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Sterling Drug, Inc. Records

Creator:
Sterling Drug, Inc.  Search this
Winthrop Chemical Company  Search this
Bayer Company  Search this
Donor:
History Factory (Chantilly, Virginia)  Search this
History Factory (Chantilly, Virginia)  Search this
Names:
Eastman Kodak Co.  Search this
Extent:
120 Cubic feet (261 boxes, 16 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Brochures
Advertisements
Manuals
Catalogs
Price lists
Financial records
Photographs
Press releases
Newsletters
Clippings
Date:
1867-1993
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains domestic and foreign advertising for both pharmaceutical and consumer health care products; sales and marketing materials for pharmaceuticals aimed at physicians, such as brochures, package inserts, reports, catalogs, price lists, manuals; the company's business and administrative papers, including annual reports, news releases, clippings, newsletters and publications, financial and corporate files, histories, and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series. In most instances, original folder titles were retained. In circumstances where there was no folder title, the processing archivist created one derived from the nature of the materials. The contents of some folders were combined.

Series 1: Products, 1946-1948

Series 2: Advertising, 1902-1984

Series 3: Sales and Marketing, 1881-1979

Series 4: Corporate, 1896-1993
Historical:
Sterling Drug was founded in Wheeling, West Virginia in 1901 by two childhood friends, William E. Weiss and Albert H. Diebold, to manufacture and sell a pain-relieving preparation called "Neuralgine." The company's original name was Neuralgyline. Within a few years, Weiss and Diebold realized that expansion required more product lines and that this would be best obtained by acquisition. This policy continued throughout the life of the organization. At least 130 companies were acquired directly or indirectly between 1902 and 1986. In 1913, Weiss and Diebold established intangible assets (trademarks, patents, and copyrights) and tangible assets (offices and plants). By 1914, the company set-up proprietary agencies for overseas trading. Weiss and Diebold changed the name of the company in 1917 from Neuralgyline, which was difficult to say, to Sterling Products.

Sterling Products benefited from World War I. Because supplies of drugs from Germany were cutoff by the Allied blockade, they established the Winthrop Company to manufacture the active ingredients. After the war, Sterling acquired the American Bayer Company in December 1918. They established a separate subsidiary, the Bayer Company, to market Bayer Aspirin. During the 1930s, Winthrop made Sterling a leader in the pharmaceutical field with such renowned products as Luminal, the original phenobarbitol; Salvarsan and Neo-Salvarsan, the first effective drugs in the treatment of syphilis; Prontosil, the first of the sulfa drugs; and Atabrine, the synthetic antimalarial that replaced quinine during World War II. The company expanded overseas in 1938, and eventually operated about seventy plants in about forty countries. Sterling was especially profitable in Latin America. By 1942, the use of Sterling Products as a name was confusing and could not be licensed to conduct business in some states. Therefore, the company namechanged to Sterling Drug, Inc.

In 1988, in order to avoid a hostile takeover by Hofmann-LaRoche, Sterling became a division of Eastman Kodak and remained one until 1994 when Kodak disposed of its health-related businesses. This left Sterling broken up with Sanofi purchasing Sterling's ethical business; Nycomed of Norway purchasing the diagnostic imaging; and SmithKline Beecham purchasing the worldwide over-the counter pharmaceutical business.

Source

Collins, Joseph C. and John R. Gwilt. "The Life Cycle of Sterling Drug, Inc." Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, Volume 25, Number 1, 2000.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

NW Ayer and Sons Incorporated Advertising Agency Records (AC0059)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Patent Medicines (NMAH.AC.0060)

Parke-Davis Company Records (NMAH.AC.0001)

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Records (NMAH.AC.0329)

Syntex Collection of Pharmaceutical Advertisements (NMAH.AC.0821)

Garfield & Company Records (NMAH.AC.0820)

Materials at the National Museum of American History

Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collection

Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to Sterling Drug, Inc. that include a banner, flag, product packaging, memorabilia, a colander, and a soap dispenser. See accessions 2001.0314, 2004.0129, and 2018.5001.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center by the History Factory through Bruce Weindruch (President and CEO), in 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research, but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Antibiotics  Search this
Anesthesia  Search this
advertising  Search this
Analgesics  Search this
Barbiturates  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Brochures
Advertisements -- 20th century
Manuals
Catalogs
Price lists
Financial records
Photographs -- 20th century
Press releases
Newsletters -- 20th century
Clippings
Citation:
Sterling Drug, Inc. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0772
See more items in:
Sterling Drug, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0772
Online Media:

Robert Ledley Papers

Creator:
Ledley, Robert S.  Search this
National Biomedical Research Foundation. Georgetown University  Search this
Names:
Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial Scanner  Search this
Computer-Assisted Tomography Scanner  Search this
National Biomedical Research Foundation. Georgetown University  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuals
Patents
Photographs
Design drawings
Correspondence
Articles
Diagrams
Slides (photographs)
Notes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Albums
Date:
1972-1990
Summary:
The Robert Ledley Papers document the development of the first whole-body diagnostic imaging system, the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner by Ledley in 1973. Also included is material relating to Ledley's company, Digital Science Information Corporation (DISCO), as well as the public and medical communities' reactions to the scanner.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert Ledley Papers document the development of the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner, Ledley's company Digital Science Information Corporation (DISCO), as well as the public and medical communities' reactions to the scanner. The collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1, ACTA Scanner I Schematics, 1973-1975; Series 2, ACTA Scanner I [Computer and Electronics], 1973; and Series 3, ACTA Scanner Tomograph Mechanics, 1973-1974 document the development and design of the ACTA scanner through drawings, notes, memoranda, and product information. More detailed information about these materials is located in the control file. All oversize drawings have been moved to flat storage for preservation concerns.

Series 4, ACTA Scanner Operating Instructions, 1975, is the operating manual created for the scanner used in Ledley's Georgetown lab.

Series 5, ACTA Articles, Clippings, and Press Releases, 1973-1979, is comprised of the aforementioned materials relating to the ACTA Scanner. Newspaper clippings illuminate the public's perception of the scanner, and scientific pieces highlight the medical community's reaction. Ledley's published articles on the scanner and related topics are included.

Series 6, Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) material, 1973-1981, documents Ledley's career and his company. A biographical sketch, list of articles, textbooks, and patents highlight Ledley's achievements. Invoices, receipts, contracts, and correspondence illuminate the financial situation at DISCO and the relationship between the company and Pfizer.

Series 7, Computer manuals, 1972-1975, documents the computer systems and software that were used with the ACTA Scanner.

Series 8, Photographic material, 1973-1978, includes an album of photographs depicting the ACTA Scanner and images of the scans it created. This album was disassembled due to preservation concerns. This series also includes a collection of slides featuring the scanner and related equipment in use and images of the scans it created. A detailed description of each photograph and slide is included in the control file.

Series 9, ACTA Scanner film, [1974?], is a 16mm narrated film describing the creation of the scanner, its components, the way they work, the scanner in use, and images of the scans produced.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1, ACTA Scanner I Schematics, 1973-1975

Series 2, ACTA Scanner I [Computer and Electronics], 1973

Series 3, ACTA Scanner Tomograph Mechanics, 1973-1974

Series 4, ACTA Scanner Operating Instructions, 1975

Series 5, ACTA Articles, Clippings, and Press Releases, 1973-1979

Series 6, Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) material, 1973-1981, undated

Series 7, Computer manuals, 1972-1975

Series 8, Photographic material 1973-1978

Subseries 1, Photographs, 19731978

Subseries 2, Slides, 1974

Series 9, ACTA Scanner film [1974?]
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Steven Ledley was born in Flushing Meadows, New York in 1926. He received a D.D.S. degree from New York University College in 1948. While attending dental school, he simultaneously studied at Columbia University; he earned a M.A. in Theoretical Physics in 1949. He volunteered for the army and was sent to the U.S. Army Medical Field Service School in Fort Sam Houston, Texas.1 After completing his service, Ledley held a wide variety of research and academic positions in physics, electrical engineering, and medicine.

Ledley was a physicist within the External Control Group of the Electronic Computer Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards from 1953-1954. He was an operations research analyst within the Strategic Division of the Operations Research Office at Johns Hopkins University from 1954-1956. Ledley went on to become an associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at The George Washington University from 1956-1960 while also serving as a consultant mathematician at the National Bureau of Standards Data Processing Systems Division, 1957-1960. At this time, Ledley also worked part time at the National Research Council's National Academy of Sciences from 1957-1961. Ledley became the president of the National Biomedical Research Foundation in 1960, a position he still holds today. He was an instructor of pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine from 1960-1963. He returned to The George Washington University's Department of Electrical Engineering in 1968 where he was a professor until 1970. He then became a professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the Georgetown University School of Medicine in 1970. In 1974, Ledley also became a professor in the Radiology Department at the Georgetown University Medical Center. In 1975, he became the director of the Medical Computing and Biophysics Division at Georgetown University Medical Center.

In 1972, the British company Electric and Musical Industries Limited (EMI) released a medical imaging machine for use on smaller areas of the body that were positioned under a water tank. In 1973, Ledley developed the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner (US Patent #3,922,552). This machine was a whole-body diagnostic medical imaging system. He was awarded a grant from the National Institutes of Health for an engineering equipment project, but the money was never received due to budget cuts. Ledley looked elsewhere for funding. He consulted with Georgetown staff and discovered a neurosurgeon had asked to buy a head scanning machine from EMI. Ledley did not think the images in EMI's brochure appeared clear, and he offered to create a similar machine for half the price. Georgetown agreed to fund this project for $250,000. Ledley secured the services of a machinist at a local machine shop, an electronic engineer, and a programmer/mathematician to assist in the project.2 The ACTA Scanner debuted in February, 1974 and did not require the use of a water tank.

Following the creation of the ACTA Scanner, Ledley organized Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) in order to manufacture the system. DISCO began producing scanners as orders were received. Due to financial constraints, DISCO was forced to request $100,000 upon receipt of the order, $100,000 when the scanner was halfway completed, and the final $100,000 payment upon delivery3. In 1975, Pfizer purchased the rights to manufacture the ACTA Scanner from DISCO for $1.5 million.

Ledley is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has earned numerous awards and honors for his work. In 1997, he received the National Medal of Technology from President William Jefferson Clinton for his pioneering work on the whole-body CT diagnostic X-ray scanner. He also founded the Pattern Recognition Society and Computerized Tomography Society.

Sources

1 Ash, J., D. Sittig, and R. Ledley. "The Story Behind the Development of the First Whole-body Computerized Tomography Scanner as Told by Robert S. Ledley." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2006 Sep-Oct (2006), 465-469, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1561796. (accessed June 24, 2009).

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid.
Separated Materials:
An ACTA Scanner and numerous accessories were donated to the Museum in 1984.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Robert S. Ledley on September 18, 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Digital Information Science Corporation  Search this
Diagnostic imaging  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Medical technology  Search this
Medical radiology  Search this
Whole body imaging  Search this
Tomography  Search this
Radiology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuals -- 1970-1990
Patents
Photographs
Design drawings
Correspondence -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Diagrams
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Notes
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Albums
Citation:
Robert Ledley Papers, 1972-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1135
See more items in:
Robert Ledley Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1135
Online Media:

Sterling Diagnostic Imaging, Incorporated

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Computerworld Magazine.  Search this
Collection Source:
Computers, Information and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Container:
Box 9 (Series 11), Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by donor and/or heirs. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.] .
Collection Citation:
The Computer World Smithsonian Awards, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Computer World Smithsonian Awards
Computer World Smithsonian Awards / Series 11: 1998 / 11.1: Business and Related Services
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0425-ref2474

Sterling Diagnostic Imaging

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Computerworld Magazine.  Search this
Collection Source:
Computers, Information and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Container:
Box 4 (Series 12)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by donor and/or heirs. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.] .
Collection Citation:
The Computer World Smithsonian Awards, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Computer World Smithsonian Awards
Computer World Smithsonian Awards / Series 12: 1999 / 12.1: Business and Related Services
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0425-ref3443

US Army Medical Research & Material Command, Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support (MDIS) Systems, 95173

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Computerworld Magazine.  Search this
Collection Source:
Computers, Information and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Container:
Box 20 (Series 20), Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1995
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by donor and/or heirs. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.] .
Collection Citation:
The Computer World Smithsonian Awards, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Computer World Smithsonian Awards
Computer World Smithsonian Awards / Series 8: 1995 / 8.8: Medicine
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0425-ref4607

Videohistory Records

Creator::
National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Extent:
3.5 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Clippings
Floppy disks
Posters
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Color negatives
Black-and-white negatives
Color transparencies
Videotapes
Audiotapes
Electronic records
Date:
1969-2000
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of records created and maintained by Ray Kondratas, Curator, Division of Medical Sciences, in his work researching and conducting interviews for the Smithsonian Videohistory Program. The videohistories produced by Kondratas covered such topics as DNA sequencing; Acuson ultrasound machines; fluorescence activated cell sorting instrumentation; the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique; diagnostic imaging technology; and the project to sequence the smallpox virus genome. Also included is an interview with Vsevold Kuravcev, regarding his work in nuclear magnetic resonance. Materials include correspondence; memoranda; reports; research notes; biography files; proposals; transcripts; audio and video recordings; images; brochures; posters; and clippings. Some materials are in electronic format.
Topic:
Nucleotide sequence  Search this
DNA  Search this
Ultrasonic imaging  Search this
Flow cytometry  Search this
Polymerase chain reaction  Search this
Diagnostic imaging  Search this
Smallpox  Search this
Nuclear magnetic resonance  Search this
Scientists -- Interviews  Search this
Medicine -- History  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Clippings
Floppy disks
Posters
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Color negatives
Black-and-white negatives
Color transparencies
Videotapes
Audiotapes
Electronic records
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 11-046, National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences, Videohistory Records
Identifier:
Accession 11-046
See more items in:
Videohistory Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa11-046

History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews

Extent:
6 videotapes (reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Date:
1997
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera or digital recorder as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were videotape recorded in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the National Museum of American History, documented the history, development, commercialization and applications of diagnostic ultrasound. Session One was recorded between January 20 through January 24, 1997 at Acuson Corporation located at Mountain View, California. Interviewees included scientists, engineers, managers, and a patent attorney from Acuson. The session took place at several sites on the Acuson campus. Interviews focused on the history of the company, the development of ultrasound and transducer technologies, design and commercial development of the equipment, the manufacturing process, clinical applications, education of clinicians, and the patenting process.

Kondratas also interviewed several of the participants on audiotape. The tapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are also available through the Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives.

This collection consists of one interview session, totaling approximately 12:00 hours of recording and 203 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 24 original Betacam videotapes, 12 dubbing master U-matic videotapes, and 6 reference copy VHS videotapes. The collection has been remastered digitally, with 24 motion jpeg 2000 and 24 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 24 Windows Media Video and 24 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
Historical Note:
Medical diagnostic ultrasound systems use high-frequency sound waves to produce images of soft tissues and internal body organs. First introduced to the medical world in the 1950s, it is a widely used diagnostic imaging modality today. Ultrasound exams are non-invasive and generally considered safe at the power levels used for diagnostic exams. Ultrasound is used in obstetrical, abdominal, urological, vascular and cardiac applications.

Sonar - the technique of sending sound waves through water and observing the returning echoes to characterize submerged objects - inspired early ultrasound investigators to explore ways to apply the concept to medical diagnosis. Early on, ultrasound was used to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. During the early 1970s, the technology advanced to gray scale ultrasound systems that produce static images of internal organs easily recognizable to physicians. Later in the 1970s, the development of real-time ultrasound imaging enabled physicians to see continuous live-action images of the area under investigation. The 1980s saw the introduction of spectral Doppler and later color Doppler which depicts blood flow in various colors to indicate speed of flow and direction.

In 1979, Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., began developing a new approach to medical ultrasound imaging. The scanners used in the existing ultrasound technology produced satisfactory diagnostic images from the returning echoes through sixty-four electrical channels, but the machines could not refine the images because computers for ultrasound imaging did not exist. Dr. Maslak's work in applying computer technology to ultrasound led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Acuson introduced its first product in 1983, the Acuson 128 Computed Sonography System which applied computer technology to diagnostic ultrasound. The 128 channel software-controlled image formation process provided black-and-white and color ultrasound images with high resolution and clarity.

Acuson continued to develop ultrasound technology. The introduction of the Sequoia 512 system in 1996 provided clinicians with twice the amount of image information in half of the time. Acuson's development of a new way to form ultrasound images called Coherent Image Formation used both the phase and the amplitude information from ultrasound echoes to produce images. Conventional ultrasound systems produced images based only on the amplitude information. This discovery offered the user increased spatial and temporal image resolution.

Bradford C. Anker was educated at Purdue University receiving the B.S. degree in industrial engineering in 1968. Anker joined the Hewlett-Packard Automatic Measurement Systems Division in 1968. During his six years there, Anker progressed through the materials management function and was master scheduling manager when he left Hewlett-Packard to join Spectra-Physics, where he held several senior manufacturing and management positions during his ten years at the company. Anker was Vice President, manufacturing, for Margaux Controls before joining Acuson in 1983, as Vice President, manufacturing.

Corinne Augustine was educated at the University of Florida where she received the B.S.I.E. degree in 1980, and the M.B.A. degree in 1991 at Stanford University. Augustine joined Frito Lay Company in 1980 as the Industrial Engineering Department Manager. She then joined Intel Corporation in 1984 as the Industrial Engineering and Production Manager. From 1986 through 1989, Augustine was the New Products Project Manager at Sun Microsystems. In 1991, Augustine joined Acuson Corporation as a project manager and was promoted to Director of manufacturing in 1994.

Amin Hanafy, Sc.D., was educated at Alexandria University in Egypt where he received the bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1965. He attended the New Jersey Institute of Technology receiving the M.S. in electrical engineering in 1971 and the Sc.D. in acoustical optical imaging in 1977. His professional experience included four years with Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering, where he was an instructor in the electrical engineering department. He spent six years as a design engineer at L & R Manufacturing Company. He then joined Hewlett-Packard Company as Technical Director of transducer activity, from 1975 until 1981. Hanafy was one of the founders, with Robert Younge and Samuel Maslak, of Acuson Corporation in 1981. He was the transducer division director at Acuson until 1988, and continued his association as Principal Fellow.

Thomas Jedrzejewicz received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Northeastern University in 1958. After ten years as a field application engineer with Raytheon Company, Jedrzejewicz worked as product development specialist at Corning Glass Works and then as product manager at American Optical. From 1975 to 1978, he served as Marketing Manager for ultrasound for Picker Corporation. Then, following two years at SmithKline Instruments and one year at Technicare, Jedrzejewicz became Marketing Manager for ultrasound and nuclear medicine at Toshiba America Medical Systems. From 1983 to 1989, he performed various tasks for Acuson, including the commencement of Acuson's marketing and communications plans. He then worked as Director of ultrasound marketing for Toshiba America Medical Systems for two years before again joining Acuson as Director of technical programs in 1992.

Hugh G. Larsen received the B.S.E.E. degree from Brown University in 1965. He received the M.S.E.E. at the University of Cincinnati in 1971 and the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the University of Vermont in 1976. From 1976 to 1983, Larsen worked at Hewlett-Packard on their phased-array cardiac ultrasound system. In 1983, he joined Acuson working in a variety of technical and managerial roles to advance ultrasound technology. In 1991, he was promoted to Director of Imaging Technology on the Sequoia program and then served as Director of the Sequoia Engineering.

Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), receiving the degree of Sc.D. in 1975 and the degrees of E.E., S.M. and S.B. in electrical engineering in 1971. Maslak's dissertation was on ultrasound design. His professional experience included four years with Hewlett-Packard Company, where he was a member of the technical staff and project manager at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. While at Hewlett-Packard, Maslak invented a unique scanner architecture which was subsequently patented and assigned to Hewlett-Packard. In 1979, Dr. Maslak began developing a new and proprietary approach to medical ultrasound imaging. This work led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Maslak served as President and Chief Executive Officer from the inception of the company until June 1995, when he was elected to Chairman of the Board. Maslak retained his position as Chief Executive Officer.

After receiving her law degree from Ohio State University in 1982, Liza K. Toth first worked in the Chicago patent law firm of Hume Clement. She helped start the Intellectual Property group in the San Jose, California, law firm of Hopkins & Carley. After July 1994, Toth served as Acuson's Chief Patent Counsel responsible for the patent, trademark and copyright portfolio of the company.

J. Nelson Wright received the B.S. in 1976 and the M.S. in 1978 in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining Acuson, Wright was a member of the technical staff at the MIT Lincoln Lab from 1976 to 1981. Wright joined Acuson as Project Manager during the development of the Acuson 128 ultrasound system. Beginning in 1987, Wright initiated and subsequently contributed to and managed the development of Sequoia ultrasound technology.

Additional interviewees included David Burris and Marketing Communication Manager Jackie Ferreira. Also included are Gelston Howell, Manager of transducer development, Alan Kirby, 128 XP Production Manager, Jon Knight, Production Manager of Sequoia manufacture, Vaughan Marian, Mechanical Engineering Senior Fellow, Rick Sperry, Process Engineer, and Worth Walters, New Products Development Engineer.
Topic:
Medicine  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
History of Medicine.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9593, History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9593
See more items in:
History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9593

McCurnin's clinical textbook for veterinary technicians / [edited by] Joanna M. Bassert, Oreta M. Samples, Angela D. Beal

Title:
Clinical textbook for veterinary technicians
Editor:
Bassert, Joanna M.  Search this
Beal, Angela D.  Search this
Samples, Oreta M.  Search this
Author:
McCurnin, Dennis M  Search this
Physical description:
xx, 1363 pages : color illustrations, portraits ; 29 cm
Type:
Texts
Date:
2018
Topic:
Veterinary medicine  Search this
Veterinary nursing  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1110228

Mader's reptile and amphibian medicine and surgery / Stephen J. Divers, Scott J. Stahl

Title:
Reptile and amphibian medicine and surgery
Editor:
Divers, Stephen J.  Search this
Stahl, Scott J.  Search this
Physical description:
xxiv, 1511 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2019
Topic:
Reptiles--Diseases  Search this
Turtles--Diseases  Search this
Veterinary anesthesia  Search this
Captive reptiles--Diseases  Search this
Amphibians--Diseases  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1110229

Röntgen-Atlas der Kriegsverletzungen herausgegeben von den leitenden Ärzten der Lazarettabteilungen des Allgemeinen Krankenhauses St. Georg in Hamburg ... unter Redaktion von H. Albers-Schönberg

Author:
Albers-Schönberg, Heinrich Ernst 1865-1921  Search this
Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg (Hamburg, Germany)  Search this
Physical description:
109 pages, 75 plates illustrations
Type:
Atlases
Atlas
Bildband
Scientific atlases
Date:
1916
Topic:
Diagnosis, Radioscopic  Search this
Gunshot wounds  Search this
Diagnostic Imaging  Search this
Wounds, Gunshot  Search this
Kriegsbeschädigung  Search this
Röntgenbild  Search this
Verwundung  Search this
Weltkrieg  Search this
Atlas  Search this
Call number:
RD156 .R715 1916
RD156.R715 1916
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_271300

Diagnostic Imaging in Veterinary Dental Practice

Author:
Viner, Tabitha  Search this
Harris, Camille  Search this
Bronson, Ellen  Search this
Sanchez, Carlos R.  Search this
Murray, Suzan  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2006
Topic:
Zoology  Search this
Animals  Search this
Veterinary medicine  Search this
Animal health  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_69350

Veterinary neuropathology : essentials of theory and practice / Marc Vandevelde, Robert J. Higgins, Anna Oevermann

Author:
Vandevelde, Marc 1947-  Search this
Higgins, Robert J. 1941-  Search this
Oevermann, Anna 1974-  Search this
Physical description:
200 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2012
Topic:
Veterinary neurology  Search this
Veterinary pathology  Search this
Nervous system--Diseases  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1110211

Veterinary clinical skills manual / edited by Nichola Coombes and Ayona Silva-Fletcher

Editor:
Coombes, Nichola  Search this
Silva-Fletcher, Ayona  Search this
Physical description:
xxiv, 397 pages : color illustrations ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2018
Topic:
Veterinary medicine--Study and teaching  Search this
Veterinary medicine--Diagnosis  Search this
Veterinary therapeutics  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1110763

Cytological diagnosis of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

Author:
Brandão, João  Search this
Meinkoth, James  Search this
Hallman, Mackenzie  Search this
Anderson, Kailey B.  Search this
Bailey, Keith  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2019
Topic:
Zoology  Search this
Animals  Search this
Veterinary medicine  Search this
Animal health  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_149655

[Trade catalogs from Johnson & Johnson]

Company Name:
Johnson & Johnson  Search this
Related companies:
Johnson & Johnson, Publishers ; Ceramco, Inc. ; Iolab ; Vistakon, Inc.  Search this
Notes content:
Medical supplies ; surgical dressings ; bandages ; first aid kits ; "band-aids" ; ligatures and sutures ; illustrated book - "Belladonna; a study of its history, action and uses in medicine" (1894) ; "livostin" ; opthalmic antihistamine ; allergy medicine ; levocabastine hydrochloride ophthalmic suspension ; antihistamine ; "miochol system pak" acetylcholine chloride intraocular ; "iocare" balanced salt solution ; "steri-tags" for syringes ; "dynagard" filter sterile .2 micron ; balanced salt solution ; 2-D Doppler System Buying Guide" 1985 ; 1985 catalog "Ultrasound imaging supply center" with prices ; mechanical imaging and doppler system ; multi-frequency doppler specs (2); ultrasound specs 1984 (2) ; 1981 annual report ; "vail winter imaging seminar" 1985 american ski classic brochure ; 1984 "280 S/L" ultrasound brochure ; retail price card JUN 1, 1972 health care division ex: medicated powder ; 1992 booklet "Treating your ulcer right" ; audio visual support for ultrasound echocardiography flier ; Authorized Federal Supply Schedule Price List 1978-9 (2) ; 1983 diagnostic imaging catalog ; nuclear medicine ; nuclear magnetic resonance ; computed tomography ; digital radiography ; prices DEC 31, 1985 first aid kits ; first aid kits 1985 brochure ; bulk first aid kit magazine ad 12/1984 ; retailer cost prices supplement section first aid products division 7/1/1964 ; retailer cost prices supplement section first aid products division 1/1/1962 ; 9/1/1966 retailer cost prices baby & proprietary division ; retailer cost prices health care division 10/1/1967 ; 1966 ad announcing new line of home care health recovery products with prices ; "acuvue" bifocal contact lenses brochures ; lubricating jelly ad 1985 ; "rateminder" infusion device ad ; tylenol caplets ad with coupon ; johnson's baby powder 1987 ad and coupon ; "delcap" unit dispensing cap "retin-A" tretinoin 1990 ad ; letter 4-27-1989 re "coact" signed ; "coact" plus pc-based all-vendor procurement system ads ; dental floss ad 1979 ; "reach" toothbrush 1978 ad ; 1965 dental floss "dentotape" ad ; "reach" child toothbrush 1982 ad ; "atraloc" stainless steel needles reduce tissue trauma dental 1972 ad ; 1963 ad dental floss ; bracket table covers dental ad ; "gamophen" skin cleansing leaves hand cleanser ; "S.O.P. program" preventive dentistry program ad 1974 ; "surgicel" 1962 ad ; new "autobag" instrument wrap ad with prices ; 1984 newsprint ad "cerestore" crown ; 1976 "ceramco" porcelain/metal crowns ; baby powder 1975 ad ; baby lotion 70's ad ; dental floss 80's ad (2) ; "stim-u-dent" interdental stimulators tooth picks ad (3) ; dental floss 60's ads ; "ACT" fluoride anti-cavity treatment dental rinse ; cotton rolls for dental work 1940's ad ; 1920's ad "dental pellet tray" and denture box ; "dispersalloy" metal filling 1978 ad ; "piezoelectric" power "alpha-sonic" dental scaling 1973 ad ; "adaptic" restorative total system kit dental 1975 ad & 1974 ad & 1973 ad ; retinoid products ; "one-touch" system 1987 ; 1993 professional products catalog for home health care ; 1990 "one touch" flier ; "acuvue" ads ; copy of "new parent Adviser" 1987-88 magazine sponsored by J&J ; "cidex 7" dialdehyde ; booklet "about face: talking teen to teen about acne" ; 1993 "retin-A" tretinoin" flyer ; 1962 "zobec" ad absorbent dental neckbands ; dental cotton rolls 50's ad ; professional towel dispenser ad ; sutures ad 1941 ; exodontia sponges 50's ad ; 1961 disposable saliva ejectors ad ; red cross professional towels 1941 ad with prices ; bandaid samples and coupons ; dental accessories (professional towels ; headrest covers ; bracket table covers) ; 2007 annual report ; 2008 annual report ; 2006 annual report ; 2004 annual report ; 2000 annual report ; Acuvue disposable contact lenses
Includes:
Trade catalog, price lists and samples
Black and white images
Color images
Types of samples:
bandaids - 3 kinds
Physical description:
90 pieces; 2 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Date range:
1800s-1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Dental equipment and supplies  Search this
Drugs; pharmaceuticals and patent medicines  Search this
Laboratories and laboratory supplies and equipment  Search this
Medical and surgical instruments and supplies  Search this
Police and Prison Equipment and Supplies  Search this
Scientific and optical instruments  Search this
Topic:
"Laboratories -- Furniture, equipment, etc."  Search this
Computers  Search this
Correctional institutions  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus  Search this
Drugs  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Optical instruments  Search this
Patent medicines  Search this
Pharmacy  Search this
Police -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Prison industries  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Surgical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_23799
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_23799

Lavin's radiography for veterinary technicians / Marg Brown, Lois C. Brown

Title:
Radiography for veterinary technicians
Author:
Brown, Marg  Search this
Brown, Lois C.  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 627 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), portraits ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2018
Topic:
Veterinary radiography  Search this
Animal health technicians  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1093488

CRC handbook of marine mammal medicine / edited by Leslie A. Dierauf and Frances M.D. Gulland

Title:
Handbook of marine mammal medicine
Author:
Dierauf, Leslie A. 1948-  Search this
Gulland, Frances M. D  Search this
Physical description:
1063 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm
Type:
Handbooks, manuals, etc
Date:
2001
Topic:
Marine mammals--Diseases  Search this
Marine mammals--Health  Search this
Veterinary medicine  Search this
Wildlife rehabilitation  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_630615

[Trade catalogs from Advanced Technology Laboratories, Inc.]

Variant company name:
Bellevue, WA  Search this
Company Name:
Advanced Technology Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Related companies:
Squibb Co. ; ADR Ultrasound Div. ; (Bothell, WA - worldwide headquarters; Ontario, Canada; Munich, Germany - European headquarters ; Dee Why, NSW, Australia) ; ATL Canada (Markham, Ontario, Canada)  Search this
Notes content:
ultrasound diagnostic imaging systems ; "Ultramark" Ultrasound System ; "ADRultrasound" ; ADR videos ; digital echocardiography ; digital sonography ; annular phased array cardiac imaging ; pulsed doppler echocardiography
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
29 pieces; 2 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Bothell, Washington, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Medical and surgical instruments and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Medical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Surgical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_34993
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_34993

Avian medicine and surgery in practice : companion and aviary birds / Bob Doneley, BVSc, FANZCVS (Avian Medicine), CMAVA, Registered Specialist in Bird Medicine, Head of Service, Small Animal Hospital, School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Australia

Author:
Doneley, Bob  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource : text file, PDF
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2016
Topic:
Avian medicine  Search this
Birds--Anatomy  Search this
Call number:
SF994 .D66 2016 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1068789

Can Fruit Flies Be Bred to Detect Cancer?

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 05 Feb 2014 17:48:47 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_abe3762b68cc9208865b899fa6f0f143

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