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Au Congo Moyens de locomotion

Creator:
V.E.D. (Brussels)  Search this
Extent:
1 Postcard (collotype., b&w, 9 x 14 cm.)
Container:
Volume 5 CG
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Postcards
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
ca. 1910
Scope and Contents:
Printed caption on recto reads: "Au Congo. Moyens de locomotion."
Translated postcard caption reads: "In the Congo. Modes of transportation."
Printed text on verso reads: "Edit. V E D, Bruxelles."
Postmarked postage stamp on verso.
Manuscript message and address on verso, message reads: "Chère Elisabeth, Nous nous proposons d'aller à Mons demain jeudi après-midi, le temps est si beau que nous voudrions en profiter, et Titi désire voir les petits singes sur la foire! Nous espèrons que cela vous arrange aussi bien que la semaine prochaine. A demain donc et reçois les bonnes amitiés de nous tous à partager en famille. Nous arriverons par le train de 2h1/2."
Translated message reads: "Dear Elisabeth, we propose to go to Mons tomorrow Thursday afternoon. The weather is beautiful that we wish to take advantage of it and Titi wishes to see the small monkeys at the fair. We hope that it is as convenient to you as next week. See you tomorrow then and greetings from us all to share with the family. We shall arrive by the 2 1/2 p.m. train."
Local Numbers:
EEPA CG-47-96
General:
Title source: Postcard caption.
Citation source: Archives staff.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Transportation  Search this
Bicycles  Search this
Animals  Search this
Draft animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
African Postcard collection, EEPA 1985-014, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1985-014, Item EEPA CG 2011-001-1570
See more items in:
African Postcard Collection
African Postcard Collection / Series 11: Congo Belge (CG)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7d672d4f5-58b7-4322-912b-64b42fd1d3b0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1985-014-ref3500

Un aratro fra i Mensa e fra i Bogos

Creator:
Research & Information Centre of Eritrea (London, United Kingdom)  Search this
Extent:
1 Postcard (b&w, 10.5 x 15 cm.)
Container:
Volume 1
Culture:
Mensa (African people)  Search this
Bilin (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
Africa
Eritrea
Date:
ca. 1990
Scope and Contents:
Printed caption on recto reads: "Un aratro fra i Mensa e fra i Bogos."
Printed caption on verso reads: "A Mens Farmer, Eritrea. By an unknown Italian Artist. / © RICE."
Additional printed text on verso reads: "Research & Information Centre of Eritrea; Coordination Office for Europe; 96 White Lion Street; London, N1 9PF; United Kingdom," and "Printed by Lakfield Printing Company Limited, Brighouse, West Yorkshire."
Additional illegible text printed on recto.
Local Numbers:
EEPA EA-01-01
General:
Title source: Postcard caption.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Agriculture  Search this
Animals -- Africa  Search this
Draft animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Picture postcards
Collection Citation:
African Postcard collection, EEPA 1985-014, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1985-014, Item EEPA EA 1995-026-0008
See more items in:
African Postcard Collection
African Postcard Collection / Series 17: Eritrea (EA)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7c6b71b7f-abbe-42ee-8f0b-9ae8f74a5269
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1985-014-ref3993

Mozambique Ochsenkarren auf der Missionsfarm

Creator:
Wexelsen, J., photographer  Search this
Extent:
1 Postcard (collotype., col., 9 x 14 cm.)
Container:
Volume 1
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
Africa
Mozambique
Date:
circa 1910
Scope and Contents:
Printed caption on recto reads: "Mozambique; Ochsenkarren auf der Missionsfarm; Mozambique; Carro de bois na quinta da Missão."
Printed text on verso reads: "656 12 F 79."
Local Numbers:
EEPA MZ-24-04
General:
Title source: Postcard caption.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Transportation -- Africa  Search this
Draft animals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Picture postcards
Collection Citation:
African Postcard collection, EEPA 1985-014, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1985-014, Item EEPA MZ 2012-001-1311
See more items in:
African Postcard Collection
African Postcard Collection / Series 31: Mozambique (MZ)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo78001a6b4-7205-4341-ab2a-35f60e0b2d89
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1985-014-ref6546

Moçambique Carro boer, junto a Macequece

Creator:
Martins, F. A. (Lisbon)  Search this
Extent:
1 Postcard (collotype, b&w, 9 x 14 cm.)
Container:
Volume 2 MZ
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
Africa
Mozambique
Mozambique, -- Manica Province, -- Manica (Macequece)
Date:
[ca. 1904]
Scope and Contents:
Printed caption on recto reads: "Moçambique - Carro boer, junto a Macequece."
Additional printed text on recto reads: "(124) F. A. Martins, Praça Luiz de Camões, 35 - Lisboa."
Items EEPA MZ-47-21 and EEPA MZ-47-22 are duplicate postcards.
Local Numbers:
EEPA MZ-47-21
General:
Title source: Postcard caption.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Transportation -- Africa  Search this
Wagons  Search this
Draft animals  Search this
Ox teams  Search this
Genre/Form:
Picture postcards
Collection Citation:
African Postcard collection, EEPA 1985-014, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1985-014, Item EEPA MZ 2012-001-1533
See more items in:
African Postcard Collection
African Postcard Collection / Series 31: Mozambique (MZ)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo741698850-c126-4ae2-a199-42d7d57deaed
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1985-014-ref6768

Moçambique Carro boer, junto a Macequece

Creator:
Martins, F. A. (Lisbon)  Search this
Extent:
1 Postcard (collotype, b&w, 9 x 14 cm.)
Container:
Volume 2 MZ
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
Africa
Mozambique
Mozambique, -- Manica Province, -- Manica (Macequece)
Date:
[ca. 1904]
Scope and Contents:
Printed caption on recto reads: "Moçambique - Carro boer, junto a Macequece."
Additional printed text on recto reads: "(124) F. A. Martins, Praça Luiz de Camões, 35 - Lisboa."
Items EEPA MZ-47-21 and EEPA MZ-47-22 are duplicate postcards.
Manuscript message on recto; address and postmarks on verso.
Local Numbers:
EEPA MZ-47-22
General:
Title source: Postcard caption.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Transportation -- Africa  Search this
Wagons  Search this
Draft animals  Search this
Ox teams  Search this
Genre/Form:
Picture postcards
Collection Citation:
African Postcard collection, EEPA 1985-014, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1985-014, Item EEPA MZ 2012-001-1534
See more items in:
African Postcard Collection
African Postcard Collection / Series 31: Mozambique (MZ)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo728185b43-213c-4e57-b19e-341853379af1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1985-014-ref6769

FIELD IN FOCUS | Mahouts and Elephants | 360

Creator:
National Zoo  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-05-29T20:49:37.000Z
YouTube Category:
Pets & Animals  Search this
Topic:
Zoology;Animals;Veterinary medicine;Animal health  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNZP
Data Source:
National Zoo
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNZP
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_YbUu454dcSE

Central Africa, Kanem (Haddad) -- Mining and Transporting Soda

Collection Creator:
Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film (Göttingen, Germany)  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (11 minutes, color silent, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1962
Scope and Contents:
Edited film: shows the mining of soda particles from the boggy ground around Lake Chad as well as the loading of draft animals and the shipping of the soda from the port of Baga Sola. Legacy Keywords: Chad ; Central Africa, Kanem ; Africa; Haddad
General:
Local Numbers: HSFA 2006.2.60; E00570
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc96aeb427c-9927-42d6-8988-3b194f7c542c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2006-02-ref128

Iran, Hamadan (Persia) -- Draw Well

Collection Creator:
Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film (Göttingen, Germany)  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (2 minutes, black-and-white silent, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1959
Scope and Contents:
Edited film: persian farmers obtain water from the depths of the Ghanat System with the aid of a draw well. Horses are used as draft animals. The technique of the winch and rope system is illustrated. Legacy Keywords: Iran ; Iran, Hamadan ; Middle East; Persia
General:
Local Numbers: HSFA 2006.2.683; E00251
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc9ea339090-ab37-4bc0-b86c-e0fad9622449
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2006-02-ref1518

Afghanistan, Bamian (Hazara) -- Ploughing with a Hooked Plow

Collection Creator:
Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film (Göttingen, Germany)  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (1 minute, black-and-white silent, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1959
Scope and Contents:
Edited film: hazara farmers work with the Indian plow with the help of draft animals in an old-fashioned yoke. The faces of the farmers indicate the Mongolian heritage of the Hazara. Legacy Keywords: Afghanistan ; Afghanistan, Bamian ; Asia; Hazara
General:
Local Numbers: HSFA 2006.2.294; E00245
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc971dbfbee-bee8-49dc-b0ca-a6181d6716ad
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2006-02-ref29

Iran, Hamadan (Persia) -- Draw Well

Collection Creator:
Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film (Göttingen, Germany)  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (2 minutes, black-and-white silent, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1959
Scope and Contents:
Edited film: persian farmers obtain water from the depths of the Ghanat System with the aid of a draw well. Horses are used as draft animals. The technique of the winch and rope system is illustrated. Legacy Keywords: Iran ; Iran, Hamadan ; Middle East; Persia
General:
Local Numbers: HSFA 2006.2.683; E00251
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc92623c1fc-2cda-41ce-b6fe-e8f9f55df119
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2006-02-ref535

Afghanistan, Bamian (Hazara) -- Ploughing with a Hooked Plow

Collection Creator:
Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film (Göttingen, Germany)  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (1 minute, black-and-white silent, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1959
Scope and Contents:
Edited film: hazara farmers work with the Indian plow with the help of draft animals in an old-fashioned yoke. The faces of the farmers indicate the Mongolian heritage of the Hazara. Legacy Keywords: Afghanistan ; Afghanistan, Bamian ; Asia; Hazara
General:
Local Numbers: HSFA 2006.2.294; E00245
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc96b4b2bd7-26b6-4d6f-9881-fea138d8cc21
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2006-02-ref718

Central Africa, Kanem (Haddad) -- Mining and Transporting Soda

Collection Creator:
Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film (Göttingen, Germany)  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (11 minutes, color silent, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1962
Scope and Contents:
Edited film: shows the mining of soda particles from the boggy ground around Lake Chad as well as the loading of draft animals and the shipping of the soda from the port of Baga Sola. Legacy Keywords: Chad ; Central Africa, Kanem ; Africa; Haddad
General:
Local Numbers: HSFA 2006.2.60; E00570
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Institut Für Den Wissenschaftlichen Filmen (IWF) Encyclopaedia Cinematographica film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc9fda52385-7eaa-4f32-bdc2-b45e591a13ce
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2006-02-ref925

Oxen as draft animals and the y-sledge in southern Africa

Collection Creator:
Gibson, Gordon D. (Gordon Davis), 1915-2007  Search this
Container:
Box 88
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1936 - 2007
Collection Restrictions:
The Gordon Davis Gibson papers are open for research. Access to the computer disks in the collection are restricted due to preservation concerns. The personnel files of Smithsonian staff have also been restricted.

Access to the Gordon Davis Gibson papers requires an appointment.
Collection Citation:
Gordon Davis Gibson papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Gordon Davis Gibson papers
Gordon Davis Gibson papers / Series 5: General Research Files / [misc. topics]
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw38dc1a0ca-d3de-4d1d-8f03-44fa3d07429a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1984-13-ref2261

Frederick K. Morris photographs of East Asia

Creator:
Morris, Frederick K. (Frederick Kuhne), b. 1886 (photographer and collector)  Search this
Names:
Bei yang shi fan xue tang (Tianjin, China)  Search this
Morris, Florence E. (photographer and collector)  Search this
Extent:
3 Albums
1,000 Items (circa)
Culture:
Chinese  Search this
Mongols  Search this
Japanese  Search this
Koreans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Clippings
Postcards
Sketches
Place:
China
Mongolia
Yokohama-shi (Japan)
Tianjin (China)
Beijing (China)
Zhangjiakou (China)
Kyoto (Japan)
Nara-shi (Japan)
Nikkō-shi (Japan)
Seoul (Korea)
Japan
Korea
Shanghai (China)
Date:
1920-1925
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs compiled by Frederick K. Morris documenting his travels in China, 1920-1923; Mongolia, 1922-1923; and Japan and Korea, 1923 and 1925. The photographs were made or collected by Frederick and Florence Morris in Shanghai, Yokohama (after an eathquake), Tianjin, Beijing, Zhangjiakou, Kyoto, Nara, Nikko, Seul, and Kaijo, as well as various villages. They depict scenery, cities, clothing, transportation (including rickshaws, boats, and animals), fishing, peddlers, tradesmen and craftsmen, students, Pei Yang University, the tomb of Confucius, ceremonies and festivals, agriculture, and tourist sites such as the Great Wall and palaces. The collection also includes photographs of the Morris family, their friends, and personnel of the Third Asiatic Expedition. A few newspaper clippings, postcard, sketches, and souvenirs are also in the albums.
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. Frederick Kuhn Morris (1885-1962) was a geologist and professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He first visited China as a visiting professor at Pei Yang University (Bei yang shi fan xue tang) at Tianjin from 1920-1921. Joining the American Museum of Natural History's third Central Asiatic Expedition (circa 1925) as the expedition's geologist, Morris assisted expedition leader Roy Chapman Andrews to collect natural history specimens in Northern China and Mongolia.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 85-3
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Cooking  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Artisans  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Peddlers and peddling  Search this
Weddings  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Draft animals  Search this
Boats and boating  Search this
Rickshaws  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Clippings
Postcards
Sketches
Citation:
Photo lot 85-3, Frederick K. Morris photographs of East Asia, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.85-3
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ee05e3d5-9c1d-4bdf-890c-73699db1f77b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-85-3

Marvin Harris papers

Creator:
Harris, Marvin, 1927-2001  Search this
Names:
Columbia University  Search this
University of Florida. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
42.27 Linear feet (85.5 document boxes, 1 oversize box, 4 record storage boxes, 90 computer disks, 19 cassette tapes, 1 7" sound reel, 3 vinyl records, and 1 map folder)
Note:
Boxes 88-91 (formerly designated off-site boxes 1-4) are stored off-site. Advanced notice must be given to view these materials.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Mozambique
Rio de Contas (Brazil)
Arembepe (Brazil)
Chimborazo (Ecuador)
Date:
1945-2001
Summary:
This collection contains the professional papers of anthropologist Marvin Harris. Harris was a prominent anthropologist, best known for developing the controversial paradigm of cultural materialism. He authored several important books in the field of anthropology and taught at Columbia University and The University of Florida. The papers include correspondence, research materials, his publications, unpublished manuscripts, conference papers, lectures, subject files, teaching files, computer files, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of anthropologist Marvin Harris. The papers include correspondence, research materials, his publications, unpublished manuscripts, conference papers, lectures, subject files, teaching files, computer files, and photographs.

His research files document his ethnographic field work in Rio de Contas, Brazil, both for his dissertation and his racial categorization project; his research on forced labor in Mozambique; his videotape study in New York City households; and his India sacred cattle research. The collection also contains his research on food preferences and aversions, his files as a research consultant for the McKinsey Global Institute, and photos from his field work in Chimborazo, Ecuador and Arembepe, Brazil.

Over the course of his career, Harris also participated in several conferences and invited lectures. The collection contains some of the papers he presented as well as audio recordings of his lecture "Levi-Strauss and the Clam: An Open and Shut Case" and a recording of a radio interview. Also present in the collection are materials relating to conference sessions and symposiums that he organized, including the 1967 AAA session on Anthropology and War and his 1983 Wenner-Gren symposium on Food Preferences and Aversions.

Additional materials that may be of interest are materials documenting Harris' activism in the 1960s at Columbia University, which include his anti-Vietnam War activities, as well as his involvement in the student protests of 1968 at Columbia University. The collection also contains Harris' CIA, FBI, and Department of State records that he obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests, photographs from Harris' service in the army in the 1940s, and photos taken in Brazil by Pierre Verger.

Harris corresponded with several prominent anthropologists, many of whom were Latin American specialists. Some of his noteworthy correspondents include Napoleon Chagnon, Derek Freeman, Morton Fried, Conrad Kottak, Sidney Mintz, Anthony Leeds, Claude Levi-Strauss, Darcy Ribeiro, Anisio Teixeira, Charles Wagley, and Karl Wittfogel. Also of special interest is his correspondence with leading figures in the Mozambique and Portuguese liberation movements, including Antonio Figuereido, Eduardo Mondlane, and General Humberto Delgado.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 10 series: (1) Correspondence, 1952-2001; (2) Research, 1949-1997; (3) Writings, 1955-2001; (4) Professional Activities, 1960-1999; (5) Name Subject Files, 1951-2001; (6) University, 1947-1999; (7) Biographical Files, 1954-1999; (8) Writings by Other People, 1961-2000; (9) Photographs, 1945-1996; (10) Computer Files, 1980-2000
Biographical Note:
Marvin Harris was a prominent anthropologist, best known for developing the controversial paradigm of cultural materialism. He authored several important books in the field of anthropology, most notably The Rise of Anthropological Theory (1968) and Cultural Materialism (1979) as well as books that reached a wider audience, such as Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches (1974) and Cannibals and Kings (1977).

Harris was born in Brooklyn, New York on August 18, 1927. After serving in the U.S. Army Transportation Corps (1945-47), he received his B.A. (1948) and Ph.D. (1953) from Columbia University. His first anthropology course was taught by Charles Wagley, who was influential in Harris' decision to become an anthropologist. Harris joined the faculty at Columbia University after earning his doctorate and served as chair of the Department of Anthropology from 1963 to 1966. In 1980, he left Columbia for a position as Graduate Research Professor at University of Florida, where he stayed until his retirement in 2000.

It was in The Rise of Anthropological Theory that Harris coined the phrase "cultural materialism," a subject he further elaborated on in Cultural Materialism. Cultural materialism, Harris explains, is a scientific research strategy "based on the simple premise that human social life is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence" (1979, xv). Harris applied the paradigm to explain various cultural patterns, such as food preferences and taboos, changes in U.S. family structure, and the collapse of Soviet and East European state socialism. One of his most controversial theories was that the Hindu prohibition of slaughtering and consuming cows in India arose because it was more economically beneficial to use cattle as draft animals than as meat. He challenged Napoleon Chagnon's views that Yanomami men were inherently more aggressive and violent by explaining that it was the pursuit of animal protein that was the cause of Yanomami warfare. Harris similarly argued that protein deficiency was the reason why the Aztecs practiced cannibalism.

Harris presented his theories beyond academic circles to a general audience by contributing a monthly column to Natural History Magazine. He also authored several popular books. In addition to Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches and Cannibals and Kings, Harris also wrote America Now (1981), Good to Eat (1985), and Our Kind (1989). Harris also authored and edited several editions of two college-level introductory textbooks: Culture, People, Nature (first published as Culture, Man, and Nature in 1971) and Cultural Anthropology (first published in 1983, later editions coauthored with Orna Johnson). According to Harris, the 1975 edition of Culture, People, Nature "was the first anthropology textbook to be written cover to cover in a gender-neutral mode of discourse" (12/3/93 letter from Harris to Deborah S. Rubin, "Furlow - [The Teaching of Anthropology]", Series 3. Writings, Marvin Harris Papers).

Although Harris is primarily known for his work as a theoretician, he also conducted ethnographic fieldwork throughout his career. Harris traveled to Rio de Contas, Brazil in 1950-51 to conduct research for his dissertation, "Minas Velhas: A Study of Urbanism in the Mountains of Eastern Brazil." This research was also the subject of his book Town and Country in Brazil (1958) and his chapter, "Race Relations in Minas Velhas, a Community in the Mountain Region of Central Brazil" in Race and Class in Rural Brazil (Charles Wagley, 1952). He continued his research in Brazil in 1953-54 while serving as a research advisor for the Ministry of Education in Rio de Janeiro. As field leader of the Columbia-Cornell-Harvard-Illinois Summer Field Studies Program, Harris returned to Brazil in 1962 to study fishing villages in Arembepe. Prior to that, he also served as field leader for the program in Chimborazo, Ecuador in 1960.

In 1956-57, Harris conducted field research in Mozambique, at the time under Portuguese rule. He initially intended to study the influence of Portuguese rule on race relations, comparing the race relations in Brazil and Mozambique. He soon became aware, however, of the political brutalities that the Portuguese government was imposing on the people of Mozambique. Consequently, Harris decided to focus his research on labor exploitation in the colony. Antonio de Figueiredo, who later became an important figure in the Mozambique liberation movement, served as an informal assistant to Harris. Harris was also friends with Eduardo Mondlane, president of FRELIMO, the Mozambican Liberation Front. Because Harris was openly critical of the Portuguese government, he was forced to leave Mozambique before he completed his research. When he returned to the United States, Harris published Portugal's African "Wards" (1958), a critical evaluation of Portugal's colonialism. His publication was influential in eradicating the forced labor system in Mozambique a few years later.

Harris' activism extended to the social and political unrest at home during the 1960s. He was vice-chairman of Vietnam Facts, an organization of professors in the United States who were against the Vietnam War, and was one of the organizers of the Ad Hoc Teaching Committee on Vietnam. In 1967, he brought an academic focus to war by organizing a symposium on the subject with Morton Fried and Robert Murphy at the American Anthropological Association's (AAA) annual meeting. Together, they edited War: The Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression (1968), a compilation of the papers presented at the conference. During the 1968 student uprising at Columbia University, Harris was one of the few faculty members that openly sided with the students. Harris criticized the actions of the university administrators in his article, "Big Busts on Morningside Heights" (1968).

Due to his experiences in Mozambique, Harris also began to think about the distinctions between emic and etic perspectives, which he discusses in his book, The Nature of Cultural Things (1964). During the 1960s-70s, Harris experimented with the use of video recordings as an etic approach to collecting ethnographic data. He collaborated with the Bronx State Hospital to videotape domestic life in two Puerto Rican and two African American families. He also videotaped and coded behavioral streams of two Caucasian and two African-American families in New York City for his NSF funded project, "Patterns of Authority and Subordination in Low-Income Urban Domiciles." In 1965 and 1992, Harris returned to Brazil to study racial categorizations and identifications, specifically the emic and etic differences in the perception of race. He published several papers on the subject, including "The Structural Significance of Brazilian Racial Categories" (1963), "Referential Ambiguity in the Calculus of Brazilian Racial Identity" (1970), and "Who are the Whites?" (1993).

During the 1980s, Harris was troubled by the rising popularity of postmodernist theory within anthropology. He believed that anthropology was a science and was concerned about the harmful consequences of postmodernist theory to the field. He organized a AAA session on postmodernism called "Anti-anti Science" in 1989 and participated in multiple conference sessions on the subject, including a 1993 session on "The Objectivity Crisis: Rethinking the Role of Science" at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting. "Anthropology and Postmodernism," a revised version of his AAAS paper was published as a chapter in Science, Materialism, and the Study of Culture (Martin F. Murphey and Maxine L. Margolis, 1995). Harris also criticized postmodernist theory in his final book, Theories of Culture in Postmodern Times (1999).

While Harris thought that postmodernism was moving anthropology further away from science, behavior scientists began to see the relevancy of cultural materialism in their own research. In 1986, Harris was invited to give an address at the annual conference of the Association for Behavioral Analysis (ABA). His paper was titled, "Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis: Common Problems and Radical Solutions." He also participated in a symposium on "The Integration of Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis" at the 1991 ABA annual meeting.

From 1988-90, Harris served as president of the General Anthropology Division of AAA. In 1991, he was given the honor of presenting the Distinguished Lecture at the AAA annual meeting. His talk was titled, "Anthropology and the Theoretical and Paradigmatic Significance of the Collapse of Soviet and East European Communism." That same year, The Rise of Anthropological Theory was designated a Social Science Citation Classic.

Harris died at the age of 74 on October 25, 2001.

Sources Consulted

Margoline, Maxine L. and Conrad Phillip Kottak. "Marvin Harris (1927-2001)." American Anthropologist. 105(3) (2003): 685-688.

Curriculum Vitae. Series 7. Biographical Files. Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Harris, Marvin. "Cultural Materialism is Alive and Well and Won't Go Away Until Something Better Comes Along." In Assessing Anthropology,edited by Robert Borofsky, 62-76. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994.

Chronology

1927 -- Born August 18 in Brooklyn, New York

1945-1947 -- Served in U.S. Army Transportation Corps

1948 -- B.A. from Columbia College

1950-1951 -- Field research in Brazil

1953 -- Ph.D. in Anthropology from Columbia University Field research in Brazil

1953-1954 -- Research Advisor, National Institute of Pedagogical Studies, Rio de Janeiro. Brazilian Ministry of Education

1953-1959 -- Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1956-1957 -- Field research in Mozambique

1959-1963 -- Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1960 -- Field leader of Columbia-Cornell-Harvard-Illinois Summer Field Studies Program in Chimborazo, Ecuador

1962 -- Field leader of Columbia-Cornell-Harvard-Illinois Summer Field Studies Program in Arembepe, Bahia, Brazil. NSF

1963-1980 -- Professor, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1963-1966 -- Chair, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1965 -- Field Research in Brazil

1965-1972 -- Video Tape Methodology and Etic Ethnography

1969-1974 -- Principle Investigator, Videotape Studies of Urban Domiciles

1968-1969 -- Visiting Distinguished Professor, Central Washington State College

1976 -- Field Research in India

1980-2000 -- Graduate Research Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida

1983-1984 -- Consultant, United Nations Fund for Population Activities

1984 -- McMurrin Professor, University of Utah, Fall

1991-1992 -- Consultant, McKinsey and Company Global Institute

1991 -- Presented AAA Distinguished Lecture, "Anthropology and the Theoretical and Paradigmatic Significance of the Collapse of Soviet and East European Communism" The Rise of Anthropological Theory designated Social Science Citation Classic

1992 -- Field Research in Brazil

2001 -- Died October 25

Selected Bibliography

1952 -- Harris, Marvin. "Race Relations in Minas Velhas." In Race and Class in Rural Brazil, edited by Charles Wagley, 51-55. Paris: UNESCO, 1952.

1956 -- Harris, Marvin. Town and Country in Brazil. New York: Columbia University Press, 1956.

1958 -- Harris, Marvin, and Charles Wagley. Minorities in the New World. New York: Columbia University, 1958. Harris, Marvin. Portugal's African "Wards". New York: The American Committee on Africa, 1958.

1959 -- Harris, Marvin. "The Economy Has No Surplus?" American Anthropologist 51 (1959): 189-199. Harris, Marvin. "Labor Emigration Among the Mozambique Thonga: Cultural and Political Factors." Africa 29 (1959): 50-56.

1963 -- Harris, Marvin, and Conrad Kottack. "The Structural Significance of Brazilian Racial Categories." Sociologia 25 (1963): 203-209.

1964 -- Harris, Marvin. "Racial Identity in Brazil." Luso-Brazilian Review 1 (1964): 21-28. Harris, Marvin. The Nature of Cultural Things. New York: Random House, 1964. Harris, Marvin. Patterns of Race in the Americas. New York: Walker and Company, 1964.

1965 -- Harris, Marvin. "The Myth of the Sacred Cow." In Man, Culture and Animals, edited by A. Vayda and A. Leeds, 217-228. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1965.

1966 -- Harris, Marvin. "The Cultural Ecology of India's Sacred Cattle." Current Anthropology 7 (1966): 51-66. Harris, Marvin, and George Morren. "The Limitations of the Principle of Limited Possibilities." American Anthropologist 58 (1966): 122-127.

1967 -- Harris, Marvin, Morton Fried, and Robert Murphy, eds. "The Anthropology of War and Aggression." Special Supplement, Natural History (December 1967): 30-70.

1968 -- Harris, Marvin. "Big Bust on Morningside Heights." The Nation 206 (1968): 757-763. Harris, Marvin. The Rise of Anthropological Theory. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968. Harris, Marvin, Morton Fried, and Robert Murphy, eds. War: The Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression. New York: Natural History Press, 1968.

1970 -- Harris, Marvin. "Referential Ambiguity in the Calculus of Brazilian Racial Identity." Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 26 (1970): 1-14.

1971 -- Harris, Marvin. Culture, Man and Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1971.

1974 -- Harris, Marvin. Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: The Riddles of Culture. New York: Random House, 1974.

1976 -- Harris, Marvin, and William Divale. "Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex." American Anthropologist 78 (1976): 521-538.

1977 -- Harris, Marvin. Cannibals and Kings: The Origins of Cultures. New York: Random House, 1977.

1979 -- Harris, Marvin. Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture. New York: Random House, 1979.

1981 -- Harris, Marvin. America Now: The Anthropology of a Changing Culture. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981.

1982 -- Harris, Marvin, A. Vaidynathan, and K.N. Nair. "Bovine Sex and Species Ratios in India." Current Anthropology 23 (1982): 365-383.

1983 -- Harris, Marvin. Cultural Anthropology. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.

1984 -- Harris, Marvin. "Animal Capture and Yanomamo Warfare: Retrospect and New Evidence." Journal of Anthropological Research 40 (1984): 183-201.

1985 -- Harris, Marvin. Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985.

1987 -- Harris, Marvin. "Cultural Materialism: Alarums and Excursions." In Waymarks: The Notre Dame Inaugural Lectures in Anthropology, edited by Kenneth Morre, 107-126. Notre Dame: Notre Dame Press, 1987. Harris, Marvin, and Eric Ross, eds. Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987. Harris, Marvin, and Eric Ross. Death, Sex and Fertility: Population Regulation in Preindustrial and Developing Societies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

1988 -- Harris, Marvin. Why Nothing Works: The Anthropology of Daily Life. New York: Touchstone, 1988.

1989 -- Harris, Marvin. Our Kind: Who We Are, Where We Came From, and Where We're Going. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.

1991 -- Harris, Marvin. "Anthropology: Ships that Crash in the Night." In Perspectives on Social Science: The Colorado Lectures, edited by Richard Jessor, 70-114. Boulder, CO.: Westview, 1991. Harris, Marvin, Thomas Headland, and Kenneth Pike, eds. Emics and Etics: The Insider/Outsider Debate. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991. Harris, Marvin. "The Evolution of Human Gender Hierarchies: A Trial Formulation." In Sex and Gender Hierarchies, edited by Barbara Miller, 57-79. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

1992 -- Harris, Marvin. "Distinguished Lecture: Anthropology and the Theoretical and Paradigmatic Significance of the collapse of Soviet and East European Communism." American Anthropologist 94 (1992): 295-305.

1993 -- Harris, Marvin, Josildeth Gomes Consorte, Joseph Lang, and Bryan Byrne. "Who are the White? Imposed Census Categories and the Racial Demography of Brazil." Social Forces 72 (1993): 451-462.

1994 -- Harris, Marvin. "Cultural Materialism is Alive and Well and Won't Go Away Until Something Better Comes Along." In Assessing Anthropology, edited by Robert Borofsky, 62-76. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994.

1995 -- Harris, Marvin. "Anthropology and Postmodernism." In Science, Materialism, and the Study of Culture, edited by Martin Murphy and Maxine Margolis, 62-77. Gainsville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1995.

1999 -- Harris, Marvin. Theories of Culture in Postmodern Times. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 1999.
Related Materials:
More of Marvin Harris' correspondence can be found in the papers of William Duncan Strong. Researchers may also want to consult the Human Studies Film Archives, which holds video oral histories of Charles Wagley (HSFA 89.10.5) and Lambros Comitas (HSFA 89.10.20), both of whom discuss Harris in their interviews.
Separated Materials:
An open reel video from the collection was transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA 2011.10.1). The video relates to Series 2: Research; Sub-series 2.6: Videotape Research--"[Macy's Santa Claus study]"
Provenance:
The papers of Marvin Harris were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by his daughter, Susan Harris.
Restrictions:
Access to student records (consisting of graded materials and student recommendation letters), grant proposals sent to Harris for review by grant agencies, and part of his faculty recruitment files are restricted until 2081. Series 10. Computer Files are also restricted due to preservation concerns.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Food habits  Search this
Race  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Cattle -- India  Search this
Citation:
Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2009-27
See more items in:
Marvin Harris papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw306954d90-5898-4d81-9ab8-8015f53426f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2009-27

Report of Inspection of United States Possessions in the Pacific and Java, Singapore, India, Siam, China & Japan by Brigadier General William Mitchell

Collection Creator:
Milling, Thomas DeWitt, 1887-1960  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1923 October 24
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection, NASM.XXXX.0133, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection / Series 3: Reports and Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2bf6dfb8b-bbdc-4a6a-a40f-2ec7bad23e6e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0133-ref31
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Preliminary Report of Inspection of Air Service Activities in the Hawaiian Department by Brigadier General William Mitchell

Collection Creator:
Milling, Thomas DeWitt, 1887-1960  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1923 December 10
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection, NASM.XXXX.0133, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection / Series 3: Reports and Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2110d8d20-1a22-4fab-8fd8-c3d646f1dc61
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0133-ref32
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  • View Preliminary Report of Inspection of Air Service Activities in the Hawaiian Department by Brigadier General William Mitchell digital asset number 1

A – G

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Aug. 1866–June 1867
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M798, File 4.2.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Georgia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Georgia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 4: Letters Received / 4.2: Entered in Register 2
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io39eca0e44-b57e-4c97-82b6-3e89f93ed104
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m798-ref29
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Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Park Mfg. Co. (Minnesota)]

Company Name:
Park Mfg. Co. (Minnesota)  Search this
Related companies:
formerly Park Wagonstock Co.  Search this
Notes content:
sled runners and bases for farming operations, logging, grocery and other deliveries. The company, formerly called Park Wagonstock Co., also made neck yokes for farming draft animals ; iron wagon straps, braces and rods ; wagon wrenches and pin clevis.
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Physical description:
3 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Minnesota Transfer, Minnesota, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Agricultural tools and machinery  Search this
Carriages; wagons and accessories  Search this
Farm equipment and supplies (including dairy and poultry equipment)  Search this
Luggage; travel; travel services and traveling accessories (including trunks; briefcases; and other traveling accessories)  Search this
Lumber; logging; timber and forestry  Search this
Topic:
Agricultural implements  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Briefcases  Search this
Carriage and wagon making  Search this
Carriages and carts  Search this
Dairying  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Forests and forestry  Search this
Luggage  Search this
Lumber  Search this
Timber  Search this
Travel  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_28588
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_28588

David Holton Harness-Maker's Account Books

Creator:
Holton, David, Jr., 1814-1865  Search this
Extent:
3 Items
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1841-1864
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of three manuscript account books dating from 1841 to 1864. They were created by David Holton, Jr. (1814-1865), a harness-maker in Charlestown, New Hampshire. They record all of Holton's business transactions in daybook form. In a daybook, each day's transactions --both sales and purchases --are recorded in the order in which they occurred. Daybooks are very useful to researchers since they list details, including the customers' names, prices, and what was sold or repaired. Such details are usually not found in other account books, such as ledgers.

The entries in these volumes document the work typically performed by a small harness-maker, with most entries being for the manufacture, sale or repair of leather pieces that comprised harness systems. These included harnesses, saddles, harness pads, halters, bridles, reins, saddle girths, and numerous types of straps. In addition, Holton sold whips of various kinds and materials, bells, carriage window curtains, trunks, aprons, and a variety of textiles and hardware for carriage repair and decoration. His products were used with wagons, carriages, stage-coaches, and agricultural implements. They provide a detailed look at the daily business of a typical harness-maker of the ante-bellum period.
Biographical / Historical:
Horse-drawn vehicles were crucial to American transportation from Colonial times until well into the 20th century. Although some goods were moved over long distances by canal, river, and ocean prior to the railroad, the majority of goods were moved by horsepower. Horse-drawn vehicles were essential for agricultural work and for short-distance transportation, in rural areas and cities alike. Horse-drawn vehicles continued in service well into the early 20th century. For example, statistics listed in the October 23, 1919, issue of Breeder's Gazette showed that New York City had 128,224 horses in 1910 [quoted in Charles Philip Fox, Horses in Harness (1987), p. 18]. In 1935, there were still an estimated 17 million horses in the country [Fox, p. 190]. The industries which supplied these vehicles and their trappings were important both for their own sake, in keeping goods and people moving, and as a major factor in the economy in their own right. For example, the 1890 census listed more than 13,000 carriage-making firms, which employed some 130,000 workers and produced products valued at more than $200 million [Thomas A. Kinney, The Carriage Trade: Making Horse-Drawn Vehicles in America (2004), p. 263].

While never quite rising to that level of economic scale, America's harness-makers played an essential role in keeping all those horses hitched to all those vehicles. The industry seems to have followed the same economic developmental arc as the carriage-making industry. Rather than following the path of most 19th century industries towards consolidation and mass production, the harness-making industry seems to have been characterized by relatively small, family-owned firms and partnerships engaged in "short-run, flexible production of rapidly changing goods," a system Kinney refers to as "batch production." While mass production "relies on complex, highly mechanized processes for the creation of large quantities of standardized goods," batch production "turns out small groups of similar or identical goods to order or in anticipation of demand," which provides "flexibility as a means of coping with fluctuating demand and the vagaries of fashion." [Kinney, pp. 4-5.] Like the carriage-making industry, the harness-making industry grew in scope during the late19th century to eventually encompass everything from one- and two-man shops to large factories that employed hundreds of workers. But large scale factories were the exception and most harness-making operations remained modest in scope, particularly in the period covered by these account books.

Harness-makers were concerned with the manufacture, sale, and repair of three specialized areas of leather work: harnesses, saddles, and horse collars. In each of these areas, complex finished products that formed part of a complicated system were created from a variety of specialized component pieces. Horse collars and harnesses enabled draft animals to pull vehicles and agricultural implements; saddles enabled horses to be ridden. An important part of the trade was the decorative embellishment of the various leather pieces; the finer the rig, the more decorative it was. In addition, harness-makers also supplied accessories, such as whips, bells, saddle bags, and so on.
Related Materials:
The Transportation Collection of the Division of Work & Industry collects, maintains, and exhibits materials documenting developments in American transportation history. Animal-drawn vehicles form an important part of the division's Road Transportation Collections, totaling almost fifty such vehicles, collected in an effort to document each common type of American carriage, sleigh, wagon, and cart. The Road Transportation Collections also include the James Cunningham, Son & Company collection. This Rochester, New York, company produced horse-drawn vehicles from 1838 to 1915 and motor vehicles from 1908-1931. The Cunningham collection is scheduled to be transferred to the AC in the near future. W&I's horse-drawn vehicle material also includes examples of harnesses and saddlery, harness catalogs, and materials relating to carriage-building.

W&I's Engineering Collections include documentary materials on the Hoopes Brothers and Darlington Wheel Works, a major accessory supplier to the carriage trade. Founded in 1866 and active until 1973, this West Chester, PA, company was one of the largest and longest-lived manufacturers of spokes and wheels for horse-drawn vehicles. The company was the focus of a 1969-1970 Smithsonian-sponsored film project to document wheels manufacture. Associated documentation includes operational photographs, factory blueprints, oral history interviews, drawings, extensive research files, and historic photographs and catalogs. This collection will probably also be transferred to the AC in the near future.

The Archives Center also contains some materials relating to horse-drawn vehicles and the harness-making industry. Most obvious among these are the Hagan Brothers Carriage Works Records, a collection of twenty-one volumes, 1882-1903, documenting a carriage-maker in Frederick, Maryland. This collection was purchased with Jackson Funds in July 2009. These records document the typical shop of the "golden age" of carriage building. In addition, the AC also holds the account book of F. Ayres, a Vermont wagon maker active from 1834 to 1869 --pretty much the same time period covered by the Holton volumes. The Warshaw collection includes series on "leather" (four boxes), "horses" (nine boxes), and "wagons" (ten boxes), dating from roughly the 1840s to the 1920s. Together, these series contain receipts, illustrations, trade cards, and catalogs from hundreds of small and large firms dealing in harnesses, saddles, whips, horses, wagons, carriages, buggies, and sundry accessories. However, the AC does not have any collections concerned solely with the harness-making industry.

The NMAH Branch Library has an extensive collection of catalogs from manufacturers of harnesses and other leather goods, carriage and wagon makers, and carriage accessory manufacturers.
Provenance:
Collection purchased in 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Horses  Search this
Citation:
David Holton Harness-Maker's Account Books, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1226
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88c83292c-6ace-4536-8553-620b4eed4bed
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1226

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