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Peter Paul Haring Papers

Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Correspondence
Financial records
Business records
Legal records
Photographs
Patents
Date:
1895-1977
Summary:
Papers relating to Haring's development of cotton picking machines, 1894-1930.
Scope and Contents note:
Papers relating to Haring's development of cotton picking machines, and to the cotton industry overall: correspondence, photographs, patents, legal records, financial records, articles and printed material, and trade literature.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1; Haring Cotton Machine Company

Series 2: Patents

Series 3: Publications
Biographical/Historical note:
Peter Paul Haring (-1935) was an inventor, based in Texas, who created, improved, and patented several cotton picking machines between 1897-1935. He was head of Haring Cotton Machine Company.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Grace Haring in 1973.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cotton  Search this
Cotton picking  Search this
Cotton picking machinery  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Correspondence -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Financial records
Business records -- 20th century
Legal records
Photographs -- 20th century
Patents
Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1014
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1014
Online Media:

Cotton Picking Machine (US 587,201)

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1897
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref603

Cotton Picking Machine (US 796,421)

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1905
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref604

Cotton Picking Machine (US 796,422)

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1905
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref605

Cotton Picking Machine (US 992,960)

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1911
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref606

Cotton Picking Machine (US 1,076,573)

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1913
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref608

Cotton Picking Apparatus (US 1,715,655)

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1929
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref610

Cotton Picking Apparatus (US 1,768,837)

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1930
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref611

Notes and miscellaneous related to patents

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes typescript notes describing various cotton picking machines.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref613

Notes on cotton picking machine

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 2: Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref618

Articles about cotton picking

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1926-1931, 1947
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 3: Publications
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref619

Publications about cotton picking

Collection Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanisms  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1919, 1928-1929
Scope and Contents:
Includes an issue of Gaceta Algodonera, June 1928.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Peter Paul Haring Papers / Series 3: Publications
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1014-ref620

Tailored Mechanical Cotton Picking, number 63

Collection Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC1177
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America (NCC) Photographs and Film
National Cotton Council of America (NCC) Photographs and Film / Series 4: Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1177-ref295

King Cotton Picks an Emb., number 73

Collection Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC1177
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America (NCC) Photographs and Film
National Cotton Council of America (NCC) Photographs and Film / Series 4: Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1177-ref304

Maid of Cotton Records

Creator:
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee)  Search this
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
38 Cubic feet (90 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks
Reports
Programs
Photographs
Photograph albums
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Date:
1939-1994
Summary:
The Maid of Cotton (MOC) beauty pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council, Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans from 1939-1993. The contest was held annually in Memphis, Tennessee until the National Cotton Council and Cotton Council International moved to Dallas, Texas. Beginning with the 1985 pageant (held December 1984) the competition was held in Dallas. The pageant was discontinued in 1993 due to lack of funds, a sponsor, and changes in marketing strategies. The records include files on contestants, photographs, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains the records for the Maid of Cotton pageant (1939-1993) sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The collection consists of approximately 38 cubic feet of records created by the NCC in the course of operating the Maid of Cotton contest from 1939 to 1993. The records form the complete archive of this fifty-four year program. The records include administrative files, scrapbooks, photographs, slides, and videotapes.

"One of the main values of the Maid of Cotton collection is its completeness. These are all of the official records of the program, documenting all of its activities throughout its entire existence from 1939 to 1993. As such, it represents a truly unique documentary record and opportunity for research.

Beauty contests have been the subject of serious scholarly study for many years. A search of WorldCat reveals over fifty books on the topic. Scholars have found the subject to be a fruitful springboard from which to study a wide variety of topics, primarily centered around issues of beauty, femininity, culture values, national identity, racism, and feminism.

Beauty pageants serve as symbols that reflect the values of American culture. For example, pageant winners have symbolized the advances made by formerly disenfranchised groups. Vanessa Williams, the first African American to win the Miss America crown (1983), rewrote the definition of beauty in America, and Heather Whitestone, the first deaf Miss America (1995), proved that physical handicaps need not hold anyone back from their dreams. Pageants can provide a focus for the re-examination of our society and culture. The tragic murder of six-year-old Jonbenet Ramsey in 1996 provided a window into what author Susan Anderson calls "the extravagant world of child beauty pageants," that led to public debate about issues of motherhood and adolescence.

In addition, beauty pageants can be viewed in advertising terms: they are the ultimate expression of the tried and true adage that sex sells. All pageants have sponsors and all sponsors want their products to be seen in a positive light. Some sponsors are content to contribute goods and services to the contestants --a new car, a trip to the Caribbean, a fur coat, etc. --so that their generosity can be noted in the publicity surrounding the contest. Others prefer to sponsor the entire program. The Miss Universe contest, for example, was created in 1952 by the Jantzen Company specifically to enable the company to showcase pretty girls wearing its swimsuits. Jantzen abruptly withdrew its previous support of the Miss America pageant when Yolande Betbeze refused to wear a bathing suit during her reign as Miss America 1951. The Maid of Cotton pageant is a highly organized, year-long, very visible public relations program that allows the National Cotton Council to showcase the wonders of cotton through the wonders of young beauty queens. Attractive young women are the perfect vehicle for promoting fashionable fabrics made from cotton.

Cotton --the product at the heart of the Maid of Cotton program --has been central to American economic and political history. NMAH's collecting and research interests reflect this. The Division of Work & Industry contains numerous cotton-related objects and much documentation on the subject. The Archives Center holds several cotton-related collections, including the Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1897-1935, documenting Haring's development of cotton picking machinery; the Lockwood Greene collection of thousands of engineering drawings, many of which were for textile mills; the Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for a 1939 biographical motion picture on Dr. George Washington Carver; and the Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, which documents modern cotton farming through photography and oral history interviews. In addition, all aspects of cotton production, from farm to factory to finished goods, are documented in several hundred photos in the Underwood & Underwood Agricultural Photonegative Collection, the Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, the Division of Work & Industry Lantern Slide Collection, and the Donald Sultner-Welles Photograph Collection. Cultural aspects of cotton can be discovered in both the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana and in the DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)

Series 1, Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. Files may contain correspondence, photographs, news clippings, radio commercial scripts, tear sheets, itineraries, trip reports, sheet music, legal documents, waivers, and permissions, and other material related to the Maid of Cotton pageant for that year. Files may also contain subsequent personal information on the Maid of Cotton for that year, for example change of address, news clippings, and the like. This series contains finalist files, trip files and tour report files.

Series 2, Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. This series contains photographs, slides, and transparencies related to the Maid of Cotton and her travels throughout the United States and overseas. It also contains photographs of the fashions worn by each Maid.

Series 3, Scrapbooks, 1951-1988, contains the scrapbooks created by the National Cotton Council office as well as scrapbooks created by the Maids themselves or others for her. Scrapbooks most often contain news clippings, ephemera, and sometimes correspondence.

Series 4, Audio-Visual, 1991-1993. This series contains video and audio related to the Maid of Cotton. It is currently unprocessed.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 1.1: Maid of Cotton files, 1939-1993

Subseries 1.2: Little Miss Cotton, 1956-1963, undated

Series 2: Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photographic Negatives and Transparencies, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Slides, 1939-1993, undated

Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1951-1988

Series 4: Audio-Visual, 1991-1993, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Maid of Cotton pageant began in 1939. The annual pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The pageant was held in Memphis, Tennessee, in conjunction with the Carnival until the 1980s.

In mid-December every year the NCC released a list of contestants. Contestants were required to have been born in one of the cotton-producing states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North and South Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas or Virginia. They might have also been born in the cotton-producing counties of Alexander, Jefferson, Massac, Pulaski, Williamson or Madison, Illinois or in Clark or Nye counties of Nevada. There were usually twenty contestants each year.

Contestants were judged on personality, good manners, intelligence, and family background as well as beauty and an ability to model. A Top Ten were chosen and then a Top Five, and finally second and first runners up and a winner. Winners served as goodwill and fashion ambassadors of the cotton industry in a five-month, all-expense tour of American cities. In the mid-1950s the tour expanded globally. In the late 1950s a Little Miss Cotton pageant was begun but lasted only until 1963 before being discontinued. In the mid-1980s Dallas,Texas took over the pageant, in conjunction with the NCC and its overseas division, Cotton Council International. In 1986, to bolster interest and participation, the NCC eliminated the rule requiring contestants to be born in a cotton-producing state. The pageant was discontinued in 1993, one of the reasons being that Cotton Inc. stopped contributing scholarship money as well as waning public interest and changing marketing strategies. (pageantopolis.com website accessed April 2012.)

"The National Cotton Council is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts have been found; as competition from synthetic fibers developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and in response to foreign competition in both farming and manufacturing . The NCC website states that its modern-day mission is "to ensure the ability of all U.S. cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and U.S.-manufactured product markets at home and abroad." Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusiness, and consumers.

One of the first NCC programs undertaken by to promote the versatility and value of cotton to consumers was the Maid of Cotton program, begun in 1939. This consisted of a beauty pageant open to young women born in one of the seventeen southern cotton growing states. The contestants were evaluated on the basis of beauty, personality, poise, good manners, and intelligence; a family background in cotton production was especially helpful. The girls had to apply for selection to compete in the program. At first this was done directly to the Memphis-based program but eventually a system of state Maid of Cotton programs were established, whose winners went on to compete in the national Maid of Cotton contest. The Maid of Cotton received numerous prizes, whose value and variety tended to increase over the years. In the late 1940s, the program added a scholarship prize, probably in emulation of the Miss America contest. The Maid of Cotton pageant was held each December in Memphis as part of that city's Cotton Carnival festivities. The winner was featured prominently on her own float in the Cotton Carnival parade, was feted at prestigious Carnival events, and was treated as royalty wherever she went. Selection as the Maid of Cotton carried a high degree of status and mature ladies in the South to this day proudly identify themselves as such.

The Maid of Cotton's main function, once crowned, was to serve as a goodwill and fashion ambassador for cotton; any publicity she gained was automatically positive publicity for the cotton industry. Accompanied by an NCC-appointed manager, the Maids embarked on an all-expenses-paid tour. The Maids appeared in full regalia at public events such as county fairs, parades, and holiday events; starred in fashion shows featuring all-cotton outfits; gave speeches to local chambers of commerce and other groups; and in general were the attractive personification of the cotton industry wherever they went. At first, the tours concentrated on the cotton states but they were later extended to major cities outside the cotton belt and came to include visits to legislators on Capitol Hill. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Maids began touring internationally and in the 1970s and 1980s they frequently headed up fashion shows in Asia.

Over time, however, the publicity value of an industry-anointed beauty queen lost its attraction both to the public and --more importantly --to the press. In addition, the role of cotton in the South, particularly in Memphis, declined. In 1986 the contest was moved from Memphis to Dallas. Eventually the cotton industry withdrew its support for the program's scholarships; the 1993 Maid of Cotton was the last to be crowned." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

National Cotton Council Records, circa 1960s-1980s (AC1177)

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1986-1991 (AC0773)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange on October 14, 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty contestants  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Reports
Programs -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Citation:
Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1176
See more items in:
Maid of Cotton Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1176
Online Media:

Labor Contracts of Freedmen

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan.–June 1865
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 8.3.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 8: Indentures, Marriages, and Labor Contracts / 8.3: Labor Contracts of Freedmen
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref115
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Labor Contracts of Freedmen

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Oct. 1865–Dec. 1865
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 8.3.6
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 8: Indentures, Marriages, and Labor Contracts / 8.3: Labor Contracts of Freedmen
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref120
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 1
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Labor Contracts of Freedmen

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan. 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 8.3.7
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 8: Indentures, Marriages, and Labor Contracts / 8.3: Labor Contracts of Freedmen
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref121
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 1
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 2
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 3
Online Media:

Labor Contracts of Freedmen

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Feb. 1866–Nov. 1868
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 8.3.8
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 8: Indentures, Marriages, and Labor Contracts / 8.3: Labor Contracts of Freedmen
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref122
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 1
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 2
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 3
  • View Labor Contracts of Freedmen digital asset number 4
Online Media:

Special Orders and Property Orders Issued (33)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1865–1868
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 5.2.3
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 5: Orders and Circulars / 5.2: Special Orders and Property Orders Issued
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref64
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Special Orders and Property Orders Issued (33) digital asset number 1
  • View Special Orders and Property Orders Issued (33) digital asset number 2

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