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George V. Allen photograph collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier

Collector:
Allen, George V.  Search this
Names:
Albuquerque Indian School  Search this
Castillo de San Marcos (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
Chilocco Indian Agricultural School  Search this
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Haskell Indian Nations University  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Yankton Mission (Yankton Indian Reservation, S.D.)  Search this
American Horse, 1840-1908  Search this
Big Bow Chief  Search this
Bogy, Lewis V. (Lewis Vital), 1813-1877  Search this
Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 1857-1900  Search this
Harding, Warren G. (Warren Gamaliel), 1865-1923  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Iron Bull (Crow Indian chief)  Search this
Kelly, Luther S. (Luther Sage), 1849-1928  Search this
Mató-Tópe, Mandan chief, d. 1837  Search this
Mix, Charles E.  Search this
Monroe, Mark, 1930-  Search this
Moran, John, 1831-1903  Search this
Ouray  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Red Dog, Oglala chief  Search this
Red Shirt, 1845?-1925  Search this
Reilly, John James, 1838-1894  Search this
Reynolds, Joseph Jones, 1822-1899  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Stevenson, Matilda Coxe, 1850-1915  Search this
Two Guns White Calf, 1872-1934 (Piegan)  Search this
Photographer:
Alvord, Kellogg, & Campbell  Search this
Bailey & Whitesides  Search this
Bailey, Dix, & Mead  Search this
Bennett & Brown  Search this
Black Hills View Company  Search this
Brooks Photo  Search this
Brubaker and Whitesides  Search this
C. Duhem & Bro.  Search this
Calfee & Catlin  Search this
Caswell & Davy  Search this
Copelin & Son  Search this
Cosand & Mosser  Search this
Cunningham & Co. (1880-1889)  Search this
D.D. Merrill, Randall & Co.  Search this
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm)  Search this
Eaton, of Ralston, Oklahoma  Search this
Griffith & Griffith  Search this
Gurnsey & Illingworth  Search this
Hamilton and Hoyt  Search this
Hamilton and Kodylek  Search this
Hansard & Carden  Search this
Henry L. Shepard & Co.  Search this
Ingersoll View Company (St. Paul, Minnesota)  Search this
J.J. Reilly & Co.  Search this
Judd and McLeish  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Kilburn Brothers  Search this
Lawrence & Houseworth  Search this
Leonard & Martin  Search this
M.S. Mepham & Bro.  Search this
Martin's Gallery  Search this
Montgomery Ward  Search this
Ramsour & Pennel  Search this
Reed & McKenney  Search this
Rodocker & Blanchard  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Thomas Houseworth & Co  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Universal Photo Art Co  Search this
Whitney & Zimmerman  Search this
Wittick & Bliss  Search this
Wittick & Russell  Search this
Young & Chase  Search this
Barker, George, 1844-1894  Search this
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Batchelder, B. P. (Benjamin Pierce), 1826-1891  Search this
Bates, Edw. (Edward)  Search this
Beaman, Edward O.  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Bell, William, 1830-1910  Search this
Benecke, Robert  Search this
Bennett, H. H. (Henry Hamilton), 1843-1908  Search this
Bierstadt, Charles, 1819-1903  Search this
Blessing, S. T.  Search this
Blosser, J. A.  Search this
Bonine, Elias A., 1843-1916  Search this
Brockham, William (of Morris, Minnesota)  Search this
Brown, William Henry, 1844-1886  Search this
Brubaker, C. B.  Search this
Buehman, Henry, 1851-1912  Search this
Calfee, H. B. (Henry Bird), 1848-1912  Search this
Carbutt, John, 1832-1905  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Chase, D. B. (Dana B.)  Search this
Childs, B. F. (Brainard F.), ca. 1841-1921  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Clark, George A. (George Alfred), 1936-  Search this
Climo, John Saunders  Search this
Cobb, William Henry, 1859-1909  Search this
Conklin, E (Enoch)  Search this
Cozzens, Samuel Woodworth, 1834-1878  Search this
Croft, Thomas  Search this
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Currier, Frank, fl. 1890-1909  Search this
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Curtis, George E., 1830-1910  Search this
Cushing, W. H., fl. 1870-1889  Search this
Davis, S., fl. 1860-1880  Search this
Doremus, John P., 1827-1890  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Eisenmann, Charles, b. 1850  Search this
Flanders, Dudley P.  Search this
Forsyth, N. A. (Norman A.), 1869-1949  Search this
Fouch, John H., 1849-1933  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Godkin, William R.  Search this
Goodell, Abner Cheney, 1831-1914  Search this
Graves, C. H. (Carleton H.), -1943  Search this
Gurnsey, B. H. (Byron H.), 1833-1880  Search this
Hamilton, J. H. (James H.)  Search this
Hart, Alfred A., 1816-1908  Search this
Hawkins, B.A.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Hazeltine, M. M. (Martin Mason), 1827-1903  Search this
Heister, H. T., (Henry T.), -1895  Search this
Heller, Louis Herman, ca. 1839-1929  Search this
Heston, Wat  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Hook, W. E. (William Edward), 1833-1908  Search this
Huffman, L. A. (Laton Alton), 1854-1931  Search this
Illingworth, W. H. (William H.), 1842-1893  Search this
Immke, Henry W.  Search this
Ingalls, George W., 1838-1920  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Jacoby, W. H. (William H.), 1841-1905  Search this
Jarvis, J. F. (John F.), b. 1850  Search this
Johnson, W.S.  Search this
Kirkland, Geo. W. (George W.)  Search this
Knight, J. Lee  Search this
Landon, S. C. (Seth C.), b. 1825  Search this
Line, A. A.  Search this
Little, H.N.  Search this
Marshall, William I. (William Isaac), 1840-1906  Search this
Martin, Alex (Alexander), 1841-1929  Search this
Maude, F. H. (Frederic Hamer)  Search this
Maynard, Hannah, 1834-1918  Search this
Maynard, Richard, 1832-1907  Search this
McIntyre, A. C. (Alexander Carson)  Search this
Meddaugh, J. E.  Search this
Mellen, Geo. E. (George Egbert), b. 1854  Search this
Mepham, Michael S.  Search this
Mitchell, Daniel S.  Search this
Morrow, Stanley J.  Search this
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904  Search this
Newcomb, C. H.  Search this
Nims, F.A.  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Palmer, A. A.  Search this
Parker, Joseph C.  Search this
Pierron, Geo. (George), b. 1816  Search this
Pollock, Charles, 1832-1910  Search this
Powers, F. F.  Search this
Raitt, T.G.  Search this
Randall, A. Frank  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Rodocker, D. (David)  Search this
Rothrock, George H.  Search this
Rudy, W. Ira  Search this
Russell, Andrew J.  Search this
Rutter, Thomas H., 1837-1925  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Seaver, C. (Charles)  Search this
Sedgwick, S. J. (Stephen James)  Search this
Shipler, James William, 1849-1937  Search this
Soule, John P.  Search this
Stoddard, Seneca Ray, 1844-1917  Search this
Taber, I. W. (Isaiah West), 1830-1912  Search this
Thorne, G.W.  Search this
Thurlow, J., 1831-1878  Search this
Towne, Bertram C.  Search this
Trager, George E.  Search this
Upton, B. F. (Benjamin Franklin)  Search this
Watkins, Carleton E., 1829-1916  Search this
Weitfle, Charles, 1836-1921  Search this
Wendt, Julius M.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Williscraft, W.H.  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Woodburn, J. R.  Search this
Zimmerman, Charles A., 1844-1909  Search this
Publisher:
Beal's Gallery  Search this
Continent Stereoscopic Company  Search this
Florida Club (Cooperative)  Search this
Union View Company (Rochester, New York)  Search this
Webster & Albee (Rochester, N.Y.)  Search this
Smith, O. C.  Search this
Extent:
67 Lantern slides
26 Negatives (glass)
10 Negatives (nitrate)
6 Autochromes (photographs)
50 Stereographs (circa 50 printed stereographs, halftone and color halftone)
1,000 Stereographs (circa, albumen and silver gelatin (some tinted))
239 Prints (circa 239 mounted and unmounted prints, albumen (including cartes de visite, imperial cards, cabinet cards, and one tinted print) and silver gelatin (some modern copies))
96 Prints (Album :, silver gelatin)
21 Postcards (silver gelatin, collotype, color halftone, and halftone)
Culture:
Puyallup  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Modoc  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Washo Indians  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Ute  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Haida  Search this
Cree  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Osage  Search this
Apache  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Umatilla  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Fox  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives
Autochromes (photographs)
Stereographs
Prints
Postcards
Place:
Custer Battlefield (Montana)
Date:
circa 1860-1935
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to Native Americans or frontier themes, including portraits, expedition photographs, landscapes, and other images of dwellings, transportation, totem poles, ceremonies, infants and children in cradleboards, camps and towns, hunting and fishing, wild west shows, food preparation, funeral customs, the US Army and army posts, cliff dwellings, and grave mounds and excavations. The collection also includes images of prisoners at Fort Marion in 1875, Sioux Indians involved in the Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, the Fort Laramie Peace Commission of 1868, Sitting Bull and his followers after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890.

There are studio portraits of well-known Native Americans, including American Horse, Big Bow, Four Bears, Iron Bull, Ouray, Red Cloud, Red Dog, Red Shirt, Sitting Bull, Spotted Tail, Three Bears, and Two Guns White Calf. Depicted delegations include a Sauk and Fox meeting in Washington, DC, with Lewis V. Bogy and Charles E. Mix in 1867; Kiowas and Cheyennes at the White House in 1863; and Dakotas and Crows who visited President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Images of schools show Worcester Academy in Vinita, Oklahoma; Chilocco Indian School; Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Haskell Instittue, and Albuquerque Indian School.

Some photographs relate to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876; World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, 1903; and Centennial Exposition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railraod, 1876. Expedition photographs show the Crook expedition of 1876, the Sanderson expedition to the Custer Battlefield in 1877, the Wheeler Survey of the 1870s, Powell's surveys of the Rocky Mountain region during the 1860s and 1870s, and the Hayden Surveys.

Outstanding single views include the party of Zuni group led to the sea by Frank Hamilton Cushing; Episcopal Church Rectory and School Building, Yankton Agency; Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking a photographs of a Zuni ceremony; John Moran sketching at Acoma; Ben H. Gurnsey's studio with Indian patrons; Quapaw Mission; baptism of a group of Paiutes at Coeur d'Alene Mission; court-martial commission involved in the trial of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, 1877; President Harding at Sitka, Alaska; Walter Hough at Hopi in 1902; and Mrs. Jesse Walter Fewkes at Hopi in 1897.
Biographical/Historical note:
George V. Allen was an attorney in Lawrence, Kansas and an early member of the National Stereoscope Association. Between the 1950s and 1980s, Allen made an extensive collection of photographs of the American West, mostly in stereographs, but also including cartes-de-visite and other styles of mounted prints, photogravures, lantern slides, autochromes, and glass negatives.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 90-1
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Camps  Search this
Child care  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Totem poles  Search this
Cookery  Search this
Wild west shows  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Hunting  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 90-1, George V. Allen collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.90-1
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c6f12a20-b859-4219-a567-b2b3246a66be
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-90-1
Online Media:

MS 2000-18 Edward S. Curtis investigation of the Battle of Little Bighorn

Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Woodruff, Charles Albert, 1845-1920  Search this
Correspondent:
Leupp, Francis E. (Francis Ellington), 1849-1918  Search this
Names:
Curley  Search this
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876  Search this
Reno, Marcus A. (Marcus Albert), 1835-1889  Search this
Two Moon, 1847-1917  Search this
White Man Runs Him, approximately 1855-1925  Search this
Extent:
25 Items (2.5 inches (1 document box)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Place:
Little Bighorn Battlefield (Mont.)
Date:
bulk 1905, 1907-1908
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains materials relating to Edward S. Curtis' 1907-1908 investigation into the Battle of Little Bighorn. The collection contains Curtis' notes; transcriptions of eyewitness accounts of Crow scouts Curley (as told to Chas. F. Roe, published in Army & Navy Journal, March 10, 1982) and White Man Runs Him and Cheyenne chief Two Moons; and letters from General Charles A. Woodruff, who was assigned by the U.S. Army to corroborate Curtis's findings in 1908. Also includes a 1905 letter from Francis E. Leupp, Comissioner of Indian Affairs, to Curtis
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1952) was a photographer, known for his images of Native Americans and of the American West. In preparation for his volume on the Sioux for his 20 volume publication, The North American Indian, he investigated the details of the Battle of Little Bighorn, also known as Custer's Last Stand (June 25, 1876). He first visited the battleground in 1905 and interviewed many of the Sioux participants. He returned in 1907, and with the help of three Crow scouts who were with George Armstrong Custer that day, Curtis retraced Custer's steps on his final day. Curtis submitted a report to President Theodore Roosevelt and army officials, and upon their request, chose not to publish his findings out of deference to Custer's widow, who was alive at the time. Shortly before his death in 1952, Curtis passed on his manuscript to his son Harold with the request that he find a home for his papers. Thirty-six year later, shortly before his own death, Harold donated his father's manuscript to the National Museum of American History. Curtis' manuscript was later transferred to the National Anthropological Archives.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2000-18
Local Note:
See NAA vertical file under "Curtis, Edward S." for more information.
Topic:
Little Bighorn, Battle of the, Mont., 1876  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Manuscript 2000-18, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2000-18
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw32d9d3a4d-36de-425d-be35-8c50cbc5eb83
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2000-18

Marjorie Meriweather Post photograph collection

Creator:
Post, Marjorie Merriweather  Search this
Names:
Lehman & Duval Lithrs.  Search this
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Angeline, d.1896 (Suquamish Indian)  Search this
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Geronimo, 1829-1909  Search this
King, Charles Bird, 1785-1862  Search this
Picart, Bernard, 1673-1733  Search this
Extent:
2 Lithographs
1 Postcard
1 Engraving
1 Print (mounted in frame)
1 newspaper clipping in frame made from squirrel
9 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Apache  Search this
Duwamish (Dwamish)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lithographs
Postcards
Engravings
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs collected by Marjorie Meriweather Post relating to NAtive Americans. They include images of Post's home at Camp Topridge, Geronimo, Buffalo Bill Cody, Native chiefs and US officials at Pine Ridge in 1891, and Princess Angeline, daughter of Chief Seattle. Additionally, there are lithographs of Caa-tou-see and Shin-Ga-Ba-Wossinis, and a B. Picart engraving of Native Americans circling a burial mound and a newspaper clipping ("Out of Human Skin") in a frame made from a squirrel pelt.
Biographical/Historical note:
Marjorie Meriweather Post (1887-1973) was a Washington, D.C., businesswoman, philanthropist, and collector of decorative art objects. Her father Charles W. Post was the owner of Postup Cereal Company, later General Foods Corporation. In 1973, Marjorie Post's philanthropy earned her the first ever James Smithson Society Medal, the Smithsonian Institution's highest benefactor award. After her death, Post willed her Hillwood estate to the Smithsonian along with her American Native American collection at Camp Topridge.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 75-46
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds the Marjorie Merriweather Post papers (MS 7278).
The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds the records of Post's Hillwood Estate, 1960-1976 (SIA RS00740).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Lithographs
Engravings
Citation:
Photo lot 75-46, Marjorie Meriweather Post photograph collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.75-46
See more items in:
Marjorie Meriweather Post photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw32481fa09-1206-4bd6-a263-107e7268a600
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-75-46

Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs

Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Names:
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Former owner:
Cardozo, Christopher  Search this
Extent:
12.5 Linear feet
Culture:
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Apache  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Duwamish (Dwamish)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Kootenai (Kutenai)  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Coast Salish  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1899-1930
Summary:
The collection comprises Edward S. Curtis original and copy negatives, prints, and photogravures relating to the Harriman Alaska Expedition and Curtis's 20 volume publication, the North American Indian (NAI), as well as ephemera and one gold-tone of Fort Lapawi.
Scope and Contents:
The Christopher Cardozo collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs primarily relate to Curtis's opus, the North American Indian, and also the 1899 Harriman Alaska Expedition. Papers in the collection include promotional ephemera for the NAI as well as articles by Curtis and others. Photographic material includes original and copy negatives, prints, two Harriman Alaska Expedition souvenir albums, and one gold-tone of Fort Lapawi.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series: 1. Papers; and 2. Photographs and photogravures.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sherriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer famous for his photographs of the indigenous peoples of North America. His work was highly influential in shaping a sympathetic yet romantic view of cultures that he and many others believed to be "vanishing." Over the course of 30 years, Curtis visited more than 80 Native American communities and published his photographs and ethnographies in the twenty-volume North American Indian (NAI) (1907-1930).

Curtis was born in Whitewater, Wisconsin, to Ellen and Johnson Curtis in 1868. In about 1874, his family moved to a farm in Cordova, Minnesota. At a young age, Curtis built a camera, and it is possible that he may have worked in a Minneapolis photography studio for a time. In 1887, Curtis and his father moved West and settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, with the rest of the family joining them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, 20-year-old Curtis became the head of the family.

In 1891, Curtis moved to Seattle and bought into a photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he and Thomas Guptill formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers." The endeavor became a premier portrait studio for Seattle society and found success in photoengraving for many local publications. In 1892, Curtis married Clara Phillips (1874-1932) and in 1893 their son Harold was born (1893-1988), followed by Elizabeth (Beth) (1896-1973), Florence (1899-1987) and Katherine (Billy) (1909-?). Around 1895, Curtis made his first photographs of local Native people, including the daughter of Duwamish chief Seattle: Kickisomlo or "Princess Angeline." Curtis submitted a series of his Native American photographs to the National Photographic Convention, and received an award in the category of "genre studies" for Homeward (later published in volume 9 of the NAI). In 1896, the entire Curtis family moved to Seattle, which included Curtis's mother, his siblings Eva and Asahel, Clara's sisters Susie and Nellie Phillips, and their cousin William Phillips. Most of the household worked in Curtis's studio along with other employees. Curtis became sole proprietor of the studio in 1897, which remained a popular portrait studio but also sold his scenic landscapes and views of the Seattle Area. Curtis also sent his brother Asahel to Alaska and the Yukon to photograph the Klondike Gold Rush, and sold those views as well. Asahel went on to become a well-known photographer in his own right, primarily working in the American Northwest.

Curtis was an avid outdoorsman and joined the Mazamas Club after his first of many climbs of Mount Rainier. On a climb in 1898, Curtis evidently met a group of scientists, including C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell, and Gifford Pinchot, who had lost their way on the mountain, and led them to safety. This encounter led to an invitation from Merriam for Curtis to accompany a group of over 30 well-known scientists, naturalists, and artists as the official photographer on a maritime expedition to the Alaskan coast. Funded by railroad magnate Edward Harriman, the Harriman Alaska Expedition left Seattle in May of 1899, and returned at the end of July. Curtis made around 5000 photographs during the trip, including photographs of the indigenous peoples they met as well as views of mountains, glaciers, and other natural features. Many of the photographs appeared in the expedition's 14 published volumes of their findings.

In 1900, Curtis accompanied Grinnell to Montana for a Blackfoot Sundance. Here, Curtis made numerous photographs and became interested in the idea of a larger project to document the Native peoples of North America. Almost immediately upon returning from the Sundance, Curtis set off for the Southwest to photograph Puebloan communities. By 1904, Curtis had already held at least one exhibit of his "Indian pictures" and his project to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, the NAI) had taken shape and already received some press coverage. With his fieldwork now increasing his absences from home, Curtis hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank Rinehart, to help manage the Seattle studio.

In 1904, Curtis was a winner in the Ladies Home Journal "Prettiest Children In America" portrait contest. His photograph of Marie Fischer was selected as one of 112 that would be published and Fischer was one of 12 children selected from the photographs who would have their portrait painted by Walter Russell. Russell and Curtis made an acquaintance while Russell was in Seattle to paint Fischer's portrait, and not long afterwards, Russell contacted Curtis to make photographic studies of Theodore Roosevelt's children for portraits he would paint. Curtis subsequently photographed the entire Roosevelt family, and developed a social connection with the President. Several important outcomes came of this new friendship, including Roosevelt eventually writing the foreword to the NAI, as well as making introductions to influential people.

Key among these introductions was one to wealthy financier John Pierpont Morgan, in 1906. After a brief meeting with Curtis during which he viewed several of Curtis's photographs of Native Americans, Morgan agreed to finance the fieldwork for the NAI project for five years, at $15,000.00 per year. It was up to Curtis to cover publishing and promotion costs, with the publication being sold as a subscription. In return, Morgan would receive 25 sets of the 20-volume publication. The ambitious publication plan outlined 20 volumes of ethnological text, each to be illustrated with 75 photogravure prints made from acid-etched copper plates. Each volume would be accompanied by a companion portfolio of 35 large photogravures. With high-quality papers and fine binding, a set would cost $3000.00. 500 sets were planned. Under Morgan, the North American Indian, Inc. formed as body to administer the monies. Also around this time, Frederick Webb Hodge, Director of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology, agreed to edit the publications.

Curtis then began more systematic fieldwork, accompanied by a team of research assistants and Native interpreters. In 1906, Curtis hired William E. Myers, a former journalist, as a field assistant and stenographer. Over the years, Myers became the lead researcher on the project, making enormous contributions in collecting data and possibly doing the bulk of the writing for the first 18 volumes. Upon meeting a new community, Curtis and his team would work on gathering data dealing with all aspects of the community's life, including language, social and political organization, religion, food ways, measures and values, and many other topics. (See box 2 folder 1 in this collection for Curtis's list of topics.) Curtis and his assistants, especially Myers, brought books and papers to the field relating to the tribes they were currently concerned with, and often wrote from the field to anthropologists at the Bureau of American Ethnology and other institutions for information or publications. In addition to fieldnotes and photographs, the team also employed sound recording equipment, making thousands of recordings on wax cylinders. Curtis also often brought a motion picture camera, although few of his films have survived.

The first volume of the NAI was published towards the end of 1907. Already, Curtis was encountering difficulty in finding subscribers to the publication despite great praise in the press and among those who could afford the volumes. Curtis spent progressively more of his time outside the field season promoting the project through lectures and in 1911, presenting his "Picture Musicale"—a lecture illustrated with lantern slides and accompanied by an original musical score—in major cities. After the initial five funded years, only eight of the twenty volumes had been completed. However, Morgan agreed to continue support for the fieldwork and publication continued.

Starting in 1910, Curtis and his team worked among the Kwakwaka'wakw First Nation on Vancouver Island, and in 1913 began to develop a documentary film project featuring the community in Alert Bay. In 1914, Curtis produced the feature-length film, In the Land of the Headhunters. The film showcased an all-indigenous cast and included an original musical score. Screened in New York and Seattle, it received high praise. However after this initial success, it did not receive the attention Curtis had hoped for, and resulted in financial loss.

Meanwhile, Curtis's prolonged absences from home had taken a toll on his marriage and in 1919 Clara and Edward divorced. The Seattle studio was awarded to Clara, and Curtis moved to Los Angeles, opening a photography studio with his daughter Beth and her husband Manford "Mag" Magnuson. Daughters Florence and Katherine came to Los Angeles sometime later. Curtis continued with fieldwork and promotion of the project, and in 1922 volume 12 of the NAI was published. Also in 1922, Curtis was accompanied during the field season in California by his daughter Florence Curtis Graybill, the first time a family member had gone to the field with him since the Curtis children were very small.

Curtis continued to push the project and publications along, yet never without financial struggle and he picked up work in Hollywood as both a still and motion picture photographer. John Pierpont Morgan, Jr., continued to provide funding for the fieldwork in memory of his father, but with the various financial upsets of the 1910s and 1920s, Curtis had a difficult time getting subscribers on board. In 1926, Myers, feeling the strain, regretfully resigned after the completion of volume 18. Anthropologist Frank Speck recommended Stewart Eastwood, a recent graduate from the University of Pennsylvania, to replace Myers as ethnologist for the final two volumes.

In 1927, Curtis and his team, along with his daughter Beth Curtis Magnuson, headed north from Seattle to Alaska and Canada on a final field season. Harsh weather and a hip injury made the trip difficult for Curtis, but he was very satisfied with the season's work. The party returned to Seattle, and upon arrival Curtis was arrested for unpaid alimony. He returned exhausted to Los Angeles, and in 1930 the final two volumes of NAI were published without fanfare. Curtis spent the next two years recovering from physical and mental exhaustion. Beth and Mag continued to run the Curtis studio in LA, but for the most part, Curtis had set down his camera for good. With the NAI behind him and his health recovered, Curtis pursued various interests and employment, eventually, settling down on a farm outside Los Angeles. he later moved in with Beth and Mag. Curtis died at home in 1952.

Sources Cited Davis, Barbara. Edward S. Curtis: the life and times of a shadowcatcher. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1984. Gidley, Mick. The North American Indian, Incorporated. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Christopher Cardozo (1948-2021) was a major collector and dealer in Edward S. Curtis photography.
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds additional Curtis papers and photographs in NAA.2010-28, the Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs, MS 2000-18, the Edward Curtis investigation of the battle of Little Bighorn and Photo Lot 59, the Library of Congress copyright prints collection.

The Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University holds Curtis's wax cylinder audio recordings from 1907-1913.

The Braun Research Library at the Autry Museum of the American West holds the Frederick Webb Hodge papers (1888-1931), which contain substantial correspondence from Curtis. The Braun also holds a small amount of Curtis papers and photographs, including some of Curtis's cyanotypes.

The Getty Research Institute holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1900-1978), which include the original manuscript scores for the Curtis Picture Musicale and film In the Land of the Headhunters.

The Palace of the Governors at the New Mexico History Museum holds original Curtis negatives pertaining to the southwest.

The Pierpont Morgan Library holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1906-1947), which contain the records of the North American Indian, Inc., as well as Curtis's correspondence to librarian, and later library director, Belle Da Costa Greene. The library also holds a large collection of Curtis's lantern slides, used in his Picture Musicale.

The Seattle Public Library holds correspondence of Curtis to Librarian Harriet Leitch (1948-1951), pertaining to his career.

The Seaver Center for Western History Research at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History holds collection GC 1143, which contains Curtis's field notes as well as manuscript drafts for the North American Indian.

The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian holds NMAI.AC.080, the Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs, as well as NMAI.AC.053, the Mary Harriman Rumsey collection of Harriman Alaska Expedition photographs.

The University of Washington Libraries Special Collections holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1893-1983). Additionally, the Burke Museum holds papers and photographs of Edmund Schwinke, which relate to Curtis's work with the Kwakwaka'wakw community.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Julie Cardozo in 2022.
Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Identifier:
NAA.2022-12
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36944a23c-3be7-4086-bab0-4696f3aab866
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2022-12

Papers

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
This series contains material related to the North American Indian, and includes promotional ephemera, several articles about and by Curtis, and documentation of the sale of NAI materials to Charles Lauriat.
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Identifier:
NAA.2022-12, Series 1
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c66467a1-0a4a-4432-bb9c-d515c33aced4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref1

Articles "Portraits of Indian Types" in Scribner's Magazine by George Bird Grinnell, and "Hunting Indians with a Camera" in World's Work by Edmund Meany

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1905
1908
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 1: Papers / Articles, notes, and letter
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f0eb7d19-4fc5-4e8c-8dd9-30bff06957ca
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref10

Copy of Scribner's Magazine with Curtis article "Indians of the Stone Houses"

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1909
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

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Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 1: Papers / Articles, notes, and letter
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a534d094-c37e-4c04-ac0a-bbdf593ba01a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref11

Carbon copy of a letter from Charles Lauriat to "Mr. Brewer" at the Morgan Library and notes relating to sale of North American Indian materials

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1935
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 1: Papers / Articles, notes, and letter
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a23e822e-419e-4ffb-9a95-99d03a580f7c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref12

Harriman Alaska Expedition

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
The Harriman Alaska Expedition sub-series comprises two souvenir albums.
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw373b2e345-b1e2-4d4a-9a40-b24f887ff67c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref13

North American Indian

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d4170048-d704-47b9-84d2-245be1c6902d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref14

Harriman Alaska Expedition souvenir album, volume 1, "New York to Cook Inlet"

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph album
134 Photographic prints
Container:
Box 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Photographic prints
Date:
1899
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

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Collection Rights:
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / Harriman Alaska Expedition
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw32a3615b7-0e36-4fdd-8dd8-dcb698e3ee7a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref15

Harriman Alaska Expedition souvenir album, volume 2, "Cook Inlet to Bering Strait and the Return Voyage"

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph album
107 Photographic prints
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Photographic prints
Date:
1899
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / Harriman Alaska Expedition
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3df5cf11c-142f-4e4a-9a81-b696932e6e02
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref16

Photogravures of Harvard Glacier, Serpentine Glacier, and Fossil Forest at Glacier Bay

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
3 Photomechanical prints (photogravure)
Container:
Box VOS2, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Photomechanical prints
Date:
1899
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / Harriman Alaska Expedition
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw396684d47-5031-422a-b583-cf9791f02870
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref17

Goldtone of Fort Lapwai showing gathering in center of large circle of tipis

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
1 Transparency (unframed Goldtone)
Container:
Box 4
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Transparencies
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Identifier:
NAA.2022-12, Item 99235
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3caa77a45-495c-4183-a606-a6ca2aa320c4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref18

Volume 1

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw316f827f6-a087-4280-a8c8-67c152d411d5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref19

Photographs and photogravures

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
This series relates to both the Harriman Alaska Expedition (HAE), and the North American Indian (NAI). The HAE material includes two souvenir albums and several photogravures. The NAI material includes original and working copy glass and nitrate negatives, and one gold tone of Fort Lapawi.
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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Identifier:
NAA.2022-12, Series 2
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw32bd495f9-732e-4c20-8e02-b6be99d32d43
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref2

Volume 3

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw32d42dd0b-8ecb-4e0d-93bf-f5b0b37b5c48
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref20

Volume 7

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3909c55ac-96a2-4b5d-afde-ab73abbdd0ae
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref22

Volume 8

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36023e70b-8dcb-446e-83d0-b025017c6191
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref23

Volume 9

Collection Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs / Series 2: Photographs and photogravures / North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw385810c40-af2f-4849-9ef9-c6e2867edd09
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2022-12-ref24

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