Palace" series, "Setting for a Fairy Tale" (1942), which uses a photostat of a French building from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's book, "Les Plus excellents bastiments de France" (1576). "Untitled (Pharmacy)" (circa 1942) was the first of his "Pharmacy" series and included twenty-two apothecary jars. Cornell tended to work in series and created thirteen "Palace" boxes between 1942 and 1951, and ultimately created six "Pharmacy" works.

In 1943, Cornell began working at an electronics company, the Allied Control Company, Inc., to do his part to contribute to the defense effort during the war. He also sent correspondence and care packages to displaced Europeans, who listed their needs in "The Christian Science Monitor." Influenced by World War II, one of his strongest works to emerge in 1943 was "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery." Another notable work to come out of this period, "The Crystal Cage (Portrait of Berenice)," was an excerpt from one of his album "explorations" that was published in the January 1943 issue of "View."

Cornell left his job at Allied Control in 1944, but soon began working at the Garden Centre in Flushing, owned by a fellow Christian Scientist. Cornell was often nostalgic for this time in his life, devoting an entire "exploration" of material fondly remembered as "GC 44." He rode a bicycle to work and enjoyed collecting trips gathering dried grasses, driftwood, shells, and other relics of nature on the same bicycle as he rode through the streets of Queens. During this time, he continued to tend to his projects for "Dance Index," a magazine founded in 1942 by Lincoln Kirstein, but taken over by Donald Windham in 1944. Cornell designed several covers for the magazine and was given control of the entire summer 1944 issue, which he devoted to the Romantic ballet. He also devoted a special 1945 issue to Hans Christian Andersen, making great use of the New York Public Library Picture Collection.

Throughout the 1940s, Cornell continued to support himself with commercial design work for magazines like "Vogue," "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar," "Town & Country," and "Mademoiselle." In 1946, after thirteen years at the Julien Levy Gallery, he joined the Hugo Gallery. In December 1946, Cornell's solo exhibition, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell," celebrated his favorite movie stars, singers, and ballet dancers, and included his work created for the show, "Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall)." Cornell's "Greta Garbo" box, as well as "Souvenir for Singleton," an homage to Jennifer Jones and her role in the film "Love Letters," were also included in the show. In late 1948, his West Coast debut was in the exhibition, "Objects by Joseph Cornell," held at the Copley Gallery. The end of the 1940s saw the final issue of "View" magazine in 1947, the closure of the Julien Levy Gallery in April 1949, and Cornell's departure from the Hugo Gallery after his last show in November 1949.

In late 1949, Cornell joined the Charles Egan Gallery, known primarily for showing Abstract Expressionists. At this time, Cornell was working on a new series of boxes known as his "Aviary" works, most of which include a white-painted box with cutouts of birds mounted on wood. Though he had worked on bird-related boxes before, including an "Owl" series in the mid-1940s, his "Fortune Telling Parrot" (1939), and "Object 1941" (1941), these newer works were stripped of French elements and left "clean and abstract" by design. His first show at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 7, 1949-January 7, 1950), included twenty-six "Aviary" works, nearly all created in 1949. Donald Windham agreed to write the foreword for the exhibition catalog, a single folded sheet, and Cornell gave him one of the boxes in the show, "Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet," in appreciation. Through the Egan Gallery, Cornell became friends with a new group of artists, including Franz Kline, Jack Tworkov, and Willem de Kooning. Cornell also held two screenings of a selection of his collected films at Subjects of the Artist, an art school founded by Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, David Hare, and William Baziotes.

In 1950, Cornell's second show at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other New Work" (December 1, 1950-January 13, 1951), introduced his new "Observatory" series. These works are largely defined by stark, whitewashed spaces with astronomical charts and constellations replacing colorful birds. The Museum of Modern Art purchased its first Cornell work from this show in early 1951, "Central Park Carrousel, in Memoriam" (1950).

For three months in 1951, Cornell was beset by various ailments and had trouble finding the energy to create new work. He worried more for his aging mother and the health of his brother. After a monthlong vacation with his sisters in Westhampton, he returned with renewed interest in Emily Dickinson's poetry. His whitewashed boxes took on a new form in his newest "Dovecote" series, using grids and circular cutouts. The works then transformed into homages to Dickinson, notably "Toward the Blue Peninsula: For Emily Dickinson" (circa 1953), and then to his "Hotel" series. Cornell's "Hotel" boxes include photostats of vintage European ads for hotels collected from vintage travel guides, especially "Baedeker's," adhered to the back walls of the boxes. Another new series of work, his "Juan Gris" series, was dedicated to Cubist artist Juan Gris. Between 1953 and the mid-1960s, Cornell created at least fifteen "Juan Gris" boxes, which often include a cutout of a white cockatoo in a Cubist-collage habitat. Cornell's third and last show at Egan Gallery, "Night Voyage" (February 10-March 28, 1953), included some of these newest works. After leaving Egan Gallery, his work was introduced to Chicago collectors in a solo show at the Frumkin Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: 10 Years of His Art" (April 10-May 7, 1953), which included nearly thirty pieces. Cornell's first museum retrospective was this same show held at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis (July 12-August 30, 1953).

As New York City continued to change, Cornell grew more nostalgic for the city he had explored since the 1920s. The impending closure of the Third Avenue El train prompted him to dream up a film project to capture its last days, resulting in "Gnir Rednow," a reworking of Stan Brakhage's 1955, "Wonder Ring." During this time, Cornell joined the Stable Gallery, run by Eleanor Ward, interacting often with Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Joan Mitchell, remaining there until the end of the 1950s. His astronomy-themed exhibition, "Winter Night Skies" (December 12, 1955-January 13, 1956), included his "Night Skies" series of work with celestial chart fragments, Greek mythological figures, and paint-splattered "windows" representative of star-filled night skies. In 1956, he became aware of ballerina Allegra Kent, and began a series of work devoted to her, the first of which was "Via Parmigianino (Villa Allegra)" (1956), which included a photostat of a painting by Parmigianino, "The Madonna of the Long Neck" (circa 1540). In late 1957, after two years, Cornell had his last show at Stable Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: Selected Works" (December 2-31, 1957), consisting of a series of "Sand Fountain" boxes and "Space Object" or "Celestial Navigation" works. The "Sand Fountain" boxes included different colors of sand meant to flow within, often from the tops into cordial glasses. His "Celestial Navigations" included galaxy-like compositions set within the boxes, with rolling, painted cork balls, metal rings, and constellation charts, sometimes hovering over cordial glasses or clay pipes. This last Stable Gallery show earned him his first published profile, written by Howard Griffin for the December 1957 issue of "Art News." Also in 1957, he won the Kohnstamm Prize for Construction at the Art Institute of Chicago's 62rd Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture.

Towards the end of the 1950s, Cornell spent less time creating new bodies of work, and focused more on revisiting previous series and reviewing piles of collected source material. In 1959, Cornell returned to making collages, frequently sourcing popular magazines. In December 1959, Cornell was awarded $1,500 for his "Orion" collage, entered in the Art Institute of Chicago's "63rd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture." Also in December, he was offered a show at Bennington College in Vermont, which he titled, "Bonitas Solstitialis: Selected Works by Joseph Cornell and an exploration of the Colombier" (November 20-December 15, 1959). The show included one of his newest "explorations" of collected material related to "colombier," or pigeon houses.

By 1962, Cornell was working diligently on new collages, using Masonite boards and colorful magazine clippings. He also began creating collages using nude images interspersed with constellation clippings or hazy blue dyes. As in previous decades and art movements, Cornell became acquainted with new artists, spending less time in the city and more time hosting visitors at his Utopia Parkway home. Visitors included artists Walter De Maria, Robert Whitman, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and Robert Indiana. Tony Curtis also became a frequent visitor and friend, introduced by Richard Feigen in 1964. The early 1960s was also the first time Cornell put out an advertisement for assistants in the "Long Island Star-Journal," employing a number of young men and women who helped organize clippings and run errands. Cornell also met Joyce Hunter, a young runaway waitress at a city coffee shop, who would occupy his thoughts and diary notes for the next several years. When she was murdered at the end of 1964, Cornell paid for her funeral. He went on to make several "Penny Arcade" collages in memoriam to her, including, "Penny Arcade (re-autumnal)" (1964).

In 1964, Cornell began friendships with several women including artist Carolee Schneeman, who was his first assistant in the early 1960s. He also met artist Yayoi Kusama through art dealer Gertrude Stein. After becoming friends, she visited him often and they exchanged letters and notes. As he did with other artist friends, Cornell supported her by purchasing several of her early watercolor paintings, and they stayed connected until his death in 1972.

Cornell's life greatly changed in 1965 with the death of his brother, Robert. By this time, his mother lived with his sister in Long Island, and Cornell was alone in the Utopia Parkway house for the first time. He exchanged frequent letters and phone calls with his mother and devoted much time to thinking about Robert and Joyce, often aligning them in his diary notations. Cornell also created a series of collages dedicated to his brother's memory, incorporating photostats of Robert's hundreds of drawings into Cornell's work, as with the later collage, "The Heart on the Sleeve" (1972). Cornell's "Time Transfixed" series of collages were also dedications to Robert's memory, referencing Magritte and Robert's love of trains. He mounted an exhibition, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" (January 4-29, 1966), at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, where he showed Robert's artwork alongside his newly created collage dedications.

After Robert's death, Cornell relied more heavily on assistants, going through many part-time "helpers." In October 1966, Cornell's mother died, adding her to his constant thoughts and diaries. Though he was still grieving, he was given two major retrospectives in 1967. The first was at the Pasadena Art Museum, put on by James Demetrion and Walter Hopps, "An Exhibiton of Works by Joseph Cornell" (January 9-February 11, 1967). The second retrospective was at the Guggenheim Museum just three months later, "Joseph Cornell" (May 4-June 35, 1967), organized by Diane Waldman. After these shows, he was highlighted in the December 15, 1967 issue of "Life" in the article, "The Enigmatic Bachelor of Utopia Parkway."

In 1968, Cornell was given an "award of merit," which included a medal and $1,000, by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also given a medal and $1,000 by the Brandeis University Creative Arts Awards in the painting category, along with an exhibition. Days later, "The New York Times" announced Cornell the winner, along with Donald Judd, of India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art. The Brandeis exhibition, "Boxes and Collages by Joseph Cornell" (May 20-June 23, 1968), was organized by William Seitz and concentrated on Cornell's more recent 1960s collages. Cornell was also included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's hundredth anniversary show, "New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940 to 1970" (October 18, 1969-February 1, 1970), where twenty-two of Cornell's boxes were shown in their own gallery. At the end of 1970, Cornell was given a solo show at the Metropolitan, "Collages by Joseph Cornell" (December 10, 1970-January 24, 1971), which included forty-five of his newest collages.

Now preferring to stay closer to his home in Flushing, Cornell was more interested in sharing his art with young adults and children, than an adult audience. He hosted a group of high school students, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art's education department, at his home in conjunction with his collage show (1970-1971). He also showed his work in the art department of Queens College of the City University of New York. Cornell still hosted visitors on occasion, having Yoko Ono and John Lennon at his home at least once. Leila Hadley, Betsy von Furstenberg, and Anne Jackson also made frequent visits. With his deteriorating health, Cornell worried about what would happen to his work after his death and hired lawyer Harry Torczyner to help him plan his estate and get his affairs in order.

In 1972, Cornell had a show at the Cooper Union, a college in New York, specifically for children. He displayed his boxes and collages at child-height and had cherry soda and brownies at the opening reception on February 10. He then held a show at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, also for children: "Children's Preview of the Exhibition of Joseph Cornell – Collages and Boxes (April 18-June 17, 1972). In the winter of 1972, at the request of the Phoenix House drug treatment and prevention program, Cornell contributed to a charity project compiling limited-edition lithographic prints for a portfolio, which included artists like David Hockney, James Rosenquist, and Ellsworth Kelly.

On December 29, 1972, a week after turning sixty-nine, Cornell died of heart failure at his home. He was cremated and interred near the graves of his mother, father, and brother, overlooking the Hudson River in Nyack, New York.

Works Cited:

1. Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination." New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press, 2007. Exhibition Catalog.

2. McShine, Kynaston. "Joseph Cornell." New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.

3. San Francisco Cinematheque and The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Joseph Cornell: Films." 2007. Exhibition Program. (Presented in conjunction with SFMOMA's exhibition of "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination").

4. Schaffner, Ingrid and Lisa Jacobs. "Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery." Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1998.

5. Solomon, Deborah. "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell." New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
Separated Materials:
The Smithsonian Archives of American Art houses the Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972.
Provenance:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection was donated to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by Joseph Cornell's sister and brother-in-law, Elizabeth Cornell Benton and John A. Benton, in 1978, which prompted the creation of the Joseph Cornell Study Center. Additional materials were donated in installments by the artist's estate, the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation, from 1985 to 1997. Elizabeth and John A. Benton originally donated 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books to the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, which were subsequently transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Joseph Cornell Study Center in 1994 and 1995.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection requires an advanced appointment. Contact collection staff at least two weeks prior to preferred date, at AmericanArtCornellStudy@si.edu.

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, Series 13: Personal Library and Book Collection, and Series 14: Record Album Collection, are still undergoing processing and preservation and may not be available for research use. Record albums are unavailable for playback. Contact collection staff for full lists of publications and record albums.
Rights:
Unpublished materials are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.
Occupation:
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950 -- Photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Photographs -- 1860-1870 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Cartes-de-visite
Photographs -- Daguerreotypes -- 1840-1860
Citation:
Joseph Cornell Study Center collection, 1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972. Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Identifier:
SAAM.JCSC.1
See more items in:
Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Research and Scholars Center
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ih7d97fc249-474d-41bf-953d-5305df1e4c06
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-saam-jcsc-1

Art Students: Paul Froelich; Weeks Hall and Alessandro Colarosis

Artist:
Daniel Garber, 1880 - 1958  Search this
Sitter:
Paul Froelich, 5 Sep 1897 - 16 Dec 1968  Search this
Weeks Hall, 1895 - 1958  Search this
Alessandro Colarosis  Search this
Medium:
Charcoal on cream paper
Dimensions:
18 7/8 x 25 in. (48 x 64 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
n.d.a.
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Printed Material\Papers  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie  Search this
Artist's Effects\Sketchbook  Search this
Paul Froelich: Male  Search this
Paul Froelich: Visual Arts\Artist\Printmaker  Search this
Paul Froelich: Visual Arts\Artist\Painter  Search this
Paul Froelich: Visual Arts\Artist\Illustrator  Search this
Paul Froelich: Visual Arts\Art instructor  Search this
Paul Froelich: Visual Arts\Art director  Search this
Weeks Hall: Visual Arts\Artist  Search this
Weeks Hall: Male  Search this
Alessandro Colarosis: Male  Search this
Alessandro Colarosis: Education and Scholarship\Scholar\Student  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
Object number:
1945.14.3 PAFA
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4e17d1bdd-4aa4-42d4-86ce-57c4244df883
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_1945.14.3_PAFA

Harris Automatic Press Company Records

Creator:
GSS Printing Equipment Company.  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Information Technology and Communications  Search this
Harris Automatic Press Company, Dayton, Ohio  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (13 boxes and 5 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photograph albums
Newsletters
Photographs
Blueprints
Catalogs
Date:
2003 - 2003
1889 - 1995
Summary:
Collection documents the Harris Automatic Press Company, manufacturers of a printing press with an automatic feed primarily through drawings and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains photographs of the presses, factory and employees; a scrapbook of presses, 1915; drawings; trade literature and catalogs; the Harris Impressions newsletter; blueprints of the presses; and histories of the company.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1889-1995

Series 2: Drawings, 1896-1929

Series 3: Photographs, 1921-1968; 2003
Biographical / Historical:
In 1890 jewelers and tinkerers Alfred and Charles G. Harris developed a new printing press with an automatic feeder. Their first press was a revolutionary breakthrough, delivering ten times what a pressman could feed by hand. The Harris Automatic Press Company was responsible for many printing innovations during the early 1900s including the first commercially successful offset lithographic press and the first two-color offset press. The company became one of the world's largest and most successful manufacturers of printing equipment.

Harris-Seybold Company (later Harris Intertype) of Cleveland, Ohio manufactured high-quality sheetfed offset lithographic printing presses. The Harris Automatic Press Co. of Niles, Ohio (the original company name) designed and built the first commercially successful sheetfed offset lithographic printing press in 1906. It was sold to the Republic Banknote Company (later became part of U.S. Banknote Corporation) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, shipped on July 26, 1906. This printing press was retired in August 1940, rebuilt by Harris and donated to the Smithsonian Institution. From 1906 to 1976, Harris manufactured thousands of lithographic printing presses in various models and sizes along with various designs of bindery equipment. They were leaders in offset lithography technology. Many of the sheetfed offset lithographic presses presently being manufactured use some form of the early Harris innovations. In 1957, the company name was changed to Harris Intertype Corporation and in 1974 the name was changed to Harris Corporation. At this time the company was comprised of several electronic divisions in addition to the printing equipment divisions. The company stopped production of sheetfed lithographic printing presses in 1976. The corporate offices moved from Cleveland, Ohio to Melbourne, Florida in 1978 where Harris Corporation is still located. Harris Corporation disposed of its printing equipment plants in 1984 in a leverage buyout. Heidelberg (Germany) purchased some of the printing manufacturing plants in the late 1990s.
Provenance:
Collection donated by GSS Printing Equipment.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Printing industry  Search this
Printing  Search this
Offset printing  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Printing -- Instruments  Search this
Printing -- History  Search this
Printing presses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Blueprints
Catalogs
Citation:
Harris Automatic Press Company Records, 1889-1995; 2003 Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0928
See more items in:
Harris Automatic Press Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8695bb213-f38b-4b09-a1bd-c6fc03659a61
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0928

George H. Clark Radioana Collection

Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Names:
American Marconi Company.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Electricity and Modern Physics  Search this
Extent:
220 Cubic feet (534 boxes, 25 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs
Sale catalogs
Technical drawings
Date:
circa 1880-1950
Summary:
The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935. The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.
Scope and Contents:
The materials accumulated in this collection represent the overriding collecting passion of one individual, George H. Clark. The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935.

The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.

In particular, the collection is rich in biographical information on the men who developed the technical aspects of radio and the industry; information on the inception, growth, and activities of radio companies, most notably the National Electric Signaling Company and RCA; and in photographs of all aspects of Radioana.

While most materials document technical aspects of radio, there is much information (e.g. Series 109, 134) on broadcasting and on the early history of television.

The collection, housed in over 700 boxes (about 276 linear feet), was organized into 259 numbered "classes" or series by Clark. Sixty series numbers were never used or were eliminated by Clark and combined with other series. The unused numbers are scattered throughout the filing system. The collection also includes material from series that were eliminated. These materials were never reclassified and are included as an unprocessed series at the end of the series descriptions. The collection also contains material that was never assigned a "class" designation by Clark (Lettered Series: D, E, F, G, H).

The arrangement of the collection is Clark's own; his adaptation of the Navy filing system he helped devise in 1915. Clark periodically revised the filing system and reclassified items within it.

Clark assigned class numbers to types of equipment (e.g. broadcast receivers), systems (impulse-excited transmitters and systems), scientific theories (circuit theory), and topics (company history, biography). Box 1 contains descriptions of the classification system.

When Clark classified an item and filed it he also assigned a serial number. This classification begins with 1 (or 1A) for the first item in the class and continues with successive numbers as items were added. As a consequence, the order of individual items within a series reflects the order in which Clark filed them, not any logical relationship between the items. Clark created cross references for items dealing with more than one subject by making notations on blank sheets of paper placed in related series.

Clark made cross references between series when there was no logical relationship between them; that is, when a person using the collection would not normally look in the series. For example no cross reference would be made of an engineer from series 87 (portraits) to series 4 (biography), but one would be made from series 87 to series 142 (history of television) if the item showed the engineer, say, working on a television installation.

Clark created the insignia "SRM" as the sign on the bottom of all sheets of paper numbered by him for binding. SRM stood for Smithsonian Radio Museum. This replaced the earlier though not greatly used sign "CGM." For a time about 1930, the class number on each sheet was preceded by these: "C.G.M.", for Clark, Martin, and Goldsmith, the earliest contributors to what would become the Clark Radioana Collection. After about 1933-34 Clark used C.W.C. for Clark Wireless Collection.

There are many photographs located in most series throughout the collection. But there are also three exclusive photographic series. Lettered series A, B, C. See index; and also series descriptions under lettered series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 223 series.

Numbered Series 1-233:

Series 1, Library Operating System, 1915-1950

Series 2, Apparatus Type Numbers, 1916-1931

Series 3, Photographic Lists, 1925-1928

Series 4, Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical Index to Correspondents in Series 4

Series 5, History of Radio Companies, 1895-1950

De Forest Radio Company, 1905-1930s

Jenkins Televsion Corporation, 1924-1931

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, 1908-1929

National Electric Signaling Company, 1896-1941

Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, 1906-1929

Radio Corporation of America, 1895-1950

Series 6, Shore Stations, 1900-1940

Series 7, Marine Stations, 1900-1930s

Series 8, Broadcasting Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 9, Amateur Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 10, Miscellaneous Information, 1911-1914

Series 11, Radio Antiques, 1921-1938

Series 13, Specifications of Radio Apparatus, 1910s-1930s

Series 14, General History, 1899-1950s

Series 15, Radio Companies Catalogues & Bound Advertisements, 1873-1941

Series 16, Log Books, 1902-1923

Series 17, Radio Companies' House Organs, 1896-1942

Series 18, Prime Movers, 1904-1911

Series 19, Batteries, 1898-1934

Series 20, Rectifiers, 1875-1935

Series 21, Motor Generators, 1898-1936

Series 22, Nameplates of Apparatus, 1928

Series 23, Switchboards and Switchboard Instruments, 1910-1935

Series 24, Radio Frequency Switches, 1905-1905-1933

Series 25, Transmitter Transformers, 1893-1949

Series 26, Operating Keys, 1843-1949

Series 27, Power Type Interrupters, 1902-1938

Series 28, Protective Devices, 1910-1925

Series 30, Message Blanks, 1908-1938

Series 31, Transmitter Condensers, 1849-1943

Series 32, Spark Gaps, 1905-1913

Series 33, Transmitter Inductances, 1907-1922

Series 34, Transmitter Wave Changers, 1907-1924

Series 37, ARC Transmitters, 1907-1940

Series 38, Vacuum Tube Type of Radio Transmitter, 1914-1947

Series 39, Radio Transmitter, Radio-Frequency, Alternator Type, 1894-1940

Series 41, Vacuum Tubes, Transmitting Type, 1905-1948

Series 43, Receiving Systems, 1904-1934

Series 45, Broadcast Receivers, 1907-1948

Series 46, Code Receivers, 1902-1948

Series 47, Receiving Inductances, 1898-1944

Series 48, Receiving Condensers, 1871-1946

Series 49, Audio Signal Devices, 1876-1947

Series 50, Detectors, 1878-1944

Series 51, Amplifiers, 1903-1949

Series 52, Receiving Vacuum Tubes, 1905-1949

Series 53, Television Receivers, 1928-1948

Series 54, Photo-Radio Apparatus, 1910-1947

Series 59, Radio Schools, 1902-1945

Series 60, Loudspeakers, 1896-1946

Series 61, Insulators, 1844-1943

Series 62, Wires, 1906-1945

Series 63, Microphones, 1911-1947

Series 64, Biography, 1925-1948

Series 66, Antennas, 1877-1949

Series 67, Telautomatics, 1912-1944

Series 69, Direction Finding Equipment, Radio Compasses, 1885-1948

Series 71, Aircraft Transmitters, 1908-1947

Series 72, Field or Portables Transmitters, 1901-1941

Series 73, Mobile Radio Systems, 1884-1946

Series 74, Radio Frequency Measuring Instruments, 1903-1946

Series 75, Laboratory Testing Methods and Systems, 1891-1945

Series 76, Aircraft Receivers, 1917-1941

Series 77, Field Portable Receivers, 1906-1922

Series 78, Spark Transmitter Assembly, 1909-1940

Series 79, Spark Transmitter System, 1900-1945

Series 82, Firsts in Radio, undated

Series 85: Distance Records and Tests, 1898-1940

Series 87, Photographs of Radio Executives, and Technical Types, 1857-1952

Series 90, Radio Terms, 1857-1939

Series 92, Static Patents and Static Reducing Systems, 1891-1946

Series 93, Low Frequency Indicating Devices, 1904-1946

Series 95, Articles on Radio Subjects, 1891-1945

Series 96, Radio in Education, 1922-1939

Series 98, Special Forms of Broadcasting, 1921-1943

Series 99, History of Lifesaving at Sea by Radio, 1902-1949

Series 100, History of Naval Radio, 1888-1948

Series 101, Military Radio, 1898-1946

Series 102, Transmitting & Receiving Systems, 1902-1935

Series 103, Receiving Methods, 1905-1935

Series 108, Codes and Ciphers, 1894-1947

Series 109, Schedules of Broadcasting & TV Stations, 1905-1940

Series 112, Radio Shows and Displays, 1922-1947

Series 114, Centralized Radio Systems, 1929-1935

Series 116, United States Government Activities in Radio, 1906-1949

Series 117, Technical Tables, 1903-1932

Series 120, Litigation on Radio Subjects, 1914-1947

Series 121, Legislation, 1914-1947

Series 122, History of Radio Clubs, 1907-1946

Series 123, Special Applications of Radio Frequency, 1924-1949

Series 124, Chronology, 1926-1937

Series 125, Radio Patents & Patent Practices, 1861-1949

Series 126, Phonographs, 1894-1949

Series 127, Piezo Electric Effect, 1914-1947

Series 128, ARC Transmitting & Reciving Systems, 1904-1922

Series 129, Spark Systems, 1898-1941

Series 130, Vacuum Tubes Systems, 1902-1939

Series 132, Radiophone Transmitting & Receiving System, 1906-1947

Series 133, Photo-Radio, 1899-1947

Series 134, History of Radio Broadcasting, 1908-

Series 135, History of Radiotelephony, Other Than Broadcasting

Series 136, History of Amateur Radio

Series 138, Transoceanic Communication

Series 139, Television Transmitting Stations

Series 140, Radio Theory

Series 142, History of Television

Series 143, Photographs

Series 144, Radio Publications

Series 145, Proceedings of Radio Societies

Series 146: Radio Museums

Series 147, Bibliography of Radio Subjects and Apparatus

Series 148, Aircraft Guidance Apparatus

Series 150, Audio Frequency Instruments

Series 151, History of Radio for Aircrafts

Series 152, Circuit Theory

Series 154, Static Elimination

Series 161, Radio in Medicine

Series 162, Lighting

Series 163, Police Radio

Series 169, Cartoons

Series 173, Communications, Exclusive of Radio (after 1895)

Series 174, Television Methods and Systems

Series 182, Military Portable Sets

Series 189, Humor in Radio (see Series 169)

Series 209, Short Waves

Series 226, Radar

Series 233, Television Transmitter

Lettered Series

Series A, Thomas Coke Knight RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950

Series B, George H. Clark Collection of Photographs by ClassSeries C, Clark Unorganized and/or Duplicate Photographs

Series D, Miscellaneous

Series E, News Clippings Series F: Radio Publications

Series G, Patent Files of Darby and Darby, Attorneys, circa 1914-1935

Series H, Blank Telegram Forms from many Companies and Countries Throughout the World

Series I (eye), Miscellaneous Series

Series J, Research and Laboratory Notebooks

Series K, Index to Photographs of Radio Executives and Technical Types

Series L, Index to Bound Volumes of Photos in Various Series

Series M, Index to David Sarnoff Photographs

Series N, Federal Government Personnel Files

Series O, Addenda Materials
Biographical / Historical:
George Howard Clark, born February 15, 1881, at Alberton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen. He worked as a railroad telegraph operator for the Boston and Maine Railroad during high school and college. In his unpublished autobiography he wrote:

In 1888, when I was a lad of seven, I suddenly blossomed out as a scrapbook addict, and for years I gave up boyhood games for the pleasure of sitting in a lonely attic and 'pasting up' my books ... By 1897, in high school, I graduated to beautiful pictures, and made many large size scrapbooks ... Around that time, too, I became infatuated with things electrical, and spent many evenings copying in pen and ink the various electrical text books in the Everett, Mass., Public Library. Clark began collecting material pertaining to wireless or radio in 1902. In 1903 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. During his last year of college he specialized in radio work under the instruction of Professor John Stone Stone and after graduation went to work for Stone's radio company, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company, of Boston.

In 1908 Clark took a competitive examination open to all wireless engineers in the United States and entered the civilian service of the Navy. He was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard, with special additional duty at the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering and at the National Bureau of Standards.

In 1915 Clark helped devise a classification system for Navy equipment, assigning a code number to each item. This system of classification for blueprints, photographs, reports, and general data, was prepared by Arthur Trogner, Guy Hill, and Clark, all civilian radio experts with the US Navy Department in Washington. In 1918 Clark adopted the 1915 Navy classification system for organizing the radio data he was accumulating. Clark created the term "Radioana" at this time. He began spending his evenings and weekends pasting up his collection and numbering pages. At this time he bound the accumulated material. It totaled 100 volumes.

In July 1919, after resigning from the Navy, Clark joined the engineering staff of the Marconi Telegraph Company of America, which became part of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) later the same year. His first work was at Belmar and Lakewood, New Jersey, assisting the chief engineer, Roy A. Weagant, in his development of circuits to reduce the interference caused by static (static reduction). Clark and his wife were assigned to the unheated Engineer's Cottage. His wife decided not to stay and left for Florida. Clark moved his trunks of wireless material to the heated RCA hotel at Belmar and spent most of the winter "pasting." As Clark mentions, "From that time on I was wedded to scraps."

After a year of work in New Jersey, Clark was assigned to the sales department in New York, where he devised the "type number system" used by RCA. This type number system, for example, gave the designation UV 201 to the company's first amplifier tube.

From 1922 to 1934 Clark was in charge of RCA's newly created Show Division, which held exhibits of new and old radio apparatus at state fairs, department stores, and radio shows. About 1928 Clark started an antique radio apparatus museum for RCA. RCA's board of directors announced:

Recognizing the importance of providing a Museum for the Radio Art to house the rapidly disappearing relics of earlier days, and the desirability of collecting for it without further delay examples of apparatus in use since the inception of radio, the Board of Directors of RCA has made an initial appropriation of $100,000, as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment of a National Radio Museum. A plan for ultimately placing the museum under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution was coupled with the goal of the Institution's gathering the largest possible library of wireless data.

Around 1933 the RCA traveling exhibition program ended and Clark started classifying his collected "radioana" material. The objects of the museum were eventually turned over for exhibit purposes to the Rosenwald Museum in Chicago and the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, when space was not forthcoming at the Smithsonian. A list of objects sent to the two museums (with tag and case numbers) is in Series 1, Box A. The "radioana" collection remained under Clark's care during the 1930s, and became of increasing use to RCA. Clark continued to add to the material.

Between 1934 and 1942 Clark was in court many times regarding patent infringements. Clark's wireless data was useful and he testified frequently, for example, in RCA's suit against the United States in the Court of Claims over the Marconi tuning patents and in the Westinghouse Company's suit against the United States over the heterodyne. Patent specifications and material regarding these and other radio industry suits are found throughout this collection.

In 1946 RCA retired George Clark and denied him space to house his "radioana" collection. Clark wished to remain in New York and house the collection somewhere in the city where it would be open at all times to the public and where it would be maintained. He hoped to continue cataloguing the collection and writing books from its information. He wanted to keep the collection under his control for as long as he was capable of using it.

George H. Clark died in 1956 and his collection was subsequently given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1959 the collection was given to the Smithsonian's new Museum of History and Technology, where space was available to house it. The collection remained in the Division of Electricity until the spring of 1983 when it was transferred to the Archives Center.
Brief Company Histories From The Radio Industry, 1900-1930s:
Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi began his first wireless company, Western Union, Postal Telegraph, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) were the major enterprises in electrical communications. General Electric, Western Electric, and Westinghouse were the major producers of electrical equipment. All these earlier developments set the stage for the expansion of the radio industry.

General Electric, which dominated the lighting industry, was formed in 1892 as a merger of the Edison and Thomson-Houston companies. It was active in building central power station equipment; controlled nearly all the important early patents in electric railways; took a leading part in the introduction of trolley systems; and was the principal supplier of electric motors. Westinghouse promoted the alternating current system and installed the first AC central station in Buffalo, NY, during the winter of 1866-1867. After years of patent litigation, in 1896 GE and Westinghouse agreed to share their patents on electrical apparatus.

American Bell Telephone Company purchased Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric had a strong patent position in telephone equipment and in industrial power apparatus, such as arc lamps, generators, motors, and switchboard equipment.

Until RCA was formed in 1919, these established electrical companies played no active part in the early development of the American radio industry. They were in difficult financial positions, reorganizing, or concentrating their efforts and resources on improving their existing products.

The revolution in "wireless" technology, which began in earnest after 1900, centered in New York City, home of the Lee de Forest and American Marconi companies, and in Boston, headquarters of John Stone Stone and Reginald Fessenden.

Information in this section was compiled from the Clark Collection; the Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry by W. Rupert Maclaurin, Macmillan Company, New York, 1949; and Radio Pioneers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Commemorating the Radio Pioneers Dinner, Hotel Commodore, New York, NY, November 8, 1945.

The De Forest Companies

Lee De Forest (1873-1961), inventor of the three-element vacuum tube or triode (1906) and the feedback circuit, was one of the first Americans to write a doctoral thesis on wireless telegraphy: "The Reflection of Short Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires," Yale University, 1899. The grid-controlled tube or audion of De Forest was first a radio detector, 1906-1907; in 1912 was adapted to an amplifier; and later to an oscillator. When it was perfected as a high vacuum tube, it became the great electronic instrument of electrical communications.

De Forest began work in the Dynamo Department at the Western Electric Company in 1899. Six months later he was promoted to the telephone laboratory. In 1900 De Forest went to work for the American Wireless Telegraph Company where he was able to carry out work on his "responder." However, after three months when De Forest refused to turn over the responder to the company, he was fired.

In the following year De Forest had a number of jobs, was active as an inventor, and created numerous firms to manufacture his inventions. In 1901 De Forest joined with Ed Smythe, a former Western Electric colleague and a collaborator in his research, to found the firm of De Forest, Smythe, and Freeman. Between 1902 and 1906 De Forest took out thirty-four patents on all phases of wireless telegraphy. The responder that he had been working on for so long never proved satisfactory.

The numerous De Forest companies, reflected his many interests and his inability to carry one project through to a conclusion. Unlike Marconi, but similar to Fessenden, De Forest had great inventive skill which resulted in a great number of companies; but none lasted long. The original partnership of 1901 led to the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (1901), the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (Maine) (1902), and the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (1903), to name a few.

The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company was incorporated after De Forest met a stock promoter, Abraham White. While many stations were built by this company, many never sent a message due to static interference. In 1907 two speculators from Denver with large holdings of company stock put the company out of business. The assets were sold to a new company that these speculators organized, the United Wireless Telephone Company. De Forest was forced to resign. He took the triode patents with him.

De Forest joined with one of White's stock salesmen, James Dunlop Smith, and together with De Forest's patent attorney, Samuel E. Darby, they formed a new corporation, the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in 1907. This company set out to develop wireless communication by means of the radio telephone.

In January 1910 De Forest staged the first opera broadcast, with Enrico Caruso singing. The Radio Telephone Company went bankrupt in 1911 following an aborted merger with North American Wireless Corporation. In 1913 he reorganized the company as the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company and began producing the triode.

The Marconi Company brought a patent suit, claiming the triode infringed on the Fleming valve to which it had rights. In 1916 the court decided that Marconi had infringed the three element De Forest patent and that De Forest had infringed the two element Fleming valve. The result was that neither company could manufacture the triode.

In 1920 RCA acquired the De Forest triode rights through cross-licensing agreements with AT&T which had recently purchased the rights to it. De Forest's company was no match for GE, Westinghouse, and RCA. The De Forest Radio Company (1923) went bankrupt in 1928, was reorganized in 1930, and went into receivership in 1933. RCA eventually purchased its assets.

Marconi Companies

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) came from a wealthy and well connected Italian family. He was able to spend his time developing his inventions and following his own course of action. Marconi spent his entire life developing wireless communication into a "practical" reality. In 1905 Marconi invented a directional antenna. In 1909 he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun the Nobel prize in physics. And in 1912 he invented the time spark system for the generation of continuous waves. The principal patents in his name were improved types of vertical antennas; improved coherer; magnetic detector for the detection of wireless signals; and improvements on methods of selective tuning. Two other inventions of great importance to the Marconi companies' patent structure were the Oliver Lodge tuning patent and the Ambrose Fleming valve.

In 1895 Marconi made the first successful transmission of long wave signals. The following year he met William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British Post Office, who was interested in inductive wireless telegraphy. This meeting led to the formation in 1897 of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1898 he transmitted signals across the English Channel. In 1899 an American subsidiary was formed. The various Marconi companies were the dominant enterprises in both British and American wireless until 1919 when RCA was formed.

From a business standpoint, wireless did not become profitable until long distance communications were accomplished. On December 12, 1901 in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi received a telegraph signal in the form of repetitions of the Morse telegraphic letter "S" transmitted from the Marconi station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This success, however, was met by opposition from vested interests, particularly the Anglo-American Telegraph Company whose cables terminated in Newfoundland.

So as not to restrict his company's future to one front alone, Marconi decided to exploit the field of communication with ships at sea. In order to control this field he decided in 1900 to lease his apparatus rather than sell it outright. This strategy did not work. Competition developed in Germany (Telefunken Corporation) and the United States (American De Forest and its successor, United Wireless) and Marconi was forced to sell rather than lease apparatus to the navies of various countries. He nevertheless retained numerous restrictions. This led to further friction. At the height of this debacle English stations worldwide refused to communicate with ships without Marconi equipment. This absurd and dangerous situation had to change and coastal stations opened up to all senders in 1908.

Marconi's system was based on spark technology. He saw no need for voice transmission. He felt the Morse code adequate for communication between ships and across oceans. He, along with most others, did not foresee the development of the radio and the broadcasting industry. He was a pragmatist and uninterested in scientific inquiry in a field where commercial viability was unknown.

For these reasons Marconi left the early experimentation with the radio telephone to others, particularly Lee De Forest and Reginald Fessenden.

National Electric Signaling Company

Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), one of the principal early radio inventors and the first important inventor to experiment with wireless, left the University of Pittsburgh in 1900 to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. There he invented the liquid barretter, an early radio receiver, and attempted to work out a means for wireless transmission of weather forecasts. After a squabble over patent rights, Fessenden resigned in 1902.

The National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO), primarily intended to support Fessenden's work on wireless, telegraphy, and telephony, was formed by Fessenden and two Pittsburgh capitalists, Hay Walker, Jr. and Thomas H. Given. It began as an inventor's laboratory and never proved successful as a business venture.

Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave transmission was required for speech and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomson on this subject. Fessenden felt he could also transmit and receive Morse code better by the continuous wave method than with a spark-apparatus as Marconi was using.

In 1903 Fessenden's first high-frequency alternator needed for continuous wave transmission was built to his specifications by Charles Steinmetz of GE. In 1906 Fessenden obtained a second alternator of greater power from GE and on Christmas Eve broadcast a program of speech and music. The work on this alternator was given to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. It took years for Alexanderson to develop an alternator capable of transmitting regular voice transmissions over the Atlantic. But by 1916 the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transatlantic communication than the spark apparatus.

Fessenden also worked on continuous-wave reception. This work arose out of his desire for a more effective type of receiver than the coherer, a delicate device that was limited by its sensitivity on a rolling ship at sea. In 1903 he developed a new receiving mechanism - the electrolytic detector.

As his work progressed Fessenden evolved the heterodyne system. However, due to faulty construction and the fact that it was ahead of its time, heterodyne reception was not fully appreciated until the oscillating triode was devised, thus allowing a practical means of generating the local frequency.

Between 1905 and 1913 Fessenden developed a completely self-sustaining wireless system. However, constant quarrels between Fessenden, Walker, and Given culminated in Fessenden's forming the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada. He felt a Canadian company could better compete with British Marconi. As a result, his backers dismissed Fessenden from NESCO in January of 1911. Fessenden brought suit, won, and was awarded damages. To conserve assets pending appeal, NESCO went into receivership in 1912, and Samuel Kintner was appointed general manager of the company.

In 1917 Given and Walker formed International Signal Company (ISC) and transferred NESCO's patent assets to the new company. Westinghouse obtained majority control of ISC through the purchase of $2,500,000 worth of stock. The company was then reincorporated as The International Radio Telegraph Company. The Westinghouse-RCA agreements were signed in 1921 and International's assets were transferred to RCA.

RCA

The development of the radio industry accelerated after 1912. This was due to several factors, the most important of which was the passage of legislation by the US government requiring ships at sea to carry wireless. This created a market incentive and spurred the growth of the industry. Also, with the outbreak of World War I, the larger electrical companies turned their manufacturing output to radio apparatus, supporting the war effort. Three firms were prominent in this industrial endeavor: AT&T, GE, and Westinghouse.

AT&T's early contributions to this effort centered on their improvements of De Forest's triode, particularly in the evolution of circuits, the redesign of the mechanical structure, and an increase in the plate design. The importation of the Gaede molecular pump from Germany created a very high vacuum. The resulting high-vacuum tube brought the practical aspects of the wireless telephone closer to reality. By August 1915 speech had been sent by land wire to Arlington, Va., automatically picked up there via a newly developed vacuum-tube transmitter, and subsequently received at Darien, Canal Zone. By 1920 AT&T had purchased the rights to the De Forest triode and feedback circuit, and had placed itself in a strong position in the evolution of radio technology.

GE centered its efforts on the alternator, assigning Ernst F. W. Alexanderson to its design, and on further development of vacuum tube equipment for continuous wave telegraph transmission. By 1915 Alexanderson, Irving Langmuir, William D. Coolidge, and others had developed a complete system of continuous wave transmission and reception for GE.

As can be seen, both AT&T and GE were diverting major time and expenditures on vacuum tube research. This inevitably led to patent interferences and consequently, to cross-licensing arrangements.

Westinghouse was not in the strategic position of GE and AT&T. Nevertheless, during the war it did manufacture large quantities of radio apparatus, motors, generators, and rectifiers for the European and American governments. Postwar moves led Westinghouse into full partnership with the other two companies.

By the end of the war, all three companies had committed significant resources to wireless. They were hampered internationally, however, by the Marconi Company's dominant status, and in the United States they were blocked by opposing interests with control of key patents.

The US government also was concerned with this lack of solidarity in the wireless industry and over the British domination of the field worldwide. This impasse set a fascinating and complicated stage for the formation of the RCA.

Owen D. Young, legal counselor for GE, was instrumental in breaking the impasse. Through an innovative and far-reaching organizational consolidation, Young was able to persuade British Marconi that persistence in monopoly was a fruitless exercise, because of the strong US government feelings. Marconi, realizing the harm of a potential American boycott, finally agreed to terms. GE purchased the controlling interest in American Marconi, and RCA was formed. Young was made chairman of the board of RCA, while Edwin J. Nally and David Sarnoff of the old American Marconi were appointed president and commercial manager respectively.

On July 1, 1920, RCA signed a cross-licensing agreement with AT&T. The telephone company purchased one half million shares of RCA common and preferred stock for several considerations -- the most important being that all current and future radio patents of the two companies were available to each other royalty-free for ten years. Many provisions of these agreements were ambiguous and led to later squabbles between the RCA partners.

In May 1920 Westinghouse, which had an efficient radio manufacturing organization, formed an alliance with the International Radio and Telegraph Company (NESCO's successor). Westinghouse's part ownership gave them control of Fessenden's patents, particularly continuous-wave transmission and heterodyne transmission. Westinghouse also wisely purchased in October of 1920 Armstrong's patents on the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits -- which also included some of Columbia University professor Michael Pupin's patents. This placed Westinghouse in a strong bargaining position vis-à-vis RCA and in their new consolidated corporation. Westinghouse joined the growing group of radio companies on June 30, 1921. With these mergers, RCA agreed to purchase forty percent of its radio apparatus from Westinghouse and sixty percent from GE.

Through these and other legal arrangements, RCA obtained the rights to over 2,000 patents. These amounted to practically all the patents of importance in the radio science of that day. As a result, other firms in the radio industry, for example, the United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, entered into cross-licensing arrangements with RCA.

RCA also made arrangements internationally with the three dominant companies in radio communication in their respective countries. British Marconi, Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie sans fil, and Telefunken. Each corporation was given exclusive rights to use the other companies' patents within their own territories.

The rise of amateur radio in the 1920s and, to a greater extent, the demand for new products by the general public contributed to the rise of the broadcasting industry. This put a strain on the earlier agreements between the major radio corporations and between 1921 and 1928 there was a struggle over patents for control of the evolving medium.

An initial attempt by AT&T to control the broadcasting industry -- using its earlier cross-licensing agreements to manufacture radio telephone transmitting equipment -- began with AT&T's disposal of RCA stock holdings in 1922-1923. It ended in 1926 with a new cross-licensing agreement which gave AT&T exclusive patent rights in the field of public service telephony and gave GE, RCA, and Westinghouse exclusive patent rights in the areas covered by wireless telegraphy, entertainment broadcasting, and the manufacture of radio sets and receiving tubes for public sale.

In 1926 after the agreements were finalized, RCA, GE, and Westinghouse joined forces and established the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Fifty percent of the stock went to RCA, thirty percent to GE, and twenty percent to Westinghouse. The new company was divided into three divisions: the Red, Blue, and Pacific Networks. Independent, competing networks soon emerged. William S. Paley and his family formed the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1927. The Mutual Broadcasting System was formed in 1934.

By 1928 RCA had strong patent positions in all major areas of the radio industry, including the research, development and manufacture of vacuum tubes and speakers. Most small companies entering the industry in the 1920s produced their products based on prior research by others and on expired patents. An RCA license, therefore, was essential for the manufacture of any modern radio set or vacuum tube.

In the late 1920s new developments in the reproduction of sound, produced significant changes in the phonograph industry. Among those new developments were the introduction of the electronic record, and the marketing of the Radiola 104 Loudspeaker in 1926. In 1929 RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. This changed not only the quality but the sales of the phonograph and the phonograph record. A new entertainment industry was born and an ever-expanding market for consumer products was created with cultural implications that continue today.

Telefunken

German industrialists were eager to break the Marconi Company's monopoly. Although Marconi had patents on his inventions in Germany, the Germans developed a rival system through the Telefunken Corporation, incorporated in 1903, based on the inventions of Professor Ferdinand Braun, Dr. Rudolf Slaby, and Count George von Arco.

Before 1903 the Braun-Siemens and Halske system had been developed by Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphie (GFDT). The Slaby-Arco system had been developed by Allgemeine Electrizitats-Gesellschaft. After litigation over patents, the German court handed down a decision in favor of the GFDT. The Kaiser, with national interests in mind, ordered that the rivalry cease. The two systems were amalgamated under GFDT, and became known as the Telefunken.

Chronology of Some Significant Events In The History of The Radio Industry

1895 -- Marconi experiments with Hertz's oscillator and Branley's coherer.

1897 -- In March Marconi demonstrates his wireless system on Salisbury Plain, near London, and files a complete patent specification. In May trials of Marconi's system are made over water between Lavernock and Flatholm, a distance of three miles. On May 13, communication is established between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. German scientist Professor Slaby is present. The first Marconi station is erected at the Needles, Isle of Wight. A distance of fourteen and one-half miles is bridged by wireless. In December the Marconi station at the Needles communicates with a ship eighteen miles at sea.

1898 -- In England Oliver Lodge files a complete specification covering inventions in wireless telegraphy.

1899 -- The New York Herald uses Marconi's wireless telegraphy to report the progress of the International Yacht races between the Columbia and the Shamrock off New York harbor in September. US. Navy vessels make trials of Marconi's wireless telegraph system. The cruiser New York and the battleship Massachusetts are equipped with apparatus. Fessenden develops improvements in methods of wireless telegraph signaling.

1900 -- The Marconi International Marine Communication Company is organized on April 25th in London. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden begins work at the United States Weather Bureau. Over the next two years he invents the liquid barretter, an improved radio receiver.

1901 -- In February on board the SS Philadelphia, Marconi receives wireless signals over a distance of 1,551 miles. In March Marconi wireless telegraph service begins between islands of the Hawaiian group. On December 12, Marconi receives transatlantic signal at St. John's, Newfoundland from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. The Canadian government orders two Marconi telegraph sets for use at coastal points along the Strait of Belle Isle.

1901 -- Fessenden procures US patent no. 706737 for a system of radio signaling employing long waves (low frequency). De Forest develops a system of wireless telegraphy in Chicago. 1903-06 10,000 to 50,000 cycle machines, 1 kW, are developed by Steinmetz and by Alexanderson of GE for Fessenden. 1905 Marconi procures patent number 14788 in England, covering the invention of the horizontal directional antenna.

1906 -- At Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Fessenden employs a generator of one-half kW capacity, operating at 75,000 cycles, for radio purposes. He succeeds in telephoning a distance of eleven miles by means of wireless telephone apparatus.

1907 -- De Forest procures a U. S. patent for an audion amplifier of pulsating or alternating current.

1908 -- Marconi stations in Canada and England are opened for radio telegraph service across the Atlantic. Fessenden constructs a 70,000-cycle alternator with an output of 2.5 kW. at 225 volts, for radio signaling purposes. He reports successful radio telephone tests between Brant Rock and Washington, DC, a distance of 600 miles.

1909 -- US House of Representatives passes the Burke Bill for the compulsory use of radio telegraphy on certain classes of vessels. The United Wireless Telegraph Company and the Radio Telephone Company of New York (De Forest and Stone systems) begin the erection of radio stations in the Central and Western states. Marconi shares with Ferdinand Braun of Germany the Nobel prize in recognition of contributions in wireless telegraphy.

1910 -- An act of the US government requires radio equipment and operators on certain types of passenger ships. The Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Marconi station is opened in September. This station communicates with Clifden, Ireland. The transatlantic tariff is seventeen cents a word.

1911 -- A radio section is organized by the US Department of Commerce to enforce the provisions of national radio legislation. Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company acquires the Lodge-Muirhead patents.

1912 -- Rotary gap is used with Fessenden 100 kW 500 cycle spark set at NAA, the Navy's first high-power station at Arlington, Virginia. Marconi Wireless of America acquires property of the United Wireless Telegraph Company. British Marconi secures the important radio patents of Bellini and Tosi, Italian inventors. Wreck of the SS Titanic on April 15th. The act of 1910 is extended on July 23 to cover cargo vessels. requires an auxiliary source of power on ships and two or more skilled radio apparatus operators on certain types of passenger ships. On August 13, an act provides for licensing radio operators and transmitting stations.

1912-1913 -- High vacuum amplifying tubes (an improvement on De Forest's), using the findings of pure science, are produced almost simultaneously in two great industrial laboratories, by Dr. H. D. Arnold of AT&T and Irving Langmuir of GE.

1915 -- De Forest Ultra-audion three-step (cascade) audio amplifier is announced and introduced into practice.

1916 -- GE and the Western Electric Company develop the first experimental vacuum tube radiotelephone systems for the Navy.

1917-1918 -- First production of vacuum tubes in quantity, both coated filament and tungsten filament types, by Western Electric Company and GE.

1918 -- Lloyd Espenschied procures US patent number 1,256,889 for the invention of a duplex radio telegraph system. (See Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, NMAH, Collection #13.) The House of Representatives passes a resolution on July 5, authorizing the President to take over management of telegraph and telephone systems due to war conditions.

1919 -- Bills are introduced in Congress for permanent government control of radio stations. The widespread resentment of amateurs has more to do with the defeat of these bills than the objections of commercial companies. Roy Alexander Weagant, New York, reports having developed means of reducing disturbances to radio reception caused by atmospherics or static. This is the first successful static-reducing system. GE purchases the holdings of the British Marconi Company in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, the name of the latter company being changed to Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in October. Edward J. Nally is elected president of the new company.

1920 -- E. F. W. Alexanderson is appointed Chief Engineer of RCA. RCA begins the installation of 200-kW Alexanderson alternators at Bolinas, California, and Marion, Massachusetts. The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, New York, operates ten long-distance radio stations at points in Central and South Americirca RCA purchases 6,000 acres at Rocky Point, Long Island, New York, and begins erection of a Radio Central station, comprising a number of operating units for communication with European stations and stations in South Americirca On May 15, RCA inaugurates radio telegraph services between installations at Chatham and Marion, Massachusetts, and stations at Stavanger and Jaerobe, Norway. Westinghouse Company's radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts returns of the national elections, November 2. Development, design, and manufacture by GE of the early receiving and transmitting tubes made available to the public by RCA (UV-200,201,202). Radio telegraph stations and properties taken over by the government under war time powers are returned to their owners at midnight, February 29. The government calls for bids for the sale of large quantities of surplus radio and telegraph and telephone apparatus purchased for war needs and not used.

1921 -- RCA develops Vacuum tubes UV-200(detector) and UV-201(amplifier) -- both triodes with brass shells known as the UV base, and incorporating a filament that required 1 ampere at 5 volts for operation -- for storage battery operation; and at the same time also released to the public the WD-11 for dry cell operation, which employed an oxide-coated tungsten filament. RCA station at Rocky Point, Long Island, opens on November 5. WJZ station established by the Westinghouse Company in Newark, NJ. RCA broadcast station at Roselle Park, NJ (WDY) opens on December 15. It continues operation until February 15, 1922, when its operation is transferred to WJZ, Newark, previously owned by Westinghouse. RCA installs 200-kW alternator at Tuckerton, NJ.

1922 -- First use of tube transmitters by RCA for service from the United States to England and Germany. RCA begins substitution of tube transmitters on ships to replace spark sets. RCA begins replacement of crystal receivers by tube receivers on ships.

1923 -- Broadcast stations WJZ and WJY opened in New York in May by RCA. WRC opens in Washington on August 1. The UV-201A, receiving tubes developed by GE and consuming only 1/4 of an ampere are introduced by RCA. Tungsten filaments coated and impregnated with thorium were employed.

1924 -- Edwin H. Armstrong, demonstrates the superheterodyne receiver on March 6th. In November RCA experiments with radio photographs across the Atlantic. RCA markets the superheterodyne receivers for broadcast reception.

1925-26 -- Dynamic loudspeakers introduced. Magnetic pick-up phonograph recording and reproduction developed. RCA opens radio circuit to Dutch East Indies. Direction-finders introduced on ships.

1927 -- Fully self-contained AC radio receivers introduced.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in 1959.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection remains unprocessed and is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Electric engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Electricity -- 1880-1950  Search this
Communication -- 1880-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- Electrical equipment
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Sale catalogs -- Electrical equipment -- 1880-1950
Technical drawings
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0055
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833dbe2b0-891b-4411-a413-3b4b1e3306ad
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0055
Online Media:

Walter Farndon scrapbooks, [ca. 1900-1950]

Creator:
Farndon, Walter, 1876-1964  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Walter Farndon scrapbooks, [ca. 1900-1950]. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8103
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210274
AAA_collcode_farnwalt
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210274

Ernst Herzfeld Papers

Topic:
Papyrus
Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum  Search this
Verlag Philipp von Zabern  Search this
Anistās Mārī, al-Karmilī, ab, 1866-1947  Search this
Becker, Carl Heinrich, 1876-1933  Search this
Bell, Gertrude Lowthian, 1868-1926  Search this
Berchem, Max van, 1863-1921  Search this
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Krefter, Friedrich, 1898-1995  Search this
Meyer, Eduard, 1855-1930  Search this
Sarre, Friedrich Paul Theodor, 1865-1945  Search this
Extent:
150 Linear feet (circa 30,000 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Clippings
Notebooks
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Articles
Paper squeezes
Correspondence
Diaries
Sketches
Rubbings
Place:
Turkey
Mesopotamia
Bakun, Tall-e (Iran)
Iran
Iraq
Lebanon
Persepolis (Iran)
Pasargadae (Extinct city)
Taq-e Bostan Site (Iran)
Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq)
Syria
Date:
1903-1947
Summary:
An outstanding scholar in the field of Iranian studies, Ernst Herzfeld (1879--1948) explored all phases of Near Eastern culture from the prehistoric period to Islamic times. This collection documents Herzfeld's excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo and includes correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
Papers (1899--1962) of German born archaeologist Ernst Emil Herzfeld (1879--1948), a preeminent scholar of Near Eastern and Iranian studies. The collection measures 150 linear feet (circa 30,000 items) and documents Herzfeld's work as a pioneer in the field and sheds light on his excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo. Formats include correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into seven series.

Series 1: Travel journals

Series 2: Sketchbooks

Series 3: Notebooks

Series 4: Photographic files 1-42

Series 5: Drawings and maps

Series 6: Squeezes

Series 7: Samarra Expedition
Biographical / Historical:
The Ernst Herzfeld Papers document the career of Ernst Herzfeld (1879--1948), a German architect, archaeologist, and historian of Islamic and Pre-Islamic studies. After training as an architect he studied archaeology under Delitzch from 1903 to 1906 at the excavations at Assur in Mesopotamia. A student of Latin, Greek, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew, Herzfeld received a doctorate in Humanistic Studies at universities in Munich and Berlin in 1907. His work with Friedrich Sarre to survey the monuments of the Tigris-Euphrates valleys resulted in landmark studies in architectural history, published in 1911 and 1920.

In 1920 Herzfeld was appointed to the chair of Historical Geography in Berlin and began his excavation at Samarra. Herzfeld's work there led to a six-volume publication. He published widely throughout his life on the sources of Islamic architecture and ornament, including the Royal Palace at Persepolis.

From 1934 until the end of his life Herzfeld spent his time producing many books and articles, lecturing, and working at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton (1936--1945.) Many of his works continue to be published post-humously.

1879 July 23 -- Born in Celle, Germany.

1897 -- Received diploma from Joachimsthaler Gymnasium, Berlin.

1897-circa 1898 -- Fulfilled military service.

circa 1899 -- Studied architecture at the Technical University and Assyriology, art history, and philosophy at the Friedrich-Wilhems Universität in Berlin.

1903 -- Passed exam in structural engineering.

1903-1905 -- Assistant to Walter Andrae (1875-1956) in Assur.

1905-1906 -- Traveled throughout Iran and Iraq.

1907 -- Excavation in Cilicia. Passed oral exam in February. Awarded doctorate in Humanistic Studies by Friedrich-Wilhems Universtät zu Berlin. After receiving Ph.D. traveled extensively in Syria and Iraq with Friedrich Sarre, director of the Islamic Museum in Berlin.

1910 -- Herzfeld and Sarre jointly publish, Iranische Felsreliefs (Berlin, 1910).

1911-1913 -- Field Director under direction of Sarre during expedition to Samarra.

circa 1914 -- Drafted into service in France and Poland during World War I. Sent to Iraq where he functioned as a surveyor.

1916 -- Father died.

1917 -- Appointed associate professor for Historical Geography and Art History of the Ancient Orient at Berlin. Along with Friedrich Sarre and others, founded the German-Persian Society to increase cultural and economic exchange between Germany and Persia.

1920 -- Appointed world's first full professor of Near Eastern Archeology. Begins excavation at Samarra.

1922 -- Mother died.

1923-1934 -- In Persia, where he completed many excavations and studies.

1928 -- Excavation at Pasargadae.

1931-1934 -- Appointed director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago and moved to Persepolis.

1934 -- As grandson of Jews, Nazi legislation expelling state employees of Jewish descent forced Herzfeld to retire as a professor employed by the state. Moved to London.

1936 -- Delivered Lowell Lectures. Moved to Boston. Lectured on Iranian history and appointed a member of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study.

1944 -- Retired from Princeton University.

1948 January 20 -- Died.
Provenance:
Ernst Herzfeld donated his papers to the Freer Gallery of Art in 1946.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Ayyubids  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
History  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Abbasids  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Numismatics  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Clippings
Notebooks
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Articles
Paper Squeezes
Correspondence
Diaries
Sketches
Rubbings
Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3d8456fbe-98f6-4159-bd2f-c485379b84a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-06
Online Media:

Records of Samarra Expeditions

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Dietrich Reimer Verlag (Berlin, Germany)  Search this
Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum  Search this
Verlag Philipp von Zabern  Search this
Anistās Mārī, al-Karmilī, ab, 1866-1947  Search this
Becker, Carl Heinrich, 1876-1933  Search this
Bell, Gertrude Lowthian, 1868-1926  Search this
Berchem, Max van, 1863-1921  Search this
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Meyer, Eduard, 1855-1930  Search this
Sarre, Friedrich Paul Theodor, 1865-1945  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
186 Items (Field notes: drawings, sketches, sketchbooks, correspondence, notebooks, photographs, blueprints, notes, diaries, prints, journals (accounts), publications, articles, clippings, rubbings.)
Type:
Archival materials
Articles
Blueprints
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Diaries
Journals (accounts)
Notebooks
Photographs
Rubbings
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iraq
Lebanon
Syria
Mesopotamia
Bakun, Tall-e (Iran)
Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq)
Date:
1906-1945
Scope and Contents:
The material from the excavations at Samarra, except for the photographs mounted in Photo Files 19--3, and drawings which are in Series 5: Drawings.
"Two campaigns of excavation at Samarra in Iraq, carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913 mark the beginning of large-scale archaeological research on Islamic antiquities. During this time, Herzfeld was supported for brief periods by the swiss architect Samuel Guyer, Commander von Ludloff, various technical assistants, and finally Friedrich Sarre, who was the director of the Islamic department at the museum and initiator of the expedition. For most of the time, however, all tasks that today would be divided among a team of archaeologists rested solely on Herzfeld's shoulders: coordinating hundreds of workmen at various sites, measuring buildings, drawing architecture and objects, and cataloging finds, but also negociating with local authorities who were often uncooperative. Still working at a time when the success of a venture such as the Samarra expedition was measured by its spectacular finds in both architecture and precious objects, the immense responsibility for bringing this expedition through the unexplored territories of Islamic archaeology to a successful conclusion presented an enormous physical and psychological challenge. In an effort that from the perspective of modern archaeology must be called Herculean, he excavated and examined nineteen sites [Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, Congregational Mosque of Madinat al-Mutawakkiliyya, Shiite Shrine Complex, Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya; palaces of Balkuwārā, Ṣūr ʿĪṣā, and the Qaṣr al-ʿĀshiq; the Cemetery at Shabbat al-Hawā; Mausoleum of Imām al-Dūr; Tall al-ʿAlīq; Ḥarba Bridge and finally the residential architecture at al-Quraina, al-Qāṭūn, al-Jubairiyya, and west of Ṣūr ʿĪṣā, and the baths] and collected a stupendous corpus of material, one that in many respects still forms the foundation for our knowledge of the city of Samarra and ʼAbbāsid art in the 3rd/9th centuries. What is astonishing is that Herzfeld himself considered his achievements during the first campaign in Samarra to be merely a dress rehearsal for the more ambitious second campaign which focused on the Dār al-Khilāfa." [Leisten, Thomas, 2003: "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : Final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003. Preface, p.IX."]
Arrangement:
135 units of original materials; numbered subseries, kept in the order in which they arrived, and housed in document boxes.
Biographical / Historical:
"Ernst Emil Herzfeld (1879-1948) was an orientalist whose many talents led him to explore all phases of Near Eastern culture, from the prehistoric period to Islamic times and from linguistics and religion to art and architecture." [Margaret Cool Root, 1976: "The Herzfeld Archive of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 11, pp. 119-124."]
Local Numbers:
FSA A.06 07
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, Thomas Leisten's publication, "Excavation of Samarra, vol 1," and Alastair Northedge's publication, "An Interpretation of the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dar Al-Khilafa or Jawsaq Al-Khaqani). In Ars Orientalis, Vol. 23."
Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions."
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Field notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Papyrus  Search this
Abbasids  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
History  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Numismatics  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Blueprints
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Diaries
Journals (accounts)
Notebooks
Photographs
Rubbings
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Series 7
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3580e42ce-5d00-4c2c-85db-fcaa3aa760e7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref10431

Photographic Files

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
3609 Cyanotypes (photographic prints) (b&w, 16 cm. x 21.7 cm)
343 Copy prints (b&w)
3,890 Glass plate negatives (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm)
42 Lantern slides (color, 10 cm. x 15 cm)
8,541 Photographic prints (b&w, various dimensions)
Type:
Archival materials
Cyanotypes (photographic prints)
Copy prints
Glass plate negatives
Lantern slides
Photographic prints
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iraq
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria
Turkey
Mesopotamia
Aleppo (Syria)
Bakun, Tall-e (Iran)
Baʻlabakk (Lebanon)
Bīshāpūr (Extinct city)
Bisutun Site (Iran)
Damascus (Syria)
Fīrūzābād (Iran)
Ḥimṣ (Syria)
Iṣfahān (Iran)
Luristān (Iran)
Nahāvand (Iran)
Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran)
Paikuli (Iraq)
Palmyra (Syria)
Pasargadae (Extinct city)
Persepolis (Iran)
Petra (Extinct city)
Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq)
Sīstān va Balūchistān (Iran)
Taq-e Bostan Site (Iran)
Tripoli (Lebanon)
Date:
1903-1947
1899-1947
Scope and Contents:
The prints are from three sources: (1) those from glass negatives; (2) those from cut film; and (3) those for which there are no negatives.

The Archive contains Herzfeld's glass negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850. Of most of these he had blueprints made which he had arranged in 16 binders by general categories--i.e. Prehistoric pottery, bronzes, stone; Persepolis; Sasanian monuments; Syrian monuments, Persian architecture and landscapes, etc.--irrespective of the number on the negative. These formed the nucleus for the preparation of the Photo Files. The 16 binders of blueprints have been replaced by Photo Files, Nos. 1--6. The prints in each File are arranged in the same order as the blueprints; and the number of the negative is enclosed in parentheses. Following a brief identification, is a reference to the place where the print has been published, if that is the case and such publication has been located.

In addition to the blueprint binders there were three Albums - Photo Files 25 (Sasanian buildings), 27 (Parthian and Sasanian sculptures) and 28 (Pre-Achaemenian monuments and Pasargadae)--in which Herzfeld had arranged prints in a sequence for study or publication purposes. The order in those Photo Files retains that in the Albums.

In addition to the glass negatives, there is an even larger number of cut films. On his archaeological study trips, Herzfeld was accustomed to supplement his photographs on glass plates with photographs on cut film--sometimes of the same subjects, often of other subjects. Some prints to these negative were identified on the back or could be identified from other prints; but in many instances, especially of landscapes, it has not been possible to place them, except in general categories.

Prints from the cut films have been organized, so far as feasible, in groups of related material and placed in the Photo Files of similar subject matter. The negative number appears in the Photo File. Herzfeld also collected prints from many sources for study purposes. Of those there are no negatives, So far as possible, the prints have been identified and placed in the appropriate Photo File.

The Samarra material, Photo Files 19--23, is in a special category. Files 22 and 23 were arranged in Albums labeled "Paläste und Moscheen-I and -II", respectively. The only identification was written on the backs of the prints, glued to the pages of the Albums. These notations have been transferred to the captions in the Photo Files. These two Albums apparently were arranged by Herzfeld with a view to a publication of the architecture of Samarra which was never prepared. The drawings for such a publication are in this collection.

With such a large number of prints, especially in view of the fact that some were arranged in different fashions for different purposes, it is inevitable that there should be some duplication and that related material may be found in several Photo Files. The only way a user can be sure he has not missed material concerning his particular interest is to examine the Photo File Lists where every print is recorded. Inasmuch as scholars study the same monument from different points of view, the fact that a photograph has been published in one context does not diminish its value in another context.

Note: Photo Files 35--42 consist of Oriental Institute prints of which the negatives are in Chicago. The prints may be published only with the written permission of the Oriental Institute.
- "Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 4: Photographic Files," which is composed of b&w glass negatives, color lantern slides, b&w photographic prints (both modern and original), b&w cyanotypes, large format b&w films, and b&w duplicate prints (both modern and original), iwas originally organized into three subseries, the glass n and covers Herzfeld's travels and surveys of the most major archaeological sites in Persia, Mesopotamia and Northern Syria, from 1923 to 1931. It also covers the field activities at Pasargadae (Spring 1928) and of the Persepolis Expedition (1931).
- The Herzfeld Papers in the Archives contains 3,890 glass negatives (FSA A.6 04.GN.0001- to FSA A.6 04.GN.5075), which includes eight sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII), covers Herzfeld's travels and surveys of the most major archaeological sites in Persia from 1923 to 1924.
The Herzfeld Papers in the Archives contains 3,890 glass negatives, numbered from 1 to 5,066, without any apparent organization. Of most of these, Herzfeld had blueprints made which he had arranged in 16 binders by general categories&#x2014i.e. Prehistoric pottery, bronzes, stone; Persepolis; Sasanian monuments; Syrian monuments, Persian architecture and landscapes, etc.&#x2014irrespective of the number on the negative.
In addition to the glass negatives and blueprints, there are a series of 16 binders made of photographic prints (Photo Files, Nos. 1-16) and three albums (Photo Files, Nos. 25, 27, and 28). As well, approximately 1,069 photographic prints, which have no negatives, arranged in Photo Files 19-23, are in a special category. In File 19, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol. 1: Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und seine Ornamentik. In File 20, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol.2: Die Keramik von Samarra von F. Sarre, supplemented by unpublished photos of ceramics. In the same file, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol.6: Die Geschichte der Stadt Samarra. In File 21, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol.3: Die Malereien von Samarra. At the end of the file, there are unpublished photographs. Files 22 and 23 were arranged in Albums labeled "Paläste und Moscheen-I and -II", respectively. These two Albums apparently were arranged by Herzfeld with a view to a publication of the architecture of the palaces, mosques and private houses of Samarra which was never prepared. The only identification, written on the backs of the prints which were glued to the Album page, had a first number in red crayon used in the captions as the negative number. In some cases, an additional number is given in blue crayon, possibly indicating a revision of the list or an alternative negative. The encircled number on the margin gives the position in the Album.
In addition to the glass negatives and the Photo Files, there is an even larger number of cut films and a package of duplicate prints which are, for the most part, unpublished. On his archaeological study trips, Herzfeld was accustomed to supplement his photographs on glass plates with photographs on cut film&#x2014sometimes of the same subjects, often of other subjects.
Arrangement:
- Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 5,075, originally stored in 80 wooden boxes of approximately 50 photographs each, are housed in document boxes and stored on shelves.
- Prints are organized in sequential number following publication series, "Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra." They are arranged in photo file folders which are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Biographical / Historical:
"Ernst Emil Herzfeld (1879-1948) was an orientalist whose many talents led him to explore all phases of Near Eastern culture, from the prehistoric period to Islamic times and from linguistics and religion to art and architecture." [Margaret Cool Root, 1976: "The Herzfeld Archive of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 11, pp. 119-124."]
Local Numbers:
FSA A.06 4
General:
Titles are provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Ernst Herzfeld's publications and on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
The Papers primarly relate to Herzfeld's survey of the monuments, artifacts, and inscriptions of Western Asia between 1903 and 1947 and particularly to his excavations at Istakhr (Iran), Paikuli (Iraq), Pasargadae (Iran), Persepolis (Iran), Samarra (Iraq) and Kuh-e Khwaja (Iran), as well as various archaeological expeditions throughout Cilicia, Mesopotamia, Northern Syria, and Persia. Additional research material, probably collected by Moritz Sobernheim and Max Freiherr von Oppenheim but preserved by Ernst Herzfeld, was part of a broader project, that of Max van Berchem's "Matériaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum."
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Abbasids  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Cartography  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Numismatics  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Relief (Sculpture)  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Royalty (Nobility)  Search this
Sassanids  Search this
Shrines  Search this
Textile design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Series 4
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3589ce572-a594-42bf-99d6-d59bb6c660db
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref10847

Bistam (Iran): Tomb Tower: View of the Structure's Flanges terminating with the Remains of Two Encircling Bands of Blue Faience Kufic Inscriptional Tiles on a Background of Carved Stucco

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iran -- Semnan -- Bistam
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
- Glass plates in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 04.GN.2925; FSA A.6 04.GN.2926; FSA A.6 04.GN.2927; FSA A.6 04.GN.2928; FSA A.6 04.GN.2929; FSA A.6 04.GN.2930].
- Drawing in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 05.0767].
- Sketchbook in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: SK-12, p.26 and 27.
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 10, vol. 1 reads, "Bisṭām. Inscription of Tomb Tower."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.8: Photo File 10 (2 vols.), "Persian Architecture and Landscapes," Subseries 4.10.1: vol. 1; Image No. 57 (Negative Number: 2931). Bistam, tomb tower. Close-up of dome and inscription."
Arrangement:
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.2931
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.2931
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3cca6ada9-987f-4600-b109-cb859181604b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref27912

Bistam (Iran): Tomb Tower: View of the Structure's Flanges terminating with the Remains of Two Encircling Bands of Blue Faience Kufic Inscriptional Tiles on a Background of Carved Stucco

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iran -- Semnan -- Bistam
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
- Glass plates in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 04.GN.2925; FSA A.6 04.GN.2926; FSA A.6 04.GN.2927; FSA A.6 04.GN.2928; FSA A.6 04.GN.2929; FSA A.6 04.GN.2931].
- Drawing in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 05.0767].
- Sketchbook in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: SK-12, p.26 and 27.
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 10, vol. 1 reads, "Bisṭām. Inscription of Tomb Tower."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.8: Photo File 10 (2 vols.), "Persian Architecture and Landscapes," Subseries 4.10.1: vol. 1; Image No. 58 (Negative Number: 2930). Bistam, tomb tower. Close-up of dome and inscription."
Arrangement:
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.2930
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.2930
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc390baf15e-bd76-4726-a0a6-e6b548804d74
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref27913

Bistam (Iran): Tomb Tower: View of the Structure's Flanges terminating with the Remains of Two Encircling Bands of Blue Faience Kufic Inscriptional Tiles on a Background of Carved Stucco

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iran -- Semnan -- Bistam
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
- Glass plates in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 04.GN.2925; FSA A.6 04.GN.2926; FSA A.6 04.GN.2927; FSA A.6 04.GN.2928; FSA A.6 04.GN.2930; FSA A.6 04.GN.2931].
- Drawing in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 05.0767].
- Sketchbook in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: SK-12, p.26 and 27.
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 10, vol. 1 reads, "Bisṭām. Inscription of Tomb Tower."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.8: Photo File 10 (2 vols.), "Persian Architecture and Landscapes," Subseries 4.10.1: vol. 1; Image No. 59 (Negative Number: 2929). Bistam, tomb tower. Close-up of dome and inscription."
Arrangement:
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.2929
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.2929
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3146a9334-e04f-4684-905b-c00965ba5cc7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref27914

Bistam (Iran): Tomb Tower: View of the Structure's Flanges terminating with the Remains of Two Encircling Bands of Blue Faience Kufic Inscriptional Tiles on a Background of Carved Stucco

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iran -- Semnan -- Bistam
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
- Glass plates in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 04.GN.2925; FSA A.6 04.GN.2926; FSA A.6 04.GN.2927; FSA A.6 04.GN.2929; FSA A.6 04.GN.2930; FSA A.6 04.GN.2931].
- Drawing in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 05.0767].
- Sketchbook in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: SK-12, p.26 and 27.
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 10, vol. 1 reads, "Bisṭām. Inscription of Tomb Tower."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.8: Photo File 10 (2 vols.), "Persian Architecture and Landscapes," Subseries 4.10.1: vol. 1; Image No. 60 (Negative Number: 2928). Bistam, tomb tower. Close-up of dome and inscription."
Arrangement:
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.2928
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.2928
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3bfc89112-da6f-4ff1-b299-1b71550518cf
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref27915

Bistam (Iran): Tomb Tower: View of the Structure's Flanges terminating with the Remains of Two Encircling Bands of Blue Faience Kufic Inscriptional Tiles on a Background of Carved Stucco

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iran -- Semnan -- Bistam
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
- Glass plates in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 04.GN.2925; FSA A.6 04.GN.2926; FSA A.6 04.GN.2928; FSA A.6 04.GN.2929; FSA A.6 04.GN.2930; FSA A.6 04.GN.2931].
- Drawing in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 05.0767].
- Sketchbook in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: SK-12, p.26 and 27.
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 10, vol. 1 reads, "Bisṭām. Inscription of Tomb Tower."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.8: Photo File 10 (2 vols.), "Persian Architecture and Landscapes," Subseries 4.10.1: vol. 1; Image No. 61 (Negative Number: 2927). Bistam, tomb tower. Close-up of dome and inscription."
Arrangement:
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.2927
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.2927
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc300c40329-1af2-4ae8-a81c-d12c5a66f97c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref27916

Bistam (Iran): Tomb Tower: View of the Structure's Flanges terminating with the Remains of Two Encircling Bands of Blue Faience Kufic Inscriptional Tiles on a Background of Carved Stucco

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iran -- Semnan -- Bistam
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
- Glass plates in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 04.GN.2925; FSA A.6 04.GN.2927; FSA A.6 04.GN.2928; FSA A.6 04.GN.2929; FSA A.6 04.GN.2930; FSA A.6 04.GN.2931].
- Drawing in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 05.0767].
- Sketchbook in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: SK-12, p.26 and 27.
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 10, vol. 1 reads, "Bisṭām. Inscription of Tomb Tower."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.8: Photo File 10 (2 vols.), "Persian Architecture and Landscapes," Subseries 4.10.1: vol. 1; Image No. 62 (Negative Number: 2926). Bistam, tomb tower. Close-up of dome and inscription."
Arrangement:
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.2926
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.2926
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3a22f9ba7-8e11-42a7-adb2-7a5c5b89b873
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref27917

Bistam (Iran): Tomb Tower: View of the Structure's Flanges terminating with the Remains of Two Encircling Bands of Blue Faience Kufic Inscriptional Tiles on a Background of Carved Stucco

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iran -- Semnan -- Bistam
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
- Glass plates in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 04.GN.2926; FSA A.6 04.GN.2927; FSA A.6 04.GN.2928; FSA A.6 04.GN.2929; FSA A.6 04.GN.2930; FSA A.6 04.GN.2931].
- Drawing in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: [FSA A.6 05.0767].
- Sketchbook in Ernst Herzfeld Papers: SK-12, p.26 and 27.
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 10, vol. 1 reads, "Bisṭām. Detail of Tomb Inscription."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.8: Photo File 10 (2 vols.), "Persian Architecture and Landscapes," Subseries 4.10.1: vol. 1; Image No. 63 (Negative Number: 2925). Bistam, tomb tower. Close-up of dome and inscription."
Arrangement:
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.2925
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.2925
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3aacc5033-f167-4a61-a34c-ce3f01002dd7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref27918

SK-I Persien

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (Sketchbook (28 pages), 12.8 cm. x 25.7 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Volumes
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Place:
Asia
Iraq
Iran
Bisutun Site (Iran)
Fīrūzābād (Iran)
Hamadān (Iran)
Paikuli (Iraq)
Ray (Iran)
Taq-e Bostan Site (Iran)
Sarpol-e Zahab (Iran)
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
- SK-1 is the first of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Ctesiphon (Iraq), Qara Tepe (Iran), Paikuli (Iraq), Taq-i Bustan (Iran), Darband i Shaikhan and Sarpul (Iran), Harnawa, Tell Ishan and Kale i Khosrowi (Iran), Bisutun (Iran), Asadabad and Sunghur (Iran), Hamadan (Iran), Qazvin (Iran), Varamin (Iran), Rayy (Iran), Khurha, Tepe Maringar and Husainabad (Iran), and Daulatabad (Iran).
- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch I: Persien, 1923"
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "Ctesiphon [(Iraq)], Taq-i Kisra, stucco fragments, [19.4.1923], [N-89, inventory number 542]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 and 3 reads, "Travel-log Deli 'Abbas, Qara Tepe, Kifri, May 27-29, 1923."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 4 reads, "Tell Ishan [(Iran)], profiles of three potsherds, [see FSA A.6 05.0660]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 5 reads, "Pahlavi inscription."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 6 and 7 reads, "Paikuli [(Iraq)], [plaited hair and palmettes attached to the crown of king Narseh], [see FSA A.6 05.0985], and bell-shaped [column] capital, [see FSA A.6 05.0743]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "Darband i Shaikhan [(Iran)], [rock relief depicting king with foot on the prostrate figure of an enemy as well as detail of stone and metal axes], [see FSA A.6 05.0775; FSA A.6 05.0791]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "Taq-i Bustan [(Iran)], cross-section of column [with fluted shaft, drawn from the Sasanian rock reliefs in the large vault], [see FSA A.6 05.0734]; [ornaments on cloaks of the god and the godesses], [see FSA A.6 05.0918; FSA A.6 05.0955]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10 reads, "Sarpul [(Iran)], Pahlavi inscription, [12 June 1923]: cross-section of column [with fluted shaft]; Taq-i Girra, masons' marks, [see FSA A.6 05.0955]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "Harnawa-Harunabad [(Iran)], [reconstruction of prehistoric pottery, profiles of rims and handles], [see N-89, inventory number 734], [see FSA A.6 05.0660]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 13 reads, "Taq-i Bustan, Bisutun [(Iran)], measurements for plan of [group of small grottoes shaped like a Roman triple gate], [see FSA A.6 05.0717; FSA A.6 05.0717a]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 14 and 15 reads, "Kale i Khusrawi [Kale i Khosrowi (Iran)], profiles of Sasanian pottery, [inventory number 920], [see FSA A.6 05.0660]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 16 reads, "Taq-i Bustan and Bisutun [site] [(Iran)], details of capitals [various vegetal ornaments], [see FSA A.6 05.0955]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 17 reads, "Bistun [Bisutun site (Iran)], Greek inscription [on rock relief of Mithridates II (the Parthian remains)]; and on gravestone of 1232 H., in cemetery north of Bistun, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1907]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 18 reads, "Tepe Maringan [(Iran)], south-east of Sunghur, between Sunghur and Qara Tepe, profiles of [prehistoric] pottery, [see N-89, inventory number 800], [see FSA A.6 05.0655]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "As'adabad [vicinity of Asadabad (Iran)], part of column [bases] and [unidentified gravestones with Arabic inscription, in Kufic script], [see FSA A.6 05.0735; FSA A.6 05.0735a; FSA A.6 05.0749; FSA A.6 05.0750]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 21 reads, "As'adabad [vicinity of Asadabad (Iran)], panel [with Arabic inscription, in Kufic script]; Sunghur [(Iran)], gravestone [with Arabic inscription, in Kufic script]; Firuzabad [(Iran)], between Kerind and Harunabad, [incised relief depicting a hunting scene]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "Darband i Shaikhan [(Iran)], [northwest of Sarpul], cuneiform inscription [on rock relief depicting king with foot on the prostrate figure of an enemy], [see FSA A.6 05.01292]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "Hamadan [(Iran)], Gumbadh i 'Alawiyyan [Gunbad-i Alaywian], [Arabic inscription], in Kufic [script]; Sura 76, 5 and 6, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1944]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "Hamadan [(Iran)], Arabic inscriptions, in Kufic script, in cemetery Sar i Ahl al-Qubur."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 25 reads, "Qazvin (Iran), three Safavid tile inscriptions, white on blue."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 26 reads, "Bistun [Bisutun site (Iran)], [Arabic inscription, in Kufic script, found on gravestone]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 27, 28 and 29 reads, "Sunghur [(Iran)], Kufic and Naskhi tombstone inscriptions, [Arabic inscriptions, in Kufic and Naskhi script, found on gravestone], [see FSA A.6 06.A029; FSA A.6 06.A030; FSA A.6 06.A030a; FSA A.6 06.A030b]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 30 reads, "Kale i Khusrawi [Kale i Khosrowi (Iran)] near Kermanshah, Kufic inscription on tombstone [Arabic inscription, in Kufic script, from unidentified gravestone], [see FSA A.6 06.A031]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 31 reads, "Waramin [Varamin (Iran)], Mosque inscription on outer door [Friday Mosque, remnants of an Arabic inscription on main portal iwan] and one of Sayyid 'Ala in the city, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1928; FSA A.6 04.GN.1930; FSA A.6 04.GN.1931]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 32 reads, "Waramin [Varamin (Iran)], Kufic inscription in Imamzadeh Sayyid 'Ala [Ala al-Din Tomb Tower, Arabic inscription, in Kufic script, on the triangular flanges], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1938; FSA A.6 04.GN.2520; FSA A.6 04.GN.2521]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 33 reads, "Rayy [(Iran)], Kufic inscription of 534H. [Arabic inscription on iron plaque, possibly from Tughril Mausoleum], [see N-89, inventory number 1515], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1441]; silk roundel, Tehran, [see N-89, inventory number 1517], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1434]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 34 to 43 reads, "Taq-i Bustan [(Iran)], [textile pattern on costume, drawn from the two Sasanian rock reliefs], [see FSA A.6 05.0308; FSA A.6 05.0311; FSA A.6 05.0312; FSA A.6 05.0313; FSA A.6 05.0924; FSA A.6 05.0946; FSA A.6 05.0951]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 44 reads, "Arabic inscription on inlaid copper tray, possibly in Berlin Museum, [see N-89, inventory number 1632], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1430]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 45, 46, and 47 reads, "Husainabad [(Iran)], opposite Neizar, [prehistoric] pottery, profiles [of rims and handles], [see FSA A.6 05.0655]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 48 and 49 reads, "Daulatabad [(Iran)], near Khurha, [prehistoric] pottery, profiles [of rims and handles], [see FSA A.6 05.0654]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 50 and 53 reads, "Khurha and Khurha-Shahriyar [(Iran)], [prehistoric] pottery, profiles [of rims and handles] and copper arrow head, [see FSA A.6 05.0654]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 54, 55, and 56 reads, "Measurements for plan of temple area at Khurha [(Iran)], Oct. 11, [19]23."
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.01: Persia, 1923: Sketchbook 01
Arrangement:
Sketchbooks, housed in document boxes and stored on shelves, are organized by Joseph Upton into 13 subject categories.
Local Numbers:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers; SK-1

FSA A.06 02.01.01
Former Title or Title Variations:
Ernst Herzeld; Skizzenbuch I: Persien, 1923
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble,FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook captions and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites, including Pasargadae, Persepolis, and Kuh-e Khwaja, and develop for future excavations." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Animals in art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Cuneiform inscriptions  Search this
Cuneiform inscriptions, Akkadian  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Inscriptions, Greek  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Relief (Sculpture)  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Sassanids  Search this
Stucco  Search this
Textile design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, File FSA A.06 02.01.01
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 2: Sketchbooks / 2.1: Persien
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc35d0b8573-3b64-4b8a-a6cd-4e06b10a4b1b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref6809

SK-II Persien

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (Sketchbook (29 pages), 12.8 cm. x 25.7 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Volumes
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Place:
Asia
Iraq
Iran
Baghdad (Iraq)
Dāmghān (Iran)
Qum (Iran)
Ray (Iran)
Tehran (Iran)
varamin (Iran)
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
- SK-2 is the second of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Dhuʹl-Kifl (Iran), Baghdad (Iraq), Qara Tepe (Iran), Qum (Iran), Khurha (Iran), and Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran).
- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch II: Persien, 1923"
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "[vicinity of Kufa (Iraq)]: [Sanctuary of] Dhuʹl-Kifl, [Tomb of the Prophet Ezekiel, Minaret of Uljaytu], [Arabic] Inscription, [in Naskhi script] on minaret, upper and lower lines (all that remain), [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2704; FSA A.6 04.GN.2705; FSA A.6 04.GN.2706; FSA A.6 04.GN.2710]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 to 5 reads, "Baghdad [(Iraq): Abbasid Palace in the Qal'a], measurements for the plan of the [east] iwan, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2731; FSA A.6 04.GN.2732; FSA A.6 04.GN.2733]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 6 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran): left, from Rayy (Iran), barbotine jar, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1380]; right, from Damghan (Iran), jar with long spout and [small animal head at starting point of the spout], [see FSA A.6 05.0647], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1379]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 7 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran): left, center, and right, from Damghan (Iran), three prehistoric cups [silver-grey wares with burnished decoration applied], [see FSA A.6 05.0648]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), all from Damghan (Iran): left, cup of foot; center, jar; right, vase, [all silver-grey vessels of various shapes and profiles], [see FSA A.6 05.0648], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1386]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): enameled glass bowl, probably [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1375]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): two enameled [glass] vases: left, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1368; FSA A.6 04.GN.1369]; right, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1368; FSA A.6 04.GN.1369; FSA A.6 04.GN.1370; FSA A.6 04.GN.1371]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 11 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): left, engraved jug [bronze ewer with incised ornamentation], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1315; FSA A.6 04.GN.1316]; center, inlaid jug [silver and copper-inlaid bronze ewer], inscription Mosuli, 673 H., [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1319; FSA A.6 04.GN.1320]; right, plain jug [bronze ewer without ornamentation], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1329; FSA A.6 04.GN.1330]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 12 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): right, inlaid copper jug [copper vessel with incised ornamentation], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1323; FSA A.6 04.GN.1324; FSA A.6 04.GN.1327; FSA A.6 04.GN.1328]; left, inlaid bronze box with maker's name [small engraved bronze chest inscribed with Arabic inscription], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1313; FSA A.6 04.GN.1314]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 13 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): left) large [silver-Inlaid copper] basin [with figural ornamentation and Arabic inscription], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1335]; right), five shallow engraved or inlaid plates or trays, copper, bronze or silver, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1356; FSA A.6 04.GN.1362]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 14 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): scale drawing of [bronze ewer with incised ornamentation], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1315; FSA A.6 04.GN.1316]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 15 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): scale drawings of first [bronze], second [silver] and fourth [copper] trays on p.13, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1351; FSA A.6 04.GN.1355; FSA A.6 04.GN.1357]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 16 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from the vicinity of] Damghan (Iran): three small jars or cups [silver-grey vessels with burnished linear pattern], [see N-91, inventory number 2828; inventory number 2829; inventory number 2842], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1383]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 17 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Damghan (Iran): two jars [silver-grey wares with burnished decoration applied], [see N-91, inventory number 2831; inventory number 2853] [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1385], [see FSA A.6 05.0649]; from Ashraf (Iran): one jug with pattern pressed from textile, [see FSA A.6 05.0648]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 18 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): three enameled glass bowls, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1372; FSA A.6 04.GN.1373; FSA A.6 04.GN.1374]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 19 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): scale drawing of [bronze] candlestick [with Incised ornamentation], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1312]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 20 reads, "notes on outing to Takht-i Rustam (Iran), south on rim of Shahriyar area; Sept. 23, 1923. Also drawings of two agate inscribed seals (Pahlavi) in Collection of seal stones belonging to Mirza Hajji Abdul-Husain Khan, Tehran."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 21 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran): profiles of four large copper or bronze trays, engraved."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran): left, copper inlaid candlestick, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1311]; right, plain bronze mortar, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1309]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran): plain spindle candlestick, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1310]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): engraved copper pitcher, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1322; FSA A.6 04.GN.1325]; and oval copper bowl."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 25 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): undecorated copper jug, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1326]; cover of beaten copper [vessel], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1366]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 26 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran); left, engraved copper flower-pot [mortar], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1331]; right, from Baznagird (Iran), plain copper flower-pot [mortar], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1332]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 27 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran): profile of basin; bronze jar with [ring] handles, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1367]; cover of beaten copper vessel."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 28 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): top) copper bowl; bottom right) [double-handled] turquoise [faience] blue jar, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1381]; bottom left) so-called Sultanabad faience jug, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1382]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 29 reads, "Museum of Shah, Tehran (Iran), from Baznagird (Iran): measured drawings of deep engraved bronze bowl with scalloped edge, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1350]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 30 and 31 reads, "Rayy [(Iran)]: left) notes on visit of Oct. 1, 1923; center) [prehistoric] pottery fragments from Cheshmeh 'Ali [Chasman-i-ali Mound:]; right) more notes on Rayy and pottery and itinerary October 2, 1923 from Rayy to Varamin via Firuzabad and Talimabad."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 32 and 33 reads, "Varamin [(Iran)], [Friday Mosque]: south qibla wall of the sanctuary (domed chamber), Arabic inscription, in Kufic script, inscribed on the mihrab], Oct. 2, 1923, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0175; FSA A.6 04.GN.0185; FSA A.6 04.GN.1069; FSA A.6 04.GN.2512; FSA A.6 04.GN.2513; FSA A.6 04.GN.2518]; worker's name and date."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 34 reads, "Varamin [(Iran)], [Friday] Mosque: Naskhi building inscription and Kufic panels [two plaques inscribed with an Arabic inscription, located in Friday mosque, large iwan of the domed chamber], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2509; FSA A.6 04.GN.2510]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 35 reads, "Varamin [(Iran)], [Friday] Mosque: [large iwan of the domed chamber], Large inscription of iwan of haram; brickwork; [3.10.1923]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 34a to 35a reads, "Varamin [(Iran)], [Ala al-Din] Tomb Tower: [Arabic] inscription of Sayyid 'Ala al-din, in Kufic script, [on the triangular flanges], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1937; FSA A.6 04.GN.1938; FSA A.6 04.GN.2520; FSA A.6 04.GN.2521]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 36 reads, "Varamin [(Iran)], [Ala al-Din] Tomb Tower: plan and elevation, [see FSA A.6 05.0380]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 37 reads, "Kuhnagil, near Varamin [(Iran)], Imamzadeh Yahya, son of Imam Musa al-Kazim."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 38 reads, "Varamin [(Iran)]: cartouches of Kufic brick and [wall with geometrical ornamentation], Oct. 4, 1923, [see FSA A.6 05.0384]; itinerary from Varamin (Iran) to Qum (Iran)."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 39 reads, "Varamin [(Iran)]: [on massive rectangular brick] pier bearing dome, brick pattern "hazarbaf," [see FSA A.6 05.0384]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 40 reads, "Tell Qara Tepe, en route to Qum (Iran): pottery grave deposits; also [Varamin (Iran)], two Arabic inscriptions, [the bottom one in Friday Mosque, main portal iwan, over the pointed arched entrance], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1930; FSA A.6 04.GN.2506]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 41 reads, "Qum [(Iran)], Tomb of Shah Hamzah [Hamza Mausoleum] with phallic-topped minaret: modern blue tile, Oct. 7, 1923, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2522]; Naskhi inscription on minaret in the old Meidan (madrasa)."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 42 to 45 reads, "Qum [(Iran)], three tombs (Gumbadan-i sabz) [Gunbad-i Sabz]: [plan of Seljuk octogonal brick structures], [see FSA A.6 05.0370]; [Arabic inscription], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2525; FSA A.6 04.GN.2527; FSA A.6 04.GN.2528]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 46 reads, "itinerary from Qum [(Iran)] to Daghun [(Iran)], Oct. 8, 1923; note on Imamzadeh Ja'far [Ali bin Ja'far al-Sadiq Imamzade] on way to Sawah [(Iran)]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 47 reads, "three silver drachmas with Arabic and Pahlavi inscriptions."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 48 reads, "itinerary (Oct. 9, 1923) from Daghun to Paitakht-i Khurramshah via Khurha, Husainabad, Daulatabad, Hajjiabad."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 49 reads, "Khurha [(Iran)], [Seleucid Temple]: face and side of [Ionic column's] capital and cross-section of column, [see FSA A.6 05.0360], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1714; FSA A.6 04.GN.1717; FSA A.6 04.GN.2391]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 50 reads, "Khurha [(Iran)], [Seleucid Temple]: measured drawing of [Ionic] column and base, Oct. 10, 1923, [see FSA A.6 05.0699], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1715; FSA A.6 04.GN.1716]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 51 reads, "Khurha [(Iran)], [Seleucid Temple]: [Ionic] capital and plaster moldings."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 52, 53, and 54 reads, "Khurha [(Iran)]: measurements and sketches for topographical plan of area and ruins, [see FSA A.6 05.0697; FSA A.6 05.0698]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 55 reads, "Khurha [(Iran)], [Seleucid Temple]: measured drawing of [Ionic] column and capitals, [see FSA A.6 05.0697], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0698]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 56, 57, and 58 reads, "Khurha [(Iran)], [Seleucid Temple]: measured drawing of [Ionic] column capitals and blocks, [see FSA A.6 05.0360]."
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.01: Persia, 1923: Sketchbook 02
Arrangement:
Sketchbooks, housed in document boxes and stored on shelves, are organized by Joseph Upton into 13 subject categories.
Local Numbers:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers; SK-2

FSA A.06 02.01.02
Former Title or Title Variations:
Ernst Herzeld; Skizzenbuch II: Persien, 1923
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble,FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook title and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites, including Pasargadae, Persepolis, and Kuh-e Khwaja, and develop for future excavations." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Inscriptions, Pahlavi  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Relief (Sculpture)  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Sassanids  Search this
Seals (Numismatics)  Search this
Stucco  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, File FSA A.06 02.01.02
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 2: Sketchbooks / 2.1: Persien
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3ab979bda-2c82-4dea-941a-349172eb7c4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref6844

SK-III Persien

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (Sketchbook (25 pages), 12.8 cm. x 25.7 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Volumes
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iṣfahān (Iran)
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
- SK-3 is the third of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Khurha (Iran), Wandadih (Iran), Ab-i'arm (Iran), Isfahan (Iran), Linjan District (Iran), Dehbid (Iran), Khan-i Khurra.
- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch III: Persien, 1923"
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "Khurha [(Iran)]: two gravestones, [Arabic] inscriptions of 1031 H. and 1034 H."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 reads, "itinerary Oct. 13, 1923, Khurha -Dilijan. Section of plan on [following page]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 3 reads, "[Ab-i'arm, near Khurha (Iran)]: measured plan of bath, [see FSA A.6 05.0376; FSA A.6 05.0376a]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 4 and 5 reads, "left) fragment of a 12th century [Arabic Inscription], in Kufic [script], found on gravestone; center) itinerary Dilijan (Oct. 14, 1923) - Gaz (Oct. 18, 1923); right) doors of limestone in garden at Wandadeh [Wandadih (Iran)], [see FSA A.6 05.1407]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 6 reads, "itinerary Dilijan (Oct. 14, 1923) - Gaz (Oct. 18, 1923)."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 7 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Pul i Khadju [Pul-i Khwaju (Khwaju Bridge)]: masons' marks, [see FSA A.6 05.1391]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Masjid i Godwiya [Qotbiyeh Mosque]: [Arabic] inscriptions and sketch of entrance."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Imamzadeh 'Askar and Takiye i Zulama [Askar al-Zulama Mausoleum]: [Arabic] inscriptions [in entrance iwan], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2587; FSA A.6 04.GN.2588; FSA A.6 04.GN.2593; FSA A.6 04.GN.2594]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 10 and 11 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Masjid i Juma' [Friday Mosque]: outer door [north-east portal], [Arabic] Inscription, 515 H., [see FSA A.6 05.0372; FSA A.6 05.0373], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2548; FSA A.6 04.GN.2550; FSA A.6 04.GN.2551; FSA A.6 04.GN.2552; FSA A.6 04.GN.2554]; Chehel Sutun [Chihil Sutun]: location of paintings inside; Persian names of certain monuments in Isfahan."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 12 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)]: vase-shaped column bases at Chehel Sutun [Chihil Sutun], with comments, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2604]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "Lord Curzon's notes on buildings in Isfahan [(Iran)]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 14 and 15 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)]: detail of capital [and brick ornamentation], on portal of Masjid i Jum'a [Friday Mosque, north-east portal], [see FSA A.6 05.0372; FSA A.6 05.0373]; [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2554]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 16 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Harun i Wilayet [Harun-i Vilayat Mausoleum]: [Arabic] inscriptions [in entrance iwan], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2583], [see FSA A.6 05.1391]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 17 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Masjid i 'Ali [Ali Mosque and Minaret]: brick monograms and sketch of minaret, [see FSA A.6 05.1391], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0955; FSA A.6 04.GN.2577; FSA A.6 04.GN.2578]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 18 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Masjid i 'Ali [Ali Mosque and Minaret]: outer portal [interior of the portal recess], inscription of 918 H. [gilded Thuluth inscription], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0954]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 19 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Imamzadeh Isma'il [imamzada Ismail mausoleum], Ja'fariya [Jafar mausoleum] (plan and date 720 H.), [see FSA A.6 05.0383; FSA A.6 05.0393], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2557]; note on Nabi 'Isaya and [Arabic] inscription at Khwadja i 'Alam [Khwaja Alani Minaret], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2575]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 20 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Ja'fariya [Jafar Mausoleum]: [Arabic] inscription on upper rim of eight-sides turbe [on tile mosaic terminating the octagonal drum of the tomb tower], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2559; FSA A.6 04.GN.2560; FSA A.6 04.GN.2561]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 21 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Ja'fariya [Jafar Mausoleum]: [Arabic] Inscription over door [entrance to the octagonal tomb tower], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2558]; Babylonian standing bronze figure and silver Parthian coin, both in Tardoff Collection."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Ja'fariya [Jafar Mausoleum]: cornice inscription [tile mosaic Arabic inscriptions terminating the octagonal drum of the tomb tower], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2559; FSA A.6 04.GN.2560; FSA A.6 04.GN.2561]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Imamzadeh Isma'il [Imamzada Ismail Mausoleum]: [Arabic] inscription and sketch of locations, [see FSA A.6 05.0369]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Imamzadeh Isma'il [Imamzada Ismail Mausoleum]: inscription on door plaque and elsewhere [metal panel inscribed with Arabic inscriptions]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 25 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)]: left) [Imamzadeh Isma'il (Imamzada Ismail Mausoleum), Arabic inscription], [see FSA A.6 06.A006]; right) plan of minaret of Khwadja i 'Alam [Khwaja Alani Minaret] and notes an decoration, [see FSA A.6 05.0382; FSA A.6 05.0390]; stone relief, [see FSA A.6 05.1391]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 26 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Pul i Khadju [Khwaju Bridge]: [Arabic] inscription and stone door in Shahristan, [see FSA A.6 05.1391]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 27 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Masjid i Shah [Shah Mosque], [Arabic] inscription on outer gate [entrance iwan on the southern wall of the Maidan-i Shah], 1025 H., written by 'Ali Riza al-Abbasi (the Miniaturist), [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0952; FSA A.6 04.GN.2596]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 28, 29, and 30 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Minaret Chehel Dukhtaran [Chihil Dukhtaran Minaret]: [Arabic] inscriptions: upper [section] (p.28), [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2542; FSA A.6 04.GN.2545; FSA A.6 04.GN.2546]; lower [section] (p.29) [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2543; FSA A.6 04.GN.2547; FSA A.6 04.GN.2555]; [middle section] (p.30) [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2544]; brickwork (p.31); sketch of location of inscriptions."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 31 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Minaret Sarabun [Sarban Minaret]: details of decoration."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 32 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], mausoleum, Sultan Sandjar or Chenar i Dalbati [Ali Mosque and Minaret]: measured plan and [location of] tombs [with Arabic] inscriptions, [see FSA A.6 05.0388], [see FSA A.6 06.A005]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 33 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Du Minare i Baba Tutab [Daraziah Minaret] and [mosaic faience] inscriptions of madrasa Baba Qasim [Baba Qasim Mausoleum], [on entrance portal of the tomb tower], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2565]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 34 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Tomb outside of imamzadeh Isma'il [Imamzada Ismail Mausoleum]: [Arabic] inscription, [see FSA A.6 06.A004]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 35 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Madrasa-i Madar-i Shah: [Arabic] inscription of 1122 H., on portal [entrance iwan], from the Chahar [Bagh]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 36 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], Shaikh Lutfullah [Shaykh Lutfallah Mosque]: [Arabic] inscription on portal on [the east side of Maidan-i Shah (Naqsh-e Jahan)], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2600]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 37 reads, "Oct.30, 1923, trip via Djulfa; [Linjan District (Iran)], Pir-i Bakran [Mausoleum]: left) [Arabic] inscriptions [in eastern wall of the main hall, carved in side wall of one of the two arched recesses], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2622]; right) [rear wall of large iwan, Arabic inscription in tympanum], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2616; FSA A.6 04.GN.2627a; FSA A.6 04.GN.2628]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 38 reads, "[Linjan District (Iran)], Pir-i Bakran [Mausoleum]: sarcophagus inscription; "palace is called Lindjan, Esther Khatun"."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 39 reads, "[Linjan District (Iran)], Pir-i Bakran [Mausoleum]: measured drawing of plan of building, [see FSA A.6 05.0366; FSA A.6 05.0366a]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 40 reads, "[Linjan District (Iran)], Pir-i Bakran [Mausoleum]: measured plans of buildings, [see FSA A.6 05.0366; FSA A.6 05.0366a]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 41 reads, "[Linjan District (Iran)], Pir-i Bakran [Mausoleum]: [Arabic] inscriptions, and Ziyaratgah Sarah bat Asir (Hebrew [inscription])."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 42 reads, "[Linjan District (Iran)], Pir-i Bakran [Mausoleum]: plan and details of Jewish sancturary [holy site for the Iranian Jewish community], [see FSA A.6 05.0377]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 43 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)]: plan of imamzadeh Isma'il [Imamzada Ismail Mausoleum], [see FSA A.6 05.0369]; Chenar i Sukhta."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 44 and 45 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)]: plan of imamzadeh Isma'il [Imamzada Ismail Mausoleum], [see FSA A.6 05.0369]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 46 and 47 reads, "Isfahan [(Iran)], [Jafar Mausoleum]: Sayyid Ja'far sarcophagus inscriptions and notes on lion, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2562]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 48 reads, "[Dehbid (Iran)], Khan-i Khurra [(Iran)]: plan, Nov. 11, 1923, [see FSA A.6 05.0345]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 49 reads, "Itinerary Dehbid [(Iran)] - Tell Bahram i Bahman."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 50 reads, "Unidentified plan of building."
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.01: Persia, 1923: Sketchbook 03
Arrangement:
Sketchbooks, housed in document boxes and stored on shelves, are organized by Joseph Upton into 13 subject categories.
Local Numbers:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers; SK-3

FSA A.06 02.01.03
Former Title or Title Variations:
Ernst Herzeld; Skizzenbuch III: Persien, 1923
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble,FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook title and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites, including Pasargadae, Persepolis, and Kuh-e Khwaja, and develop for future excavations." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Antiquities  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Stucco  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, File FSA A.06 02.01.03
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 2: Sketchbooks / 2.1: Persien
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc370d130a0-ebd5-497d-828a-2c3945e3263d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref6897

SK-IV Persien

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (Sketchbook (30 pages), 12.8 cm. x 25.7 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Volumes
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Place:
Asia
Iran
Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran)
Pasargadae (Extinct city)
Persepolis (Iran)
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
- SK-4 is the fourth of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Pasargadae (Iran), Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran), Hajjiabad (Iran), Isfahan (Iran), and Persepolis (Iran).
- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch IV: Persien, 1923"
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Mashhad i Madar i Sulaiman [Mashhad-i-Madar-i-Suleiman at Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: sketch of north-west portal of mosque; copy of enframing inscription of 612 or 622 (?) H. [Arabic inscription on stone lintel], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2633], [see FSA A.6 06.A040; FSA A.6 06.A040a; FSA A.6 06.A040b; FSA A.6 06.A040c]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Tomb of Cyrus [Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: [Arabic] inscription of 762 H. on south corner; [Arabic inscription] in Kufic [script] on north-west side."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 3 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Mashhad i Madar i Sulaiman [Mashhad-i-Madar-i-Suleiman at Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: three fragments of south-west door of mosque with Naskhi inscription [Arabic inscription of the Atabeg ruler, Sa'd Ibn Zangi, on stone lintel], [see FSA A.6 06.A036; FSA A.6 06.A036a; FSA A.6 06.A036b; FSA A.6 06.A036c; FSA A.6 06.A036d]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 4 to 7 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Palace with the Column [Palace 'S']: measured plan, column, and relief with the horse."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Palace with the Genius [Gate R (Gate House, Palace with the Relief)]: measured plan and note, [see FSA A.6 05.0821]; "traces of red color on fringes and wings"."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Tomb of Cyrus [Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: details of columns and bases, [see FSA A.6 05.1143a]; [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1160]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: measurements for topographical map of site [panorama and general elevation of the ruins]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 11 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], cuneiform inscription [from Palace 'S': trilingual inscription, CMa, from pier 1 (inscribed anta) and sketched reconstruction of elevations of palaces with the column (Palace 'S') and with the relief (Gate R, Gate House)], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0466; FSA A.6 04.GN.0467; FSA A.6 04.GN.2189]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 12 and 13 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: measurements for plans and elevations of palaces [with the Column (Palace 'S') and with the Relief (Gate R, Gate House)]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 14 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], [Palace 'P']: [lone surviving] inscribed pier [(anta)] [flanking the long south-east portico] and column bases, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0466; FSA A.6 04.GN.1538]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 15 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], tomb (like Kaaba at Naqsh-i Rustam) [Zendan (Zendan-i Sulaiman)]: measured sketches, [see FSA A.6 05.0803; FSA A.6 05.0818], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1533]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 16 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: eighteen stone mason's marks on terrace blocks, [see FSA A.6 05.1143; FSA A.6 05.01143a; FSA A.6 05.1181]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 17 to 21 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: profiles of [prehistoric] pottery and stone vessels, [see FSA A.6 05.0656]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 21 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], [Mashhad-i-Madar-i-Suleiman at Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: Kufic inscription and ornament on two stone sarcophagi [Sarcophagus II], one of 616 H., [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2632]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Tomb of Cyrus [Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: column base [and horizontally fluted torus] of peribolos at north corner of tomb."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Tomb of Cyrus [Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: measured plan of tomb, [see FSA A.6 05.1164]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], [Mashhad-i-Madar-i-Suleiman at Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: left) notes on [Arabic] inscriptions on gravestone and three sarcophagi; right) measured sketch of [the thirteenth-century Atabeg] mihrab, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2208; FSA A.6 04.GN.2635; FSA A.6 04.GN.2636; FSA A.6 04.GN.2637; FSA A.6 04.GN.2638]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 25 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], Tomb of Cyrus [Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: measured sketches of door [entrance portal] of tomb, [see FSA A.6 05.0820]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 26 and 27 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: measurements for map of Pasargadae."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 28 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: notes on citadel terrace [Tall-i Takht]; three masons' marks; mound near the single pier [Palace 'P', lone surviving pier (anta)]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 29 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: fragments of stone paving of citadel [Tall-i Takht] and sketch of location of temple, [see FSA A.6 05.1194; FSA A.6 05.1197]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 30 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: measured sketches of the two altars [limestone plinths of the sacred precinct]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 31 and 32 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)], [Mashhad-i-Madar-i-Suleiman at Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great]: plan with notes on area, [see FSA A.6 05.0808], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0808a]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 33 reads, "Pasargadae [(Iran)]: plan of terrace of citadel [Tall-i Takht], with notes."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 34 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)]: Greek inscription on Shapur-Valerian relief."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 35 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], list of photographs taken."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 36 reads, "Hajiabad gorge [(Iran)], Qabr i Kalantar Arabic sarcophagus inscription; [inscribed graffiti with] English [travelers] names at Cyrus's tomb [Pasargadae (Iran), Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great], [see FSA A.6 05.1164]; [profile of prehistoric] pottery from Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran), [see FSA A.6 05.0656]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 37 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], [from Sasanian relief depicting the triumph of Shapur I over Valerian], Middle Persian inscription of the high priest] Kartir, lines 36-68, copied from original; Pahlavi, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1978; FSA A.6 04.GN.2669; FSA A.6 04.GN.2670]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 38 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)]: potsherds [profile of prehistoric] pottery, [see FSA A.6 05.0661]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 39 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], [from Sasanian relief depicting the triumph of Shapur I over Valerian], Middle Persian inscription of the high priest] Kartir, lines 1-14, with superposed sketch plan of area, tombs and enclosure wall; plan of roof of tower [Ka'ba i Zardusht tower], [see FSA A.6 05.0779; FSA A.6 05.0795], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2225; FSA A.6 04.GN.2226]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 40 and 41 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], [Achaemenid] Tomb of Darius I: measured plan and elevation, [see FSA A.6 05.0700; FSA A.6 05.0700b; FSA A.6 05.1180]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 42 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], the altars [(two sculpted astudans, astodans)]: measured plan and elevation, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2222; FSA A.6 04.GN.2223; FSA A.6 04.GN.2670]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 43 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], section for map, position of [fire] altars and [Achaemenian limestone] quarries, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2230]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 44 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], section for map, from Ardashir relief [Sasanian relief showing the investiture of Ardashir I] to south-west enclosure wall [sacred precinct]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 45 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], plans of five houses on top of mountain [Husain Kuh cliff]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 46 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], insignia on headgears in [three Sasanian] reliefs [depicting King] Bahram [II or IV]; notes of area; plan of [Husain Kuh] cliff face with tombs (continued on following page)."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 47 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], continuation of plan on preceeding page; plan of [Achaemenian limestone] quarries and structures behind the [fire] altars, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2230]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 48 to 53 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], measurements for map of Naqsh-i Rustam (completed Nov. 26, 1923)."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 54 reads, "[vicinity of Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran)], Imamzadeh Shah Isma'il: tombs (astudans, astodans) [burial site with rock-cut cavities], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2419; FSA A.6 04.GN.2421]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 55 and 56 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], plan of tower [Ka'ba i Zardusht Tower] and [reconstructed elevation and plan of entrance portal], [see FSA A.6 05.0786], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2247]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 57 reads, "Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], notes on water channels in area."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 58 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], 1928, small fragments of stone decoration."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 59 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], 1928, four examples of [fragments of] glazed tiles [or bricks] with color notes, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0335; FSA A.6 04.GN.0336]."
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.01: Persia, 1923: Sketchbook 04
Arrangement:
Sketchbooks, housed in document boxes and stored on shelves, are organized by Joseph Upton into 13 subject categories.
Local Numbers:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers; SK-4

FSA A.06 02.01.04
Former Title or Title Variations:
Ernst Herzeld; Skizzenbuch IV: Persien, 1923
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook title and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites, including Pasargadae, Persepolis, and Kuh-e Khwaja, and develop for future excavations." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Achaemenian inscriptions  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Cuneiform inscriptions  Search this
Cuneiform inscriptions, Akkadian  Search this
Cuneiform inscriptions, Elamite  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
headgear  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Inscriptions, Greek  Search this
Inscriptions, Pahlavi  Search this
Middle Persian language  Search this
Old Persian inscriptions  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Relief (Sculpture)  Search this
Royalty (Nobility)  Search this
Sassanids  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, File FSA A.06 02.01.04
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 2: Sketchbooks / 2.1: Persien
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc326f3ed3e-8979-4343-855a-f553b1fd7a8c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref6942

SK-V Persien

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (Sketchbook (30 pages), 12.8 cm. x 25.7 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Volumes
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Place:
Asia
Iran
Persepolis (Iran)
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
- SK-5 is the fifth of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Persepolis (Iran).
- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch V: Persien, 1923"
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)]: left) record of temperatures for 8 days, Nov. 30-Dec. 7, 1923; right) sketch plan of the Tachara Palace (Palace of Darius)], [see FSA A.6 05.0886]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: Pahlavi inscription [on southern wall of main hall, eastern jamb of central doorway, Sasanian inscription of the time of Shapur II, Middle Persian version], [9.12.1923], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1979; FSA A.6 04.GN.2671; FSA A.6 04.GN.2672]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 3 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: left) Pahlavi inscriptions; right) Arabic inscription of Abu Kalinjar, 418 H.."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 4 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: left) [on southern doorway of main hall], [Arabic] inscription, [in Kufic script], of Baha al-daulah, 392 H.; right) start of one of Adud al-daulah 344 H. (completed on following page), [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2671; FSA A.6 04.GN.2672]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 5 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: [on southern doorway of main hall], [Arabic] inscription, [in Kufic script], of Adud al-daulah, 344 H., [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2671; FSA A.6 04.GN.2672]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 6 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: three Arabic Inscriptions, [in Kufic script, on west wall of middle portico]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 7 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: left) inscription of Imad al-din, Hazarasp, of 444 H.; right) European [travelers] graffiti."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "left) vicinity of Shiraz (Iran)], Band-i Amir and Nagare Khaneh: column bases; right) Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: Arabic inscription of 562 H. of Abu'l Fawaris."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: [Arabic] inscriptions of 648 H and 668 H.."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: inscription of 773 H. of Abu Yazid (Shah Shuja')."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 11 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: [Arabic] inscriptions of 773 H. (Abu Yazid) and 826 H. (Ibrahim Sultan)."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 12 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: three Arabic inscriptions: 1) Aqqoyunlu [eight lines in Naskhi script, on window inside southern hall]; 2) 773 H.; 3) 826 H. (Ibrahim Sultan); English [travelers] graffiti."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 13 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: two [Arabic] inscriptions, [in Kufic script]: 1) undated, 2) 366 H.; Hebrew inscription; European [travelers] graffiti, including British mission of 1820."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 14 and 15 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)], [eastern apartment]: measured plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0881; FSA A.6 05.1471]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 16 and 17 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)], [east section of main hall] and [balcony]: measured plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0881; FSA A.6 05.1471]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 18 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)], [central section of main hall] and [balcony]: measured plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0881; FSA A.6 05.1471]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 19 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)], [west section [of main hall] and [balcony]: measured plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0881; FSA A.6 05.1471]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 20 and 21 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)], [western apartment]: measured plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0881; FSA A.6 05.1471]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)], [portico]: measured plan."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)], [eastern stairway]: measured plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0884], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1649]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], plan of area between Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)] and Terrace steps."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 25 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], palace on the deep Terrace [Tachara Palace (Palace of Darius)], [see FSA A.6 05.0886]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 26 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Tachara Palace (Palace of Darius)], north vestibule [portico] of south-east palace, [see FSA A.6 05.0886]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 27 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [measured] plan of Tetrapylon (?) [Tripylon (Council Hall)], [see FSA A.6 05.0889], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1638]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 28 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], "Gartenhalle" [(Hadish (Palace of Xerxes), Balcony)]: [elevation and section of wall with niches carved in bedrock], [see FSA A.6 05.0845], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2337; FSA A.6 04.GN.2339]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 29 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], "Gartenhalle" [Harem]: fragments of column and base."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 30 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], plan and elevation of staircase [southern stairway] from Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)] to deep Terrace, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1658; FSA A.6 04.GN.2335]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 31 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], plan of staircase [western stairway] between Hadish [(Palace of Xerxes)] and Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 32 to 35 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Palace 'H' (Palace of Artaxerxes) and south-west corner of the Terrace Complex]: measured sketches of terrace walls near Hadish and Tachara, [see FSA A.6 05.0851]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 36 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: Arabic inscriptions of 773 H. and of 826 H. (Ibrahim Sultan), [see FSA A.6 06.A026; FSA A.6 06.A026a]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 37 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)]: left) Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: Arabic inscription of 316 H.; right) Main Gate [Gate of All Lands]: European [travelers] graffiti, mostly British."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 38 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], plan of unfinished door in north, opposite Hundred-Column Hall [Unfinished Gate located in the north-east quadrant of the Terrace Complex], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2295; FSA A.6 04.GN.2296]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 39 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], fragments of capitals from Unfinished Gate."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 40 and 41 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Main Gate [Gate of All Lands]: measured plans of northern and southern halves, [see FSA A.6 05.0848; FSA A.6 05.0856; FSA A.6 05.0871; FSA A.6 05.0882], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1582; FSA A.6 04.GN.1583; FSA A.6 04.GN.2287]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 42 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Main Gate [Gate of All Lands]: Arabic inscription of 373 H. (?); European [travelers] graffiti, and details of capitals and columns."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 43 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], plan and profile of rock-cut [water] basin in front of Apadana, [see FSA A.6 05.0887], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2299]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 44 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [profiles of prehistoric] pottery, fragments from Main Gate [Gate of All Lands], [see FSA A.6 05.0661]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 45 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tachara [Palace (Palace of Darius)]: left) [textile] design on costume of Darius; right) graffito of Ardashir I [pictorial graffito depicting Shapur i Papakan]; far right) note of 1931 on other graffiti in Haram attributed to Stakhr-Shah, [see FSA A.6 05.0962; FSA A.6 05.0962a], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1686; FSA A.6 04.GN.1765]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 46 to 47 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], measured plan of main staircase of Terrace to Apadana [Apadana, north side, east wing and central section of ceremonial stairway], [see FSA A.6 05.0849; FSA A.6 05.0878], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1571; FSA A.6 04.GN.1586]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 48 to 49 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], measured plan of main staircase of Terrace to Apadana [Apadana, north side, west wing of ceremonial stairway], [see FSA A.6 05.0852; FSA A.6 05.0878], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0273; FSA A.6 04.GN.1594]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 50 to 51 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [measured plan of Great Stairway to the Terrace Complex], [see FSA A.6 05.0853; FSA A.6 05.0856; FSA A.6 05.1468], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0401; FSA A.6 04.GN.1162; FSA A.6 04.GN.1578; FSA A.6 04.GN.1579; FSA A.6 04.GN.1580; FSA A.6 04.GN.1581]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 52 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Tachara (Palace of Darius)]: Arabic inscriptions (completed on following page)."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 53 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], details of decoration on costume of Darius, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1687; FSA A.6 04.GN.1689; FSA A.6 04.GN.1690]."
- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 54 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)]: left) plan of doors [north-west corner] of Terrace Complex; right) Arabic inscription of 881 H. (Aqqoyunlu), [10 lines in Naskhi script, on pillar inside southern hall] in Tachara (Palace of Darius), [see FSA A.6 06.A024]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 56 and 57 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], west vestibule [portico] of Apadana: plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0852; FSA A.6 05.0878], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1621; FSA A.6 04.GN.2301; FSA A.6 04.GN.2307; FSA A.6 04.GN.2317]."
- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 58, 59, and 60 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Apadana: [location of] column bases of [audience hall] and of east vestibule [portico], [see FSA A.6 05.0849; FSA A.6 05.0878], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.0986; FSA A.6 04.GN.1617; FSA A.6 04.GN.1624."
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.01: Persia, 1923: Sketchbook 05
Arrangement:
Sketchbooks, housed in document boxes and stored on shelves, are organized by Joseph Upton into 13 subject categories.
Local Numbers:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers; SK-5

FSA A.06 02.01.05
Former Title or Title Variations:
Ernst Herzeld; Skizzenbuch V: Persien, 1923
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook title and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites, including Pasargadae, Persepolis, and Kuh-e Khwaja, and develop for future excavations." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Achaemenian inscriptions  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Inscriptions, Pahlavi  Search this
Middle Persian language  Search this
Royalty (Nobility)  Search this
Sassanids  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, File FSA A.06 02.01.05
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 2: Sketchbooks / 2.1: Persien
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc325674f63-a136-4ecb-940c-dd2e33025a5e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref6986

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