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Duke Ellington Collection

Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Extent:
400 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Music
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- 20th century
Date:
1903 - 1989
Summary:
The collection documents Duke Ellington's career primarily through orchestrations (scores and parts), music manuscripts, lead sheets, transcriptions, and sheet music. It also includes concert posters, concert programs, television, radio, motion picture and musical theater scripts, business records, correspondence, awards, as well as audiotapes, audiodiscs, photographs, tour itineraries, newspaper clippings, magazines, caricatures, paintings, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
Dating approximately from the time Duke Ellington permanently moved to New York City in 1923 to the time the material was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1988, the bulk of the material in the Duke Ellington Collection is dated from 1934-1974 and comprises sound recordings, original music manuscripts and published sheet music, hand-written notes, correspondence, business records, photographs, scrapbooks, news clippings, concert programs, posters, pamphlets, books and other ephemera. These materials document Ellington's contributions as composer, musician, orchestra leader, and an ambassador of American music and culture abroad. In addition, the materials paint a picture of the life of a big band maintained for fifty years and open a unique window through which to view an evolving American society.

The approximate four hundred cubic feet of archival materials have been processed and organized into sixteen series arranged by type of material. Several of the series have been divided into subseries allowing additional organization to describe the content of the material. For example, Series 6, Sound Recordings, is divided into four subseries: Radio and Television Interviews, Concert Performances, Studio Dates and Non-Ellington Recordings. Each series has its own scope and content note describing the material and arrangement (for example; Series 10, Magazines and Newspaper Articles, is organized into two groups, foreign and domestic, and arranged chronologically within each group). A container list provides folder titles and box numbers.

The bulk of the material is located in Series 1, Music Manuscripts, and consists of compositions and arrangements by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and other composers. Series 6, Sound Recordings also provides a record of the performance of many of these compositions. The materials in Series 2, Performances and Programs, Series 3, Business Records, Series 8, Scrapbooks, Series 9, Newspaper Clippings, Series 11, Publicity and Series 12, Posters provide documentation of specific performances by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Ellington was a spontaneous and prolific composer as evidenced by music, lyrical thoughts, and themes for extended works and plays captured on letterhead stationery in Series 3, Business Records, in the margin notes of individual books and pamphlets in Series 14, Religious Materials and Series 15, Books, and in the hand-written notes in Series 5, Personal Correspondence and Notes.

During its fifty-year lifespan, Duke Ellington and His Orchestra were billed under various names including The Washingtonians, The Harlem Footwarmers and The Jungle Band. The soloists were informally called "the band", and Series 3 includes salary statements, IOU's, receipts and ephemera relating to individual band members. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains the soloists' parts and includes "band books" of several soloists (for example; Harry Carney and Johnny Hodges) and numerous music manuscripts of Billy Strayhorn. The changing role of Strayhorn from arranger hired in 1938 to Ellington's main collaborator and composer of many well-known titles for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra including "Take The A' Train" and "Satin Doll" can be traced in these music manuscripts. Series 7, Photographs and Series 2, Performances and Programs contain many images of the band members and Strayhorn. This Collection also documents the business history of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 3, Business Records contains correspondence on letterhead stationery and Series 11, Publicity contains promotional material from the various booking agencies, professional companies, and public relations firms that managed the Orchestra.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection provide insight into public and institutional attitudes towards African Americans in mid-twentieth-century America. The business records in Series 3 beginning in 1938 and published sheet music in Series 1 depict Duke Ellington's progression from an African-American musician who needed "legitimization" by a white publisher, Irving Mills, to a businessmen who established his own companies including Tempo Music and Duke Ellington, Incorporated to control his copyright and financial affairs. Programs from the segregated Cotton Club in Series 2, Performances And Programs and contracts with no-segregation clauses in Series 3: Business Records further illustrate racial policies and practices in this time period. The public shift in perception of Duke Ellington from a leader of an exotic "Jungle Band" in the 1930s to a recipient of the Congressional Medal Of Freedom in 1970 is evidenced in Series 2, Performances And Programs, Series 12, Posters, Series 7, Photographs and Series 13, Awards. Reviews and articles reflecting Ellington's evolving status are also documented in Series 8, Newspaper Clippings, Series 9, Scrapbooks, Series 10, Newspaper and Magazine Articles.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection reflect rapid technological changes in American society from 1923-1982. Sound recordings in Series 6 range from 78 phonograph records of three minutes duration manufactured for play on Victrolas in monaural sound to long-playing (LP) phonograph records produced for stereo record players. Television scripts in Series 4, programs in Series 2 and music manuscripts (for example, Drum Is A Woman) in Series 1 demonstrate how the development of television as a means of mass communication spread the Orchestra's sound to a wider audience. The availability of commercial air travel enabled the Ellington Orchestra to extend their international performances from Europe to other continents including tours to Asia, Africa, South America and Australia and archival material from these tours is included in every series.

Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts and Series 6, Audio Recordings contain scripts and radio performances promoting the sale of United States War bonds during World War II, and Series 7, Photographs includes many images of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra's performances for military personnel revealing the impact of historic events on Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 2: Programs and Performances, Series 9, Newspaper clippings and Series 8, Scrapbooks document the 1963 Far East tour aborted as a result of President John F. Kennedy's assassination.

The Duke Ellington Collection contains works by numerous twentieth-century music, literature, and art luminaries. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains original music manuscripts of William Grant Still, Eubie Blake, Mary Lou Williams, and others. Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts contains a play by Langston Hughes, and Series 12, Posters contains many original artworks.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Music Manuscripts, circa 1930-1981, undated

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1933-1973, undated

Series 3: Business Records, 1938-1988

Series 4: Scripts and Transcripts, 1937-1970

Series 5: Personal Correspondence and Notes, 1941-1974, undated

Series 6: Sound Recordings, 1927-1974

Series 7: Photographs, 1924-1972, undated

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1931-1973

Series 9: Newspaper Clippings, 1939-1973, undated

Series 10: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1940-1974

Series 11: Publicity, 1935-1988

Series 12: Posters and Oversize Graphics, 1933-1989, undated

Series 13: Awards, 1939-1982

Series 14: Religious Material, 1928-1974

Series 15: Books, 1903-1980

Series 16: Miscellaneous, 1940-1974
Biographical / Historical:
A native of Washington, DC, Edward Kennedy Ellington was born on April 29, 1899. Edward was raised in a middle-class home in the Northwest section of Washington described by his sister Ruth--younger by sixteen years--as a "house full of love." Ellington himself wrote that his father J.E. (James Edward) raised his family "as though he were a millionaire" but Edward was especially devoted to his mother, Daisy Kennedy Ellington. In 1969, thirty-four years after his mother's death, Ellington accepted the Presidential Medal of Freedom with these words, "There is nowhere else I would rather be tonight but in my mother's arms." Both his parents played the piano and Ellington began piano lessons at the age of seven, but like many boys he was easily distracted by baseball.

In his early teens, Ellington sneaked into Washington clubs and performance halls where he was exposed to ragtime musicians, including James P. Johnson, and where he met people from all walks of life. He returned in earnest to his piano studies, and at age fourteen wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" also known as "Poodle Dog Rag." Ellington was earning income from playing music at seventeen years of age, and around this time he earned the sobriquet "Duke" for his sartorial splendor and regal air. On July 2, 1918, he married a high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson; their only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, was born on March 11, 1919. Duke Ellington spent the first twenty-four years of his life in Washington's culturally thriving Negro community. In this vibrant atmosphere he was inspired to be a composer and learned to take pride in his African-American heritage.

Ellington moved to New York City in 1923 to join and eventually lead a small group of transplanted Washington musicians called "The Washingtonians," which included future Ellington band members, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwicke and "Bubber" Miley. Between 1923 and 1927, the group played at the Club Kentucky on Broadway and the ensemble increased from a quintet to a ten-piece orchestra. With stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith as his unofficial guide, Ellington soon became part of New York's music scene; Smith proved to be a long-lasting influence on Duke's composing and arranging direction. At the Club Kentucky, Ellington came under the tutelage of another legendary stride pianist, "Fats" Waller. Waller, a protege of Johnson and Smith, played solos during the band's breaks and also tutored Ellington who began to show progress in his compositions. In November 1924, Duke made his publishing and recording debut with "Choo Choo (I Got To Hurry Home)" released on the Blu-Disc label. In 1925, he contributed two songs to Chocolate Kiddies, an all-black revue which introduced European audiences to black American styles and performers. By this time Ellington's family, Edna and Mercer, had joined him in New York City. The couple separated in the late 1920's, but they never divorced or reconciled.

Ellington's achievements as a composer and bandleader began to attract national attention while he worked at the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, from 1927 to 1932. The orchestra developed a distinctive sound that displayed the non-traditional voicings of Ellington's arrangements and featured the unique talents of the individual soloists. Ellington integrated his soloists' exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, their high-squealed trumpets, their sultry saxophone blues licks and Harlem's street rhythms into his arrangements. In the promotional material of the Cotton Club, the band was often billed as "Duke Ellington and His Jungle Band." With the success of compositions like "Mood Indigo," and an increasing number of recordings and national radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, the band's reputation soared.

The ten years from 1932 to 1942 are considered by some major critics to represent the "golden age" for the Ellington Orchestra, but it represents just one of their creative peaks. These years did bring an influx of extraordinary new talent to the band including Jimmy Blanton on double bass, Ben Webster on tenor saxophone, and Ray Nance on trumpet, violin and vocals. During this ten year span Ellington composed several of his best known short works, including "Concerto For Cootie," "Ko-Ko," "Cotton Tail," "In A Sentimental Mood," and Jump For Joy, his first full-length musical stage revue.

Most notably, 1938 marked the arrival of Billy Strayhorn. While a teenager in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Strayhorn had already written "Lush Life," "Something To Live For" and a musical, Fantastic Rhythm. Ellington was initially impressed with Strayhorn's lyrics but realized long before Billy's composition "Take the A' Train" became the band's theme song in 1942 that Strayhorn's talents were not limited to penning clever lyrics. By 1942, "Swee' Pea" had become arranger, composer, second pianist, collaborator, and as Duke described him, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine." Many Ellington/Strayhorn songs have entered the jazz canon, and their extended works are still being discovered and studied today. Strayhorn remained with the Ellington Organization until his death on May 30, 1967.

Ellington had often hinted of a work in progress depicting the struggle of blacks in America. The original script, Boola, debuted in Carnegie Hall in November of 1943, retitled Black, Brown and Beige. The performance met with mixed reviews, and although Ellington often returned to Carnegie Hall the piece was never recorded in a studio, and after 1944 was never performed in entirety again by the Ellington Orchestra. Nonetheless, it is now considered a milestone in jazz composition.

After World War II the mood and musical tastes of the country shifted and hard times befell big bands, but Ellington kept his band together. The band was not always financially self-sufficient and during the lean times Ellington used his songwriting royalties to meet the soloists' salaries. One could assign to Ellington the altruistic motive of loyalty to his sidemen, but another motivation may have been his compositional style which was rooted in hearing his music in the formative stage come alive in rehearsal. "The band was his instrument," Billy Strayhorn said, and no Ellington composition was complete until he heard the orchestra play it. Then he could fine tune his compositions, omit and augment passages, or weave a soloist's contribution into the structure of the tune.

In 1956, the American public rediscovered Duke and the band at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. The searing performances of tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves on "Diminuendo and Crescendo In Blue," his premiere soloist, alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges on "Jeep's Blues", and the crowd's ecstatic reaction have become jazz legend. Later that year Duke landed on the cover of Time magazine. Although Ellington had previously written music for film and television (including the short film, Black and Tan Fantasy in 1929) it wasn't until 1959 that Otto Preminger asked him to score music for his mainstream film, Anatomy of a Murder, starring Jimmy Stewart. Paris Blues in 1961, featuring box-office stars Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier in roles as American jazz musicians in Paris, followed.

Ellington's first performance overseas was in England in 1933, but the 1960s brought extensive overseas tours including diplomatic tours sponsored by the State Department. Ellington and Strayhorn composed exquisite extended works reflecting the sights and sounds of their travels, including the Far East Suite, 1966. They wrote homages to their classical influences; in 1963, they adapted Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and celebrated Shakespeare's works with the suite Such Sweet Thunder in 1957. With Ella Fitzgerald, they continued the Norman Granz Songbook Series. Ellington also began to flex his considerable pianist skills and recorded albums with John Coltrane (1963), Coleman Hawkins (1963), Frank Sinatra, and Money Jungle (1963) with Charles Mingus and Max Roach. The First Sacred Concert debuted in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral in 1965. In his final years, Ellington's thoughts turned to spiritual themes and he added a Second (1968) and Third (1973) Concert of Sacred Music to his compositions.

In his lifetime, Duke received numerous awards and honors including the highest honor bestowed on an American civilian, the Congressional Medal Of Freedom. In 1965, Ellington was recommended for a Pulitzer Prize to honor his forty years of contribution to music but the recommendation was rejected by the board. Most likely he was disappointed, but his response at the age of sixty-six was, "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."

Ellington never rested on his laurels or stopped composing. Whenever he was asked to name his favorite compositions his characteristic reply was "the next five coming up," but to please his loyal fans Ellington always featured some of his standards in every performance. Even on his deathbed, he was composing the opera buffo called Queenie Pie.

Duke Ellington died on May 24, 1974 at seventy-five years of age. His funeral was held in New York's Cathedral of St. John The Divine; he was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. His long-time companion Beatrice "Evie" Ellis was buried beside him after her death in 1976. He was survived by his only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, who not only took up the baton to lead the Duke Ellington Orchestra but assumed the task of caring for his father's papers and his legacy to the nation. Mercer Ellington died in Copenhagan, Denmark on February 8, 1996, at the age of seventy-six. Ruth Ellington Boatwright died in New York on March 6, 2004, at the age of eighty-eight. Both Mercer and Ruth were responsible for shepherding the documents and artifacts that celebrate Duke Ellington's genius and creative life to their current home in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William H. Quealy Collection of Duke Ellington Recordings (AC0296)

Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington (AC0328)

Duke Ellington Oral History Project (AC0368)

Duke Ellington Collection of Ephemera and realated Audiovisual Materials (AC0386)

Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group Proceedings (AC0385)

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0388)

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Prints (AC0389)

New York Chapter of the Duke Ellington Society Collection (AC390)

Earl Okin Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0391)

William Russo Transcription and Arrangement of Duke Ellington's First Concert of Sacred Music (AC0406)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0415)

Music manuscripts in the Ruth Ellington Collection complement the music manuscripts found in the Duke Ellington Collection.

Carter Harman Collection of Interviews with Duke Ellington (AC0422)

Betty McGettigan Collection of Duke Ellington Memorabilia (AC0494)

Dr. Theodore Shell Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0502)

Edward and Gaye Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0704)

Andrew Homzy Collection of Duke Ellington Stock Music Arrangements (AC0740)

John Gensel Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0763)

Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC1240)

Materials at Other Organizations

Institute of Jazz Studies
Separated Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) and include trophies, plaques, and medals. See accessions: 1989.0369; 1991.0808; 1993.0032; and 1999.0148.

"
Provenance:
The collection was purchased through an appropriation of Congress in 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original and master audiovisual materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Occupation:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Big bands  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Bandsmen -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Performance  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0301
Online Media:

Immerse Yourself in Five Alternate Worlds Envisioned by Leading Artists

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 15 Jun 2021 17:02:38 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_ff9fa00db02d40590a9d3c6788ce0f9c

Door

Object Name:
ilekun
Maker:
?l?´w?` of Ise, born ca. 1875–1938, Nigeria  Search this
Yoruba artist  Search this
Medium:
Wood, pigment
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 102 x 68 x 8.5 cm (40 3/16 x 26 3/4 x 3 3/8 in.)
Type:
Architectural Element
Geography:
Nigeria
Date:
Early 20th century
Topic:
bird  Search this
male  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Dr. Nicholas Zervas
Object number:
76-41-2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Museum of African Art Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African Art
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ys79bedbad4-ca73-4e89-9a6c-9f746a22d887
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmafa_76-41-2

Ewu-ileke (Tunic)

Maker:
Baba Adesina  Search this
Yoruba artist  Search this
Medium:
Cotton, glass beads
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 76.5 x 60 x 6.5 cm (30 1/8 x 23 5/8 x 2 9/16 in.)
Type:
Textile and Fiber Arts
Geography:
Okuku region, Osun State, Nigeria
Date:
Early 20th century
Topic:
Leadership  Search this
Status  Search this
Adornment  Search this
turtle  Search this
snake  Search this
Male use  Search this
geometric motif  Search this
lizard  Search this
Power  Search this
male  Search this
Trade  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchased with funds provided by the Annie Laurie Aitken Endowment
Object number:
2003-8-1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Museum of African Art Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African Art
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ys761676dcd-9b75-4139-ae8e-7eb77a4ac85b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmafa_2003-8-1

?`pá ?`sanyìn (herbalist's staff)

Maker:
Yoruba artist  Search this
Medium:
Iron
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 122.6 × 24.1 × 12.1 cm (48 1/4 × 9 1/2 × 4 3/4 in.)
Type:
Sculpture
Geography:
Nigeria
Date:
late 19th-mid 20th century
Topic:
Divination  Search this
bird  Search this
Male use  Search this
male  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Mona Gavigan
Object number:
2014-31-1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Museum of African Art Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African Art
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ys762d6b266-810b-4d8c-8001-d36228c4d0af
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmafa_2014-31-1

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
Online Media:

A Mystery

Design Director:
Tibor Kalman, American, b. Hungary, 1949–1999  Search this
Designer:
Douglas Riccardi, probably American, active late 20th century  Search this
Alexander Brebner  Search this
Firm:
M&Co, New York, New York, USA, 1979–1992  Search this
Medium:
Offset lithography. pencils, metal, printed matter
Dimensions:
1993-151-91a - 25 x 19.4 x 2.2 cm (9 7/8 x 7 5/8 x 7/8 in.), book, closed
1993-151-91a - 25 x 40.7 x 2.2 cm (9 7/8 x 16 1/8 x 7/8 in.), book, opened
1993-151-91b - 2.5 x 19 cm (1 x 7 1/2 in.), ruler
1993-151-91c - n - 18.8cm (7 3/8 in.), pencils
1993-151-91o - 25.5 x 19.4 x 2.5 cn (10 1/8 x 7 5/8 x 1 in., jacket
1993-151-91p - 13.5 x 9 x 1.7cm (5 1/4 x 3 5/8 x 3/4 in.), paper stack
1993-151-91q - 2.3 x 5.6 x 1.3 cm (1 x 1 x 1/2 in.), eraser
1993-151-91r - 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.3 cm (1 x 1 x 1/2
Type:
graphic design
labs, books
Object Name:
labs, books
Place:
USA
Date:
1989
Credit Line:
Gift of Tibor Kalman/ M & Co.
Accession Number:
1993-151-91-a/aa
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq485fc7b8b-0a1c-49d6-be7a-da8ef4b3e122
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1993-151-91-a_aa

Umberto Romano papers, [ca. 1935-1979]

Creator:
Romano, Umberto Roberto, 1905-1982  Search this
Romano, Umberto Roberto, 1905-1982  Search this
Subject:
Roosevelt, Sara Delano  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- Massachusetts -- Springfield -- Photographs  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York -- Photographs  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9210
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211405
AAA_collcode_romaumbe
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211405

Theodore Barbarossa papers, 1931-1991

Creator:
Barbarossa, Theodore, 1906-1992  Search this
Kennedy, Kennedy, Keefe and Carney (Firm)  Search this
Barbarossa, Theodore, 1906-1992  Search this
Subject:
Feller, Richard T.  Search this
Hopper, Inslee  Search this
Washington Cathedral  Search this
National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Baltimore, Md.)  Search this
Cathedral of St. John the Divine (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
St. Thomas' Church (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Topic:
Christian art and symbolism  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Theme:
Art Materials, Techniques, and Studio Art Education  Search this
Government Sponsorship of the Arts  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5852
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208692
AAA_collcode_barbtheo
Theme:
Art Materials, Techniques, and Studio Art Education
Government Sponsorship of the Arts
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208692

Nanauki (Mrs. Joe Divine)

Artist:
Winold Reiss, 16 Sep 1886 - 29 Aug 1953  Search this
Sitter:
Nenauki, active early 20th century  Search this
Medium:
Mixed media on Whatman board
Dimensions:
74.9 x 54cm (29 1/2 x 21 1/4")
Frame: 85.4 x 64.1cm (33 5/8 x 25 1/4")
Type:
Other
Date:
1928
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Scarf  Search this
Nenauki: Female  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Anschutz Collection
Object number:
EXH.4044
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm49a313fa5-199e-4e23-ae8b-c0d24267ddcb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.4044

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
National Association of Broadcasters, American  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
Duke Ellington, American, 1899 - 1974  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
John Albert Morsell, American, 1912 - 1974  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National Insurance Association, American, founded 1921  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
CBS Broadcasting, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Nettie B. Smith, American  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
John Warren Davis, American, 1888 - 1980  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
National Alliance of Postal and Federal Employees, American, founded 1913  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Clifton Herman Johnson, American, 1921 - 2008  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1975
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Calypso (Music)  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Law  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.9
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Colonization movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5c80d5f1b-2384-44ae-91b1-bb42a6fc4395
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.9
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Banner for Father Divine

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
Father Divine, American, ca. 1876 - 1965  Search this
Medium:
felt and thread
Dimensions:
H x W: 58 x 55 1/2 in. (147.3 x 141 cm)
Type:
banners
Date:
mid 20th Century
Topic:
African American  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2011.57.43
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Religious and Sacred Objects
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Exhibition:
Defending Freedom, Defining Freedom: The Era of Segregation, 1876-1968
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 2, C 2053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd50212fb80-f846-4c9c-8677-52d1493ef814
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.57.43

Human or divine family seated beneath a parasol

Medium:
Brass
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 29 x 16.2 x 16.2 cm (11 7/16 x 6 3/8 x 6 3/8 in)
Type:
Sculpture
Metalwork
Origin:
Chhattisgarh state, India
Date:
20th century
Topic:
woman  Search this
man  Search this
lute  Search this
family  Search this
umbrella  Search this
India  Search this
parasol  Search this
South Asian and Himalayan Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Dr. Leo Figiel
Accession Number:
S1997.141
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye387307e64-1419-4891-9dd5-ca8eacecd741
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_S1997.141

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
320 Boxes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Matrices, color separation
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
undated
Summary:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, DC from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). Subseries 4.1 includes black and white silver gelatin negatives. An overview to the entire Scurlock collection is available here: Scurlock Studio Records
Scope and Contents:
Subseries 4.1 includes black and white silver gelatin negatives. The majority of the negatives, not all, have been scanned.
Arrangement note:
The negatives are not arranged in a clear order, and the negatives document clients and subjects. Researchers will need to look in two different box sizes for negatives of different sizes that were originally housed together in freezer boxes but are now housed separately according to size. A number of freezer boxes are missing, this is the reason for box number gaps, and contain varying numbers of negatives. The physical number of boxes was condensed during rehousing but the original freezer box numbers were retained in combination on the new boxes. The beginning and end of a freezer box are indicated inside the new box by blue dividers.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, DC. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.1 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Matrices, color separation
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.01
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01
Online Media:

Solomon A. Card, Jr. United States Army Chaplain Papers

Creator:
Card, Solomon A., Jr., 1921-1975  Search this
Names:
United States. Army  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Slides (photographs)
Clippings
Diplomas
Postcards
Date:
1938-1976
Summary:
Papers documenting the career of Chaplain Solomon A. Card, Jr, a United States Army chaplain,who served tours of duty in Korea and in Vietnam. He remained in the Army for twenty years and died just three months after retiring at Fort Hood, Texas.
Scope and Contents:
The collection primarily documents the military career of Chaplain Solomon A. Card, Jr. It includes postcards, correspondence, photographs, slides, newspaper clippings and articles. There is a substantial amount of photographic materials relating to his tours in Korea and Vietnam. These images document the social activities of the military, chapels, orphanages and the landscapes of the two countries. There is a small amount of material relating to his personal life, primarily his education. Other personal papers include wedding documents, photographs, and a death certificate. The materials are arranged into three series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Personal Papers, 1938-1976

Series 2, Correspondence, 1956-1971

Series 3, Photographic Materials, 1939-1975, undated

Subseries 3.1, Photographs, 1939-1975, undated

Subseries 3.2, Slides, 1957, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Solomon Ackley Card, Jr. was a United States Army chaplain. He was born on November 28, 1921 to Solomon Ackley Card, Sr. and Jennie Louise Mudge in New York. He attended public schools in graduating from Leonardsville High School in 1939. Card attended Cazenovia Seminary and Junior College in 1941. In August 1942, he married Lavina Coral Gates and from this union four children were born; James, David, Diana, and Nancy. Card earned a Bachelors of Divinity degree from Syracuse University in 1943 and his Masters of Divinity degree from Drew University. He was ordained in 1946. Upon graduation he was appointed pastor of the Black River Methodist Church in New York in May, 1946, and in 1950 was assigned to the Clayton Church of Christ. He also served parishioners at Felts Mills, Omar and St. Lawrence in New York. Card joined the United States Army Reserves as a chaplain with the rank of first lieutenant in 1950. He was promoted to captain in July 1952. For five years he was chaplain of the 314th military police battalion with headquarters in Ogdensburg, New York. During the Korean War he was called in for several brief tours of active duty at Camp Drum and Murphy Army General Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. He also served tours of duty in Europe, Korea, and Vietnam. In 1966, he was awarded the Soldier's Medal for disarming a distraught soldier who had fired seventeen rounds from an M-16 rifle near the heavily populated Da Nang base camp in Vietnam. While serving in Da Nang, Vietnam, as chaplain for headquarters of the Army Support Command, he was promoted to the, rank of colonel. Card remained in the Army for twenty years. He died December 4, 1975, just three months after retiring at Fort Hood, Texas, at the age of fifty-four.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the Archives Center by Nancy L. Card in 2011.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clergy  Search this
Military chaplains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Diplomas
Postcards
Citation:
Solomon A. Card, Jr. United States Army Chaplain Papers, 1938-1975, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1260
See more items in:
Solomon A. Card, Jr. United States Army Chaplain Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1260
Online Media:

Umberto Romano papers

Creator:
Romano, Umberto, 1905-1982  Search this
Names:
Roosevelt, Sara Delano, 1854-1941  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Items (Linear ft. (partially microfilmed on 1 reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Date:
[ca. 1935-1979]
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, printed material, sketchbooks, photographs, and business material.
REEL 701: 17 letters from E.A. Jewell, Nelson Rockefeller, J. Carter Brown and Helen Gerardia; exhibition catalogs and announcements; 23 photographs of Romano and his paintings; clippings and brochures on the Umberto Romano School of Art; BEST OF ART by Emily Genauer with an article on Romano's painting "Ecce Homo" and a copy of THE DIVINE COMEDY illustrated by Romano.
UNMICROFILMED: Personal letters and xeroxed correspondence from the White House regarding a commission for the portrait of Sara Delano Roosevelt; 2 contracts with the National Academy of Design; 2 sketchbooks; photographs of mural paintings in Springfield, Massachusetts and the Century Club, New York City; clippings, exhibition catalogs and announcements.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, sculptor and teacher; New York (N.Y.) Born in Naples, Italy. Illustrated Dante's THE DIVINE COMEDY in 1947. Instructor of painting and sculpture at Worcester Art Museum School and privately in New York City. Member: National Society of Mural Painters, National Academy of Design, Audubon Artists and the Century Association.
Provenance:
Donated in 1971 and 1979 by Romano.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Portrait painters  Search this
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- Massachusetts -- Springfield -- Photographs  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York -- Photographs  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.romaumbe
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-romaumbe

Theodore Barbarossa papers

Creator:
Barbarossa, Theodore Cotillo, 1906-1992  Search this
Kennedy, Kennedy, Keefe and Carney (Firm)  Search this
Names:
Cathedral of St. John the Divine (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Baltimore, Md.)  Search this
National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
St. Thomas' Church (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Washington Cathedral  Search this
Feller, Richard T.  Search this
Hopper, Inslee  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
8.6 Linear feet (Addition)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1931-1991
Scope and Contents:
Biographical data; awards and citations; personal and business correspondence with: Inslee Hopper, consultant to the Chief of the Section of Fine Arts; Richard T. Feller, Clerk of Works for the Washington Cathedral; and Kennedy, Kennedy, Keefe and Carney (formerly Maginnis and Walsh and Kennedy), architects for the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. and the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Baltimore, Md. concerning his work at those churches; correspondence regarding his work at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine and the St. Thomas' Church, NYC, and others; sketches, drawings, etchings and studies for reliefs and sculpture; clippings; and photographs of Barbarossa and his sculpture.
ADDITION: Biographical data; awards and citations; military records; correspondence, mostly business but including a few letters from friends and fellow sculptors such as Richard Barthe, Walker Hancock, Thomas Lo Medico, and Heinz Warneke; writings; sketches, drawings, and etchings by Barbarossa and others; studies for relief and figural sculpture; photographs and slides of Barbarossa, others, and of his sculpture, notably of his commissioned sculpture for the New York World's Fair (1939), for several Treasury Dept. art projects in the 1930s, and for his post-WWII commissions for churches, primarily in Baltimore, Md., Washington, D.C. and NYC, and Catholic schools in Tarrytown and Yonkers, NY.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor; Belmont, Mass. Died 1992.
Provenance:
Donated 1980 by Theodore Barbarossa. Addition donated 1996 by Susan Gray Barbarossa, Barbarossa's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Sculptors  Search this
Topic:
Christian art and symbolism  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
AAA.barbtheo
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-barbtheo

Jack Mitchell Photography of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection

Choreographer:
Ailey, Alvin  Search this
Photographer:
Mitchell, Jack, 1925-  Search this
Dancer:
Allen, Sarita  Search this
Chaya, Masazumi  Search this
DeLavallade, Carmen , 1931-  Search this
DeLoatch, Gary, 1953-1993  Search this
Jamison, Judith  Search this
Roxas, Elizabeth  Search this
Truitte, James  Search this
Tyson, Andre  Search this
Williams, Dudley, 1938-2015  Search this
Wood, Donna, 1954-  Search this
Extent:
16 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Modern dance
Dance photography.
Date:
1961-2004
Summary:
Jack Mitchell (1925- 2013) was an acclaimed photographer who began chronicling the work of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in 1961. Alvin Ailey (1931- 1989), one of the most influential African American choreographers of modern dance, dedicated himself and his dance company to creating ballets that not only accelerated the careers of young African American dancers, but also stole the attention of national and international audiences in displaying the racial perspective of dance in the African American experience. This collection serves as Mitchell's documentation of the dance company's evolution while capturing the true idiosyncrasies and physicality of movement through still images. Through Alvin Ailey and Jack Mitchell's partnership, they were able to collaborate and produce a unique production of art, fusing the meaning and movements of dance and the techniques of photography.
Scope and Contents:
The Jack Mitchell Photography of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection is comprised of approximately 10,000 black and white prints of solo and ensemble acts, portraits of principle dancers and various associates of the company, color slides and transparencies for private photo sessions and performances, black and white film strips and their corresponding contact sheets, and reference materials.
Arrangement:
The material in this collection has been kept primarily at the folder level in the order that was declared by the initial owner and photographer, Jack Mitchell. Oversize prints were separated and housed in an associated series in the collection. The order of the material has been organized based on the medium of the material. Each subseries has been organized based on the following:

Series I: Black and White Prints Subseries A: Solo and Ensemble Images and Portraits were organized alphabetically by ballet name. Subseries B: Prints for Jack Mitchell Publication were organized by page number in the publication.

Series II: Color Photography Subseries A: Original Slide Boxes were organized numerically based on Jack Mitchell's label assignments. Subseries B: Color Slides were organized numerically based on subseries A's label assignments. Subseries C: Color Transparencies were organized numerically based on subseries A's label assignments.

Series III: Black and White Negatives Subseries A: Black and White Film Strips were organized chronologically by date. Subseries B: Contact Sheets were organized chronologically by date.

Series IV: Reference Material

OVERSIZE Series I: Black and White Prints were organized chronologically by date.
Biographical / Historical:
Jack Mitchell was born on September 13, 1925 in Key West, Florida. Although he was not in the field of photography, Mitchell's father bought him his first camera when Jack was a teenager. His first published photograph was of actress, Veronica Lake, for a War Bond Tour, a tour issued by the government that promoted debt securities to soldiers to finance military operations and expenditures He enlisted in the United States army and became a photographer in Italy at the end of World War II. In 1949, Ted Shawn, a dancer and choreographer who is respected among the dance community as a pioneer of American modern dance, invited Mitchell to Massachusetts photograph his dancers at his dance center, Jacobs's Pillow. It was during this time where Mitchell's interest and appreciation for moving bodies was realized. In the lifespan of his career, Mitchell created over 150 covers for Dance Magazine1, the New York Times, Time, Life, Newsweek, Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair, and Vogue.2

As Jack Mitchell started to photograph the poses and ballets of the American Ballet Theater throughout the late 1950s, Alvin Ailey saw some of Mitchell's photographs. By 1961, Mitchell had established himself as a distinguished photographer of dance, coining the term, "moving stills". His photographs became the benchmark and standard that other dance photographers measured their work. In November 1961, Ailey invited Mitchell to a performance space in Clark Center, NY, and with his dancers, they performed for Mitchell's camera; some of the photographs from that first photo session can be found in this collection.

Alvin Ailey was born on January 5, 1931 in in Rodgers, Texas, during the Great Depression. As his repertory reflected, the beginning of his life was defined by a tight-knit, predominantly African American folk culture. At age 12, Ailey and his mother, Lula Cooper, moved Los Angeles, California. It is here that he was exposed to the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, which led him to study under the Lester Horton Dance Theater, where he danced with Carmen DeLavallade, James Truitte, and Joyce Trisler. After 3 years of performing and training, he was positioned as a choreographer and later became the director of the company when Lester Horton suddenly died in 1953. His influence from Lester Horton, Martha Graham, and Katherine Dunham help to establish his philosophy that "Everything in dancing is style, allusion, the essence of many thoughts and feelings, the abstraction of many moments. Each movement is the sum total of moments and experiences".3 After Horton's death, Ailey went to perform at Ted Shawn's Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival, and then on to New York with his longtime schoolmate and fellow dancer, Carmen DeLavallade, to perform in the 1954 Broadway production of "House of Flowers". The Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Company was established in 1958.

From the beginning of his journey as a dancer and choreographer, Ailey wanted to show African American experience in his performances. He embedded folk culture in his early works "Revelations" and "Blue Suites". In reflection, before his first South Asian Tour, Alvin expressed, "The cultural heritage of the American Negro is one of America's richest treasures. From his roots as a slave, the American Negro- sometimes sorrowing, sometimes jubilant but always hopeful -has touched, illuminated, and influenced the most preserved of world civilization. I and my dance theater celebrate this trembling beauty."4 "Revelations" was well- received by national and international audiences, Ailey recognized by the dance community as a choreographer with promise and his company and ballets he created were highly anticipated. By 1965, Ailey went from being a dancer to being the company's choreographer. From the onset, Ailey embraced diversity and invited interracial and interdisciplinary perspectives at of the company. He also created ballets for other notable companies including the American Ballet Theatre, Royal Danish Ballet, London Festival Ballet, the Joffrey Ballet, Paris Opera Ballet, and LaScala Opera Ballet.5 He was invited to choreograph Samuel Barber's Anthony and Cleopatra for the Metropolitan Opera at Lincoln Center in 19666, and Leonard Bernstein's Mass for the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in 1971.7

As the company embraced racial diversity, Ailey never lost his sense of obligation to the African American community. In 1969, he established the Alvin Ailey American Dance Center, which became the Ailey School, formed the Alvin Ailey Repertory Ensemble, and pioneered programs promoting arts in education, particularly those that benefitted deprived communities. Among his numerous distinctions were the Dance Magazine Award (1975), the NAACP Spingarn Medal (1976), given for "the highest and noblest achievement by an American Negro during the previous year or years"8 , the Samuel H. Scripps American Dance Festival Award (1987), the most prestigious award for modern dance for a lifetime contribution to the field, the Kennedy Center Award (1988) and Honorary Doctorates from Princeton University (1972)9 , Bard College (1977)10 , and Adelphi University (1977). President Barack Obama posthumously awarded Ailey the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2014, the country's highest civilian honor, in recognition of his contributions and commitments to civil rights and dance in America.11

Through Jack Mitchell and Alvin Ailey's work, they were able to collaborate and create something "rich in historical connotations, the liveliest kind of permanent record of the works of important creators and creations that formed the nucleus of Ailey's remarkable vision of American dance and what it could be"12. Alvin Ailey's reputation for creating eclectic dance methods produced movements and poses that are still studied and idolized today. Mitchell was able to pay homage to many of the world's best dance artists from James Truitte, Carmen DeLavallade, Dudley Williams, Donna Wood, Renee Robinson, Gary DeLoatch, as well as Ailey, through his photography. With Ailey's longstanding and established stature within the dance community, and Mitchell's pronouncement of the detailed through his use of lighting in his photographs, this collection highlights the incredible collaboration between Ailey and Mitchell, and serves as a unique document of one of the world's most renowned American dance company's.

Alvin Ailey's vision for a dance company was dedicated to enriching the American modern dance heritage and preserving African American culture. In a 1989 interview with Dance Magazine, shortly before his death, Ailey discussed how he took pride in knowing that "No other company around [today] does what we do, requires the same range, and challenges both the dancers and the audience to the same degree." Ailey searched for a collaborator that would help him display the value of communicative movement; he found his match in Mitchell. Ailey's influence went beyond the stage and Jack Mitchell's images in this collection document that evolution. With Alvin Ailey's passing in 1989 at age 58 and Jack Mitchell's death in 2013 at age 88, these photographs of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection serves as one of the few sources of this dynamic dance company, from its early days to an internationally recognized troupe.

Footnotes

2. Jack Mitchell. Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater: Jack Mitchell Photographs. (Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1993), viii

3. Bruce Weber, "Jack Mitchell, Photographer of the Arts, Dies at 88", The New York Times Obituaries (November 9, 2013): -- http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/10/arts/jack-mitchell-photographer-of-the-arts-dies-at-88.html

4. Jennifer Dunning, Alvin Ailey: A Life in Dance. (New York; Addison- Wesley, 1996), 123

5. Ibid, 146.

6. Alvin Ailey, Revelations: The Autobiography of Alvin Ailey. (New York: Birch Lane, 1995), 6-7.

7. Alvin Ailey, Revelations: The Autobiography of Alvin Ailey. (New York; Birch Lane, 1995), 7.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. Dunning, Jennifer. -- Alvin Ailey: A Life in Dance -- . (New York: Addison-Wesley, 1996), 286.

11. "Bard College Catalogue 2016-17: Honorary Degrees": -- https://www.bard.edu/catalogue/index.php?aid=1205177%26sid=670501

12. Office of the Press Secretary, "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom" (November 10, 2014): -- https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/11/10/president-obama-names-recipients-presidential-medal-freedom

13. Jack Mitchell. Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater: Jack Mitchell Photographs. (Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1993), ix.
General:
COLLECTION LIST OF FEATURED REPERTORY

After Eden, Archipelago, Been Here and Gone, Black Belt, Blues Suite, Butterfly, Caravan, Carmina Burana, Caverna Magica, Chelsea's Bells, Come and Get the Beauty of It Hot, Concert in F, Congo Tango Palace, Crossword, Cry, Dance at the Gym, District Storyville, Divining, Episodes, Escargot, Facets, Fever Swamp, Flowers, Folkdance, Fontessa and Friends, For Bird – with Love, Forgotten Time, Frames, Gazelle, Hermit Songs, Hidden Rites, Hobo Sapiens, How to Walk an Elephant, Hymn, Icarus, Journey, Jukebox for Alvin, Lament, Landscape, Mary Lou's Mass, Masekela Langage, Memoria, N. Y. Export, Op. Jazz, Night Creature, North Star, Opus McShann, Pas de Duke, Passage, Pigs 'n Fishes, Portrait of Billie, Prodigal Prince, Quintet, Rainbow 'round my Shoulder, Revelations, Rift, Roots of the Blues, Sarong Paramaribo , Satyriade, Seven Journeys, Shards, Shelter, Spectrum, Speeds, Speeds, Streams, Suite Otis, The Beloved, The Lark Ascending, The Letter, The Mooche, The River, The Road of the Phoebe Snow, The Stack-Up, The Winter in Lisbon, Three Black Kings, Tilt, Toccata, Treading, Variegations, Vespers
Separated Materials:
There were 3 inscribed copies of "Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater: Jack Mitchell Photographs" originally stored in the collection. One copy of this text can be found in Series IV: Reference Materials with the publication draft, another copy is housed in the National Museum of African American History and Culture Library, and the last copy has been designated to serve as an archival reference text.
Provenance:
Acquired from the Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. in 2013.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
Jack Mitchell Photography of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre Collection is jointly owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution, and the Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation. Permission for commercial use or publication of the digital images may be requested from the Smithsonian Institution.
Occupation:
Dancers -- Photographs  Search this
Topic:
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater  Search this
Choreography -- United States  Search this
Dance  Search this
Dance schools -- United States  Search this
Dance -- Production and direction  Search this
Dance companies  Search this
Dance -- North America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Modern dance -- United States -- 20th century
Dance photography.
Citation:
Photography by Jack Mitchell © Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. and Smithsonian Institution, All rights reserved.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2013.245
See more items in:
Jack Mitchell Photography of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2013-245
Online Media:

Corbett Reynolds Papers

Creator:
Reynolds, Corbett  Search this
Artist:
Divine -- 20th century  Search this
Singer:
Jones, Grace -- 20th century  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (5 boxes, 16 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Posters
Date:
1962-2015
bulk 1979-2000
Summary:
Artwork, photographs, and papers of Columbus, Ohio artist and founder of the Red Party (circuit party) Corbett Reynolds. These papers include materials related to Rudely Elegant, Reynolds's bar and dance club in Columbus.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the life and activities of artist and gay-oriented nightclub impressario Corbett Reynolds of Columbus, Ohio. The collection includes correspondence; photographs; press releases, exhibition catalogs, publicity materials and flyers relating to exhibitions of Reynolds's work; articles and clippings; a VHS videocassette; and posters. The collection also includes posters, photographs, and ephemera related to Reynold's gay-centric bar Rudely Elegant and his circuit party, the Red Party. The papers were donated by Reynolds's son, Andrew Jensen, who writes, " . . . taking many items from his home and, in some cases, throwing them in the trash. I knew the historic importance of these posters, some of which may be the only ones to survive intact, so I took it upon myself to save them from this same fate."

The collection is organized in three series and four subseries.

Series 1: Posters and Artwork, 1979-2001, undated. This series includes original posters for recurring theme parties and many of the Red Parties. This series also includes original artwork and designs by Reynolds.

Subseries 1.1: Rudely Elegant, 1980-2001, undated. This subseries contains original poster art done in silk screen, collage, and other types of media, and reproduced poster art created by Reynolds to advertise his annual Red Party as well as other themed parties. This subseries also includes the poster for the final Red Party, Red Fetish, held in September 2001. This artwork was used at Reynolds's bar, Rudely Elegant, as well as in other venues.

Subseries 1.2: Posters and Artwork, 1980-1999, undated. This subseries contains original artwork either created by Reynolds or given to him. It includes materials associated with Reynolds's art installations as well as a wallpaper design and images of his artwork.

Series 2: Photographs, 1962-2001, undated. This series contains photographs from Reynolds's home in Victorian Village, Columbus, Ohio. It also contains photographs from many of the Red and themed parties. It includes photographs of Reynolds himself and as his drag persona, Cora, Miss Bat-N-Rouge. There are photographs of his art and some of his art installations.

Series 3: Personal Papers, 1980-2015, undated. This series contains papers relating to Rudely Elegant and Reynolds's theme parties including the Red Party. It also contains personal papers and news accounts.

Subseries 1.1: Rudely Elegant, 1992-2000, undated. This subseries contains ephemera and material relating to Rudely Elegant and various Red parties.

Subseries 1.2: Personal Papers and News Accounts, 1980-2015, undated. This subseries contains a scrapbook, correspondence, biographical material, resumes, exhbition material and ephemera, material related to various works of art by Reynolds, and many news accounts about Reynolds, his art, and his contributions to Columbus society and the local LGBT community.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized in three series.

Series 1: Posters and Artwork, 1979-2001, undated

Subseries 1.1: Rudely Elegant, 1980-2001, undated

Subseries 1.2: Posters and Artwork, 1980-1999, undated

Series 2: Photographs, 1962-2001, undated

Series 3: Personal Papers, 1980-2015, undated

Subseries 3.1: Rudely Elegant, 1992-2000, undated

Subseries 3.2: Personal Papers and News Accounts, 1980-2015, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Corbett Reynolds was born in Tacoma, Washington on April 7, 1944. He was educated at the Columbus College of Art and Design and graduated in 1966. For many years he was an artist and designer specializing in wall coverings and textiles. He made his home in Columbus, Ohio and purchased a late nineteenth century mansion, 1153 Neil Avenue, in the Victorian Village section of Columbus. In 1975 he purchased the Avondale Theater on West Broad Street in the Franklinton neighborhood of Columbus. With the help of his friends, Corbett turned the Art Deco theatre into a gay-centric nightclub and named it Rudely Elegant. Rudely Elegant officially opened in 1977 and was inspired by the discos in New York and Chicago. The decor of Rudely Elegant was changed regularly for thematic parties and events. Guest performers at the club included Grace Jones, Sylvester, and Divine.

It was with the circuit party that Reynolds gained a national following for Rudely Elegant. Circuit parties, also known as disco parties, began in the late 1970s. These dance parties lasted one night only, and were generally tied to one unifying theme or color. The parties were mainly found in cities with a large gay male population. With the advent of the HIV/AIDS crisis in the 1980s many parties became fundraisers for local service organizations and charities associated with HIV/AIDS. The parties became popular, more elaborate, and more expensive into the 1990s. Some patrons would follow the parties from city to city as the year progressed. By 2000 the popularity of the circuit parties had seemingly peaked and their number has been in steady decline.

Reportedly, Reynolds began his circuit party, know as the Red Party, in 1977, one of the first in the United States. Reynolds chose the color red as his theme because it was his favorite color, and "It is the color of passion, both in love and creativity." The parties had themes such as: Red & Black (1993), Red House Saloon (1998), and Big Top Red (2000). Reynolds's other themes included Tropicana, Halloween, Black, and Uniform. Rudely Elegant closed in 1985 but Reynolds continued to have themed circuit parties at other locations, eventually locating for good at the Valley Dale Ballroom near Westerville. The parties are said to have drawn 3,000 persons from around the United States. Many of the parties had guest hosts, among them Holly Woodlawn, Mink Stole, and Tammy Faye Baker Messner. David Borchers assisted Reynolds with many of these events, and they have been described as ". . . part installation, part performance art, much dancing, and magic and spectacle like no one had seen in Columbus before (or since)." The last Red Party, Red Fetish, occurred in 2001.

Additionally, Reynolds continued his artistic activities. He created many works of art and art installations in Columbus and New York City. He also received grants and corporate commissions from a number of agencies and individuals. He died suddenly on May 1, 2002 and is buried at the Crawford County Memory Gardens, Galion, Ohio. Reynolds had one son, Andrew Jensen.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian by Andrew and Tawna Jensen, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Sexual orientation  Search this
Transgender people -- Identity  Search this
Lesbianism  Search this
Nightclubs  Search this
Homosexuality  Search this
Lesbian and gay experience  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Posters
Citation:
Corbett Reynolds Papers, 1962-2015, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1390
See more items in:
Corbett Reynolds Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1390
Online Media:

Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers

Creator:
Sachs, Charlotte Cramer, 1907-2004  Search this
Names:
Cramanna  Search this
Cramarc  Search this
Crambruck Press  Search this
Cramer Products Company  Search this
Joy Originals  Search this
Joy Products  Search this
Sachs, Alexander  Search this
Samuels, Donald  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Awards
Business records
Clippings
Correspondence
Notes
Patents
Patent applications
Photographs
Sheet music
Date:
1905-2002
bulk 1940-2002
Summary:
Papers relating to Charlotte Cramer Sachs's life and career as an inventor mainly of food and household-related products: correspondence, photographs, business papers, awards, patents, printed materials, notes, and miscellany. The collection primarily consists of invention-related marketing materials including invention samples and prototypes, notes, clippings, business correspondence, and customer account records.
Scope and Contents:
The records are divided into two series. Series 2 is further divided into eight subseries.

Series 1 documents the inventor's creativity through her artistic, literary, and musical records. Also included are awards and certificates received and materials related to her childhood home. This series contains few photos of Cramer Sachs herself, although a print of one of her paintings, "Portrait of a Lady," circa 1953, seems to be a self-portrait. There are no photos of her husband or daughter in the collection. Also missing is any information related to the inventor's formal education, childhood, the circumstances of her departure from Berlin, marriage, and family life.

Materials in Series 2 constitute the bulk of the collection and are primarily comprised of marketing ephemera, with very few financial and production records. This series gives a broad outline of Cramer Sachs's many inventions documenting Joy Products and wine-related inventions in the most depth.

Series 1: Creative and Artistic Papers, 1933-2002

These records include sheet music, songbooks, stories, and poetry of the inventor's own creation; photographic prints of her artwork; art exhibition materials; publishing company (Crambruck Press) records and published materials; childhood residence ("Haus Cramer") materials, and awards and certificates unrelated to inventions. Artwork and songs make up the bulk of the materials, and are arranged alphabetically by subject. Records in this series provide a context for Cramer Sachs's career as an inventor, although they do not reveal extensive information regarding her personal life or history.

Records relating to artwork include press releases, exhibition photographic prints and negatives, promotional materials, newspaper clippings, notebooks compiled by Cramer Sachs, as well as donation records of artworks given by the inventor to The Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine.

Crambruck Press publishing company is a combined name which incorporates the inventor's surname, Cramer and mother's maiden name, Bruck. These records include a pre-publication notice and order form for a Crambruck Press publication, correspondence from a donor, as well as three Crambruck Press publications: From Boring Dinosaur to Passionate Computer by Livingston Welch, 1968; Poems by Helen H. Shotwell, 1970; and In Search of Harmony by Charlo, 1964.

Haus Cramer materials include photographs, newspaper clippings (many of them in German), correspondence between Cramer Sachs and Stanford University, and floor plans of the house designed in 1912 by German architect Hermann Muthesius. A framed black-and-white photographic print of Haus Cramer is fragile and is housed in a sink matte, box 9.

Poetry materials, songs, and stories are contained in bound books, published songbooks, original sheet music, and copyright records for song words, manuscripts written by Cramer Sachs, as well as correspondence records related to her writings. The song "With Love From New York" was used in the marketing of "Joy New Yorkshire Pudding Mix," and the records contain a vinyl recording which doubles as a marketing piece. Allusions to her husband, Alexander Sachs, and daughter, Eleanor, are found in some of her songs and stories.

Translation materials are comprised of correspondence (mostly in German), as well as Cramer Sachs's complete English translation of the "Stoffel Flies Across the Ocean" story, originally written in German by Erika Mann, circa 1932.

Series 2: Invention Records, 1905-2002

Invention Records contain information related to Cramer Sachs as an inventor and are divided into eight subseries. Materials include: patent related records; samples and prototypes; marketing and advertising materials; newspaper and magazine clippings; business correspondence records; customer account records; Wine Museum materials; and patent searches. These present a broad overview of Cramer Sachs's many inventions, although the majority of information is concentrated in the Household/Office, Food Products, and Wine-related series. Records are arranged chronologically by invention. The final subseries contain patent searches requested by the inventor.

Subseries 2.1: Cramer Products Company and Affiliate Company Records, 1942-2002

Materials include financial records, business correspondence, company awards and certificates, real estate materials, license agreements with outside inventors, a promotion prospectus for the company, and three company stamps (three dimensional). Also included are records of an invention for which Cramer Sachs sought copyright, "Orthodontic Device," 1954, and those having to do with products distributed—not invented—by Cramer Products Company, "Forster Longfresh," 1985. In addition, there are black-and-white photographic prints of an office opening which include images of Cramer Sachs in 1967. These records are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2.2: Household/Office Records, 1913-1972

These records relate to seven different inventions, each with varying degrees of information. "Combination Key and Flashlight," 1940 was an improvement on previous patents and therefore consists of the earlier patent materials (1913 and 1938), Cramer Sachs's patent application materials, an official, sealed patent application (1940), prototype drawings, correspondence records related to manufacturing and distribution, photographic prints, and a newspaper article. "Cozi-Crib," 1958 and 1968, and "Joy Originals Log Cabin Furniture Set," 1957, records include marketing materials whereas "Holdit," 1972, and "Party Platter," 1962, are minimally represented by one or two photographic prints. "Gaitray" materials consist of four product samples. Materials for "Miracle Knee Tray," circa 1953 include marketing ephemera, a photograph, and two product samples. A prototype for the "Traypron," 1954, is also included. These records are arranged alphabetically by invention name.

Subseries 2.3: Food Products, 1940-1969

Records in this subseries are mostly comprised of Joy Products prepared mix materials. Two exceptions are the small, fragile recipe book, 1940, and the "Caviodka," 1962, records. Business correspondence materials contain those from a food and equipment consultant, the Colgate-Palmolive Company, and Arthur Colton Company, in addition to those relating to the incorporation of Cramer Sachs's "baking mix manufacturing plant" (1945). There are numerous packaging samples of various Joy Products, along with handwritten recipes and notes. An example of early packaging for Joy Products "Early American Muffin Mix" is in flat box 10. This subseries also includes customer surveys and comments, marketing plans and proposals, advertisements, and a marketing portfolio compiled by the inventor. A scrapbook contains Joy Products newspaper clippings, advertisements, marketing ephemera, and photographs of store displays. The scrapbook pages are extremely brittle and are housed in sleeves. Preservation copies are available for research use. These records are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2.4: Pet Accessories, 1953-1954

This subseries consists of materials relating to three inventions: "Bonnie Stand," circa 1953-1954; "Guidog," 1953; and "Watch-Dog," 1953. Records include photographic prints, marketing materials, printing blocks (for "Bonnie Stand"), as well as a declaration of invention for, and a product sample of, "Watch-Dog." These records are arranged alphabetically by invention name.

Subseries 2.5: Games, 1961-1969

The inventor created two games: "Domi-Notes," circa 1961 and "Musicards," circa 1969. "Domi-Notes" materials include an order form citing the distributor as G. Schirmer, Inc. and the addressee as Walter Kane and Son, Inc., and three games two in cardboard boxes, (fragile) and one housed in the original hard plastic case. Records relating to "Musicards" consist of two game samples including directions for playing.

Subseries 2.6: Wine-Related, 1966-2002

Wine-related records cover twenty distinct inventions and range from specialty cabinets—which make-up the bulk of the materials—to bottle accessories such as the "Bottle Bib" and the "Cramanna Bottle Ring." The type and number of records vary, with the majority concentrated in the "Cool-Safe," "Cramarc Multiple Cabinet," "Modern Wine Cellar," and "Well Tempered Systems" folders. Records in invention-specific folders are arranged alphabetically and include marketing materials, press releases, photographic prints and some negatives, cabinet drawings, brochures, order forms, correspondence, as well as product samples of "Bottle Bibs."

Customer account records are arranged alphabetically and consist of billing statements, invoices, receipts, blueprints, correspondence, cabinet drawings, customer feedback, bills of lading, and memoranda. Letters from David H. Wollins laud Cramer Sachs's cabinet as "the finest home wine storage system in the world." Examples of how the inventor handled an unsatisfied customer can be found in the Col. Charles Langley folder.

Miscellaneous wine-related materials follow the customer account records. Included are advertising ephemera, photographs, and newspaper clippings originally assembled into a binder by Cramer Sachs. Taped to the inside front cover was a cut-out from a magazine advertisement which reads, "If you stick with the herd, you could end up as a lamb chop." Miscellaneous materials also include unlabeled cabinet drawings, photographic prints, competitor materials, photocopies from Grossman's Guide to Wines, Spirits, and Beers, as well as marketing materials and newspaper clippings covering a range of wine-related inventions. These records are arranged alphabetically by subject.

The final section of the wine-related subseries documents the development and eventual dissolution of The Wine Museum of New York. Records are arranged chronologically and include a provisional charter; an extension of the provisional charter; a newspaper clipping; outreach correspondence; a binder of wine museum materials including brochures, event invitations, exhibition opening cards, board member profiles, a press release, and newspaper clippings; wine museum exhibition information; and records related to the dissolution of the museum.

Subseries 2.7: Temperature and/or Humidity Controlled Devices, 1968-2002

This subseries documents the inventor's temperature and/or humidity controlled inventions that do not relate to wine. Cramer Sachs created the "Well Tempered Cabinet" for both wine and musical instruments; it is documented in this and the wine-related subseries. These records cover eight distinct inventions which range from specialty cabinets for musical instruments, furs, and cigars to devices designed to cool the body. Records relate to marketing, invention-specific business correspondence, confidential information and competition agreements, and include photographic negatives and prints. Miscellaneous cabinet drawings, cigar-related materials, and newspaper articles are also included. Records are arranged alphabetically by invention name followed by miscellaneous materials.

Subseries 2.8: Patent Searches, 1905-1980

Records in this subseries include correspondence as well as copies of several patented inventions for which Cramer Sachs requested information.
Arrangement:
Tha collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Creative and Artistic Papers, 1933-2002

Series 2: Invention Records, 1905-2002

Subseries 2.1: Cramer Products Company and Affiliate Company Records, 1942-2002

Subseries 2.2: Household/Office, 1913-1972

Subseries 2.3: Food Products, 1940-1969

Subseries 2.4: Pet Accessories, 1953-1954

Subseries 2.5: Games, 1961-1969

Subseries 2.6: Wine-related, 1966-2002

Subseries 2.7: Temperature and/or Humidity Controlled Devices, 1968-2002

Subseries 2.8: Patent Searches, 1905-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs was born in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1907. Her father, Hans Siegfried Cramer, worked as a businessman for a successful grain import and export company whose innovative enterprises included the import of soy beans from Eastern Europe. In 1903, Hans married Gertrud Bruck, one of the first women to attain her Abitur, somewhat similar to an American high school diploma, at age eighteen. Bruck's formal education ended there, as her wish to attend university was thwarted by her father Adalbert, a judge who insisted that she remain at home. The couple settled in Berlin and had two children—Frederick H., born March 2, 1906, and Charlotte. From 1913 to 1924 The Cramers lived in the Berlin Dahlem suburb occupying "Haus Cramer," a villa built in 1912 to their specifications by German architect Hermann Muthesius.

On September 12, 1924, Cramer Sachs married Donald Samuels, a top executive of the Manhattan Shirt Company and moved to New York from England where their daughter Eleanor was born on June 11, 1926. Several years later, the couple divorced. Mother and daughter lived together in London for a few years before moving back to New York around 1936. Charlotte's parents relocated to New York at the same time, after a brief stay in London following their flight from Berlin after Hitler's rise to power. In August 1945, Charlotte Cramer married Alexander Sachs, a leading economist who had introduced Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and acted as advisor to the President.

Although she established her business career in America, Cramer Sachs retained fond memories of the house and extensive grounds in Dahlem. In 1977 she composed the song "A Salute to Berlin" to commemorate the designation of Haus Cramer as one of the city's historic landmarks. In 2000, she donated a painted portrait of herself from the time she had lived in Haus Cramer to the villa's new owner, Stanford University. The house retains additional significance in the context of this collection because Cramer Sachs credited its wine cellar—unusual in that it provided a separate, climate controlled environment for red and white wines—as an inspiration for her line of custom-built, vibration-free wine storage devices, which would later make Cramer Products Company a household name among wine connoisseurs.

While she did not attend university her pursuit of learning continued throughout her life as she studied poetry, musical composition, and the fine arts. Cramer Sachs often told her niece, Lilian Randall, that she wished she had received further education, although her public art exhibitions, poetry awards, numerous original songs, the establishment of Crambruck Press (her own publishing company), as well as language fluency in French, English, and German, are testaments to this inventor's intellectual curiosity and development. Evidence of Cramer Sachs's entrepreneurial spirit surfaced in her early thirties with her first patent: Improvements in Combined Key and Flashlight, July 16, 1940, patent number 2,208,498.

In 1940, Cramer Sachs completed courses from the New York Institute of Dietetics, an effort spurred by the onset of her daughter's diabetes. With financial assistance from her parents in the early 1940s, Cramer Sachs developed Joy Products prepared mixes, marking the beginning of a successful career in inventing. "We were a pioneer in that field," said Cramer Sachs of her baking mix manufacturing company, an operation that consisted of a Bronx neighborhood factory employing ninety workers. The enterprise began with corn muffin and popover mixes and expanded into frostings, puddings, and breads. Newspaper clippings from the time promoted Joy packaged mixes as ideal gifts for "the boys overseas" who were in locations where it was "impossible to get together the makings of a cake." Cramer Sachs refused an early offer to sell her mix formulas which were subsequently copied and exploited by larger, more powerful companies. Joy Products, whose name was chosen to express the inventor's delight in creativity, remained in business as a modest one-woman operation for over twenty years before succumbing to competition.

Cramer Sachs created another highly successful invention, the specialty wine cabinet, more than twenty years after she founded Joy Products. In addition to her memories of visits with her father to the wine cellar in her family's German villa, further motivation came from an interest—though she hardly drank it at all—in wine and recognition that "standard cooling and refrigerating appliances [were] too cold for wines." Reportedly, Cramer Sachs "started looking for [an appropriate device] and could not find one," and thus the impetus to invent took shape. The "Modern Wine Cellar," 1966, was an early example of over twenty wine-related inventions, most of them storage devices. A mention of her product in Grossman's Guide to Wines, Spirits, and Beers, increased demand among wine lovers and may have prompted Cramer Sachs to state that she "should find a good market" for her newest invention line. Testimony from David H. Wollins, a successful New York lawyer and customer of Cramer Sachs, lauded the cabinet as "the finest home wine storage system in the world." She framed his letter and hung it in her office at 381 South Park Avenue, her base operation where she employed one or two part-time helpers from the 1960s until her death in 2004.

The inventor took great joy in music, expressed in her own numerous compositions and her creation of the games "Domi-Notes" and "Musicards" in 1961 and 1969. Her fondness for music also prompted the expansion of her specialty cabinets to include temperature and humidity controlled devices for storing a variety of items, most notably the "Well Tempered Cabinet for Musical Instruments," which Cramer Sachs first designed for legendary violinist Isaac Stern. Soon the inventor began producing similar cabinets for the storage of cigars, furs, and documents.

Described by her niece as "shy with people but a great admirer of talent, intellect, and humanity," Cramer Sachs also "harbored a great love for animals." She invented several pet accessories in the early 1950s, including: "Watch-Dog," a dog collar with a time piece; "Bonnie Stand," a holder fashioned to accommodate disposable food bowls; and "Guidog," an early version of a retractable dog leash.

In 1972, Cramer Sachs suffered the loss of her only child, Eleanor, and in the summer of the next year her husband Alexander passed away. She continued her "business of creating new product ideas" for the remainder of her life. The most recent invention materials represented in the collection are those for the "Conservator" from 2002, a temperature and humidity controlled device with compartments to store a variety of items. In her last telephone conversation with her niece, on March 10, 2004, Cramer Sachs expressed her hope that she would feel "strong enough to get to the office the next day or so." The inventor died the following day at the age of 96.

Patents issued to Charlotte Cramer Sachs:

United States Patent: 2,208,498, "Combined Key and Flashlight," July 16, 1940

United States Patent: 2,509,423, "Wedge Heel Shoe," May 30, 1950

United States Patent: 2,808,191, "Lap Tray," October 1, 1957

United States Patent: Des. 363,618, "Cabinet," October 31, 1995
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum

Related materials on husband Alexander Sachs's political and professional life found in the Papers of Alexander Sachs

Art Gallery of Ontario, E. P. Taylor Research Library and Archives, Toronto Ontario, Canada

Correspondence between Cramer Sachs and Sam and Ayala Zacks dating from the 1970s and relating to Zionist art found in the Sam and Ayala Zacks Fonds.

Columbia University Libraries, Avery Drawings & Archives Collections Haus Cramer architectural records and papers, 1911-2004, (bulk 1911-1955)

This collection primarily contains original and reprographic architectural records, photographs, correspondence and personal and professional records related to the design, construction, and ownership of the Haus Cramer in Dahlem, Berlin, Germany, designed by German architect Hermann Muthesius in 1911-1913 for Hans and Gertrud Cramer, with later additions by Muthesius and other architects. A significant portion of the collection also documents the Cramer family's efforts to obtain restitution after World War II for the seizure of the house in the 1930s. Also included are records documenting the restoration and reuse, an effort led by noted architectural historian Julius Poesner.

Mount Holyoke College Archives and Special Collections

Cramer papers, 1938-1954

Cramer, Frederick Henry, 1906-1954; historian and college teacher. Mount Holyoke College faculty member, 1938-1954. Papers consist of writings, biographical information, and photographs; primarily documenting his scholarly activities and his interest in automobile racing.

German Historical Institute

Charlotte Cramer Sachs in the Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present.

The collaborative research project Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present sheds new light on the entrepreneurial and economic capacity of immigrants by investigating the German-American example in the United States. It traces the lives, careers and business ventures of eminent German-American business people of roughly the last two hundred and ninety years, integrating the history of German-American immigration into the larger narrative of U.S. economic and business history.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History in the spring of 2005 by Lilian Randall (niece), Erich Cramer (nephew), Aileen Katz (niece), Elisabeth Weissbach (niece), and John Cramer (nephew).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baked products  Search this
Food mixes  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Wine -- Storage  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Awards
Business records -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Notes
Patents
Patent applications
Photographs -- 20th century
Sheet music
Citation:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers, 1905-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0878
See more items in:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0878
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