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Ernst Herzfeld Papers

Topic:
Papyrus
Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum  Search this
Verlag Philipp von Zabern  Search this
Anistās Mārī, al-Karmilī, ab, 1866-1947  Search this
Becker, Carl Heinrich, 1876-1933  Search this
Bell, Gertrude Lowthian, 1868-1926  Search this
Berchem, Max van, 1863-1921  Search this
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Krefter, Friedrich, 1898-1995  Search this
Meyer, Eduard, 1855-1930  Search this
Sarre, Friedrich Paul Theodor, 1865-1945  Search this
Extent:
150 Linear feet (circa 30,000 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Clippings
Notebooks
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Articles
Paper squeezes
Correspondence
Diaries
Sketches
Rubbings
Place:
Turkey
Mesopotamia
Bakun, Tall-e (Iran)
Iran
Iraq
Lebanon
Persepolis (Iran)
Pasargadae (Extinct city)
Taq-e Bostan Site (Iran)
Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq)
Syria
Date:
1903-1947
Summary:
An outstanding scholar in the field of Iranian studies, Ernst Herzfeld (1879--1948) explored all phases of Near Eastern culture from the prehistoric period to Islamic times. This collection documents Herzfeld's excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo and includes correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
Papers (1899--1962) of German born archaeologist Ernst Emil Herzfeld (1879--1948), a preeminent scholar of Near Eastern and Iranian studies. The collection measures 150 linear feet (circa 30,000 items) and documents Herzfeld's work as a pioneer in the field and sheds light on his excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo. Formats include correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into seven series.

Series 1: Travel journals

Series 2: Sketchbooks

Series 3: Notebooks

Series 4: Photographic files 1-42

Series 5: Drawings and maps

Series 6: Squeezes

Series 7: Samarra Expedition
Biographical / Historical:
The Ernst Herzfeld Papers document the career of Ernst Herzfeld (1879--1948), a German architect, archaeologist, and historian of Islamic and Pre-Islamic studies. After training as an architect he studied archaeology under Delitzch from 1903 to 1906 at the excavations at Assur in Mesopotamia. A student of Latin, Greek, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew, Herzfeld received a doctorate in Humanistic Studies at universities in Munich and Berlin in 1907. His work with Friedrich Sarre to survey the monuments of the Tigris-Euphrates valleys resulted in landmark studies in architectural history, published in 1911 and 1920.

In 1920 Herzfeld was appointed to the chair of Historical Geography in Berlin and began his excavation at Samarra. Herzfeld's work there led to a six-volume publication. He published widely throughout his life on the sources of Islamic architecture and ornament, including the Royal Palace at Persepolis.

From 1934 until the end of his life Herzfeld spent his time producing many books and articles, lecturing, and working at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton (1936--1945.) Many of his works continue to be published post-humously.

1879 July 23 -- Born in Celle, Germany.

1897 -- Received diploma from Joachimsthaler Gymnasium, Berlin.

1897-circa 1898 -- Fulfilled military service.

circa 1899 -- Studied architecture at the Technical University and Assyriology, art history, and philosophy at the Friedrich-Wilhems Universität in Berlin.

1903 -- Passed exam in structural engineering.

1903-1905 -- Assistant to Walter Andrae (1875-1956) in Assur.

1905-1906 -- Traveled throughout Iran and Iraq.

1907 -- Excavation in Cilicia. Passed oral exam in February. Awarded doctorate in Humanistic Studies by Friedrich-Wilhems Universtät zu Berlin. After receiving Ph.D. traveled extensively in Syria and Iraq with Friedrich Sarre, director of the Islamic Museum in Berlin.

1910 -- Herzfeld and Sarre jointly publish, Iranische Felsreliefs (Berlin, 1910).

1911-1913 -- Field Director under direction of Sarre during expedition to Samarra.

circa 1914 -- Drafted into service in France and Poland during World War I. Sent to Iraq where he functioned as a surveyor.

1916 -- Father died.

1917 -- Appointed associate professor for Historical Geography and Art History of the Ancient Orient at Berlin. Along with Friedrich Sarre and others, founded the German-Persian Society to increase cultural and economic exchange between Germany and Persia.

1920 -- Appointed world's first full professor of Near Eastern Archeology. Begins excavation at Samarra.

1922 -- Mother died.

1923-1934 -- In Persia, where he completed many excavations and studies.

1928 -- Excavation at Pasargadae.

1931-1934 -- Appointed director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago and moved to Persepolis.

1934 -- As grandson of Jews, Nazi legislation expelling state employees of Jewish descent forced Herzfeld to retire as a professor employed by the state. Moved to London.

1936 -- Delivered Lowell Lectures. Moved to Boston. Lectured on Iranian history and appointed a member of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study.

1944 -- Retired from Princeton University.

1948 January 20 -- Died.
Provenance:
Ernst Herzfeld donated his papers to the Freer Gallery of Art in 1946.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Ayyubids  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
History  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Abbasids  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Numismatics  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Clippings
Notebooks
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Articles
Paper Squeezes
Correspondence
Diaries
Sketches
Rubbings
Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-06
Online Media:

Doherty, William E.

Collection Creator:
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies Collection, Acc. XXXX-0450, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection / Series 1.1: Biographies of Flying Pioneers 1.1
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0450-ref114
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Herring, Augustus M.

Collection Creator:
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies Collection, Acc. XXXX-0450, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection / Series 1.1: Biographies of Flying Pioneers 1.1
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0450-ref163
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Lees, Walter E.

Collection Creator:
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies Collection, Acc. XXXX-0450, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection / Series 1.1: Biographies of Flying Pioneers 1.1
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0450-ref217
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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  • View Lees, Walter E. digital asset number 3

Hot Clube de Portugal, Lisboa, Portugal, Diploma

Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Container:
Box 1 (Series 13), Folder 26
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
October 26, 1958
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Duke Ellington Collection / Series 13: Awards
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref54737

Armstrong High School, Washington, D.C., Honorary Diploma of Graduation

Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Container:
Box 4 (Series 13), Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
June 17, 1971
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Duke Ellington Collection / Series 13: Awards
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref54832

City of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Diploma of Recognition

Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Container:
Box 9 (Series 13), Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Duke Ellington Collection / Series 13: Awards
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref54896

Kay Kyser: 3 photoprints; sheet of clippings; 1 diploma (signed) awarded to Bukowski from Kyser's Kampus Klass of Musical Knowledge.

Collection Creator:
Bukowski, Henry S., 1922-  Search this
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Most of the photographs presumably are under copyright, but they were made and widely distributed for free publication.
Collection Citation:
Henry S. Bukowski Big Band Collection, ca. 1930s-1940s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Henry S. Bukowski Big Band Collection, [primarily photoprints]
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0678-ref590

Awards and Honorary Degrees, circa 1930-1958

Collection Collector:
Costume, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Shaver, Dorothy, 1893-1959  Search this
Collection Donor:
Shaver, Elsie  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
The subseries includes newspaper clippings, event programs, speeches, correspondence, honorary diplomas, and commemorative publications associated with awards and honorary degrees bestowed on Shaver throughout the course of her life. Materials in this subseries are arranged alphabetically.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Dorothy Shaver Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0631, Subseries 1.3
See more items in:
Dorothy Shaver Papers
Dorothy Shaver Papers / Series 1: Personal Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0631-ref35

Musical History Documents and Graphics

Creator:
Vip (Virgil Franklin Partch), 1916-  Search this
Partch, Virgil Franklin, 1916-  Search this
Goodman, Benjie  Search this
Addams, Charles, 1912-1988  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History. Division of Musical History  Search this
Names:
Gibson Co.  Search this
Jubilee Singers  Search this
Northeast Conservatory of Music.  Search this
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Norton, I.F. (trumpeter) -- Etching  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History. Division of Musical History  Search this
Extent:
1 Boxe
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Etchings
Diplomas
Cartoons (humorous images)
Albums
Drawings
Sheet music
Programs
Date:
1872-1984
Scope and Contents note:
Miscellaneous documents and pictorial items related to music, and a set of documents associated with Gibson banjoes.
Series 1:,The first group includes a diploma from the Northeast Conservatory of Music (1872); a painted etching of I. F. Norton, trumpeter; a drawing of Benny Goodman's studio by Benjie Goodman (1984); a photograph of Benny Goodman; original ink cartoons by Charles Addams and Virgil Partch; a newspaper advertisement for the Jubilee singers; sheet music; and memorabilia from a vaudeville act.

Series 2:The banjo material includes tickets, letters, programs, and photograph albums.
Arrangement:
2 series. Unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection contains musical history documents and graphics.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Division of Musical History, National Museum of American History.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clarinetists -- 20th century  Search this
Banjo music  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Trumpet players -- 20th century  Search this
Studios and workshops -- Drawings  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Etchings
Diplomas
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 1940-1980
Albums
Drawings -- 1980-1990
Sheet music
Programs -- Concerts
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0485
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0485

Frick Company Records

Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Former owner:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Frick, George, 1826-1892  Search this
Extent:
26 Cubic feet (49 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Payrolls
Photographs
Purchasing records
Scrapbooks
Commercial correspondence
Clippings
Account books
Date:
1852-1961
bulk 1860-1920
Summary:
This collection documents, in correspondence, publications, forms, paperwork, drawings, newspaper clippings, diplomas and photographs, the operations and products of the Frick Company of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of steam-powered engines (portable, stationary, and traction), sawmills, threshing machines, grain separators and other mechanized agricultural harvesting implements, refrigeration, mechanical cooling systems, and ice making plants, from its founding in 1852 through 1961.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the founding and business operations of the Frick Company* of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of portable, stationary, and traction engines, threshing machines, sawmills, and refrigeration and ice making machinery. The collection covers the period from 1852 to 1961, with the bulk of the material dating from 1860-1873 and from 1880 through the 1920s and illuminates the evolution of mechanized agriculture and refrigeration technology from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.

The largest portion of the collection contains photographs of Frick engines and refrigeration machinery, taken both in the foundry and in various installations worldwide, as well as original drawings of Frick machines, parts, and components used to illustrate catalogs and trade publications. Another large portion of the collection is correspondence, containing communication from clients ordering Frick products for their farms or businesses, as well as receipts and correspondence from local and regional suppliers of raw materials and components for the construction of Frick products.

The collection also contains numerous examples of operational paperwork from the 1880s-1890s, such as letterheads, order forms, contracts, test logs, and timesheets, as well as a significant amount of trade literature largely from 1880-1920, such as price lists, catalogs, product pamphlets, and advertising material.

There are several published company histories, technical drawings/blueprints of Frick products, diplomas awarded to Frick machinery presented at expositions and fairs (including the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893), full-color posters advertising Frick & Co., agent supplies (including telegraph cipher code books), accounting paperwork, payroll records, communications with shareholders, and significant documentation of the highly publicized labor dispute/strike at Frick in 1946.

This collection would be of interest to researchers in the areas of: agricultural machination and invention in the nineteeth century, steam and horse-powered engines, the development of refrigerating and ice making equipment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, business operations and financial transactions in the nineteenth century, Pennsylvania history and companies, industrial photography, and nineteenth and twentieth centuries industrial trade literature.

*The name of the company was modified several times over the history of its operation, variations including George Frick, Frick & Bowman, Frick & Co., and Frick Company, depending on the time period in question. Efforts have been made to align the description of the materials throughout the collection with the correct company name at the time of their creation.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series:

Series 1: Publications, 1852, 1874-1875; 1880-1932; 1942-1943; 1953; 1961

Subseries 1.1 Company History, 1928; 1953

Suseries 1.2 Trade Literature, 1874-1875; 1880-1926; 1930; 1932; 1943; 1952-1953; 1960-1961

Subseries 1.3 Advertising Material, 1852; 1880-1899; 1905; 1909-1929; 1942

Series 2: Correspondence, Receipts, and Ledger Books, 1852-1873; 1890-1902; 1914; 1924-1925

Subseries 2.1 Receipts and Business Correspondence: by company, 1855-1873

Subseries 2.2 Receipts and Business Correspondence: miscellaneous, 1852-1873; 1890; 1895

Subseries 2.3 Ledger Books, 1872; 1896-1898; 1892-1894; 1900-1902

Subseries 2.4 Other Correspondence, 1861-1873; 1898-1901; 1914; 1917; 1924-1925

Series 3: Company Management, 1856-1873; circa 1880s-1890s; 1917; 1927-1929; 1945-1946

Subseries 3.1 Accounting, 1856-1897

Subseries 3.2 Sales, circa 1880s; 1917; 1927

Subseries 3.3 Communications, 1860-1917

Subseries 3.4 Public Relations, 1928-1929; 1945-1946

Series 4: Foundry Operations, 1859-1872; 1877-1879; circa 1880s-1890s; 1900-1903; 1911; 1921; 1929

Subseries 4.1 Orders, 1859-1872; circa 1880s-1890s;1900-1902

Subseries 4.2 Drawings/Blueprints, 1871-1911; 1921; 1929

Subseries 4.3 Shipping and Receiving, 1860-1873; circa 1880s-1890s

Subseries 4.4 Timesheets and Testing, 1860; 1868; 1877-1879; circa 1880s-1890s; 1903

Series 5: Photographs and Artistic Renderings, circa 1880-1950

Subseries 5.1 Frick Buildings, Offices, and Operations, circa 1880-1910

Subseries 5.2 Portable, Stationary, and Traction Engines, 1889; 1893-1896; 1906-1908; 1912-1915; 1925

Subseries 5.3 Other Machinery, circa 1890s

Subseries 5.4 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Vertical Compressors, 1883-1906; circa 1920s

Subseries 5.5 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Horizontal Compressors, circa 1910-1920

Subseries 5.6 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: CO2 Compressors and Later Models, circa 1920-1950; 1940-1941

Subseries 5.7 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Ice Plants, 1889; 1904; 1920-1927

Subseries 5.8 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Cold Storage Units, 1889; 1925; 1933; undated

Subseries 5.9 Installations: Ice Plants, 1892-1896; 1900-1933; 1945

Subseries 5.10 Installations: Refrigeration and Cold Storage Units, circa 1890-1905; circa 1915-1920

Series 6: Trade Shows and Exhibitions, 1877-1885; 1893; 1895; 1904; 1926

Subseries 6.1 Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas, 1877-1884; 1893; 1895; 1904

Subseries 6.2 Promotional Material, 1884-1885; 1926
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in 1852 by engineer and inventor George Frick (1826-1892), Frick Company has been an innovative machinery design leader in many areas of the agricultural and refrigeration industries over the last 160 years. Frick began building steam engines and threshing machines in a small shop in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

Frick quickly gained a reputation for quality in the growing field of mechanized agriculture. His designs for early portable engines--transported and driven by horsepower--soon evolved into self-propelling, steam-powered vehicles that could be driven into the fields and then used to run the grain separating, cleaning and bagging machines that were revolutionizing the farming industry, increasing production at exponential rates.

In addition, Frick's stationary engines were put to use in mills of all kinds (grist, flour, paper, and woolen) to augment or replace their dependence on unreliable natural water power, including sawmills, of which Frick was soon building a line of portable, steam-driven versions. Between the mid-1850s and the early 1870s, the company continued to expand, outgrowing three different shops before building the final location of the works in Waynesboro. George Frick himself was continuously active in the company through the end of the nineteenth century as a mechanical engineer and product designer, as well as a frequent consultant, traveling to confer with clients on specifications for their orders.

Beginning in 1872, George Frick's business and personal life took a downturn with the deaths in quick succession of both his oldest son Frank and his new business partner C.F. Bowman, as a result of a typhoid fever epidemic that swept through the area. Additionally, the financial Panic of 1873 nearly closed Frick's company along with thousands of other American businesses that year, but thirteen local businessmen formed a partnership, putting forth the necessary capital to keep the manufacturing plant afloat. George Frick sold his controlling interest to the partnership, but remained as general manager of the company.

After this brief period of struggle, Frick and Company began again to expand its product line as well as its reputation. The new works in Waynesboro were modern and efficient, enough to warrant a feature article in Scientific American in 1881. The following year, the company built its first refrigeration machine, and a whole new direction of production opened up. Automatic and traction engines were still in demand, being constantly improved and updated, but refrigeration was the new frontier. Frick rose to become one of the leaders in development of high quality, durable, and functional refrigeration machinery. George's son A.O. Frick, now an engineer with the company, partnered with Edgar Penney, another design engineer, to develop the Corliss engine line, which would run the large ammonia compressors, creating what was called a refrigeration machine. They were intially used to power ice plants, which were being built all over the world after the mild winter of 1890 tipped the natural ice industry into decline. They also used cold storage/mechanical cooling units, of which breweries and meat packing plants were the earliest adopters, followed by cold food stores, florist shops, and fur storage, as well as the dairy and shipping industries. The Armour Packing Plant in Kansas City, Missouri was the proud owner of "The Largest Ice Machine in the World," built by Frick and shipped by train via specially-reinforced rails in 1896. At the turn of the twentieth century, hotels, restaurants, hospitals and industrial plants soon began to rely on refrigeration units for daily operations, and Frick's business was booming.

As gas-powered engine technology began taking over in the first decades of the twentieth century, Frick moved away from steam engines and focused on more specialized farm equipment such as dehydrators, peanut pickers, combines, balers and silo fillers. Their line of sawmills was also still in high demand. But increasingly, Frick was focused on steadily refining and improving its refrigeration equipment. Ammonia, while highly efficient as a coolant, had its dangerous downsides: it could be fatal if leaked, and could contaminate plant ice easily. Although many of Frick's ammonia compression refrigeration machines were still in use forty or more years after installation and were still preferred for industrial use, the technology needed to improve in order to be viable for the general public. Several publicized accidents led eventually to the preferred use of chloroflorocarbons as a coolant, and Frick developed enclosed-type CO2 compressors and eventually freon units. Other Frick refrigeration products included machinery for making dry ice, air conditioning units, and temperature controls for test plants, as well as marine refrigeration (developed during the First World War) for shipping food between continents. Frick did contract work for the US military during and following World War II, and was a major company involved in the development of quick-freezing systems to support the growing frozen food industry starting in the late 1940s.

Frick Company positioned itself as a permanent leader in the food production and distribution industry by the 1950s. The company is still in operation today, though it has been purchased several times, most recently by Johnson Controls, which maintains a product line bearing the name Frick.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center holds several collections that may be of interest to researchers in relation to the Frick Company Collection.

For related material on Corliss engines, see the following collections:

Chuse Engine and Manufacturing Company Records (AC 1088)

Corliss Steam Engine Album (AC 1016)

Corliss Steam Engine Reference Collection (AC 1329)

Nagle Engine and Boiler Works Records (AC 1083)

Providence Engineering Works Records (AC 1076)

Skinner Engine Company Records (AC 1087)

Robert Weatherill Company Records (AC 0992)

For related material on threshing machines and agricultural machinery, see the following collections:

John K. Parlett Collection (AC 3066)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC 0060)

For related material on refrigeration machinery, see the following collections:

Madison Cooper Papers (AC 1105)

Nickerson and Collins Photography (AC 1044)

Southwork Foundry and Machine Company Records (AC 1107)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts related to this collection. See acquisition numbers AG79A09.1, MC 319243.12 and .13, and 58A9.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Frick Company, through Terry Mitchell in 1961.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Harvesting machinery  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery -- 1860-1960  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Payrolls
Photographs -- 20th century
Purchasing records
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Commercial correspondence
Clippings
Account books
Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0293
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0293
Online Media:

Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1877-1884
1893
1895
1904
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0293, Subseries 6.1
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref295

Trade Shows and Expositions

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1895
1893
1926
1904
1877-1885
Scope and Contents:
This series contains material relating to the display and promotion of Frick products at trade shows, agricultural expositions, and county fairs in eastern, southern and midwestern states. Frick was most heavily engaged in public exhibition of its products from 1877-1885, and often based its advertising material on prizes won at the events.

Subseries 6.1 Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas contains the certificates of award presented to Frick for its products, which are designed like diplomas (and sometimes called such) with extensive artwork and calligraphy. Most date 1877-1885, with a few outliers in the 1890s (including a document from the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893), and one from 1904.

Subseries 6.2 Promotional Materials contains promotional items for Frick machinery produced exclusively for distribution at fairs and expos, including trade cards, flyers describing the products, announcements of participation in upcoming fairs, and full-color posters for display. Photographs of Frick refrigeration machinery on display at several events are featured in the series as well.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0293, Series 6
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref396

First Premium diploma awarded to Frick & Co. Eclipse engine, presented by Lynn and Eyler (agents), at the Augustus County Fair (State of Virginia) 11th Annual exhibition

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (19 in x 24 in)
Container:
Map-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1878
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions / 6.1: Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref399

Certificate of Award for Frick & Co. Eclipse portable engine and traction engine: International Cotton Exposition, Atlanta, Georgia

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
2 Documents (20 in x 24 in)
Container:
Map-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1881
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions / 6.1: Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref400

Diploma First Place for Frick & Co. traction engine: Kansas State Fair, Topeka

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (20 in x 24 in)
Container:
Map-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1883 September 10-15
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions / 6.1: Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref401

Diploma awarded to Frick & Co. traction engine and separators, presented by W.S. Hale (agent): Cumberland County Agricultural Society

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (17 in x 22 in)
Container:
Map-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1883
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions / 6.1: Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref403

Diploma to Frick & Co. for best thresher/separator, portable steam engine and water wagon: Valley Agricultural Association, Berkeley County, West Virginia

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (12 1/2 in x 18 1/2 in)
Container:
Map-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1883 October
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions / 6.1: Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref404

Awards to Frick & Co. for second best traction engine and second best condenser: Southern Exhibition, Louisville, Kentucky

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
2 Documents (20 in x 23 in)
Container:
Map-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1883
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions / 6.1: Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref405

Awards to Frick & Co. for best threshers, road engines and farm engines: Southern Exhibition, Louisville, Kentucky

Collection Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (21 in x 26 in)
Container:
Map-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1884
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Frick Company Records / Series 6: Trade Shows and Expositions / 6.1: Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0293-ref406

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