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William Gropper papers

Creator:
Gropper, William, 1897-1977  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project  Search this
Heritage Gallery  Search this
Crowninshield, Frank, 1872-1947  Search this
Gropper, Sophie  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Horowitz, Benjamin, 1912-  Search this
Lozowick, Louis, 1892-1973  Search this
Parsons, Frank Alvah, 1868-1930  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1916-1983
Summary:
The papers of painter, illustrator, muralist, and political activist William Gropper measure 3.3 linear feet and date from 1916-1983. Almost one-half of the collection consists of printed materials, including full issues of New Masses, Liberator, and Der Hammer, all featuring illustrations by Gropper. Circa 600 letters include those written to Gropper by Frank Crowninshield, Robert Henri, Louis Lozowick, Raphael Soyer, and others. Also found are photographs of Gropper, his family, colleagues, and friends, as well as scattered writings and notes, business records, biographical information, three drawings, and a fabric sample designed by Gropper.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter, illustrator, muralist, and political activist William Gropper measure 3.3 linear feet and date from 1916-1983.

Three folders of scattered Biographical Information are found for William Gropper, his wife Sophie and their children. Business Records consist of lists of artwork, price lists, contracts, receipts, and other financial records. Scattered Writings and Notes include mostly writings about Gropper by others, lists of works of art, and miscellaneous writings. Works of Art include three original drawings by Gropper and a sample of fabric designed by Gropper. Circa 600 letters within the papers were written to William Gropper between 1916 and 1977 (bulk, 1970s), although Sophie Gropper's correspondence is also included. Found here are letters from Frank Crowninshield, Robert Henri, Louis Lozowick, Frank Alva Parsons, Raphael Soyer, and others. There are also letters concerning Gropper's participation in the Federal Art Project and from Ben Horowitz of the Heritage Gallery who represented Gropper's artwork.

Almost one-half of the collection consists of Printed Materials, including full issues of New Masses, Liberator, and Der Hammer, all featuring illustrations by Gropper. Also found are auction and exhibition catalogs, clippings, press releases, and printed reproductions of Gropper's artwork.

Photographs are of Gropper, his family, colleagues, friends, family vacations, and works of art.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1942-1982 (Box 1; 3 Folders)

Series 2: Business Records, circa 1936-1983 (Box 1; 8 Folders)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1947-1978 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Works of Art, circa 1940s, 1952, after 1958 (Box 1, OV 4; 2 Folders)

Series 5: Correspondence, circa 1916-1983 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, circa 1919-1983 (Box 1-3, OV 4; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, after 1937-circa 1980s (Box 3; 0.8 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
William Gropper was born on December 3rd, 1897 in the Lower East Side of Manhattan. His family was impoverished and his parents worked in the New York garment factories. To help his family, Gropper took odd jobs throughout New York City. When he was not busy working, Gropper nurtured his artistic talents by drawing cartoons on sidewalks and the sides of buildings.

In 1912, Gropper began formal art education at the Ferrer School in Greenwich Village where he was influenced by the Ashcan School of social realists, particularly artists Robert Henri and George Bellows. After the Ferrer School, Gropper studied at the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts on a scholarship granted by Frank Alvah Parsons. Following his education, Gropper worked simultaneously at the New York Tribune and Rebel Worker as a draftsman and cartoonist respectively. He continued a career as a cartoonist and illustrator for publications such as Vanity Fair, New Masses, The Nation, Freiheit, and various Jewish and Hebrew publications for more than thirty years. Gropper's cartoons typically portrayed the everyday worker and the injustices he suffered.

Gropper, who was also a painter, produced powerful imagery of social protest. His subjects included industrial strikes and the labor wars of the coal mining and steel industries. Additionally, William Gropper received several commissions from the Federal Arts Project, Works Progress Administration to create murals for various public buildings around the country, including one for the United States Department of the Interior building in Washington, D.C. Here, he created Construction of the Dam to represent the combination of labor and technology to construct various dams on the Colorado River. The Guggenheim Foundation awarded a fellowship to Gropper to travel to the impoverished Dust Bowl region. This trip inspired a series of illustrations that appeared in The Nation. Gropper's trips to Russia and Poland also served to inspire his art.

Later in his career, William Gropper exhibited his artwork throughout the United States and the world. Gropper was also one of the originial members of the Artists Equity Association founded in 1947. Gropper's artwork can be found in the permanent collections of the Smithsonian Institution, The National Gallery of Art, The Butler Institute of American Art, Princeton University, The Phillips Collection, The William J. Clinton Presidential Library as well as many other museums and universities. William Gropper remained in New York City and the surrounding area with his wife, Sophie until his death in 1977.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview of William Gropper conducted by Bruce Hooton in 1965. The Louis Lozowick papers contain documentation of Lozowick's research and writings for a biography of Gropper.

The Special Collections Research Center at the Syracuse University Library also holds a collection of William Gropper's papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Sophie Gropper, Gropper's widow, in 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The William Gropper papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Political activists  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Political aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
William Gropper papers, 1916-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.gropwill
See more items in:
William Gropper papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gropwill
Online Media:

Paul Bransom papers

Creator:
Bransom, Paul, 1885-  Search this
Extent:
10.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Illustrated letters
Date:
1862-1985
Summary:
The papers of wildlife illustrator, painter, and cartoonist Paul Bransom measure 10.1 linear feet and date from 1862 to 1985. Almost half of the collection is comprised of Bransom's correspondence, which is particularly rich in documenting his early career as an illustrator, and his relationships with authors, art editors, and publishers from the 1900s to the 1940s. Correspondence also contains a wealth of cards, many of which bear reproductions or original artwork by his many artist friends. Also found in the papers are biographical essays, certificates and awards, memorabilia, writings and notes, business files, bibliographies, an artwork inventory, exhibition catalogs, clippings, printed illustrations, pamphlets, photographs, scrapbooks, and original artwork.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of wildlife illustrator, painter, and cartoonist Paul Bransom measure 10.1 linear feet and date from 1862 to 1985. Almost half of the collection is comprised of personal and professional correspondence. Also found in the papers are biographical essays, certificates and awards, memorabilia, writings and notes, business files, bibliographies, an artwork inventory, exhibition catalogs, clippings, printed illustrations, pamphlets, photographs, scrapbooks, and original artwork.

The correspondence is particularly rich in documenting Bransom's early career as an illustrator, and his relationships with authors, art editors, and publishers from the 1900s to the 1940s. Correspondence also contains a wealth of cards, many of which bear reproductions or original artwork by his many artist friends. Correspondence often bears notes made by Bransom about the correspondent. Further documentation of Bransom's career is found in Notes and Writings, including narrative writings and lists of artwork and contacts; and in Personal Business Records, which contain records of transactions with various clients and galleries, as well as bibliographies of works illustrated by Bransom, and an art inventory created posthumously by Mario Cesar Romero.

Printed materials include exhibition records, which are often annotated, and copies of Bransom's illustrations and cartoons as they appeared in print. Also found are clippings about Bransom and other artists he knew; newsletters, pamphlets, and other materials related to organizations with which he was involved; and a copy of his book on animal drawing technique. Photographs depict Bransom, his childhood and family, homes and studios, friends, travels, and other events. Many of the photographs bear identifications by Bransom. The collection has a voluminous Artwork series, which includes two sketchbooks and hundreds of original sketches, drawings, and designs by Bransom, as well as a series of prints and original artwork by others.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1862-1979 (Box 1, OV 12; 6 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1903-1984 (Box 1-5; 4.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, circa 1927-1973 (Box 5, OV 12; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, circa 1912-1981 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Materials, circa 1905-1985 (Boxes 6-7, OV 12; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1885-1976(Boxes 7-8, 10; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, circa 1880s-1970s(Boxes 8 and 11; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Artwork, 1903-1976 (Boxes 8-9, OV 13-22; 1.7 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Wildlife illustrator, painter, and cartoonist Paul Bransom was born in 1885 in Washington, D.C., and grew up sketching animals in his yard and at the National Zoo. He began work as a draftsman for the U.S. Patent Office at age 13, and went on to produce technical drawings for the Southern Railroad Co. and General Electric. He moved to New York City in 1903 and worked for the New York Evening Journal from 1904 to 1907, where he produced the comic "News from Bugville" and other cartoons. During this time, he befriended several New York artists in the cartoon trade, including James Swinnerton, Charles Sarka, T.S. Sullivant, Walt Kuhn, Rudy Dirks, and Gus Mager. He was a member of the Kit Kat Club and joined in their sketch classes and annual skelters. He sketched frequently at the New York Zoological Park, and was eventually invited by the director to use a room in the lion house as his studio. He married Grace Bond, an actress, in 1906.

Bransom's break as an illustrator came from art editor George Horace Lorimer of the Saturday Evening Post, who bought several of his drawings for Post covers around 1907. Bransom began illustrating animal stories regularly in magazines such as Delineator, Country Gentleman, An American Boy, Good Housekeeping, and Ladies Home Journal. In 1912, he illustrated a special edition Jack London's Call of the Wild, and soon after that, the first illustrated edition of The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame. During his career, Bransom illustrated 45 books and was a regular contributor to 35 magazines, illustrating works by popular writers such as Albert Payson Terhune, J. Frank Dobie, and Emma-Lindsay Squier. He also created animal scenes for advertisements.

In 1917, Bransom built a studio on Canada Lake, NY, in the Adirondacks and he and his wife split their time between the Canada Lake home and a winter apartment on 67th Street in New York City. In 1949, he bought a second summer home near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, in what is now the Grand Teton National Forest. In Wyoming, Bransom hosted artist friends and taught outdoor classes for the Teton Artists Associated until 1962, when his health forced him from the high altitudes back to Canada Lake, NY.

Bransom held his first solo exhibition in 1925 at Arden Gallery in New York City, and had at least 18 solo exhibitions around the country throughout his life, including at the Warren E. Cox Gallery (1929), Charles Scribner's Gallery (1935), the New York Zoological Park (1942), the Society of Illustrators (1942), the Denver Museum (1950), and the Woodmere Gallery in Philadelphia (1963). He often exhibited in the annual group exhibition of the Society of Animal Artists, a group he co-founded in 1960 and served as its second president, from 1968 until his death. Bransom was also a member of the American Watercolor Society, the American Artists' Professional League, the Salmagundi Club, the Dutch Treat Club, and the Boone and Crockett Club. In 1974 Bransom was granted an honorary Doctor of Art degree from Weber State College in Ogden, Utah. In 1975 he won the Benjamin West Clinedinst Memorial Medal for Distinguished Achievement in Painting.

Paul Bransom died in 1979 at the age of 94.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds the Helen Ireland Hays papers related to Paul Bransom, which contains 36 audio cassette recordings of Hays interviewing Bransom, among other materials. The Special Collections Division of the Stewart Library at Weber State College in Ogden, Utah holds the Paul Bransom Collection, a collection containing artwork, books from Bransom's personal library, manuscript material and photographs donated by Bransom in 1972 and 1974.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of 17 items lent for microfilming (reel D254). Some of this material was later donated to the Archives, portions of which were then transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum/National Portrait Gallery Library and are available in their vertical file on Bransom. Loaned material is not described in this finding aid.
Provenance:
The material on reel D254 was lent for microfilming in 1966, portions of which were subsequently donated along with additional papers by Bransom between 1972 and 1975, and by his nephew's wife, Althea Bond, in 1980. Mario Cesar Romero, identified by an AAA collector as the "Curator of the Bransom collection" and creator of an inventory of Bransom's artwork, donated additional materials to the Archives in 1983 and 1986, including printed materials, photographs, correspondence, records from the artwork inventory project, and scrapbooks. In 1985, James Zayicek donated 11 sketches and eight greeting cards via Helen Ireland Hays, a writer and a noted friend of Bransom's.
Restrictions:
The bulk of the collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Paul Bransom papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Greeting cards  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Animals in art -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Magazine illustration -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Animal painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Illustrated letters
Citation:
Paul Bransom papers, 1862-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.branpaul
See more items in:
Paul Bransom papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-branpaul
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Wallace Putnam, 1982 Aug. 13-20

Interviewee:
Putnam, Wallace, 1899-1989  Search this
Interviewer:
Berman, Avis, 1949-  Search this
Subject:
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Avery, Milton  Search this
Mark Rothko and His Times Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Painters  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11608
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215643
AAA_collcode_putnam82
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_215643
Online Media:

Oral history interview with William Underhill, 2002 June 8

Interviewee:
Underhill, William, 1933-  Search this
Interviewer:
Carney, Margaret, 1949-  Search this
Subject:
Voulkos, Peter  Search this
Lee Nordness Galleries  Search this
Alfred University  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Decorative arts  Search this
Art  Search this
Bronze founding  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Art metal-work  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12395
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)237765
AAA_collcode_underh02
Theme:
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_237765
Online Media:

Frederick and Mary Hill Fried Folk Art Archives

Creator:
Fried, Mary Hill  Search this
Fried, Frederick, 1909-1994  Search this
National Carousel Association.  Search this
Extent:
36 Cubic feet (89 boxes, 10 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Advertisements
Clippings
Blueprints
Books
Auction catalogs
Design drawings
Date:
circa 1895-1985
Summary:
Processed by Craig Orr, archivist, (1999); Jennifer Shaifer (intern), October-December 2008; Ramona Williamson (volunteer), November 2008; Sarah Allan, November 2008; supervised by Vanessa Broussard Simmons, archivist.
Scope and Contents:
The Fried Collection consists of material created and collected by Frederick Fried and his wife Mary Hill Fried in the course of documenting and writing about American folk arts in America. It includes photographic materials, newspaper and magazine articles, research, lecture notes, published and unpublished writings, brochures, drawings, printed advertisements, blueprints, books, price lists, patents, correspondence, trade literature, sheet music, auction catalogs, oral history interviews and commercially recorded music.

Of particular interest for researchers may be the materials relating to carousels. It was one of the earliest interests of the couple and led to the publication of their first book. There is also a substantial amount of material relating to architecture particularly in New York. Other research interests include carvings, show figures, weathervanes, mechanical and coin operated machines, amusement parks, the circus, tattoos and lesser-known folk arts.

Fried organized the materials primarily by subject. There are some materials that were organized by genre particularly the photographic materials. There is some overlap in the arrangement of the materials therefore the researcher will have to look in more than one place.
Biographical / Historical:
Frederick P. Fried was born December 11, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He grew up in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn where his father owned a clock business across the street from Charles Carmel, a carousel carver. Fried acquired a fine-arts education in the 1930s with an emphasis on sculpture. He served with the Air Force during the Second World War. After a successful military career, Fried worked as art director in several fashion agencies. He met Mary McKenzie Hill, an academically trained artist in one of the studios.

Mary McKenzie Hill was born in 1914 in Baltimore, Maryland. She graduated from the Maryland Institute of Fine Arts. After graduation, she spent a year abroad studying before she returned to the United States to work as a fashion illustrator in Baltimore and New York. During World War Two Hill was a draftsman for a firm of architects.

Fried and Mary Hill married in 1949. The couple had two children Robert Hazen and Rachel. Around 1953 Fried began to collect architectural ornaments in New York. Fried served as the art director for Bonwit Teller in New York City from 1955-1962. He left the fashion world in 1962 to pursue his passion for collecting and writing full time. Fried published his first book, Pictorial History of Carousels in 1964. In 1967, Fred and Mary Fried purchased a forty-acre farm in Bristol, Vermont where the family spent their summers.

In 1968, Fried led a national campaign to preserve the Titanic Memorial Lighthouse (Seamen's Church Institute at South Street). He also became active in politics and served as the campaign manager for a New York State senator. His interest in Indian cigar store figures resulted in his publication Artists in Wood: American Carvers of Cigar Store Indians, Show Figures and Circus published in 1970. The focus of the book was Samuel Anderson Robb a New York wood carver. Fried co-founded the National Carousel Association in 1973. In 1978, Fried wrote America's Forgotten Folk Art with his wife Mary. This publication covered subjects such as carousels, banner painting, scarecrows, beach sand sculpture, tattoos, cast iron toys, amusement park architecture and trade signs.

Fried's collecting goal was to first preserve artifacts and to then make them available through his writings and exhibitions. His most treasured relics were the items he salvaged from the ruins of Coney Island. Fried referred to such artifacts as the uncelebrated arts. He became one of the founders of the Anonymous Arts Recovery Society a group of individuals who saved architectural ornaments from the wreckers' balls. In addition, he was one of the founders of the National Carousel Round Table which was created to preserve hand-carved merry-go-rounds. As a result of his collecting, research and writing Fried became recognized as the authority on carousels, coin-operated machines, and cigar store figures. He served as a consultant to many Museums; in particular as chief consultant on American Folk Art for the Smithsonian Institution.

Frederick and Mary Hill worked together in many ways to document, collect, preserve and increase the awareness about primarily the folk arts. Mary McKenzie Hill Fried passed away in 1988 at the age 74. Frederick P. Fried died July 1994 at the age of 86.
Provenance:
Collection a bequest of the Frederick Fried Estate.
Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark. Fees for commercial reproduction.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Merry-go-round art  Search this
Wood-carvers  Search this
Signs and signboards  Search this
Weather vanes  Search this
Coin-operated machines  Search this
Architecture -- Details  Search this
Amusement ride equipment industry  Search this
Amusement rides  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Merry-go-round  Search this
Figure sculpture -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Advertisements
Clippings
Blueprints -- 20th century
Books
Auction catalogs
Design drawings
Citation:
Frederick and Mary Hill Fried Folk Art Archives, circa 1895-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0528
See more items in:
Frederick and Mary Hill Fried Folk Art Archives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0528
Online Media:

Oscar Bluemner papers

Creator:
Bluemner, Oscar, 1867-1938  Search this
Names:
Bourgeois, Stephan, 1881-1964  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Fiene, Ernest, 1894-  Search this
Friedman, Arnold, 1874-1946  Search this
Hirsch, Stefan, 1899-1964  Search this
Hochschild, Walter  Search this
Lewisohn, Margaret  Search this
Liebman, Aline Meyer, 1879-1966  Search this
Of, George F. (George Ferdinand), b. 1876  Search this
Rothbart, Albert  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Vogelstein, Ludwig, 1871-1934  Search this
Extent:
6.9 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sketches
Writings
Diaries
Photographs
Date:
1886-1939, 1960
Summary:
The papers of painter Oscar Bluemner date from 1886 to 1939, with one item from 1960, and measure 6.9 linear feet. The collection documents Bluemner's career through scattered biographical material and personal and professional correspondence. Almost one-half of the collection consists of Bluemner's extensive writings and notes about his artwork, painting techniques, and art theory in the form of diaries, notebooks, lists, essays, and notes - many of which are also illustrated. Also found are annotated books, exhibition catalogs, newsclippings, artwork and sketches by Bluemner, and photographs of Bluemner's artwork and of architecture. Bluemner's work in architecture is documented to a lesser degree through scattered licenses, photographs, and design drawings.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter Oscar Bluemner date from 1886 to 1939, with one item from 1960, and measure 6.9 linear feet. The collection documents Bluemner's career through scattered biographical material and personal and professional correspondence. Almost one-half of the collection consists of Bluemner's extensive writings and notes about his artwork, painting techniques, and art theory in the form of diaries, notebooks, lists, essays, and notes - many of which are also illustrated. Also found are annotated books, exhibition catalogs, newsclippings, artwork and sketches by Bluemner, and photographs of Bluemner's artwork and of architecture. Bluemner's work in architecture is documented to a lesser degree through scattered licenses, photographs, and design drawings.

Biographical material is scattered and includes autobiographical writings, a list of published works, an essay for a Guggenheim fellowship application, certificates, legal documents, and membership records. Also of note are detailed technical diagrams of his studio easel. The small amount of correspondence in this collection is with family, friends, artists, art galleries and museums, art collectors and patons, and others. Notable correspondents include Stephan Bourgeois, Edward Bruce, Ernest Fiene, Arnold Friedman, Stefan Hirsch, Walter Hochschild, Margaret Lewisohn, Aline Liebman, George Ferdinand Of, Albert Rothbart, Alfred Stieglitz, and Ludwig Vogelstein.

Bluemner' extensive writings about his painting techniques and theories, and art history and criticism are found in painting and theory diaries, notebooks, notes, lists of artwork, essays, and writings for publication. Painting Diaries contain Bluemner's handwritten notes about newly-completed paintings and current work. Theory Diaries contain his notes on art theory. Both sets of diaries contain many color illustrations and sketches. Also of particular interest are Bluemner's notes and homemade notebooks on techniques which he often called "Easel Notes." Also found are notes on paintings he viewed in American art collections and four volumes of notes taken during his tour of Europe in 1912. Bluemner also maintained extensive notes on Chinese and Japanese art history and styles. Additional writings include a collection of notes he compiled and organized from his other diaries, notebooks, and writings for a book on painting.

Bluemner's papers also contain books and exhibition catalogs annotated with his notes and illustrations - many of which are on the subject of Chinese and Japanese art. Art motif and travel sketches contain motifs and artwork that Bluemner developed into themes for his paintings. Most of the travel sketches are of towns in New Jersey, but also include sketches and notes on Italy, which he visited in 1912. There is also a small sketchbook and drawings of buildings Bluemner designed.

Printed material includes exhibition catalogs and announcements, some of which are annotated with prices and additional information, as well as news and magazine clippings, and prints of published writings by Bluemner. Photographs found in the collection include three photographs of buildings Bluemner designed, photographs of artwork, one print of Bluemner, and negatives.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1886-circa 1937 (Box 1, OV 9; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1889-1936 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Painting & Theory Diaries, 1911-1936 (Box 1-2, 7; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings & Notes, 1891-1892, 1909-1937 (Box 2-4, 8; 2.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Annotated Books & Catalogs, 1907-1933 (Box 4-5; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 6: Art Motifs & Travel Sketches, 1902-1936 (Box 5-6, 8; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1892-circa 1930s (Box 6; 4 folders)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1906-1939, 1960, undated (Box 6; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 9: Photographs, 1891, 1903, circa 1930s (Box 6; 5 folders)
Biographical Note:
Oscar Bluemner (1867-1938) was born Friedrich Julius Oskar Blümner in Prussia in 1867. As a child he received some formal art training. He enrolled in the architecture department of the Konigliche Technische Hochschule (Royal Technical Academy), Berlin, and received his architecture degree in 1892. A few months later he moved to the United States and worked in Chicago as a draftsman at the World's Columbian Exposition. After the exposition, Bluemner attempted to find work in both Chicago and New York City, but could not find steady employment. In 1903 he created the winning design for the Bronx Borough Courthouse, and for the next few years had various intermittent jobs as an architect in New York. Around this time Bluemner also began writing down his thoughts on aesthetics, art history, and art theory, which he would continue to do for the rest of his life in various journals, diaries, and notebooks.

In 1908 Bluemner met Alfred Stieglitz at Stieglitz's gallery, known as "291", and by 1910 he had decided to pursue painting full-time rather than architecture. From 1911 to 1912 he worked on a set of Neo-Impressionist paintings and, using the money he won in a suit regarding the Bronx Courthouse design, he went on a seven-month trip to Europe, touring museums and galleries, and exhibiting his own work in Germany. Upon returning to the United States, Bluemner exhibited in the 1913 Armory Show, and in 1915 had a one-man show at 291. Despite participating in several exhibitions, including solo shows, for the next ten years Bluemner failed to sell many paintings and lived with his family in near-poverty. In 1916 he moved to New Jersey, living as an itinerant, until finally settling in South Braintree, Massachusetts, after his wife's death in 1926. Over the next few years, Bluemner had several prominent one-man shows at the Whitney Studio Galleries and at the Marie Harriman Gallery in New York. He was briefly employed for the Public Works of Art Project in 1934 and the Federal Art Project in 1936, but due to failing health was forced to stop painting. Oscar Bluemner committed suicide in 1938.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is the John Davis Hatch papers, 1790-1995, which include correspondence, printed material, and research files regarding Oscar Bluemner.

Additional Oscar Bluemner materials are available at the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, and within the Vera Bluemner Kouba Collection, Stetson University, Deland, Florida.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming on reel N737. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The material on reel N737 was lent by Graham Gallery in 1968. The rest of the collection was donated between 1970-1985 by John David Hatch, a close friend of Bluemner and an art historian.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Oscar Bluemner papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Painting -- Technique  Search this
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- History  Search this
Art criticism  Search this
Art, Chinese  Search this
Art, Japanese  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Writings
Diaries
Photographs
Citation:
Oscar Bluemner papers, 1886-1939, 1960. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.blueosca
See more items in:
Oscar Bluemner papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-blueosca
Online Media:

Jack Tworkov papers

Creator:
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Names:
Egan Gallery  Search this
Leo Castelli Gallery  Search this
Nancy Hoffman Gallery  Search this
Poindexter Gallery  Search this
Stable Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Zabriskie Gallery  Search this
Ashbury, John  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Bartlett, Jennifer, 1941-  Search this
Blinken, Donald M., 1925-  Search this
Calfee, William H. (William Howard), 1909-1995  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio, 1904-1989  Search this
Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter, 1891-1978  Search this
Forge, Andrew  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Herzbrun, Helene  Search this
Katz, Paul  Search this
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Lindeberg, Linda, 1915-1973  Search this
Matter, Herbert, 1907-1984  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Newman, Michael  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley, 1904-1994  Search this
Ponsold, Renate  Search this
Praeger, David A.  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Summerford, Joe  Search this
Thorne, Joan, 1943-  Search this
Westenberger, Theo  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Wise, Howard  Search this
Yunkers, Adja, 1900-1983  Search this
Extent:
9.7 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Date:
1926-1993
Summary:
The Jack Tworkov papers measure 9.7 linear feet and are dated 1926-1993. Tworkov's work as a painter and influential teacher, as well as his personal life, are documented by extensive journals and substantive correspondence that record his ideas about art and teaching, and illuminate his relationships with friends, colleagues, and students. Many sketchbooks, writings, interviews, photographs, and moving images are also included.
Scope and Content Note:
The Jack Tworkov papers measure 9.7 linear feet and are dated 1926-1993, with the bulk from the period 1931-1982. Tworkov's work as a painter and influential teacher, as well as his personal life, are documented by extensive journals and substantive correspondence that record his ideas about art and teaching, and illuminate his relationships with friends, colleagues, and students. Many sketchbooks, writings, interviews, photographs, and moving images are also included.

Biographical material includes Tworkov's citizenship certificate, awards, diplomas, a copy of Jack Tworkov: Video Portrait, produced by Electronic Arts Intermix, and a motion picture film, USA Artists: Jack Tworkov, produced by National Education Television.

Correspondence consists largely of incoming letters. It is both professional and personal in nature and often combines both spheres. Correspondents include artists Jennifer Bartlett, William H. Calfee, Giorgio Cavallon and Linda Lindeberg, Grace Hartigan, Helene Herzbrun (also named Helene McKinsey), Karl Knaths, Joe Summerford, Joan Thorne, and Adja Yunkers; cartoonist Robert C. Osborn; collectors Donald M. Blinken and David A. Praeger (who was also Tworkov's lawyer); illustrator Roger Dovoisin; critics Dore Ashton and Andrew Forge; critic and poet John Ashbury; galleries that represented Tworkov: Egan Gallery, Leo Castelli, Nancy Hoffman Gallery, Poindexter Gallery, Stable Gallery and Zabriskie Gallery; and many museums, arts organizations, colleges and universities.

Interviews with Tworkov include one with Ricky Demarco videotaped in 1979 and two conducted on video by Twokov's daughter Helen in 1975. The remaining interviews are sound recordings, one conducted by Grace Alexander for the show Artists in New York in 1967, one conducted by Michael Newman in 1980, and the remainder by unidentified interviewers. None have transcripts.

All writings are by Tworkov and include poems, an artist's statement, and documentation for two children's books by Tworkov illustrated by Roger Duvoisin. Two additional notebooks contain miscellaneous notes, teaching notes, and some specific to identified courses. Lectures exist as untranscribed sound recordings.

Tworkov's journals (33 volumes) span a period of 35 years, from 1947 until 1982, with the final entry dated a few weeks before his death. They record his reflections on painting, his challenges as a painter, aesthetics, the role of the artist in society, Jewish identity, painters he admired (especially Cézanne and Edwin Dickinson), politics, and teaching. They also recount everyday life: the comings and goings of friends and family members, social engagements, professional activities, illness, and travel.

The lone subject file concerns Mark Rothko and includes a photograph of Rothko and the guest list for the dedication of the Rothko Chapel in Houston.

Artwork consists of a small number of sketches by Tworkov in pencil and ink. Tworkov's sketchbooks (28 volumes) contain sketches and some finished drawings. Most are in pencil, but scattered throughout are a few pencil sketches embellished with colored marker or pastel, and a small number in ink.

Photographs are of people, places and events. Most photographs are of Tworkov alone and with others including Giogio Cavallon, though most friends and students are unidentified. Of note are views of Tworkov producing a series of prints at Tamarind Institute. Also found is an informal portrait of Wally Tworkov. Events recorded include the jurying of "Exhibition Momentum" in Chicago, 1956. Among the places shown are Tworkov's studios at Black Mountain College and in Provincetown. When known, photographers are noted; among them are Paul Katz, Herbert Matter, Arnold Newman, Renate Ponsold, Theo Westenberger, Dennis Wheeler, and Howard Wise.

A separate series of audiovisual recordings was established for those recordings that could not be readily identified to be arranged in other series. They consist of three videocassettes (2 VHS and 1 miniDV).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1933-1981 (Boxes 1, 9, 11, FC 13; 0.7 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1926-1993 (Boxes 1-5; 3.8 linear ft.)

Series 3: Interviews, 1978-1982 (Boxes 5, 9-10; 1 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, Notes, and Lectures, 1955-1982 (Boxes 5, 9; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 5: Journals, 1947-1982 (Boxes 5-7; 2.0 linear ft.)

Series 6: Subject File, 1961-1977 (Box 7; 1 folder)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1952-1981 (Box 7, OV 12; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 8: Artwork, circa 1950s-1960s (Box 7: 3 folders)

Series 9: Sketchbooks, circa 1950s-1960s (Boxes 7-8, 11; 1.0 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographic Materials, 1941-1981 (Boxes 8-9; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 11: Audiovisual Recordings, 1961-1975 (Box 9; 0.1 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
New York School painter Jack Tworkov (1900-1982), best known for his Abstract Expressionist paintings and as a highly regarded teacher, lived and worked in New York City and Provincetown, MA.

At age 13, Tworkov (born Yakov Tworkovsky) emigrated from Poland with his mother and sister to join his father already in the United States. In America, they chose to use the name of distant relatives, the Bernsteins, who were their sponsors. Eventually, Jack and his sister, Janice, reclaimed and shortened their name to Tworkov; later, she adopted the name of their hometown in Poland and became the painter Janice Biala.

As a high school student in New York City, Tworkov attended drawing classes. After graduating from Columbia University, where he had been an English major and considered becoming a writer, Tworkov instead turned to art. He studied with Ivan Olinsky at the National Academy of Design between 1923 and 1925, and from 1925 to 1926 attended painting classes taught by Guy Péne Du Bois and Boardman Robinson at the Art Students League. During his college years, Tworkov began visiting museums and became a great admirer of Cézanne. Tworkov's early paintings - still life, landscapes, and portraits - showed the influence of European modernism and Cézanne.

Tworkov spent his first summer in Provincetown while still a student and subsequently returned to study with Ross Moffet. In Provincetown he met and was greatly influenced by Karl Knaths and developed a lifelong friendship with Edwin Dickinson. By 1929, Tworkov was painting there year round. Over the years, Tworkov and his family continued to return for long stretches, and in 1958 he purchased a house in Provincetown.

During the Great Depression, Tworkov participated in the Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project until 1934, and then moved to the easel division of the WPA Federal Art Project. He felt uncomfortable with the growing ideological and political influences on art and found it depressing to paint for the WPA rather than for himself, so he left the WPA in 1941. Tworkov, who had studied mechanical drawing while in high school, spent most of the War years employed as a tool designer and draftsman at an engineering firm with government contracts.

By the 1940s, Tworkov was painting in the Abstract Expressionist style. Between 1948 and 1953, he leased a studio on Fourth Avenue that adjoined that of his friend Willem de Kooning. During this time, they mutually influenced each other as they developed into mature Abstract Expressionists. At Yale in the 1960s, Tworkov became close friends with fellow student Josef Albers. Alber's influence on Tworkov resulted in a turn to geometric compositions of small, systematic, and repetitive strokes defined by a grid. He experimented with diagonal compositions, and later geometric work that featured large areas of color and soft texture.

Tworkov's first teaching experience was during 1930-1931 when he served as a part-time painting instructor at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. His teaching career began in earnest when he joined the faculties of Queens College, 1948-1955, and Pratt Institute, 1955-1958. During the summers he taught at various schools, most notably Black Mountain College's 1952 summer session. Tworkov was a visiting artist at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture, 1961-1963, and became chairman of its Art Department from 1963 until his retirement in 1969. In retirement he lived in Provincetown and was a visiting artist for both short and extended periods at various universities and art schools.

An avid reader of literature and poetry, Tworkov also wrote poems and essays. He published essays in It Is, Art Digest, and Art In America; his most notable piece, "The Wandering Soutine," appeared in Art News, November 1950. Tworkov also kept a journal for 35 years (1947-1982) that recorded his thoughts on a wide range of subjects concerning professional, personal, and philosophical issues, as well as details of everyday life.

Tworkov was among the founders of the Artists' Club or The Club in 1949, and for a decade actively participated in the stimulating discussions for which the group was known. In 1968 he helped to establish the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown. Its residency program enabled younger artists and writers to advance their careers and kept Provincetown's historic artists' colony active year round.

He was the recipient of the William A. Clark Award and Corcoran Gold Medal from the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1963; Skowhegan School of Art's Painter of the Year Award, 1974; and Distinguished Teaching of Art Award from College Art Association, 1976. Tworkov was appointed to serve on the Massachusetts Art Commission, 1970-1971, and in 1981 was named a Fellow of The Cleveland Museum of Art and of the Rhode Island School of Design.

Following his second divorce in 1935, Rachel (Wally) Wolodarsky became Tworkov's third wife and their marriage endured. They had two daughters. Hermine Ford (b. 1939) is an artist married to fellow painter Robert Moskowitz. Helen Tworkov (b. 1943) is the founder of Tricycle: The Buddhist Review and the author of a book about yoga.

Tworkov remained physically and intellectually active after a diagnosis of bone cancer around 1980, and continued to paint until shortly before his death in Provincetown on September 4, 1982.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are two oral history interviews with Jack Tworkov, one conducted by Dorothy Seckler, Aug. 17, 1962, and another by Gerald Silk, May 22, 1981. There is also a small collection of three letters written by Jack Tworkov to friend Troy-Jjohn Bramberger.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel N70-38 and 62) including writings by Tworkov, notebooks, notes for teaching and talks, notes on art and miscellaneous subjects, poems, artist's statements, biographical data, the transcript of a 1970 interview with Tworkov conducted by Phyllis Tuchman, and a few letters and drafts of letters, 1950-1963. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Jack Tworkov lent the Archives of American Art papers for microfilming in 1970-1971. Jack Tworkov's daughters, Hermine Ford and Helen Tworkov, donated the rest of the collection in 2009, which included some of the material from the original loan.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Jack Tworkov papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painting -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Citation:
Jack Tworkov papers, 1926-1993. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tworjack2
See more items in:
Jack Tworkov papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tworjack2
Online Media:

Edward Gay and Gay family papers

Creator:
Gay, Edward, 1837-1928  Search this
Gay, Duncan, 1865-1948  Search this
Names:
Artists' Fund Society of the City of New York  Search this
Gay, Ingovar  Search this
Gay, Martha Feary  Search this
Learned, Helen Gay  Search this
Extent:
2.6 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Date:
1852-1983
Summary:
The papers of Edward Gay and the Gay family measure 2.6 linear feet and date from 1852 to 1983. Found within the papers are biographical materials on Edward and Duncan Gay; personal correspondence from Edward Gay, his wife Martha Feary Gay, and other family members; artwork by Edward and Duncan Gay; writings; printed materials; and photographs of Edward and Duncan Gay, their family, and their work.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Edward Gay and the Gay family measure 2.6 linear feet and date from 1852 to 1983. Found within the papers are biographical materials on Edward and Duncan Gay; personal correspondence from Edward Gay, his wife Martha Feary Gay, and other family members; artwork by Edward and Duncan Gay; writings; printed materials; and photographic materials of Edward and Duncan Gay, their family, and their work.

Papers of Edward Gay include legal documents; family and business correspondence, including correspondence from fellow artists; writings, including reminiscences by Martha Gay; printed materials; artwork, including one sketchbook; a small selection of business papers related to the Artists' Fund Society; and photographs of Edward and Martha Gay, their homes, and Gay's artwork.

Papers of Duncan Gay include biographical materials; family correspondence; printed material; artwork, including three sketchbooks and sketches of house plans; and photographic materials of Duncan Gay, his travels, and his artwork.

Gay family papers consist primarily of correspondence to Ingovar Gay and Helen Gay Learned, and photographs of the Gay family, extended family members, and friends.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 3 series.

Series 1: Edward Gay Papers, 1852-1983 (0.8 linear feet; Box 1, OV 4-5)

Series 2: Duncan Gay Papers, 1870-1983 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Gay Family Papers, 1888-1970 (1.3 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)
Biographical / Historical:
Landscape painter Edward Gay (1837-1928) lived and worked in Mount Vernon and Cragsmoor, New York and was known for his works depicting the local countryside of upstate New York and the Hudson River Valley.

Born in Mullingar, Ireland to Richard and Ellen Gay, his family immigrated to Albany, New York in 1848. After showing an early affinity for art, Gay began his studies in the studio of local landscape painters William and James Hart. Under the Harts' advisement, Gay traveled to Karlsruhe, Germany in 1862 to continue his studies with Johann Wilhelm Schirmer and Karl Friedrich Lessing. After returning to America in 1864, Gay married the art critic Martha Feary and lived for a short time in New York City before moving his family to Mount Vernon and eventually purchasing a home there in 1870. He exhibited in museums and galleries throughout America and painted murals for public libraries in Mount Vernon and Bronxville, New York. Gay was a member of the National Academy of Design, New York Artists' Fund Society, and Lotus Club, and was a recipient of the National Academy's George Inness Gold Medal and the Society of American Artists' Shaw Prize.

Duncan Gay (1865-1948), Edward Gay's eldest son, was also an artist. Duncan worked as a draftsman and designer for Louis Comfort Tiffany, where he remained employed prior to becoming a self-employed artist and stained glass designer.
Provenance:
The papers were donated in separate accessions beginning in 1959 by Edward Gay's daughter, Dorothy Gay Gordon. Additional materials on Edward Gay were donated by Gay's grandson, Richard G. Coker, in 1974. From 1983 to 1995, materials on Edward and Duncan Gay and the Gay family were donated by Susanne G. Linville, Duncan Gay's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Edward Gay and Gay family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Landscape painting -- 20th century -- New York (State)  Search this
Landscape painting -- 19th century -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Landscape painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Edward Gay and Gay family papers, 1852-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.gayedwap
See more items in:
Edward Gay and Gay family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gayedwap
Online Media:

Rockwell Kent papers

Creator:
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Names:
American Artists' Congress  Search this
Artists League of America  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Citizens' Committee for Government Arts Projects  Search this
Farmers Union of the New York Milk Shed  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Federal Writers' Project  Search this
International Workers Order  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
National Farmers' Union (U.S.)  Search this
National Maritime Union of America  Search this
United American Artists  Search this
United Office and Professional Workers of America  Search this
United Scenic Artists  Search this
Boyesen, Bayard  Search this
Chamberlain, J. E.  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1846-1916  Search this
Cleland, T. M. (Thomas Maitland), 1880-1964  Search this
Daniel, Charles, 1878-1971  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Fitzgerald, James, 1899-1971  Search this
Freuchen, Peter, 1886-1957  Search this
Gellert, Hugo, 1892-1985  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry, 1895-  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Hays, Lee, 1914-1981  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Jones, Dan Burne  Search this
Keller, Charles, 1914-2006  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 1876-1952  Search this
Nearing, Helen  Search this
Nearing, Scott, 1883-1983  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Rasmussen, Knud, 1879-1933  Search this
Reeves, Ruth, 1892-1966  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945  Search this
Ruggles, Carl, 1876-1971  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Untermeyer, Louis, 1885-1977  Search this
Wildenstein, Felix, 1883-1952  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl, 1891-  Search this
Extent:
88 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
circa 1840-1993
bulk 1935-1961
Summary:
The Rockwell Kent papers measure 88.0 linear feet and date from circa 1840 to 1993 with the bulk of the collection dating from 1935 to 1961. The collection provides comprehensive coverage of Kent's career as a painter, illustrator, designer, writer, lecturer, traveler, political activist, and dairy farmer.
Scope and Content Note:
The Rockwell Kent papers measure 88 linear feet and date from circa 1840 to 1993 with the bulk of the collection dating from 1935 to 1961. The collection provides comprehensive coverage of Kent's career as a painter, illustrator, designer, writer, lecturer, traveler, political activist, and dairy farmer.

Circumstances surrounding the acquisition of the papers are highlighted in an article by Garnett McCoy ("The Rockwell Kent Papers," in the Archives of American Art Journal, 12, no. 1 [January 1972]: 1-9), recommended reading for researchers interested in the collection. The collection is remarkably complete, for in the mid 1920s Kent began keeping carbon copies of all outgoing letters, eventually employing a secretary (who became his third wife and continued her office duties for the remainder of Kent's life).

Series 1: Alphabetical Files contain Kent's personal and professional correspondence, along with business records of the dairy farm and associated enterprises; also included are printed matter on a wide variety of topics and promotional literature relating to organizations and causes of interest to him. Voluminous correspondence with his three wives, five children, and other relatives, as well as with literally hundreds of friends, both lifelong and of brief duration, illuminates Kent's private life and contributes to understanding of his complex character. Among the many correspondents of note are: his art teachers William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri, and Kenneth Hayes Miller; fellow artists Tom Cleland, Arthur B. Davies, James Fitzgerald, Hugo Gellert, Harry Gottleib, Marsden Hartley, Charles Keller, and Ruth Reeves; collectors Duncan Phillips and Dan Burne Jones; critics J. E. Chamberlain and Walter Pach; and dealers Charles Daniel, Felix Wildenstein, and Macbeth Galleries. Kent corresponded with such diverse people as Arctic explorers Peter Freuchen, Knud Rasmussen, and Vilhjalmar Steffanson; composer Carl Ruggles and songwriters Lee Hays and Pete Seeger; civil rights pioneers Paul Robeson and Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois; writers Bayard Boyesen, Scott and Helen Nearing, and Louis Untermeyer; and art historian and print curator Carl Zigrosser.

Kent's interest and involvement in the labor movement are reflected in correspondence with officials and members of a wide variety and large number of unions and related organizations, among them: the Farmers' Educational and Cooperative Union of America, Farmers' Union of the New York Milk Shed, International Workers Order, National Maritime Union, and United Office and Professional Workers of America. Of special interest is his participation, often in leadership roles, in various attempts to organize artists. Files on the American Artists' Congress, Artists League of America, The Artists Union, United American Artists, and United Scenic Artists contain particularly valuable material on the movement.

A supporter of New Deal efforts to aid artists, Kent was actively interested in the various programs and often was critical of their limitations; he advocated continuing federal aid to artists after the Depression abated. The Kent papers include correspondence with the Federal Arts Project, Federal Fine Arts Project, Federal Writers Project, and the War Department, as well as correspondence with the Citizens' Committee for Government Art Projects and President Franklin D. Roosevelt on the subject.

Kent's professional correspondence documents exhibitions, sales, consignments, and reproduction of prints and paintings. He kept meticulous records of his advertising commissions and illustration work. Detailed correspondence with publishers and printers indicates Kent's involvement in the technical aspects of production and provides a good overview of the publishing industry during the mid-twentieth century.

Business records of Asgaard Farm include records of the dairy and transfer of ownership to its employees, tax and employee information, and documents concerning several related business ventures such as distributor ships for grain, feed, and farm implements.

Series 2: Writings consists of notes, drafts, and completed manuscripts by Rockwell Kent, mainly articles, statements, speeches, poems, introductions, and reviews. The Kent Collection given to Friendship House, Moscow, in 1960, was augmented later by a set of his publications and the illustrated manuscripts of many of his monographs. Also included are a small number of manuscripts by other authors.

Series 3: Artwork consists mainly of drawings and sketches by Kent; also included are works on paper by other artists, many of whom are unidentified, and by children.

Series 4: Printed Matter consists of clippings, exhibition catalogs and announcements, brochures, broadsides, programs, and newsletters. These include items by and about Kent and his family, as well as articles written and/or illustrated by him, and reviews of his books. There is also material on a variety of subjects and causes of interest to him. Additional printed matter is included among the alphabetical files, mainly as attachments to correspondence.

Series 5: Miscellaneous includes biographical material, legal documents, and memorabilia. Artifacts received with papers include textile samples, a silk scarf, dinnerware, ice bucket, and rubber stamp, all featuring designs by Rockwell Kent. Also with this series are a variety of documents including a phrenological analysis of an ancestor, lists of supplies for expeditions, a hand-drawn map of an unidentified place, and technical notes regarding art materials and techniques.

Series 6: Photographs includes photographs of Kent, his family and friends, travel, and art number that over one thousand. Also included here are several albums of family and travel photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series. Series 1 is arranged alphabetically. The arrangement of the remaining series is explained in each series description. Note that sealed materials that became available in 2000 were microfilmed separately on reels 5740-5741, but have integrated into this finding aid.

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, circa 1900-1971, undated (Reels 5153-5249, 5256, 5740-5741)

Series 2: Writings, 1906-1978, undated (Reels 5249-5252, 5741)

Series 3: Art Work, 1910-1972, undated (Reels 5252, 5741)

Series 4: Printed Matter, 1905-1993, undated (Reels 5252-5254)

Series 5: Miscellaneous, 1859-1969, undated (Reels 5254, 5741)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1840-1970, undated (Reels 5254-5255, 5741)
Biographical Note:
Rockwell Kent (1882-1971), an energetic and multitalented man, pursued many interests and careers during his very long and active life. At various times he was an architect, draftsman, carpenter, unskilled laborer, painter, illustrator, printmaker, commercial artist, designer, traveler/explorer, writer, professional lecturer, dairy farmer, and political activist.

While studying architecture at Columbia University, Kent enrolled in William Merritt Chase's summer school at Shinnecock Hills, Long Island. He then redirected his career ambitions toward painting and continued to study with Chase in New York. Kent spent a summer working and living with Abbott H. Thayer in Dublin, New Hampshire, and attended the New York School of Art, where Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller were his teachers.

Critically and financially, Kent was a successful artist. He was very well known for his illustration work--particularly limited editions of the classics, bookplates, and Christmas cards. He was a prolific printmaker, and his prints and paintings were acquired by many major museums and private collectors. During the post-World War II era, Kent's political sympathies resulted in the loss of commissions, and his adherence to artistic conservatism and outspoken opposition to modern art led to disfavor within art circles. After many years of declining reputation in this country and unsuccessful attempts to find a home for the Kent Collection, Kent gave his unsold paintings--the majority of his oeuvre--to the Soviet Union, where he continued to be immensely popular.

An avid traveler, Kent was especially fascinated by remote, Arctic lands and often stayed for extended periods of time to paint, write, and become acquainted with the local inhabitants. Between 1918 and 1935, he wrote and illustrated several popular books about his experiences in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego, and Greenland. In the 1930s and 1940s, Kent was much in demand as a lecturer, making several nationwide tours under the management of a professional lecture bureau; he spoke mainly about his travels, but among his standard lectures were some on "art for the people."

In 1927, Kent purchased Asgaard Farm at AuSable Forks, New York, in the Adirondacks, where he lived for the remainder of his life, operating a modern dairy farm on a modest scale for many years.

As a young man, Kent met Rufus Weeks, became committed to social justice, and joined the Socialist Party. Throughout his life, he supported left-wing causes and was a member or officer of many organizations promoting world peace and harmonious relations with the Soviet Union, civil rights, civil liberties, antifascism, and organized labor. Kent was frequently featured as a celebrity sponsor or speaker at fund-raising events for these causes. In 1948, he ran unsuccessfully as the American Labor Party's candidate for Congress. Kent's unpopular political views eventually led to the dissolution of his dairy business, resulted in a summons to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee, and prompted the U.S. State Department to deny him a passport, an action that subsequently was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court.

Kent wrote two autobiographies, This Is My Own (1940) and It's Me, O Lord (1955). In 1969, he was the subject of an oral history interview conducted by Paul Cummings for the Archives of American Art.

1882 -- born, Tarrytown, New York

1887 -- death of Rockwell Kent, Sr.

1894-1896 -- attended Cheshire Academy

1895 -- toured Europe with Aunt Jo

1896 -- attended Horace Mann School, New York City

1900-1902 -- studied architecture at Columbia University

1900-1902 -- attended William Merritt Chase's summer school, Shinnecock Hills, Long Island

1903 -- studied with William Merritt Chase, New York City

1904 -- first sale of a painting

1904 -- met Rufus Weeks and attended first Socialist meeting

1905 -- lived and worked with Abbott H. Thayer, Dublin, New Hampshire

1905 -- first painting trip to Monhegan Island, Maine

1907 -- first one-man show, Claussen Galleries, New York City

1908 -- marriage to Kathleen Whiting

1908 -- studied with Robert Henri

1908 -- joined Socialist Party

1909 -- birth of Rockwell, III

1910 -- ran Monhegan Summer School of Art

1910 -- first trip to Newfoundland

1910 -- helped to organize first Independent Exhibition

1911 -- birth of Kathleen

1912 -- moved to Winona, Minnesota

1913 -- birth of Clara

1914 -- settled in Newfoundland

1915 -- deported from Newfoundland

1915 -- birth of Barbara

1917 -- served as full-time organizer and administrator of Independent Exhibition

1918-1919 -- in Alaska with son Rocky

1919 -- purchased Egypt Farm, Arlington, Vermont

1919 -- incorporated self

1920 -- publication of Wilderness

1920 -- birth of Gordon

1922 -- traveled to Tierra del Fuego

1924 -- publication of Voyaging

1925 -- trip to France

1925 -- divorced from Kathleen

1926 -- marriage to Frances Lee

1926 -- traveled to Ireland

1927 -- purchased Asgaard Farm, AuSable, New York

1927 -- editor of Creative Art

1927 -- helped organize National Gallery of Contemporary Art, Washington, D.C.

1929 -- sailed to Greenland on Direction

1930 -- publication of N by E

1932-1933 -- returned to Greenland

1934-1935 -- final trip to Greenland

1935 -- publication of Salamina

1936 -- trip to Puerto Rico

1937 -- trip to Brazil

1937-1938 -- Post Office Department mural commission and controversy over Eskimo-language message interpreted as encouraging Puerto Rican independence

1939 -- divorced from Frances

1939 -- General Electric Co. mural commission for New York World's Fair

1940 -- publication of This Is My Own

1940 -- marriage to Shirley Johnstone (Sally)

1942 -- solo exhibition, Know and Defend America, at Wildenstein Galleries, New York City

1946 -- elected to Executive Committee of American Labor Party

1948 -- congressional candidate, American Labor Party

1948 -- transferred ownership of dairy to remaining employees after boycott resulting from support of Wallace for president

1949 -- attended World Congress for Peace, Paris

1950-1958 -- denied U.S. passport; lawsuit, appeals, and Supreme Court decision reinstating right to travel

1953 -- testified before House Un-American Activities Committee

1955 -- publication of It's Me, O Lord

1958 -- one-man show at Hermitage Museum, Leningrad

1959 -- publication of Of Men and Mountains

1960 -- gift of Kent Collection to Friendship House, Moscow

1960 -- exhibition at Pushkin Museum, Moscow

1963 -- publication of Greenland Journal

1966 -- elected to Academy of Arts of the USSR

1967 -- awarded Lenin Peace Prize, Moscow

1969 -- oral history interview, Archives of American Art

1969 -- home at Asgaard destroyed by fire; papers survived with some water and smoke damage

1969 -- first installment of Rockwell Kent Papers donated to Archives of American Art

1971 -- died, Plattsburgh, New York

1971 -- gift of additional Rockwell Kent Papers to Archives of American Art

1979 -- gift of textile samples to the Archives of American Art

1996 -- gift of additional Rockwell Kent Papers to Archives of American Art

2000 -- death of Sally [Shirley Johnstone] Kent Gorton

2000 -- previously sealed correspondence of wives Frances and Sally (Series 1) opened to researchers

2001 -- gift of additional Rockwell Kent papers to the Archives of American Art from the Estate of Sally Kent [Shirley Johnstone] Gorton
Provenance:
In 1969, Rockwell Kent donated his papers to the Archives of American Art; textile samples were received in 1979, and his widow gave additional papers in 1971 and 1996. Letters to Rockwell Kent from wives Frances and Sally, sealed during Sally Kent Gorton's lifetime, became available for research after her death in 2000, and further material was donated to the Archives of American Art in 2001 by the Estate of Sally Kent [Shirley Johnstone] Gorton.
Restrictions:
The microfilm of this collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not microfilmed or digitized requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Rockwell Kent papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Politics and culture  Search this
Authors -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States -- Political aspects  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State)  Search this
Illustration of books  Search this
Works of art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Civilian relief  Search this
Labor unions  Search this
Art and war  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Rockwell Kent papers, circa 1840-1993, bulk 1935-1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kentrock
See more items in:
Rockwell Kent papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kentrock
Online Media:

Alice Yamin papers

Creator:
Yamin, Alice  Search this
Names:
Landmark Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Aach, Herbert, 1923-1985  Search this
Aziz, Barbara Nimri  Search this
Bernard, Frank S.  Search this
Bolotowsky, Ilya, 1907-  Search this
Briggs, Ernest, 1923-  Search this
Brody, Lily  Search this
Bultman, Fritz, 1919-1985  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Fromboluti, Sideo, 1921-  Search this
Ginsberg, Henry  Search this
Glarner, Fritz, 1899-1972  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Grillo, John, 1917-  Search this
Johnson, Buffie  Search this
Katz, Alex, 1927-  Search this
Lipkind, Bill  Search this
Lipkind, Maria  Search this
Littlefield, William Horace, 1902-1969  Search this
Mason, Alice Trumbull, 1904-1971  Search this
McFadden, Elizabeth  Search this
Mumford, Daphne, 1934  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Oeri, Georgine  Search this
Oeri-Sarasin, Gertrude  Search this
Pavia, Philip  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Schmid, Elsa, 1897-  Search this
Siskind, Aaron  Search this
Teller, Jane  Search this
Yamin, Leo  Search this
Extent:
2 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
1927-1998
Summary:
The papers of painter, draftsperson, and art consultant Alice Yamin date from 1927-1998, and measure 2.0 linear feet. Found within the papers are letters from artists, writers, galleries, and CIGY-GEIGY Corporation for whom Yamin worked as an art consultant. The collection also contains exhibition files, printed material, and photographs of Yamin, family members, and colleagues.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter, draftsperson, and art consultant Alice Yamin date from 1927-1998, and measure 2.0 linear feet. Found within the papers are letters from artists, writers, galleries, and CIGY-GEIGY Corporation for whom Yamin worked as an art consultant. The collection also contains exhibition files, printed material, and photographs of Yamin, family members, and colleagues.

The most significant series consists of letter files, which also contain scattered printed material and photographs collected by Yamin, concerning specific individuals and organizations. Represented within the files are artists Herb Aach, Ilya Bolotowsky, Ernest Briggs, Lily Brody, Fritz Bultman, Elaine DeKooning, Sideo Fromboluti, Fritz Glarner, Adolph Gottlieb, John Grillo, Buffie Johnson, Alex Katz, William H. Littlefield, Alice Trumbull Mason, Elizabeth McFadden, Daphne Mumford, Barnett Newman, Philip Pavia, Mark Rothko, Elsa Schmid, and Jane Teller; curator Henry Ginsburg; writers Barbara Nimri Aziz, Georgine Oeri, Gertrud Oeri-Sarasin, and Leo Yamin; and galleries including the Ingber Gallery and the Landmark Gallery. There are also letter files concerning the CIGY-GEIGY Corporation; for Alice Yamin's brother, businessman Frank S. Bernard, and the town of Chilmark, Massachusetts, where the Yamins spent their summers. Even though Yamin's responses to the letters are not included in the collection, this series illustrates the wide range of her friendships and associates in the art business.

Also found are exhibition files containing letters, prospectuses, business records such as loan agreements, clippings, and exhibition announcements and catalogs concerning the inclusion of Yamin's art work primarily in group exhibitions. Printed material consists of miscellaneous clippings, and exhibition announcements and catalogs that do not relate to the exhibition files, as well as miscellaneous booklets, brochures, and a copy of the book American Drawings, Watercolors, Pastels, and Collages published by the Corcoran Gallery of Art which contains a reproduction of Yamin's work. Photographs are of Yamin, family members, and colleagues including Bill and Maria Lipkind, and Aaron Siskind.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 4 series. Letter files pertaining to specific individuals and organizations are arranged alphabetically; miscellaneous letters, exhibition files, printed material, and photographs are arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Letter Files, 1927-1998 (Boxes 1-2; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Exhibition Files, 1956-1982 (Box 2; 18 folders)

Series 3: Printed Material, 1949-1992 (Box 2; 22 folders)

Series 4: Photographs, 1923-1978 (Box 2; 2 folders)
Biographical Note:
Alice Bernard was born on April 8, 1905 in Paris, France. She was brought to the United States as a child and spent most of her life in New York City. She married writer Leo Yamin who died on January 20, 1999.

Alice Yamin was a painter and draftsperson influenced by Abstract Expressionism. Beginning in 1950, she worked with a carbon medium, primarily producing dramatic black and white works on paper. She was also an art consultant for the international chemical firm CIBA-GEIGY Corporation that began collecting contemporary art in 1959 when it moved its headquarters from Manhattan to Ardsley, New York, a suburb of New York City.

Alice Yamin died on April 4, 2002.
Provenance:
The Alice Yamin papers were donated in 1981 by the artist and in 2002 by Harry Smith, her nephew.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Alice Yamin papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Consultants -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Draftsman -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Alice Yamin papers, 1927-1998. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.yamialic
See more items in:
Alice Yamin papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-yamialic
Online Media:

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