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Oral history interview with Margaret Tomkins, 1984 June 6

Interviewee:
Tomkins, Margaret, 1916-2002  Search this
Interviewer:
Guenther, Bruce  Search this
Subject:
FitzGerald, James  Search this
Artists Gallery (Seattle, Wash.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Women artists -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Artists -- Northwestern States -- Interviews  Search this
Art, Modern -- Northwestern States  Search this
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle -- Interviews  Search this
Art, American -- Northwestern States  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12308
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212455
AAA_collcode_tomkin84
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212455
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Deana Haggag, 2020 August 14

Interviewee:
Haggag, Deana, 1987-  Search this
Interviewer:
Gillespie, Benjamin, 1988-  Search this
Subject:
Pandemic Oral History Project  Search this
United States Artists  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Video recordings
Topic:
Pandemics  Search this
COVID-19 (Disease)  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)21958
AAA_collcode_haggag20
Theme:
African American
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_21958

National Academy of Design records

Creator:
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 1852-1911  Search this
Durand, Asher Brown, 1796-1886  Search this
Lanyon, Ellen  Search this
Ranger, Henry Ward, 1858-1916  Search this
Extent:
92.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Date:
1817-2012
Summary:
The records of New York City's National Academy of Design measure 92.7 linear feet and date from 1817-2012. The records pertain to all three constituents of the tripartite organization consisting of the Academy, a membership body of artists founded in 1825; the school, founded at the same time to promote arts education; and the exhibition program, inaugurated in 1826. Extensive administrative records include minutes, committee files, director files, annual reports, constitutions, and correspondence and subject files of council officers. Exhibition records, also substantive, date to the Academy's first annual exhibition and include gallery and special exhibitions, as well as exhibitions at the Academy's museum, established in 1979. The collection also includes gifts and funding files, especially relating to endowments and prizes; membership records; National Academy Association records; Ranger Fund assignments; extensive files pertaining to the school's administration, courses of instruction, registrations, and attendance; twenty scrapbooks containing clippings and ephemera; Society of American Artists records; correspondence and ephemera from other organizations; transcripts from oral histories with Academy members; extensive photographic material documenting artists, members, the school, exhibitions, buildings, and artwork created by Academy members; artist files containing correspondence, writings, and sketches from those associated with the Academy; and assorted printed material and ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
The records of New York City's National Academy of Design measure 92.7 linear feet and date from 1817-2012. The records pertain to all three constituents of the tripartite organization consisting of the Academy, a membership body of artists founded in 1825; the school, founded at the same time to promote arts education; and the exhibition program, inaugurated in 1826. Extensive administrative records include minutes, committee files, director files, annual reports, constitutions, and correspondence and subject files of council officers. Exhibition records, also substantive, date to the Academy's first annual exhibition and include gallery and special exhibitions, as well as exhibitions at the Academy's museum, established in 1979. The collection also includes gifts and funding files, especially relating to endowments and prizes; membership records; National Academy Association records; Ranger Fund assignments; extensive files pertaining to the school's administration, courses of instruction, registrations, and attendance; twenty scrapbooks containing clippings and ephemera; Society of American Artists records; correspondence and ephemera from other organizations; transcripts from oral histories with Academy members; extensive photographic material documenting artists, members, the school, exhibitions, buildings, and artwork created by Academy members; artist files containing correspondence, writings, and sketches from those associated with the Academy; and assorted printed material and ephemera.

The Academy minutes and committee files consist of official, original, and transcribed proceedings for the council, annual, business, and some committee meetings, as well as related correspondence, reports, financial documents, notes, drafts, and ballots pertaining to the Academy's administration and activities from its 1825 founding until 2006. As an organization actively engaged in the development of art and art education in the United States, the Academy minutes and committee files are a valuable resource on subjects and topics in the Academy's history; in particular, its founding, administration, school, and exhibition program.

Director files date from 1942-1990 and document the activities of four of the Academy's chief administrators, including Vernon Porter (1950-1966), Earl Tyler (1966-1967), Alice Melrose (1967-1977), and John H. Dobkin (1978-1990). Items include correspondence, memoranda, minutes, and printed material.

Annual reports, dating from 1828-2003, summarize the activities of the Academy over the course of a year, and may include presidents' reports, treasurers' reports, audits of financial operations by public accountants, and printed annual reports containing summaries from multiple council officers. Information pertains to the year's activities including finances, exhibitions, membership, the school, committee activities, awards, and other business.

Academy constitutions date from 1826-2012 and include the printed constitutions and by-laws as well as constitutional proposals. Constitutions and by-laws name the current council officials, professors, academicians, associates, and honorary members, and state the mission and guidelines for operation in regards to membership, officers, annual meetings, elections, school, exhibitions, and how the constitution can be amended or altered. Constitutional proposals contain amendment drafts, alterations, and related correspondence.

Council officer files, dating from 1848-1980, contain the correspondence and subjects files of Academy officers—presidents, vice presidents, corresponding secretaries, and treasurers—concerning all matters of Academy business and operations including membership, gifts and funds, the federal charter, exhibitions, juries, the school, scholarships, committee affairs, anniversaries, publicity, administrative matters, resignations, and relationships with other organizations.

General administrative files date from 1825-1982 and include ledgers, certificates, correspondence, and legal documents pertaining to the Academy's founding, building, financial accounts, art collection, and other administrative matters.

Exhibition files, dating from 1826-2003, document the Academy's long exhibition history and includes annual, gallery, special, and museum exhibitions. Files may include exhibition catalogs, photographs, press clippings, sales records, and correspondence related to jury selection, awards and prizes, and logistical planning. Files pertaining to the Academy's annual exhibitions comprise a bulk of the series. Held since 1826, the Annuals were organized and curated by Academy members, and considered to be an important and sweeping survey of contemporary American art.

Gifts and funding files date from 1860-2009 and include financial documents, ledgers, legal material, and correspondence concerning the bequests, endowments, donations, and other gifts that financed the operations of the Academy and school. A significant number of records pertain to the Abbey Trust Fund and the Archer M. Hunting Fund.

Membership files, 1826-2012, document Academy members, honorary members, fellows, and the nominations and elections whereby members were voted into the Academy. Materials include registers, certificates, nomination ledgers and proposals, candidate biographies, and ballots.

The National Academy Association files date from 1911-1959 and contain a constitution, plan, and agreement, as well as correspondence, meeting minutes, and reports for the Association, incorporated in 1912 with the aim to erect a building shared by several New York art societies. At the time of incorporation, the Association consisted of members from the National Academy of Design, American Water Color Society, American Institute of Architects, Architectural League of New York, New York Water Color Club, National Sculpture Society, Municipal Art Society, Society of Beaux-Arts Architects, Mural Painters, Society of Illustrators, and a number of city representatives and citizens.

The Ranger Fund assignment files, 1919-2008, document the distribution of artworks by living American artists to institutions throughout the United States, in accordance with the will of Henry Ward Ranger. The Ranger Fund was initiated to stimulate public interest in the work of contemporary American painters in 1919, when the Academy received a bequest from Henry Ward Ranger, totaling $400,000. Ranger stated in his will that the capital should be invested and the income used as a purchase fund to facilitate gifts of paintings by living American artists to arts institutions throughout the United States. Files document the assignment of particular works of art to institutions through the official agreement, related correspondence, and in some instances, photographs of the artwork.

Extensive school records, dating from 1826-2008, contain administrative files, enrollment records, course files, student affairs files, and printed material documenting all aspects of the school's activities aligned with the Academy's mission to educate aspiring professional artists. A bulk of this series consists of student course registrations, documented in registers, then on index cards beginning in the 1930s. While information collected varied over the decades, registrations document student names and the year, and may additionally include course name, instructor, and cost.

Twenty Academy scrapbooks document the organization's activities from 1828-1939 and include clippings and ephemera. Three of the scrapbooks are devoted to specific topics, including one for the Society of American Artists, one for both the Society of American Artists and the Society of American Fakirs, and one for the Academy's centennial exhibition.

The Society of American Artists files, 1878-1906, document the formation of the Society as a departure from the Academy in 1877, its independent operations and activities, and its eventual consolidation with the Academy in 1906. The Society's members have included Edwin Abbey, James Carroll Beckwith, Mary Cassatt, William Merritt Chase, Thomas Eakins, George Inness Jr., John La Farge, Albert Pinkham Ryder, among many others.

Files from other organizations date from 1817-1997 and may include correspondence, ledgers, and printed material. Many of these organizations had business with the Academy, and records pertain to events, meetings, and exhibitions. Notable organizations include the American Academy of Fine Arts, American Federation of Arts, American Watercolor Society, Art Students League, Fine Arts Federation of New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Etching Club, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and Salmagundi Club.

Oral history transcripts date from 2002-2007. Eight comprehensive interviews, conducted by Avis Berman for the Academy, are with Academy members and cover all aspects of the artists' lives, including family, early life, beginning career, mentors, contemporaries, influences, patrons, awards, residencies, as well as the artists' relationship with the Academy. The interview transcripts provide first-hand accounts of the organization, particularly from circa 1940 up to the time of the interview. Artists interviewed include Will Barnet, Hyman Bloom, Richard Haas, Ellen Lanyon, Jules Olitski, Bernard Olshan, Paul Resika, and Dorothea Rockburne.

Photographic material, dating from 1845-2010, includes a wide variety of formats and processes including 19th and 20th photographic prints, glass plate negatives, copy prints, contact sheets, slides, and 35mm negatives. Subjects include artists and others associated with the Academy, the school, exhibitions and events, Academy buildings, artwork, and reference photographs. Many 19th century photographs contain descriptive annotations. Supplementary inventories and guides prepared by Academy archivists are scattered throughout the series.

Artist files date from 1826-2004 and include the correspondence, writings, manuscripts, diaries, exhibition catalogs, and clippings of many notable artists involved with the Academy, including Asher B. Durand and Rembrandt Peale. Of particular note are two notebooks Durand gifted to the Academy, both containing notes and sketches from anatomy lectures.

While printed material is scattered throughout, the final series collects a small number of additional announcements, brochures, clippings, illustrations, and other ephemera not filed in other series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as nineteen series.

Series 1: Minutes and Committee Files, 1825-2006 (11.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-11, BV 100-106)

Series 2: Director Files, 1942-1990 (0.5 linear feet; Box 11)

Series 3: Annual Reports, 1828-2003, circa 2010 (2.1 linear feet; Boxes 11-13, OV 139-142)

Series 4: Constitutions, 1826-2012 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 13-14)

Series 5: Council Officers, 1848-1980 (4 linear feet; Boxes 14-18)

Series 6: General Administration, 1825-1982 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 18, 126)

Series 7: Exhibitions, 1826-2003, 2008 (14.4 linear feet; Boxes 18-33)

Series 8: Gifts and Funding, 1860-2009 (4.1 linear feet; Boxes 33-37)

Series 9: Membership, 1826-2012 (3.4 linear feet; Boxes 37-39, 127-131)

Series 10: National Academy Association, 1911-1959 (0.4 linear feet; Box 39)

Series 11: Ranger Fund Assignments, 1919-2008 (4.3 linear feet; Boxes 39-44)

Series 12: School, 1826-2008 (28.5 linear feet; Boxes 44-56, 68-99)

Series 13: Scrapbooks, 1828-1939 (4 linear feet; Box 56, BV 107-125)

Series 14: Society of American Artists, 1878-1906 (0.8 linear feet; Boxes 56-57)

Series 15: Other Organizations, 1817-1997 (1.8 linear feet; Boxes 57-59, 131)

Series 16: Oral History Transcripts, 2002-2007 (0.7 linear feet; Box 59)

Series 17: Photographic Material, 1845-2010 (6.1 linear feet; Boxes 60-63, 131-138, OV 143-144)

Series 18: Artist Files, 1826-2004 (3.5 linear feet; Boxes 63-66)

Series 19: Printed Material, 1839-1954 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 67, 131, OV 145)
Biographical / Historical:
The National Academy of Design (1825- ) based in New York City, is a tripartite organization consisting of a membership body of artists, a school, and an exhibition program. The Academy was founded in 1825 by a group of professional artists with the mission to promote the fine arts in America through exhibition and education. Originally named the New York Drawing Association, the Academy was the first organization in the United States established and managed by professional artists. Samuel F.B. Morse, the Academy's first president, was influenced by the organization of the Royal Academy in London, which was comprised of professional artist members and elected government council, an art school, and a venue for exhibitions. After unsuccessful negotiations to unite with the American Academy of Fine Arts, the New York Drawing Association reformed as the National Academy of The Arts of Design on January 19, 1826. Among the founders were mostly young artists who became prominent figures in American art, including Frederick S. Agate, Thomas Cole, Thomas S. Cummings, Asher B. Durand, John Frazee, Charles C. Ingham, Henry Inman, Gerlando Marsiglia, Samuel F. B. Morse, Samuel L. Waldo, and Charles Cushing Wright.

The first Academy members were elected in January 1826, and levels of membership were established shortly thereafter. Originally there were four levels of Academy membership: associates, academicians, artists, and honorary corresponding members. The category of artists was eliminated in 1829, and the honorary member category, established to recognize American artists living outside New York, distinguished foreign artists, and patrons and friends of the Academy, was eliminated in 1862 (the constitution was not amended with this change until 1896). Since 1869, the residency requirement for election to active membership was eliminated and membership was opened to all American artists. In 1920, the classification of honorary corresponding member was re-introduced to recognize representatives of other national academies. With the 1997 constitution, the honorary corresponding member classification was again eliminated, and in 1994 the associate category was eliminated.

Artists are proposed for membership by academicians through the membership committee and are elected for life by a sixty percent majority, based on recognized excellence and significant contributions to the field. Procedures and rules for nominating and choosing new academicians changed over the years, as detailed in the constitutions. Associates were at one time required to present a portrait of themselves upon election and academicians were required to provide an additional representative work upon election. With the elimination of the category of associate in 1994, only one representative work is currently required. These works of art become part of the Academy's permanent collection.

The original classes of professional artists were painting, sculpture, architecture, and engraving. These professional classes were modified over the years. In 1936 the engraving class was made more comprehensive, including all of the graphic arts. Watercolor was added as a class in 1943 and was codified in the 1945 constitution. However, the division into five distinct classes started to create difficulties in how specific works of art were to be categorized. In 1981 the council eased the rules regarding separate media classification so that members could submit a work in any medium to the annual exhibitions regardless of the class to which they had been elected. The constitution of 1994 restated four professional classes—painting, sculpture, graphics, and architecture—which were further reduced in the 2011 constitution to two: visual arts and architecture.

Until 2009, the governing body of the Academy was the council. The seven officers of the council were president, vice-president, treasurer, assistant treasurer, corresponding secretary, assistant corresponding secretary and recording secretary, all of whom were required to be academicians. In 2009, a new constitution provided for a board of governors, replacing the council. The five officers of the board of governors are chair, vice-chair, president, vice-president, and treasurer. Only the offices of president and vice-president are required to be held by academicians.

Central to the Academy's mission, the school began with an anatomy lecture for the New York Drawing Association, delivered by Dr. Frederick G. King in November 1825. The first drawing session took place in November 1826 in the Old Alms House at City Hall Park with two academicians and twenty students. In the school's early years, professional artists met with students to draw from plaster casts of antique sculpture in the academic tradition. Both lectures and studio training were central the school's early curricula. Life classes, the practice of drawing from live models, were introduced in 1837, but only to advanced male students. A life class for women was not instituted until 1857, even though women were allowed membership to the Academy since its beginning. Due to financial difficulties at the Academy, the school was forced to move locations and shut down its operations for extended periods. Mounting dissatisfaction and frustration led several students and Lemuel E. Wilmarth, one of the school's leaders and first full-time professional instructor, to leave the Academy in 1875 and form a new school, the Art Students League. While charging tuition was unpopular, the Academy realized that it was necessary to ensure the school's sustainability, and implemented fee structures with varying success over the second half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th. Eventually, tuition was established by 1951, when the school was reopened at a new location, 5th Avenue and 89th Street.

Exhibitions have always been an important activity for the Academy, even prior to the opening of the National Academy Museum in 1979. Since 1826, the Academy has held annual exhibitions intended to reflect contemporary art currents in America. Any American artist was eligible to submit work to be reviewed by a jury of selection, comprised of academicians. Throughout the 19th century, the annual exhibitions at the Academy were one of the most significant and influential in the country. The selection process for these exhibitions was a critical topic, at times actively discussed in the press, and continually undergoing modification and change. In addition to the Annuals, the galleries of the Academy were often rented or loaned to outside organizations such as the American Watercolor Society, Audubon Artists, and the National Association of Women Artists. The galleries also mounted special exhibitions curated by its members and hosted a certain number of travelling exhibitions organized by other museums or art organizations. The museum, opened in 1979, hosted and presented major exhibitions, many focusing on historic European subjects.

Official Names of the Academy 1825-2017

1825 -- The New York Drawing Association

1826 -- The National Academy of The Arts of Design

1828 -- The National Academy of Design

1997 -- The National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art

2017 -- The National Academy of Design

National Academy of Design Meeting, Exhibition, and School Locations

1826 -- Old Alms House at City Hall Park in lower Manhattan

1827-1830 -- Chambers Street over the Arcade Baths

1831-1840 -- Corner of Nassau and Beckman Streets, the Mercantile Library on the third floor of Clinton Hall

1841 to 1849 -- 346 Broadway (at Leonard Street), the third and fourth floors of the New York Society Library

1850-1854 -- 663 Broadway, where the Academy erected a suite of six galleries

1855-1856 -- 548 Broadway (over Dr. Chapin's Church)

1857 -- 663 Broadway

1858-1861 -- 10th Street and 4th Avenue, the upper floor of a building

1861-1863 -- 625 Broadway, the Institute of Art

1865-1899 -- 23rd Street and Fourth Avenue (now Park Avenue South)

1899-1940 -- 109th Street and Amsterdam Avenue; exhibition galleries at 215 West 57th Street

1940-2017 -- 1083 Fifth Avenue at East 89th Street
Provenance:
The bulk of the collection was donated by the National Academy of Design in 2018. The trustees' ledger book in series 6 was donated in 1979 by Warder Cadbury of the Adirondack Museum; it is unclear how Cadbury acquired the ledger. Microfilm reels 798-799 containing transcriptions of minutes were given to the Archives by Lois Fink in 1974.
Restrictions:
This bulk of this collection is open for research. Boxes 63-66 are temporarily closed to researchers due to archival processing and digitization. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Function:
Art Schools -- New York (State) -- New York
Arts organizations -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Citation:
National Academy of Design records, 1817-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.natiacad
See more items in:
National Academy of Design records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-natiacad
Online Media:

Marilyn Horne Interview

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2009-12-15T15:55:05.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_AzQ-XNLtKOQ

Los Texmaniacs perform "Ahi te dejo en San Antonio (I Leave You In San Antonio)"

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-12-13T19:55:22.000Z
YouTube Category:
Music  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianVideos
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianVideos
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_puNEJYzbTkI

The Sant Ocean Hall Episode 2- at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-24T19:15:35.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_7md-Wy_2Qbo

The Sant Ocean Hall, The Scientist Is In - Episode 1 at the National Museum of Natural History

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-18T18:23:22.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_NSqOkB-lBho

Oral history interview with Alessandra Moctezuma, 2020 July 22

Interviewee:
Moctezuma, Alessandra  Search this
Interviewer:
Espinosa, Fernanda  Search this
Subject:
Pandemic Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Video recordings
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Mexican American artists  Search this
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Pandemics  Search this
COVID-19 (Disease)  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)21992
AAA_collcode_moctuz20
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_21992

Judith Linhares papers

Creator:
Linhares, Judith, 1940-  Search this
Extent:
3.02 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcriptions
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Interviews
Notebooks
Date:
circa 1955-2014
Summary:
The papers of artist Judith Linhares measure 3.02 linear feet and date from circa 1955-2014. The collection documents her life, career, and inspirations through biographical material, correspondence, writings, illustrated notebooks, exhibition files, and printed material. Eight scrapbooks which Linhares identifies as her "archive" include additional printed material, professional correspondence, consignment agreements, artist statements, photographs, and interview transcripts.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Judith Linhares measure 3.02 linear feet and date from circa 1955-2014. The collection documents her life, career, and inspirations through biographical material, correspondence, writings, illustrated notebooks, exhibition files, and printed material. Eight scrapbooks which Linhares identifies as her "archive" include additional printed material, professional correspondence, consignment agreements, artist statements, photographs, and interview transcripts.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as six series

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1958-2012 (0.4 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1973-2014 (0.7 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 3: Writings and Illustrated Notebooks, circa 1955- 2000s (0.3 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1984-2005 (0.2 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1971-2010 (0.3 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1957-2013 (1.1 linear feet; Box 2-3)
Biographical / Historical:
Judith Linhares (1940- ) is a painter living and working in New York City. Linhares was born in Pasadena and raised in Southern California. She moved to Oakland in 1958 and attended the California College of Arts and Crafts, receiving her BFA in 1964 and her MFA in 1970.

Linhares was included in the 1978 exhibition at the New Museum, "Bad" Painting, curated by Marcia Tucker, and shortly thereafter relocated to New York. She is best known for her figurative paintings that explore psychology, feminism, gender, mythology, and narrative.

Linhares is the recipient of numerous grants and awards including three National Endowment for the Arts Grants and a Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship. She has exhibited extensively in the United States.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives of American Art by Judith Linhares in 2015.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Judith Linhares papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcriptions
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Interviews
Notebooks
Citation:
Judith Linhares papers, circa 1955-2014. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.linhjudi
See more items in:
Judith Linhares papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-linhjudi

Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection

Collector:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
American Federation of Teachers  Search this
Department of Defense, Comprehensive Review Working Group  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Community Center of Baltimore and Central Maryland  Search this
ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives  Search this
San Diego LGBT Pride  Search this
Servicemembers Legal Defense Network  Search this
Smith College  Search this
University of Connecticut  Search this
William Way Community Center  Search this
Biren, Joan E.  Search this
Bushnell, Megan  Search this
Davidson, James, Dr.  Search this
Dietrich, Joe  Search this
Exline, Gregory  Search this
Florence, Laura  Search this
Huebner, David  Search this
Jain, Shawn  Search this
Karazsia, Amy  Search this
Karazsia, William G.  Search this
Lombardi, Angela  Search this
Lynch, Patsy  Search this
Meinke, Mark  Search this
Nitz, Ryan  Search this
Reichard, Bradley  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959-  Search this
Ros, Silvia  Search this
Sabatino, Michael  Search this
Shannon, Michael A.  Search this
Sheets, Justin  Search this
Snodgrass, Adam  Search this
Voorheis, Robert  Search this
Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Other:
Larson, Gordon P., 1910-1988 -- 20th century  Search this
Names:
McWaine, Dwayne, Dr.  Search this
Extent:
60 Cubic feet (181 boxes, 20 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Passports
Postcards
Photographs
Posters
Videocassettes
Advertising
Dvds
Songbooks
Periodicals
Place:
Canada -- Description and Travel
Germany -- description and travel
Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Washington, D.C. -- history
Los Angeles (Calif.)
New York, New York
Date:
1825-2020, undated
bulk 1960-2019
Summary:
This collection contains a variety of periodicals, photographs, correspondence, business and advertising ephemera (corporate and non-profit, personal), organizational records and ephemera, created by, for, and in reaction to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) community.
Scope and Contents:
The Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection contains periodicals, ephemera, posters, postcards, advertisements, photographs, organizational records, publications, correspondence, and other materials related to all aspects of the LGBT community and the civil rights issues pertaining thereto. The collection was created by the Archives Center to bring together materials specifically pertaining to the LGBT community. This collection contains material from communities and individuals throughout the United States. The collection is currently strongest in periodicals, newspapers and ephemera and very strong in material from California and New York. The collection continues to add new items and the researcher would be wise to take a broad view in targeting their research topics in the collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-four series.

Series 1: Periodicals, 1937-2018

Series 2: Agencies, Associations, and Organizations, 1984-2018, undated

Series 3: Community Life and Subject Files, 1825-2018, undated

Subseries 3.1: Photographs and Slides, 1870-1980, undated

Subseries 3.2: Ephemera and Buttons, 1969-2018, undated

Subseries 3.3: Posters and Prints, 1825-2018, undated

Subseries 3.4: Subject Files, 1958-2018, undated

Subseries 3.5: Pride, 1976-2018, undated

Subseries 3.6: HIV and AIDS, 1987-2017, undated

Series 4: Advertising, Business, and Publications, 1970-2018, undated

Subseries 4.1: Advertising, 1970-2018, undated

Subseries 4.2: Business, 1998-2017, undated

Subseries 4.3: Television, Theater, and Motion Pictures, 1978-2018, undated

Subseries 4.4: Bar ephemera and advertisement, 1979-2018, undated

Subseries 4.5: Publications, 1976-2018, undated

Series 5: Biren, Joan E. (JEB), 195-2018, undated

Subseries 5.1: Xerographic Copies of Photoprints, 1971-1995, undated.

Subseries 5.2: Posters and Oversize Advertisement, 1973-2018, undated

Series 6: Dietrich, Joseph A., 1992-2010

Series 7: Mattachine Society Records, 1942-1996, undated

Subseries 7.1: Correspondence, 1952-1991, undated

Subseries 7.2: Board of Directors Minutes, 1954-1974, undated

Subseries 7.3: Organizational Information, 1942-1993, undated

Subseries 7.4: Councils, Chapters, and Committees, 1953-1965, undated

Subseries 7.5: Conventions, 1953-1960, undated

Subseries 7.6: Publications, 1944-1996, undated

Series 8: Rainbow History Community Pioneers, 2003-2012, undated

Series 9: Strub, Sean O., addendum, 1987-2011, undated

Series 10: Gay and Lesbian Community Center of Baltimore (GLCCB, 1990-2014, undated

Series 11: Ros, Silvia, 2009-2011

Series 12: Huebner, David, 2009-2014

Series 13: St. George, Philip, 1945-1955, undated

Series 14: Will & Grace, 1995-2006

Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York, 1910-2014, undated

Subseries 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides, 1985-2010, undated

Subseries 15.2: Heritage of Pride (HOP), 1984-2014, undated

Subseries 15.3: Barna, Joseph T., 1910-2013, undated,

Series 16: Becker, John M., 1999-2014, undated

Series 17: Rohrbaugh, Richard, 1972-1986, undated

Series 18: Guest, Michael E., 2001-2009

Series 19: The Fosters, 2013

Series 20: Pride at Work, 1990-2015

Series 21: Sabatino, Michael and Voorheis, Robert, 1980-2016, undated

Subseries 21.1: Archilla, Gustavo A. and Lokkins, Elmer T., 1916-2014, undated

Series 22: Gay Officers Action League (GOAL), 1982-2016, undated

Series 23: Brown, Adele "Del" and Herizon's Bar, 1985-1991, undated

Subseries 1: Changing Herizons, and Herizons Newsletter, 1983-1991

Series 24: Universal Felloship Metropolitan Community Churches (UFMCC), 1957-2019, undated
Historical Note:
While the quest for equal rights has been pursued by generations, it is generally acknowledged that the modern day Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) civil rights movement began in New York City in June 1969 with the Stonewall Riots. Prior to this time a number of activists, individuals, and organizations such as The Mattachine Society, Daughters of Bilitis and others, fought to bring recognition of LGBT civil rights to the forefront of American society. While the movement was primarily, and most visually, centered in New York City and San Francisco, periodicals, guide books, and ephemeral material interconnected the larger LGBT community throughout the United States. The increased visibility of the LGBT movement inspired groups at odds with that new found visibility and call to action. The challenge to what was termed "traditional" values encouraged counter-LGBT groups to define and solidfy their constituency as well. This collection comprises material that is generated by individuals and organizations that have been on both sides of the question.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Michio and Aveline Kushi Macro-Biotics Collection (AC0619)

The Shamrock Bar: Photographs and Interviews (AC0857)

John-Manuel Andriote Victory Deferred Collection (AC1128)

Archives Center Wedding Documentation Collection (AC1131 )

Division of Science, Medicine, and Society HIV/AIDS Reference Collection (AC1134)

John-Manuel Andriote Hot Stuff: A Brief History of Disco Collection (AC1184)

Joan E. Biren (JEB) Queer Film Museum Collection (AC1216)

World AIDS Institute (WAI) Collection (AC1266)

Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) Records (AC1282)

Helping Persons with AIDS (HPA) Records (AC1283)

DC Cowboys Dance Company Records (AC1312)

Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers (AC1334)

David Hadley Rockwell New York Disco Ephemera Collection (AC1342)

Leonard P. Hirsch Federal Globe Records (AC1357)

Corbett Reynolds Papers (AC1390)

Mark Segal Papers (AC1422)

The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection (AC1428)

Academy of Washington Records (AC1458)

Matthew Shepard Papers (AC1463)

The Division of Political History holds artifacts related to gay activist Franklin Kameny and a variety of political buttons. They also hold LGBT related artifacts from Joan E. Biren (JEB).

The Division of Medical and Science holds objects donated from Dr. Renee Richards, Sean O. Strub, and Leonard Hirsch.

The Division of Entertainment and the Arts holds objects donated by The Fosters and Will & Grace.
Provenance:
This collection was assembled by the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian, beginning in 2004.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women's music  Search this
Transgender people -- Identity  Search this
Sexual orientation  Search this
Political activists  Search this
Lesbianism  Search this
Lesbian and gay experience  Search this
Gay activists  Search this
Homosexuality  Search this
HIV and AIDS  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Bisexuality  Search this
Bars (Drinking establishments)  Search this
Gay Pride  Search this
Genre/Form:
Passports
Postcards
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Posters
Videocassettes
Advertising
DVDs
Photographs -- 20th century
Songbooks
Periodicals
Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1146
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1146
Online Media:

Marcia Marcus papers

Creator:
Marcus, Marcia, 1928-  Search this
Names:
Avery, Sally  Search this
Barnes, Dorothy Gill, 1927-  Search this
Benson, Elaine  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Müller, Dody  Search this
Richenburg, Robert  Search this
Stout, Myron, 1908-1987  Search this
Extent:
0.389 Gigabytes
8.42 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Interviews
Date:
1928-2016
bulk 1950-2000
Summary:
The papers of New York painter and educator Marcia Marcus measure 8.42 linear feet and .389 gigabytes (1 computer file), and date from 1928-2016, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1950-2000. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, interviews, writings (including two diaries), project files, personal business records, printed material, photographic material, eight sketchbooks, and artwork. Extensive personal and professional correspondence is with her husband and close friends, galleries, museums, and other arts organizations. Notable correspondents include Sally Avery, Dody Müller, and Robert (Bob) Richenburg, and, to a lesser extent, Dorothy Gill Barnes, Elaine Benson, Elaine de Kooning, Grace Hartigan, and Myron Stout. Photographic material includes photographs of Marcus at all stages of her life and photographs and slides documenting her paintings.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York painter and educator Marcia Marcus measure 8.42 linear feet and .389 gigabytes (1 computer file), and date from 1928-2016, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1950-2000. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, interviews, writings (including two diaries), project files, personal business records, printed material, photographic material, eight sketchbooks, and artwork.

Biographical material includes address books, diplomas, certificates, identification documents, resumes, and other material.

Extensive personal and professional correspondence is with Marcia Marcus's husband and close friends, galleries, museums, and other arts organizations. Notable correspondents include Sally Avery, Dody Müller, and Robert (Bob) Richenburg, and, to a lesser extent, Dorothy Gill Barnes, Elaine Benson, Elaine de Kooning, Grace Hartigan, and Myron Stout.

Interviews include 2 sound cassettes and a few transcripts. Writings by Marcia Marcus consist of diaries, artist statements, notebooks, notes, lists and poems. There are also a few writings by others about Marcus. Project files mostly consist of grant applications, a mail art project, information on exhibitions curated by Marcus, and other material.

Personal business records include receipts, ledgers, prices lists, leases, and other documentation. Photographic material includes photographs of Marcus at all stages of her life and photographs and slides documenting her paintings. There are eight sketchbooks and artwork, mostly in the form of small sketches and watercolors.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as ten series

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1928-2000s (0.7 linear feet; Box 1, OV 9)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1948-2016 (4.0 linear feet; Box 1-5)

Series 3: Interviews, 1970s-1980 (3 folders; Box 5)

Series 4: Writings, 1970s-2014 (0.3 linear feet; Box 5)

Series 5: Project Files, 1962-circa 2000 (0.2 linear feet; Box 5-6)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1960s-2000s (0.3 linear feet; Box 6)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1950s-1990s (0.8 linear feet; Box 6-7, OV 10-11)

Series 8: Photographic Material, 1950s-1990s (1.3 linear feet; Box 7-8)

Series 9: Sketchbooks, circa 1954-2000 (0.3 linear feet; Box 8)

Series 10: Artwork, 1950s-1990s (0.4 linear feet; Box 8, OV 12)
Biographical / Historical:
Marcia Marcus (1928- ) is a figurative painter working in New York, New York.

Born in New York City, Marcus earned her bachelor's degree in fine arts from New York University in 1949, studied at the Cooper Union from 1950-1952, and studied at the Art Students League with Edwin Dickinson in 1954. In 1951, Marcus exhibited her first painting in a group exhibition at Roko Gallery in New York City. Since then, she has been the subject of over a dozen solo shows and participated in many group exhibitions.

Marcus had an exhibition of self-portraits (1960) at the Delancey Street Museum, where the artist Red Grooms, one of her many friends in the art world, was one of the founders. She also directed and performed a "Happening" there. In 1961, Marcus studied Byzantine and fresco painting in Florence, Italy. She then traveled to France from 1962-1963 on a Fulbright fellowship, and was the recipient of many other grants throughout her career including a Esther and Adolph Gottlieb grant and a National Endowment for the Arts grant. Marcus has taught as a visiting artist at a number of colleges and universities, including Vassar College, New York University, and Purdue University.

Marcus married Terrence (Terry) Barrell in 1959 and they have two children, Kate and Jane.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Marcia Marcus conducted by Paul Cummings in 1975.
Provenance:
Marcia Marcus donated her papers in multiple increments between 1974-1984. Her daughter Kate Prendergast donated additional papers in 2016.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings and born-digital records with no duplicate copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Marcia Marcus papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Interviews
Citation:
Marcia Marcus papers, 1928-2016, bulk 1950-2000. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.marcmarc
See more items in:
Marcia Marcus papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-marcmarc
Online Media:

Print Council of America records

Creator:
Print Council of America  Search this
Names:
Print Council of America.. Newsletter  Search this
Degas, Edgar, 1834-1917  Search this
Fine, Ruth, 1941-  Search this
Haverkamp Begemann, Egbert  Search this
Ostrow, Stephen E.  Search this
Reed, Sue Welsh  Search this
Extent:
24.5 Linear feet
2.34 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Interviews
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Date:
1951-2016
Summary:
The records of the Print Council of America measure 24.5 linear feet and 2.34 gigabytes, and date from 1951 to 2016. The collection includes administrative files, correspondence and subject files, interviews, exhibition and project files, financial records, and printed materials that document the council's founding and activities as a non-profit, professional organization of print specialists.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Print Council of America measure 24.5 linear feet and 2.34 gigabytes (271 computer files), and date from 1951 to 2016. The collection includes administrative files, correspondence and subject files, interviews, exhibition and project files, financial records, and printed materials that document the council's founding and activities as a non-profit, professional organization of print specialists.

Administrative files consist of general administrative records and files for memberships, board of directors, trustees, committees, and digital photographs. Correspondence and subject files contain a mixture of correspondence, writings, and printed material for various correspondents and topics. The oral history project consists of twelve digital sound recordings and transcripts of interviews with council members Ruth Fine, Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann, Stephen E. Ostrow, Sue Reed, Robert Waddell, and others.

Files for exhibitions include American Prints Today 1959 and 1962 , the VII São Paulo Biennial exhibition Eleven American Printmakers (1963), the New York World's Fair of 1964-1965, and 30 Contemporary American Prints (1964). Project files include documentation for the Index to Print Catalogues Raisonné database, other publishing and research projects, surveys, a print collection in India, the People-to-People Program, the sales of an Edgar Degas work, and project proposals.

Financial records consist of cash vouchers, check stub books, financial reports, disbursement and cash receipt ledgers, The Lessing and Edith Rosenwald Foundation grant information, paid bills, and tax information. In printed materials are issues of Print Council's Newsletter, press releases, print sales and exhibition catalogs, reprints of advertisements, informational flyers created by the council, and a booklet marking the council's 50th anniversary.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, 1955-2016 (9.2 linear feet; Boxes 1-7, 24-28, OV 29; 0.26 gigabytes, ER01)

Series 2: Correspondence and Subject Files, 1953-2016 (5.9 linear feet; Boxes 7-12)

Series 3: Oral History Project, 2006-2016 (0.4 linear feet; Box 13; 2.08 gigabytes, ER02-ER13)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1956-2005 (3.0 linear feet; Boxes 13-16, OV 29)

Series 5: Project Files, 1956-2013 (3.4 linear feet; Boxes 16-19, OV 29)

Series 6: Financial Records, 1956-1995 (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 19-21)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1951-2016 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 21-22)
Biographical / Historical:
The Print Council of America (est. 1956- ) is a non-profit, professional organization of print specialists in Boston, Massachusetts.

The idea of a print council began in 1954 when a group of prominent art collectors, curators, and scholars gathered in New York to discuss creating a national organization that could promote prints and print collecting. After much discussion, by-laws and other legal documentation were drawn up by Joshua Binion Cahn, a legal advisor for the Print Council of America, to establish the organization. Some of the earliest members of the council, including Adelyn Breeskin, Gustav von Groschwitz, Una Johnson, William Lieberman, A. Hyatt Mayor, Elizabeth Mongan, Paul J. Sachs, and Carl Zigrosser, were led by Lessing J. Rosenwald, an art collector and son of Julius Rosenwald, who was part owner of Sears, Roebuck and Company.

Rosenwald's mission was to "foster the creation, dissemination, and appreciation of fine prints, old and new," and to encourage and professionalize the preservation, administration, and study of print collections in the United States and Canada. Eventually the organization evolved to become an authority on print standards, educating print professionals and collectors on how to prevent fraudulent practices by learning ways to identify authentic or "original" prints. As an authority on prints, the council published numerous guides and directories of print resources. One of the council's most notable accomplishments was the compilation of European, American, and Japanese print resources into the Index of Print Catalogues Raisonné online database. The council also aimed to provide its members with an avenue to share ideas through holding annual meetings. After the closing of the organization's New York office in 1973, annual and semi-annual meetings continued to be a valuable resource for members.

Today, the council continues to provide educational tools and resources for print professionals.
Provenance:
The Print Council of America records were donated in multiple installments from 1981 to 2017 via former council presidents Andrew Robinson, Sue Reed, Jay Fisher, Marjorie B. Cohn, and James A. Ganz.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of born-digital records with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc.  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Curators -- United States  Search this
Printmakers  Search this
Prints  Search this
Prints -- societies, etc  Search this
Prints -- Technique -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Citation:
Print Council of America records, 1951-2016. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.princoun
See more items in:
Print Council of America records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-princoun

Lucy R. Lippard papers

Creator:
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Names:
Addison Gallery of American Art  Search this
Alliance for Cultural Democracy  Search this
Art Workers Coalition  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Political Art Documentation/Distribution (Organization)  Search this
Printed Matter, Inc.  Search this
Studio International (Firm)  Search this
University of Colorado -- Faculty  Search this
Women's Caucus for Art  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Chicago, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Darboven, Hanne  Search this
Edelson, Mary Beth  Search this
Hammond, Harmony  Search this
Henes, Donna  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Judd, Donald, 1928-  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Pearson, Henry, 1914-2006  Search this
Stevens, May  Search this
Extent:
56.5 Linear feet
0.454 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
1930s-2007
bulk 1960-1990
Summary:
The papers of New York and New Mexico writer, art critic, and curator, Lucy R. Lippard, measure 56.5 linear feet and 0.454 GB and date from the 1930s to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1990s. Over half of the collection consists of correspondence files documenting Lippard's professional relationships with artists, writers, galleries, art institutions, and political organizations, and her interest in conceptual and minimalist art, feminism and political activism. Also found are Lippard's notes and writings including sound recordings and interviews, teaching and exhibition files, printed and digital material, several works of art, and photographs of artwork and artists. Scattered throughout the collection are a small number of records concerning Lippard's personal life. An addition of 3.0 linear feet donated 2015 includes subject files on feminist and conceptual art as well as land use, development, and local politics and history in New Mexico.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York and New Mexico writer, art critic, and curator, Lucy R. Lippard, measure 56.5 linear feet and 0.454 GB and date from the 1930s to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1990s. Over half of the collection consists of correspondence files documenting Lippard's professional relationships with artists, writers, galleries, art institutions, and political organizations, and her interest in conceptual and minimalist art, feminism and political activism. Also found are Lippard's notes and writings including sound recordings and interviews, teaching and exhibition files, printed and digital material, several works of art, and photographs of artwork and artists. Scattered throughout the collection are a small number of records concerning Lippard's personal life. An addition of 3.0 linear feet donated 2015 includes subject files on feminist and conceptual art as well as land use, development, and local politics and history in New Mexico.

A small amount of biographical material comprises resumes and an address book.

Correspondence files document all aspects of Lippard's professional life including her relationships with artists such as Carl Andre, Judy Chicago, Hanne Darboven, Ray Johnson, Sol LeWitt, and Henry Pearson; feminist artists including Mary Beth Edelson, Harmony Hammond, Donna Henes, and May Stevens; political and art-related activist groups such as Alliance for Cultural Democracy, Art Workers Coalition, Political Art Documentation/Distribution, Printed Matter, and Women's Caucus for Art; galleries and museums including Addison Gallery of American Art and the Museum of Modern Art, and publishers including Art International and Art Forum. The series also traces the development of Lippard's involvement in activist causes including censorship and the rights of artists, Central America and the impact of U.S. policy on the region, and equality and reproductive rights for women, as well as her interest in conceptual and minimalist art. The series includes scattered artwork and photographs of artists.

Writings are primarily by Lippard and include correspondence, manuscript drafts, extensive notes, and publication records for some of her best-known books such as The Graphic Work of Philip Evergood (1966), Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art Object (1973), Eva Hesse (1976), Ad Reinhardt (1985), and Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multicultural America (1990), as well as essays for publications such as Art Forum and Studio International and contributions to exhibition catalogs. Also found are edited transcripts from conferences, symposia and interviews conducted by and of Lippard, some audio recordings of interviews and symposia, including an interview with Donald Judd, and notes and typescripts for lectures and speeches.

A small number of files document Lippard's teaching work during the 1970s and 1980s, primarily at the University of Colorado, Boulder where she taught several courses and seminars.

Exhibition files document Lippard's involvement with exhibitions she helped to organize or curate such as A Different War: Vietnam in Art (1989-1991) 557,087 and 955,000 (1969, 1970), 2,972, 453 (1971) c.7,500 (1973-1974) and those for which she wrote catalog contributions.

Printed material includes a collection of articles written by Lippard and a small amount of material concerning events, such as speaking engagements, in which Lippard was involved. Other printed material reflects Lippard's wide range of artistic, political and activist interests and documents exhibitions and performances and the activities of art-related and political groups. Material includes many exhibition catalogs, announcements, invitations, printed posters, news clippings, journal articles, brochures, pamphlets and other publications.

Artwork includes sixteen items by unidentified artists, including two by children. Photographs consist primarily of photographs of works of art in addition to a small number of photos of exhibition installations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eight series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1960s-circa 1980s (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1950s-2006 (Boxes 1-28, 51, OVs 54-63; 28.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1930s-1990s (Boxes 28-41, 51-52, OVs 64-66; 13.24 linear feet, ER01; 0.454 GB)

Series 4: Teaching Files, 1966-1993 (Boxes 41, 52; 0.76 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibitions, 1960s-1990s (Boxes 42-45, 52, OVs 67-68; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1940s-2007 (Boxes 45-49, 52, OVs 69-77; 5.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork and Ephemera, circa 1960s-circa 1990s (Boxes 50, 53; 4 folders)

Series 8: Photographs, 1950s-circa 1990s (Boxes 50, 53, OV 71; 1.0 linear foot)
Biographical / Historical:
New York and New Mexico writer and art critic, Lucy R. Lippard, is the curator of numerous exhibitions and the author of over twenty-four books and other writings that trace the emergence of minimalist and conceptual art and document Lippard's commitment to feminism and political activism.

Born in New York City in 1937, Lippard earned a B.A. from Smith College in 1958 and an M.A. in 1962 from New York University's Institute of Fine Arts. In the 1960s she began writing art criticism for the journals Art International and Artforum. In 1966 she curated the landmark exhibition Eccentric Abstraction at the Fischbach Gallery in New York City. Lippard then curated the first of four defining conceptual art exhibitions that became known as her "numbers" shows, each titled after the populations of the cities in which they took place, with catalogs in the form of a set of 10 x 15 cm index cards. Opening at the Seattle Art Museum in 1969, 557,087 was followed by 955,000 in Vancouver, Canada, a few months later. 2,972,453 was held at the Centro de Arte y Comunicacíon in Buenos Aires in 1971 and c.7500 opened in Valencia, California, in 1973-1974 before traveling to several other venues in the United States and Europe.

Lippard's first book, The Graphic Work of Philip Evergood was published in 1966, followed by Pop Art the same year, and a collection of her early essays, Changing, in 1971. Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art Object (1973) and From the Center: Feminist Essays on Women's Art (1976) documented the emergence of conceptual art and the early years of feminist art respectively. In 1976 Lippard published her seminal book on the life and work of Eva Hesse.

Between 1977 and 1978 Lippard lived on a farm in Devon, England, and worked on a novel, The First Stone, about the role of politics in the lives of three generations of women. During her walks across the English countryside she became interested in landscape art and conceived of her book Overlay: Contemporary Art and the Art of Prehistory which was subsequently published in 1983. Other books include Get the Message?: A Decade Of Art For Social Change (1984), Ad Reinhardt (1985), and Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multicultural America (1990). Lippard has also written regular columns on art and politics for the Village Voice, In These Times and Z Magazine, and has been a contributing editor of Art in America.

Lippard was radicalized during a trip to Argentina in 1968 when she was invited to be a juror at the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires. On her return to the United States she became heavily involved in anti-war activities and the Art Workers Coalition. She is a co-founder of several feminist and artist organizations including the feminist collective Heresies, which produced Heresies: A Feminist Journal on Art and Politics from 1977-1992, Ad Hoc Women Artists, Alliance for Cultural Democracy, Artists Call Against U.S. Intervention in Central America, Women's Action Coalition, and Women's Art Registry. In 1976 she was a founder of Printed Matter, a New York nonprofit dedicated to producing artists' publications. She also worked closely with Franklin Furnace, an artist-run space devoted to the promotion of artists' books, installation art, and video and performance art, and served on the organization's International Committee.

Lippard has been a visiting professor at the School of Visual Arts, the University of Colorado, Boulder, and the University of Queensland, Australia, and was Eminent Artist in Residence at the University of Wyoming Department of Art in 2015. She has received honorary doctorates in fine arts from Maine College of Art, the Massachusetts College of Art, Moore College of Art, San Francisco Art Institute, and others, and awards including a Guggenheim Fellowship, two National Endowment for the Arts grants in criticism, the Smith College Medal, the ArtTable Award for Distinguished Service to the Visual Arts, and the Bard College Center for Curatorial Studies Award for Excellence.

Lippard has lived in New Mexico since 1992 and works as a freelance writer and speaker.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Lucy Lippard conducted in 2011 March 15, by Sue Heinemann, for the Archives of American Art's Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts project, funded by a grant from the A G Foundation.
Provenance:
Lucy R. Lippard donated her papers in several increments between 1972-1995, and 2006.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Lucy R. Lippard papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Artists -- Political activity  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Conceptual art  Search this
Art criticism -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Art critics  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Lucy R. Lippard papers, 1930s-2007, bulk 1960s-1990s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lipplucy
See more items in:
Lucy R. Lippard papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lipplucy
Online Media:

Nathaniel Mathis Collection of Barbering and Beauty Culture

Creator:
Mathis, Nathaniel, 1946- (barber, motivational speaker)  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (18 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Awards
Interviews
Certificates
Oral history
Videotapes
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Date:
1946-2004
bulk 1970-2004
Summary:
Nathaniel Mathis is a Washington, D.C., hairstylist, inventor, motivational speaker, and entrepreneur. His papers document his business life and community involvement.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of a hairstylist, inventor, entrepreneur, and public figure whose career reflects significant changes in the African American community in the later 20th century. It is rich in visual imagery created by and for this community. Business papers, correspondence, publicity, photographs, awards and certificates documenting Mathis's work as a highly regarded barber and hairstylist in Washington, D.C., and as member of the D.C. Board of Barbering and Cosmetology are included. Business papers offer insight into the workings of a small privately-owned business. Numerous publicity items and photographs offer evidence of African American style and fashion in New York and Washington, D.C., from the late 1960s through today. Additional material documents Mathis's activities as a community activist, motivational speaker and distance runner. The collection also includes photographs, oral history interviews, and audio-visual materials.

Series 1, Biographical Information and Activities, 1946-2001, undated

This series includes all biographical statements, Mathis's autobiography, high school and college diplomas (including his GED), and other school and religious papers. Also included are advertising and programs for his various community events and motivational speaking engagements. Mathis participated in and sponsored many athletic, religious, community and children's events, which are documented here. Of note is his autobiography, Portrait of a professional: The Nat the Bush Doctor story as told to Jim Link, published in 1986.

Series 2, Beauty Business Documents and Advertising, 1969-2002, undated

Included in this series are papers related to Mathis's hair salon and clinic, his patent (United States Design Patent No. 237,022) for a Barber's Apron, associated marketing materials, and Bush Doctor advertising. Many of the materials are self-produced; both promotional items for customers and advertisements placed in publications such as phone books and newspapers. Documents for his School of Beauty, which ran from 1980 to 1992, include course material, the salon philosophy and the curriculum. His appointment books show the day-to-day life of the Bush Doctor. Also included are events where he appeared as the Bush Doctor.

Series 3, Publicity, 1963-2002

Clippings from newspapers and magazines, as well as entire magazines and newspapers where Mathis was mentioned on the front page. Several magazine covers and fashion spreads were collected because he was responsible for doing the hair of one or more of the models in the photo shoot. He also appeared at many education, trade, fashion, and hair shows, both as a competitor and as a speaker or panel member. Many of the newspapers showcase his inclusion in the Smithsonian collections in 1999 and from his graduation from Prince George's Community College, Maryland, 2001.

Series 4, Washington, D.C. Barbering and Cosmetology Boards, 1966-1997, undated

Mathis was appointed to the Examiner's Board as the chairperson in 1987 by Mayor Marion Barry of Washington, D.C., and to the Barbering and Cosmetology Board in 1994, after delivering a personal statement as to why he should be selected. The Board was significant because it was the first to license hair braiders in the country.

Series 5, Correspondence, 1967-2002, undated

Mathis maintained correspondence from many areas of his life. Topics covered include personal and professional matters, motivational speaking, and applications to appear in hair and trade shows as a competitor and panelist. Correspondents include the International Guest Artist Men's Hairstylist Association, the Red Cross, the Girl Scout Council, Shoptalk Trade publication, children at the Young School, and many beauty supply companies. He also promoted Soft Sheen beauty products and was a spokesperson for them at various events.

Series 6, Awards and Certificates, 1969-2001, undated

Mathis also received many awards, not only for his barbering skills, but for athletic events and for mentoring and providing support to various community organizations. Included are diplomas and certificates of completion for classes that he took related to barbering. He received medals at competitions such as the Coupe de la Paix in Egypt and the Coupe de l'Europe de le Coiffure in Paris, among others.

Series 7, Photographs, 1966-1989, undated

Photographs are comprised of modern color prints and gelatin developing-out paper (modern black and whites). The photographs document both Mathis's public and private life, from family snapshots to publicity photographs for his book and his television appearances. Of note are photographs with celebrities, including Muhammed Ali, Danny Glover, Robin Williams, Morgan Freeman, Whoopi Goldberg, George Foreman, Chris Rock, Bill Cosby, and Don King.

Series 8, Video materials, 1983-2002, undated

Video materials include ½" VHS, DVD and Minidisc formats and document Mathis's motivational speaking, athletic events, and barber training tapes. He made a promotional tape about his life entitled "From Hair to the Throne," which is undated but in DVD format. Much of his motivational speaking took place at high schools and colleges in the Washington, D.C. area. There are also interviews by local television stations. Included are notes about the tapes taken by Fath Davis Ruffins, a curator at the National Museum of American History.

Series 9, Audio Tapes, 1998-2004, undated

Fath Davis Ruffins, a curator at the National Museum of American History, recorded several oral history interviews with Mathis around the time the collection was acquired in 1998. These make up the bulk of the audio tape series and range from 1998 to 2004. Also included are tapes from radio appearances, as well as a motivational business tape which showcases Mathis's vocal talents.

Series 10, Memorabilia, 1992-1998, undated

Included in this collection is the Game of Life (playing pieces, cards, dice) and bags with the Bush Doctor logo on them. Mathis gave gift bags at the 2002 Black History Month convention, which included information about him and his salon, as well as a pick and a hair comb. He also collected political pins and kept many of his name badges and pins from shows and events he attended.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into 10 series:

Series 1, Biographical Information and Activities, 1946-2001, undated

Series 2, Beauty Business Documents and Advertising, 1969-2002, undated

Series 3, Publicity, 1963-2002

Series 4, Washington, D.C. Barbering and Cosmetology Boards, 1966-1997, undated

Series 5, Correspondence, 1967-2002, undated

Series 6, Awards and Certificates, 1969-2001, undated

Series 7, Photographs, 1966-1989, undated

Series 8, Video materials, 1983-2002, undated

Series 9, Audio Tapes, 1998-2004, undated

Series 10, Memorabilia, 1992-1998, undated
Biographical / Historical:
"Nat Mathis (b. 1946) is a native Washingtonian. He is a man of many talents and measures his success in many ways: innovative hairstylist, entrepreneur, inventor, community activist, motivational speaker and distance runner. Mathis opened his first barber shop in 1969. He is the winner of many national and international hairstyling awards and competitions and was the first African American to win the International Hair Styling competition in Cairo, Egypt in 1981. Mathis was among the first African American hairstylists to embrace and popularize the Afro and, later, cornrows -- hairstyles which many view as expressions of black empowerment. Mathis himself seldom expresses a political ideology of hair, but by 1970, Nat was known among his many satisfied clients and peers as "the Bush Doctor" for his expertise in Afro style and maintenance. He has styled hair for many celebrities; made numerous television appearances; and has been a stylist for several productions at the Kennedy Center, and for two major motion pictures, including Nixon, for which he re-created period hairstyles. He is active in community affairs, gives motivational speeches throughout the Washington, D.C., area, and is particularly interested in mentoring young people. He currently operates a barber shop adjacent to his home in Capitol Heights, Maryland."

*Biographical information provided by Nat Mathis's Official Website, "A Man of Many Talents." http://www.natmathis.com (accessed 02 August, 2006).
Separated Materials:
Mr. Mathis donated three of his patented barbering vests (See Accession # 1998.0114) to the Division of Home and Community Life.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Nathaniel Mathis on April 9, 1998. An additional .3 cubic feet was donated to the Archives Center in 2004; 3 audio cassettes, 1 DVD and 2 mini discs added in 2006.
Restrictions:
Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.

Technical Access: Series 8, Video materials and Series 9, Audiotapes may not be used by researchers unless reference and viewing copies are made available.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. The Archives Center does not own rights to the patent, trademark or any related interest in the artifacts.
Topic:
Barbers  Search this
Hairdressing of African Americans -- 1970-2000 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Motivation -- Public speaking -- 1970-2000  Search this
Barbering  Search this
Hair  Search this
Barbershops -- Equipment and supplies -- 1970-2000 -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Public speaking -- 1970-2000  Search this
Inventors  Search this
African American barbers  Search this
African American beauty operators  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 1970-2000
Awards
Interviews -- 2000-2010
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Certificates
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Videotapes
Citation:
Nathaniel Mathis Collection of Barbering and Beauty Culture, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0641
See more items in:
Nathaniel Mathis Collection of Barbering and Beauty Culture
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0641
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Joe Schwartz, 2010 April 25-26

Interviewee:
Schwartz, Joe, 1913-  Search this
Interviewer:
Gardullo, Paul, 1968-  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Lithographers -- California -- Interviews  Search this
Photographers -- California -- Interviews  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15898
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)296243
AAA_collcode_schwar10
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_296243
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Alanna Heiss, 2010 June 15-October 28

Interviewee:
Heiss, Alanna, 1943-  Search this
Interviewer:
McElhinney, James, 1952-  Search this
Subject:
Callahan, Harry M.  Search this
Finkelpearl, Tom  Search this
Gill, Brendan  Search this
Highstein, Jene  Search this
Matta-Clark, Gordon  Search this
Nonas, Richard  Search this
Clocktower Gallery  Search this
Institute for Art and Urban Resources  Search this
Lawrence University  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Museum  Search this
P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center  Search this
University of Chicago  Search this
Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts Project  Search this
Biennale di Venezia  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Arts administrators -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Gallery directors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15902
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)296450
AAA_collcode_heiss10
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_296450
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Peter and Paula Lunder, 2017 October 19-20

Interviewee:
Lunder, Peter, 1933-  Search this
Interviewer:
McElhinney, James, 1952-  Search this
Subject:
Lunder, Paula Crane  Search this
Stern, Max  Search this
Broun, Elizabeth  Search this
Abbott, Jere  Search this
Gourley, Hugh J.  Search this
Colville, Thomas L.  Search this
Twombly, Cy  Search this
Walton, Alice  Search this
Corwin, Sharon  Search this
Cantor, Jay E.  Search this
Bixler, Julius Seelye  Search this
Greenbaum, Michael D.  Search this
Gurney, George  Search this
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Norton Gallery and School of Art  Search this
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute  Search this
Colby College  Search this
Boston Red Sox (Baseball team)  Search this
Art Collectors: A Project in Partnership with the Center for the History of Collecting in America at The Frick Collection  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- Interviews  Search this
Philanthropists -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)17520
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)391113
AAA_collcode_lunder17
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_391113

Oral history interview with Holly Barnet-Sanchez, 2019 August 5-6

Interviewee:
Barnet-Sanchez, Holly, 1947-  Search this
Interviewer:
Franco, Josh T., 1985-  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)21703
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)398511
AAA_collcode_barnet19
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_398511
Online Media:

Interviews of Helen Boyer and Warrington Colescott, 1984 Nov. 13 - 1986 Mar. 20

Creator:
Wright, Helena, 1946-  Search this
Boyer, Helen King, 1919-  Search this
Subject:
Boyer, Louise  Search this
Boyer, Ernest W.  Search this
Colescott, Warrington  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.).  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Printmakers -- Interviews  Search this
Prints -- 20th century -- Technique  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6432
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215567
AAA_collcode_wrighele
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215567

Oral history interview with Robert Beverly Hale, 1968 Oct. 4-Nov. 1

Interviewee:
Hale, Robert Beverly, 1901-1985  Search this
Interviewer:
Selvig, Forrest  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art teachers -- Interviews  Search this
Arts administrators -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12653
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212258
AAA_collcode_hale68
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212258
Online Media:

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