This collection consists of four cartes-de-visite portraits of Native American men involved in the Dakota War of 1862. Individuals were photographed by Joel Emmons Whitney between approximately 1864 and 1865. Reprints of these cartes-de-visite were later sold by Whitney and Charles Alfred Zimmerman in their St. Paul, Minnesota studio throughout the following decade. The individuals portrayed include: Hole in the Day (also known as Pogonaykeshick; Ojibwe), John Otherday (also known as Anpetutokeca; Dakota), Thomas Wakeman (also known as Wowinape; Dakota), and Shakopee (also known as Little Six; Dakota).
The materials in this collection were organized into 1 folder.
Biographical / Historical:
Joel Emmons Whitney (1822-1886) is considered the most influential pioneer photographer in Minnesota spanning the years 1851 to 1871. Whitney was born in Phillips, Maine in 1822, later moving to the St. Paul, Minnesota area in 1850, and establishing several successful photography studios there. His most common photographic works were cartes-de-visite depicting local landscapes, as well as portraits of Civil War soldiers and Native Americans in the Minnesota area. Whitney later partnered with Charles Alfred Zimmerman (1844-1909) and the two opened the Whitney and Zimmerman Studio shortly before Whitney ended his photography career in the early 1870s. He died in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1886, at age 63.
The Minnesota Historical Society holds a large collection of Joel E. Whitney cartes-de-visite, including the four included here. Further, the Minnesota Historical Photo Collectors Group published a 2001 catalog of Whitney's cartes-de-visite, titled Joel E. Whitney: Minnesota's Leading Pioneer Photographer.
This collection was donated by Bridget Bly in 2015.
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Letters (1856-1918), diaries (1863-1866), writings (1856-1863), printed material (1854-1857), and photographs document the activities of Edwin Whitefield and his son Wilfred and early settlement in Minnesota.
Edwin Whitefield papers consist of 2 of his business cards, a list of books and prints by Whitefield, 2 clippings "The View of Paris" (1854?) and "Minnesota Going East" (1856), a real estate advertisement for Whitefield's Minnesota Land Agency displaying a reproduction of Whitefield's drawing of Minnehaha Falls (1857), a letter of introduction written by James W. Taylor to William T. Bascom on Whitefield's behalf (1857), a letter illustrated with hand-drawn maps of a Minnesota townsite (1858?), and a letter written by Whitefield to his son Wilfred (1871). Writings consist of an 3 essays "Kandiyohi", "A Sketch of Minnesota" and "Minnesota" describing his travels as a member of the Whitefield exploration party (1856-1858).
Wilfred Whitefield papers include 17 typescripts of his letters to Louisa describing experiences as a soldier (1863), 15 letters (1895-1917) concerning his sketches from the Henry H. Sibley Expedition against the Sioux in 1863, a letter about his father's watercolors (1918), a letter supporting a pension application for a soldier from the Minnesota State Militia (1918), an essay "A Trip to the Sauk Valley" (1857?), an account of the Battle of Big Mound (1863), and minutes of a war meeting held at Sauk Center, Minnesota (1864). Diary fragments describe daily events in Kandotta, Minnesota (1859) and events during the Sibley Expedition (1863). A diary (1863-1866) contains pencil sketches and notes and is accompanied by a transcript and photographs of selected sketches.
Biographical / Historical:
Edwin Whitefield was born in England in 1816, immigrating to the United States ca. 1840. Between 1840 and 1855, he studied and taught drawing in New York and New England. In the latter 1850s, he became a real estate speculator in the Minnesota territory and became involved in land and and townsite promotion in what is now Kandiyohi County and the Sauk River Valley, Minn. Between 1860 and 1864 he lived in Chicago, but spent his final years in Massachusetts until his death in 1892. Edwin's son Wilfred Whitefield, also an artist, was born in 1839. He traveled to Minnesota with his father in 1856 and accompanied Henry H. Sibley's expedition against the Dakota (Sioux) Indians in 1863. He died in Sauk Center, Minn. in 1926.
The microfilm was purchased from the Minnesota Historical Society.
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from the Division of Library and Archives, Minnesota Historical Society. Contact Reference Services for more information.