Photographs relating to Native Americans or frontier themes, including portraits, expedition photographs, landscapes, and other images of dwellings, transportation, totem poles, ceremonies, infants and children in cradleboards, camps and towns, hunting and fishing, wild west shows, food preparation, funeral customs, the US Army and army posts, cliff dwellings, and grave mounds and excavations. The collection also includes images of prisoners at Fort Marion in 1875, Sioux Indians involved in the Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, the Fort Laramie Peace Commission of 1868, Sitting Bull and his followers after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890.
There are studio portraits of well-known Native Americans, including American Horse, Big Bow, Four Bears, Iron Bull, Ouray, Red Cloud, Red Dog, Red Shirt, Sitting Bull, Spotted Tail, Three Bears, and Two Guns White Calf. Depicted delegations include a Sauk and Fox meeting in Washington, DC, with Lewis V. Bogy and Charles E. Mix in 1867; Kiowas and Cheyennes at the White House in 1863; and Dakotas and Crows who visited President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Images of schools show Worcester Academy in Vinita, Oklahoma; Chilocco Indian School; Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Haskell Instittue, and Albuquerque Indian School.
Some photographs relate to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876; World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, 1903; and Centennial Exposition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railraod, 1876. Expedition photographs show the Crook expedition of 1876, the Sanderson expedition to the Custer Battlefield in 1877, the Wheeler Survey of the 1870s, Powell's surveys of the Rocky Mountain region during the 1860s and 1870s, and the Hayden Surveys.
Outstanding single views include the party of Zuni group led to the sea by Frank Hamilton Cushing; Episcopal Church Rectory and School Building, Yankton Agency; Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking a photographs of a Zuni ceremony; John Moran sketching at Acoma; Ben H. Gurnsey's studio with Indian patrons; Quapaw Mission; baptism of a group of Paiutes at Coeur d'Alene Mission; court-martial commission involved in the trial of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, 1877; President Harding at Sitka, Alaska; Walter Hough at Hopi in 1902; and Mrs. Jesse Walter Fewkes at Hopi in 1897.
George V. Allen was an attorney in Lawrence, Kansas and an early member of the National Stereoscope Association. Between the 1950s and 1980s, Allen made an extensive collection of photographs of the American West, mostly in stereographs, but also including cartes-de-visite and other styles of mounted prints, photogravures, lantern slides, autochromes, and glass negatives.
These are mostly nineteenth-century prints of some negatives in the glass negative collection. Included are a few images made from negatives that apparently have since been broken or lost. Some of the prints were acquired by the Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum and have accession and/or catalog numbers. Others were apparently made for exhibit purposes. The collection has not been sufficiently studied to allow the positive identification of the print makers but many were probably prepared by Charles Milton Bell, De Lancey W. Gill, John K. Hillers, and Antonio Zeno Shindler. Some of the prints have been hand colored by Shindler.
Roughly by tribe
Prints of Indian Negatives, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Relate to the Dakota Indians of Pine Ridge and Rosebud Agencies, and to the Battle of Wounded Knee (December 29, 1890), including views of the battlefield, January, 1891.
"The Nebraska State Historical Society, 1500 R. Street, Lincoln 8, Nebraska (James C. Olson, Supt.), has a collection of pictures relating to the Battle of Wounded Knee, fought in 1890. Included in the group of about 50 photographs are scenes before and following the battle, photographs of Indians, and related subjects. There are a few glass plate negatives by G. E. Trager, and the remainder of the collection consists of old photoprints or copies thereof." -- from Eye to Eye (Graphic Hitory Soc. Of America)-1954- 106. This entry from Eye to Eye, 1954 may refer to the same collection as Bureau of American Ethnology Catalog Number 4464. (Negative Numbers 3200-b-1--15) Some of these were published by Schmitt and Brown ("Fighting Indians of the West," 1948) from the Bureau of American Ethnology copy negatives and attributed to Trager as the photographer. However, the prints in the Bureau of American Ethnology apparently bear no signature or other mark attributing them to Trager. Possibly Schmitt and Brown knew him to be the photographer from other research they had done. It remains to check this collection with the Nebraska Historical Society to see if it is the same as theirs. The prints received from Mr Johnson have evidently been copied many times.
Contents: Catalog Number 4464 Dakota (1) Description: Burial of the dead after the Battle of Wounded Knee Photographer: Northwestern Photo Co. Date: December 29, 1890 (copyright 1/1/91) Negative Number 3200-b-7. (2) Medicine Man, dead in the snow Northwestern Photo Co copyright 1/1/91 3200-b-8. (3) Big Foot, dead in the snow Northwestern Photo Co copyright 1/1/91 3200-b-2 and 55,018. (4) Wounded Knee Battlefield, looking north Northwestern Photo Co copyright 1891 3200-b-10. (5) Wounded Knee Battlefield, looking south-west Northwestern Photo Co ? 1891 47,685. (6) Wounded Knee Battlefield Northwestern Photo Co ? 1891. (7) General Carr's camp at Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co ? 1891. (8) Hostile Indian camp at the Mission near Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (9) "Scene at the battlefield." Northwest Photo Co 1891 3200-b-14. (10) Catholic Mission, 9 miles north of Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (11) Rosebud and Sioux Indians War Dance at Pine Ridge Agency, December 25, 1890 Northwestern Photo Co ? 12/25, 1890. (12) Kicking Bear, Brule Dakota Northwestern Photo Co. (13) Stinking Bear, a leader of the friendly Sioux Indians, Pine Ridge Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (14) Standing Elk (left) and Black Horse (right) Northwestern Photo Co 1891.
Catalog Number 4464 Dakota: (15) Description: Left to right: Two Strike, Crow Dog, High Hawk Photographer: Northwestern Photo Co Date: 1891 Negative Number: 42,827. (16) Left to right: J. M. McDonough, Good Lance, Big Talk, Frank Gerard (chief of scouts), Kicking Bear, Two Strike, Major Burke Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (17) Grand Council between friendly and hostile Indian chiefs at Pine Ridge Agency, January 17, 1891. Chief Kicking Bear talking Northwestern Photo Co January 17, 1891. (18) Indians at camp, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891 3200-b-12. (19) Beef Issue, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (20) Hospital, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891 (21) Captain Taylor and his Indian Scouts on drill, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (22) Officers of the 7th Cavalry, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co Date Unknown. (23) Officers of the 9th Cavalry, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co. [1891 ?] (24) Pine Ridge Agency from the north. (not clear) 1891. (25) Wounded Knee battlefield 1891. (26) Wounged Knee battlefield 3200-b-9. (27) "Scaffold on which the first Indian was hanged. Deadwood, South Dakota." (28) Sitting Bull R. L. Kelly, Pierre, South Dakota 47,686-A. (29) Dakota man, 3/4 length L. W. Stilwell ? (30) Joe Bush L. W. Stilwell, Deadwood, South Dakota. (31) Two men, standing L. W. Stilwell? (32) War Bonnet L. W. Stilwell. (33) Bear Pipe L. W. Stilwell. (34) Ellis [?] Standing Bear L. W. Stilwell (35) Mother of Messiah "watching Ghost Dance at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, 1891"- A. G. Johnson George W. Scott, Fort Yates, North Dakota 1891. (36) Two men standing in front of covered wagon. (37) Four men standing in front of covered wagon. (38) Stinking Bear and Paint His Horse. (39) Row of men on horseback. (40) Omaha Dance, Rosebud Agency W. R. Cross, Hot Springs, South Dakota 1891 55,634. (41) Omaha Dance, Rosebud Agency W. R. Cross, Hot Springs, South Dakota. (42) Row of Indians in front of a reviewing stand. (43) Row of Indians sitting on ground; white man on horse behind them. (44) "Sioux Indians in town July 4, hitting a dime at distance 100 ft." (45) Three "Sioux Indians coming to town."
Catalog Number 4464 Dakota:(46) Description: Hospital, Pine Ridge Agency Photographer Unknown Date: 1891. (47) Funeral of an Indian policeman 1891. (48) Scaffold burials, Yankton Agency, Dakota Territory W. R. Cross. (49) Large group of men on horseback. (50) "U. S. Cavalry returning after Battle of Wounded Knee, S. D., 1891." (51) "U. S. Army Officers Pine Ridge, S. D. 1891." 3200-b-13. (52) Officers with Indian fighters, Pine Ridge Agency 1891. (53) Officers of 7th Cavalry, Pine Ridge. (54) "Soldiers of Wounded Knee, 1891." (55) "Gathering up the dead at the Battle of Wounded Knee, S. D." 1891 47,685-B.
Stereographs documenting Native North Americans, including studio portraits, camps and dwellings, graves, infants in cradleboards, and pottery. Specific images portray Sitting Bull's camp at Fort Randall, Curly at the Custer monument, and a Southern Plains delegation at the White House Conservatory. Tribes represented include Winnebago, Tuscarora, Tesuque, Seneca, San Juan, Pecos, Ojibwa, Oglala, Ute, Kaibab, Sisseton, Arikara, Mandan, Hopi, Shoshoni, Isleta, and Laguna, as well as Native peoples of Alaska and Labrador.
The photographs were published by a variety of firms including E. & H. T. Anthony & Company, George Barker, H. H. Bennett, Bennett & Brown, W. Henry Brown, Caswell & Davy, Childs Art Gallery, B. B. Brubaker, Continent Stereo Company, W. R. Cross, H. A. Doerr, J. Gurney & Son, Haynes, H. T. Hiester, John K. Hillers, William H. Jackson, J. F. Jarvis, Keystone View Company, B. L. Singley, S. J. Morrow, H. T. Payne, H. N. Robinson, C. R. Savage, John P. Soule, Underwood & Underwood, Whitney's Gallery, Whitney & Zimmerman, and Ben Wittick.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 140
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by these photographers can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in additional collections of stereographs relating to Native Americans (MS 4551 and Photo Lot 90-1)
Copies of photogaphs selected from the George Eastman House collection by Bureau of American Ethnology archivist Margaret Blaker in 1962. Many of the photographs are individual or group portraits of American Indians and some highlight pottery, baskets, and cradleboards. There are also images of American Indian dwellings, including tipis and hogans; pueblos; dances; and an encampment during the Modoc War and Plains Indian prisoners at Fort Marion, Florida (1870s).
Expedition photos in the collection were made on T. O. Selfridgeʹs Darien Expedition (1870-1871), the Wheeler surveys (1871-1874), and the Hayden Geological Survey (1871). The collection also includes portraits of Frederick Douglass, Sitting Bull, and John A. Logan; and images from Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show; Company F of New York's 140th Volunteer Infantry; and the Smithsonian in Washington, DC.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R79
Copy negatives made by George Eastman House, 1962.
Copy prints made by the Smithsonian, 1962-1963.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds vintage prints for many of the photographs copied in this collection, including in Photo lot 4501, Photo Lot 4605, and Photo Lot 90-1.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
The images were acquired for reference purposes and cannot be reproduced. Copies may be obtained from George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film.
Photographs of various subjects, including portraits of Native Americans made from negatives by the Bureau of American Ethnology and United States National Museum. Depicted individuals include Lamar Richards (also known as Ostin, Tonkawa) and Grant Richards (also known as Sentele, Tonkawa); Turning Hawk, Crow Dog, Spot Tail, Red Leaf, and White Thunder. There are also images of Shuswap people dressing hides; Smohalla and Sokulk followers at Priests Rapids, Washington; and Native Americans around a campfire at Fort Marion, Florida.
Additionally, there are photographs of St. Columba's Church, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota; Otoe Industrial School; a chapel at the Cheyenne Mowerʹs place, with Mower's son; a sketch of Fort Cummings, New Mexico; buildings and a mound at Charleston, West Virginia; the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City; an American Indian camp with hides drying; Native Americans dragging brush in preparation of a medicine lodge; and a wood engraving of a Dakota Ghost Dance, taken from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.
Photographers include William Dinwiddie; De Lancey W. Gill; Sumner W. Matteson; Thomas William Smillie; Cross, of Hot Springs, South Dakota; and C. C. McBride.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 66F
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by Dinwiddie can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 78, Photo Lot 89, Photo Lot 141A, Photo Lot 144, Photo Lot 80-18, the BAE historical negatives, and the Herbert William Krieger Papers.
Additional Gill photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 65, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 85, Photo Lot 79-4, Photo Lot 87-2P, and Photo Lot 90-1.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds the Sumner W. Matteson collection of photographs, negatives and lantern slides.
Additional Smillie photographs held in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 79, and the BAE historical negatives. The Archives Center, National Museum of American History also holds the Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives.
Prisoners of war: Sitting Bull (second from right) holding Pipe and Bag and with his Wife and Unidentified Man Outside Tipi at his Camp at Fort; Men And Women, Including Sally Battles? (Far Right) with Them