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Maid of Cotton Records

Creator:
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee)  Search this
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
38 Cubic feet (90 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks
Reports
Programs
Photographs
Photograph albums
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Date:
1939-1994
Summary:
The Maid of Cotton (MOC) beauty pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council, Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans from 1939-1993. The contest was held annually in Memphis, Tennessee until the National Cotton Council and Cotton Council International moved to Dallas, Texas. Beginning with the 1985 pageant (held December 1984) the competition was held in Dallas. The pageant was discontinued in 1993 due to lack of funds, a sponsor, and changes in marketing strategies. The records include files on contestants, photographs, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains the records for the Maid of Cotton pageant (1939-1993) sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The collection consists of approximately 38 cubic feet of records created by the NCC in the course of operating the Maid of Cotton contest from 1939 to 1993. The records form the complete archive of this fifty-four year program. The records include administrative files, scrapbooks, photographs, slides, and videotapes.

"One of the main values of the Maid of Cotton collection is its completeness. These are all of the official records of the program, documenting all of its activities throughout its entire existence from 1939 to 1993. As such, it represents a truly unique documentary record and opportunity for research.

Beauty contests have been the subject of serious scholarly study for many years. A search of WorldCat reveals over fifty books on the topic. Scholars have found the subject to be a fruitful springboard from which to study a wide variety of topics, primarily centered around issues of beauty, femininity, culture values, national identity, racism, and feminism.

Beauty pageants serve as symbols that reflect the values of American culture. For example, pageant winners have symbolized the advances made by formerly disenfranchised groups. Vanessa Williams, the first African American to win the Miss America crown (1983), rewrote the definition of beauty in America, and Heather Whitestone, the first deaf Miss America (1995), proved that physical handicaps need not hold anyone back from their dreams. Pageants can provide a focus for the re-examination of our society and culture. The tragic murder of six-year-old Jonbenet Ramsey in 1996 provided a window into what author Susan Anderson calls "the extravagant world of child beauty pageants," that led to public debate about issues of motherhood and adolescence.

In addition, beauty pageants can be viewed in advertising terms: they are the ultimate expression of the tried and true adage that sex sells. All pageants have sponsors and all sponsors want their products to be seen in a positive light. Some sponsors are content to contribute goods and services to the contestants --a new car, a trip to the Caribbean, a fur coat, etc. --so that their generosity can be noted in the publicity surrounding the contest. Others prefer to sponsor the entire program. The Miss Universe contest, for example, was created in 1952 by the Jantzen Company specifically to enable the company to showcase pretty girls wearing its swimsuits. Jantzen abruptly withdrew its previous support of the Miss America pageant when Yolande Betbeze refused to wear a bathing suit during her reign as Miss America 1951. The Maid of Cotton pageant is a highly organized, year-long, very visible public relations program that allows the National Cotton Council to showcase the wonders of cotton through the wonders of young beauty queens. Attractive young women are the perfect vehicle for promoting fashionable fabrics made from cotton.

Cotton --the product at the heart of the Maid of Cotton program --has been central to American economic and political history. NMAH's collecting and research interests reflect this. The Division of Work & Industry contains numerous cotton-related objects and much documentation on the subject. The Archives Center holds several cotton-related collections, including the Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1897-1935, documenting Haring's development of cotton picking machinery; the Lockwood Greene collection of thousands of engineering drawings, many of which were for textile mills; the Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for a 1939 biographical motion picture on Dr. George Washington Carver; and the Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, which documents modern cotton farming through photography and oral history interviews. In addition, all aspects of cotton production, from farm to factory to finished goods, are documented in several hundred photos in the Underwood & Underwood Agricultural Photonegative Collection, the Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, the Division of Work & Industry Lantern Slide Collection, and the Donald Sultner-Welles Photograph Collection. Cultural aspects of cotton can be discovered in both the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana and in the DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)

Series 1, Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. Files may contain correspondence, photographs, news clippings, radio commercial scripts, tear sheets, itineraries, trip reports, sheet music, legal documents, waivers, and permissions, and other material related to the Maid of Cotton pageant for that year. Files may also contain subsequent personal information on the Maid of Cotton for that year, for example change of address, news clippings, and the like. This series contains finalist files, trip files and tour report files.

Series 2, Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. This series contains photographs, slides, and transparencies related to the Maid of Cotton and her travels throughout the United States and overseas. It also contains photographs of the fashions worn by each Maid.

Series 3, Scrapbooks, 1951-1988, contains the scrapbooks created by the National Cotton Council office as well as scrapbooks created by the Maids themselves or others for her. Scrapbooks most often contain news clippings, ephemera, and sometimes correspondence.

Series 4, Audio-Visual, 1991-1993. This series contains video and audio related to the Maid of Cotton. It is currently unprocessed.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 1.1: Maid of Cotton files, 1939-1993

Subseries 1.2: Little Miss Cotton, 1956-1963, undated

Series 2: Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photographic Negatives and Transparencies, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Slides, 1939-1993, undated

Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1951-1988

Series 4: Audio-Visual, 1991-1993, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Maid of Cotton pageant began in 1939. The annual pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The pageant was held in Memphis, Tennessee, in conjunction with the Carnival until the 1980s.

In mid-December every year the NCC released a list of contestants. Contestants were required to have been born in one of the cotton-producing states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North and South Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas or Virginia. They might have also been born in the cotton-producing counties of Alexander, Jefferson, Massac, Pulaski, Williamson or Madison, Illinois or in Clark or Nye counties of Nevada. There were usually twenty contestants each year.

Contestants were judged on personality, good manners, intelligence, and family background as well as beauty and an ability to model. A Top Ten were chosen and then a Top Five, and finally second and first runners up and a winner. Winners served as goodwill and fashion ambassadors of the cotton industry in a five-month, all-expense tour of American cities. In the mid-1950s the tour expanded globally. In the late 1950s a Little Miss Cotton pageant was begun but lasted only until 1963 before being discontinued. In the mid-1980s Dallas,Texas took over the pageant, in conjunction with the NCC and its overseas division, Cotton Council International. In 1986, to bolster interest and participation, the NCC eliminated the rule requiring contestants to be born in a cotton-producing state. The pageant was discontinued in 1993, one of the reasons being that Cotton Inc. stopped contributing scholarship money as well as waning public interest and changing marketing strategies. (pageantopolis.com website accessed April 2012.)

"The National Cotton Council is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts have been found; as competition from synthetic fibers developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and in response to foreign competition in both farming and manufacturing . The NCC website states that its modern-day mission is "to ensure the ability of all U.S. cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and U.S.-manufactured product markets at home and abroad." Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusiness, and consumers.

One of the first NCC programs undertaken by to promote the versatility and value of cotton to consumers was the Maid of Cotton program, begun in 1939. This consisted of a beauty pageant open to young women born in one of the seventeen southern cotton growing states. The contestants were evaluated on the basis of beauty, personality, poise, good manners, and intelligence; a family background in cotton production was especially helpful. The girls had to apply for selection to compete in the program. At first this was done directly to the Memphis-based program but eventually a system of state Maid of Cotton programs were established, whose winners went on to compete in the national Maid of Cotton contest. The Maid of Cotton received numerous prizes, whose value and variety tended to increase over the years. In the late 1940s, the program added a scholarship prize, probably in emulation of the Miss America contest. The Maid of Cotton pageant was held each December in Memphis as part of that city's Cotton Carnival festivities. The winner was featured prominently on her own float in the Cotton Carnival parade, was feted at prestigious Carnival events, and was treated as royalty wherever she went. Selection as the Maid of Cotton carried a high degree of status and mature ladies in the South to this day proudly identify themselves as such.

The Maid of Cotton's main function, once crowned, was to serve as a goodwill and fashion ambassador for cotton; any publicity she gained was automatically positive publicity for the cotton industry. Accompanied by an NCC-appointed manager, the Maids embarked on an all-expenses-paid tour. The Maids appeared in full regalia at public events such as county fairs, parades, and holiday events; starred in fashion shows featuring all-cotton outfits; gave speeches to local chambers of commerce and other groups; and in general were the attractive personification of the cotton industry wherever they went. At first, the tours concentrated on the cotton states but they were later extended to major cities outside the cotton belt and came to include visits to legislators on Capitol Hill. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Maids began touring internationally and in the 1970s and 1980s they frequently headed up fashion shows in Asia.

Over time, however, the publicity value of an industry-anointed beauty queen lost its attraction both to the public and --more importantly --to the press. In addition, the role of cotton in the South, particularly in Memphis, declined. In 1986 the contest was moved from Memphis to Dallas. Eventually the cotton industry withdrew its support for the program's scholarships; the 1993 Maid of Cotton was the last to be crowned." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

National Cotton Council Records, circa 1960s-1980s (AC1177)

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1986-1991 (AC0773)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange on October 14, 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty contestants  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Reports
Programs -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Citation:
Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1176
See more items in:
Maid of Cotton Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1176
Online Media:

Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 55

Author:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (6.0" x 3.5")
Container:
Box 21, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Date:
1935 January 1- 1935 December 31
1935 June 1- 1935 December 31
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Leo H. Baekeland Papers / Series 4: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref344
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Labor Contracts of Freedmen

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan.–June 1865
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 8.3.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 8: Indentures, Marriages, and Labor Contracts / 8.3: Labor Contracts of Freedmen
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref115
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Online Media:

S – W

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan. 1868–May 1869
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 4.5.4
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 4: Letters Received / 4.5: Entered in Volume 5
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref56
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Online Media:

Oklahoma

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The 75th anniversary of the State of Oklahoma's admission to the Unites States - its Diamond Jubilee - was celebrated at the 1982 Festival with the presentation of cultural traditions that Oklahomans nourish and support. Music and craft traditions associated with diverse ethnic groups in Oklahoma were presented, as well as skills, knowledge, and lore associated with two major Oklahoma institutions - horses and oil. Indeed, a horse-racing track and show ring were created in the center of the National Mall to host programs spotlighting Oklahoma horse culture.

The strength of folklife in Oklahoma stems from contrasts in the state's landscape and diversity of its cultures. The original settlers in the area now Oklahoma were the Osages, Quapaws, Caddos, Pawnees, Wichitas, Comanches, and Kiowas, but in the 1820s as the Indian removal from the South became the national goal, the Five Civilized Tribes were forcibly marched to "Indian Territory." During the next fifty years, additional tribes were removed to the Territory until today over fifty-five tribes are represented within the state.

In non-Indian culture Oklahoma is a late-comer. White settlement did not start until 1889 with the first land run, and for the next fifteen years additional Indian lands were opened through other land runs, lotteries, and allotments. Oklahoma became the melting pot of the nation. Because it offered free farm land for many new European immigrants, more people moved into Oklahoma in a shorter period of time than any other migration in American history. Also, mining - particularly coal mining - was developed by Indians in the eastern Territory, which attracted many Italian, as well as Mexican and Welsh immigrants, to the new coal fields, and communities that were predominantly Italian grew up around them. Other communities predominantly of one ethnic group, such as Polish, German, Russian-German, Czech and Slovak, were established in the free land areas of central and western Oklahoma, and their Old World traditions continue to flourish until now.

Next to Anglo, Mexican, and Indian cultures, blacks compose the largest ethnic group, but even some black traditions were transported to Oklahoma by Indians. Many citizens of the Five Civilized Tribes were plantation slave holders in their southern homes, and when they were removed to Indian Territory, they took their cotton farming traditions and slaves with them. When the Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves of the Indians, they became known as Indian Freedmen and congregated into all-black settlements. Later, a movement was started to make Oklahoma an all-black state.

Music has played a strong role in all areas of Oklahoma folklife. Fiddle music is widespread and its various styles reflect the state's diversification. Western swing and dance music developed into what is often referred to as the Texas-Oklahoma style, in which a "breakdown" is slowed and the full bow is used; still, a hybrid Oklahoma fiddler has the ability to play almost any style. Places where Saturday night dances are held can be found in communities of all sizes as well as in the country, miles from the nearest town. A cultural blend of musical styles, western swing has one primary characteristic - a danceable beat. While country and bluegrass music primarily emerged as listening traditions, the principal audience for western swing is a dancing crowd. If the listeners on a Saturday night outnumber the dancers, the band has failed at playing good western swing.

Not all music is secular, for gospel is also very much alive. The tradition of shape-note singing was first introduced among the Five Civilized Tribes and taught to the Indian Freedmen. Shape-note singing became widespread among Christians, and, as whites settled in the state, the singing schools expanded. Indian crafts proliferate in Oklahoma. In the past decade, increasing numbers of persons from many tribes have moved to Oklahoma, often as a result of marrying a person from an Oklahoman tribe, but just as often to relocate to a good crafts market. The crafts of Oklahoman tribes include baskets, pottery, flute making, woodcarving, headwork, hidework, patchwork, appliquework, featherwork, quilting and German silverwork. They continue to flourish as old ways are increasingly appreciated and practiced.

Sue Manos served as Oklahoma Program Coordinator.
Participants:
Children's Area

Maudie Cheshewalla, 1928-, finger weaver, Pawhuska

David Danielson, 1932-, entertainment leader, Norman

Ronald A. Doherty, 1929-, trick roper, Skiatook

Lorene Drywater, 1932-, buffalo grass dolls maker, Tahlequah

Bradley Hicks, 1961-, trick roper, Noble

Erwin Householder, 1923-2000, muleskinner, Sulphur

Crafts

John V. Balzer, 1898-, woodcarver, Hooker

Carolyn June Barry, 1938-, quilter, Oklahoma City

Bud Austin Beaston, 1930-2004, farrier, Sperry

Bruce Caesar, 1952-, German silver worker, Anadarko

Sarah Rose Crim, 1921-1987, quilter, Norman

Mavis Doering, 1929-, basket weaver, Oklahoma City

Melvin Geionety, feather worker, threadworker, Carnegie

Nellie Guerrero, 1914-, thread puller Oklahoma City

Elaine Hardage, 1952-, chair maker, Malvern, Arkansas

Gary Hardage, 1950-, chair maker, Malvern, Arkansas

Lucille Hogue, 1916-1998, bootmaker, Oklahoma City

Oles Hogue, 1912-1987, bootmaker, Oklahoma City

Billy Evans Horse, 1930-, beadworker, gourd stitcher, Carnegie

Anna Belle Mitchell, 1926-, potter, Vinita

Tim Ramsey, 1960-, buckskin worker, Oklahoma City

Joseph Rice, 1934-2005, beadworker, featherworker, Meeker

Bobby Roades, Jr., 1928-, rope maker, Waukomis

William Rohde, 1913-1999, fiddle maker, Tulsa

Shalah Rowlen, 1927-, ribbon worker, Meeker

Glenn Warren, 1942-, saddle maker, Cleveland, Oklahoma

Horse Program

Robert Close, 1938-, cutting horses, Piedmont

Sherri Lyn Close, 1966-, cutting horses, Piedmont

Bruce Colclasure, 1952-, cutting horses, Depew

Clarence Danielson, 1932-, horse trainer, Norman

Janice Danielson, 1936-2007, groom, Norman

Mark A. Danielson, 1963-, jockey, Norman

Elton White Eagle, jockey, Fort Cobb

Gary Edgmon, 1956-, race trainer, Walters

Elmer Jay, 1932-1999, trainer, Fort Cobb

Elmer Jay, Jr., groom, Fort Cobb

Susie McCammon, 1949-, jockey, Walters

Jerry McCurdy, 1945-, groom, Walters

Clem McSpadden, race and performance announcer, Chelsea

Greg Shofner, 1959-, jockey, Jones

Janet Sue Smith, groom, Jones

Mike Smith, 1950-, trainer, Jones

Eddie Wood, auction announcer, Wynnewood

Dale Youree, 1929-, barrel racer, Addington

Florence Youree, 1933-, barrel racer, Addington

Music

J.C. Broughton, 1934-, fiddler, Sapulpa

Larry Broughton, 1957-, guitarist, Sapulpa

Robert Lee Crawford, 1923-1991, fiddler, Tahlequah

George Guinn, 1943-, blues singer, Moodys

Logsdon Family Band -- Logsdon Family BandBobbie Koch, 1930-, pianist, Redding, CaliforniaGuy Logsdon, vocalist, guitarist, TulsaJohn T. Logsdon, 1932-, vocalist, FittstownLaura Jean Long, 1928-, fiddler, El RenoWilliam Wade Long, 1922-1996, cowboy singer, El RenoCindy Lou Young, 1956-, fiddler, Glendale, Arizona

Los Vigitos -- Los VigitosAl Leal, guitarist, Oklahoma CityFrank Limon, guitarist, mandolinist-Del CityJesse Serna, 1904-1993, fiddler, Oklahoma City

Matthew McClarty, Sr., 1931-1999, gospel singer, pianist, Ada

Matthew McClarty, Jr., 1964-, electric bass player, Ada

Michael McClarty, 1959-, guitarist, Ada

Anita Martinez, dancer, Oklahoma City

Floyd Midgett, 1936-, harmonica player, Langley

Reaves Nahwooksy, honoring dance announcer, Norman

New Harmony Singers -- New Harmony SingersL.Z. Alexander, president, organizer, WetumkaRuth Alexander, 1928-2003, WetumkaRosa Lee Anderson, 1909-1993, EarlsboroMoses Coleman, HoldenvilleLurena Douglas, EarlsboroMyrtle Hill, 1907-1993, WewokaOphelia Pruitt, 1909-1997, EarlsboroHenry Samilton, 1898-1990, WewokaRev. Robert Shelton, Oklahoma CityHurlena Spencer, Wewoka

Freda Faye Tietz, 1939-, clog dancer, Ripley

Claude Williams, 1908-2004, swing fiddler, Kansas City, Missouri

Johnnie Lee Wills Band -- Johnnie Lee Wills BandClarence Cagle, 1920-2003, pianist, Rogers, ArkansasJon Cummins, 1951-, electric bass player, TulsaShirl Cummins, 1920-1990, singer, TulsaCandy Noe Ferguson, 1949-, soloist, TulsaRoy Ferguson, 1936-, guitarist, TulsaBenny Garcia, 1926-2005, fiddler, Oklahoma CityJoe Holly, 1917-1987, fiddler, Fresno, CaliforniaRudy Martin, clarinetist, EnidTommy Perkins, 1934-2003, drummer, Oklahoma CityGlenn Rhees, 1925-1996, saxophonist, CollinsvilleJack Rider, 1934-1989, steel guitarist, StilwellJohnnie Lee Wills, band leader, OwassoRobert Wommack, 1930-1983, trumpet player, Treece, Kansas

Oil Industry

Virgil Anderson, 1913-1999, pipeliner, Drumright

Leroy Bath, pipeliner, Tulsa

Neal Budge, 1915-2000, pipeliner, Cushing

Melvin Cook, 1916-1995, pipeliner, Drumright

Steve Council, explorer, Ponca City

Brice Downing, 1925-2001, pipeliner, Tulsa

Roy Garten, 1915-2006, explorer, Ponca City

Bill Gibson, explorer, Tulsa

Edward Herndon, oil driller, Ertid

Bill H. Hester, 1905-1995, pipeliner, Drumright

Helmut Lenske, oil driller, Enid

Fred McAninch, oil driller, Enid

John Marks, 1943-, explorer, Tulsa

Clarence Merrill, 1908-1989, pipeliner, Drumright

Jim Rodriguez, oil pumper, Oklahoma City

Chuck Schreck, explorer, Ponca City

Ancil Settle, 1894-1981, gager, Drumright

Lee Roy Smaltz, 1900-1990, doodlebugger, witcher, Cushing

Darrell Smith, 1947-, pumper, model builder, Oilton

Tom Spradlin, 1917-1989, oil model builder, Oilton
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives; please submit this form. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1982 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1982, Series 5
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1982 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1982-ref37

Letters Received from the Commissioner, the Assistant Commissioner, and the Staff

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan. 1866–Mar. 1868
Scope and Contents:
Unbound letters received from the Commissioner, the Assistant Commissioner and the staff, January 1866–March 1868, are arranged chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commerical use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1909, File 4.9.7
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872 / Series 4: Subordinate Field Offices / 4.9: Fayetteville (Subassistant Commissioner)
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1909-ref159
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Volume (61)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July 1865–Nov. 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commerical use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1909, Item 3.3.1.1
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872 / Series 3: Offices of Staff Officers / 3.3: Chief Quartermaster and Disbursing Officer / 3.3.1: Letters Sent
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1909-ref30
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Letters Received

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1865–68
Scope and Contents:
Unbound letters received, 1865–68, are arranged by year, thereunder by the initial letter of surname of the correspondent, and thereunder chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commerical use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1909, File 4.42.4
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872 / Series 4: Subordinate Field Offices / 4.42: Salisbury (Superintendent of the Western District)
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1909-ref565
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Online Media:

J – R

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July 1865–Oct. 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, File 4.1.2
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 4: Letters Received / 4.1: Entered in Register 1
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref30
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  • View J – R digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Second Year No.25

Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
September 1, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref21
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H – M

Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M822, Item 3.1.2.2
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 3: Letters Received / 3.1: Registered Letters Received / 3.1.2: Register 2
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m822-ref15
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Online Media:

Contracts Received

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Feb. 1866–Jan. 1868
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M869, Subseries 10.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 10: Records Relating to Contracts
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m869-ref105
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John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera

Manufacturer:
Custom Auto and Equipment Sales  Search this
Allis-Chalmers -- 20th century  Search this
Case -- 20th century  Search this
International Harvestor. Case-IH -- 20th century  Search this
John Deere and Company. John Deere Plow Company -- 20th century  Search this
Sperry New Holland -- 20th century  Search this
Todd Equipment Company -- 20th century  Search this
Creator:
Parlett, John K., 1937-2005  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (60 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1859-2011, undated
Summary:
The John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera, 1859-2011, undated, is a collection of operator's instruction manuals, parts illustrations manuals, dealership materials, farming, farm life, and agriculture-related ephemera. The material is from national companies as well as local manufacturers and businesses.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of farming and rural life ephemera, dating from about 1859-2011, and undated. The materials are national in scope and include agricultural ephemera from all regions of the United States. Since Parlett's collecting interest spanned the entire spectrum of agricultural work, the collection is not livestock or crop specific. It covers many types of farming from dairying, beekeeping, poultry, cattle, sheep, and hogs to raising tobacco, small grains, hay and forage. It includes almanacs, operator's manuals, catalogues, promotional materials, pocket ledgers and notebooks, mail order catalogs, state fair advertising and catalogues, livestock care and feeding manuals, correspondence, receipts, guarantees, chemical and fertilizer handbooks, account books, "Ladies'" notebooks and calendars, directories, price lists, corporate "yearbooks," clothing advertisements and catalogues, farming practices handbooks, agent's sales order books, seed guides, National Grange material, farming co-op by-laws and ephemera, agriculture related convention materials, poultry magazines and journals, beekeeping magazines, barn and housing design material, gardening manuals, sales contracts for machinery, appliance manuals, commodity marketing guides, auction catalogues, home canning and meat processing manuals and guides, price lists, pamphlets, sale brochures, and dealer service manuals.

The range and national scope of items in the collection illustrate the progression of invention within agriculture. The machinery manuals not only describe machinery in detail, but break it down to the machinery components, how it is put together and how it is repaired. The invention aspect tracks the development of farm mechanization from hand work with intensive labor requirements to machinery developed to decrease labor costs and numbers while at the same time increasing production. The changes in agricultural technology in the later years of the Industrial Revolution, on the cusp of mechanization and the availability of mail order products for the home and farm, are documented in the collection by advertisements and mail order catalogues, for products purchased in nearby towns and equipment used in farm tasks.

The sizeable mail order component of the collection provides research opportunities into economics and marketing both to an agricultural community and an urban community. The demographic changes resulting from increased urbanization and employment opportunities in manufacturing -- and how small farms coped with them -- are documented in the collection by detailed descriptions of who was expected to do what tasks and how those tasks were accomplished. With the beginning of mail order by Aaron Montgomery Ward in 1872, mail order became an integral part of life in rural America. Mail order catalogs allowed rural residents to buy new equipment and follow the latest trends in fashion or household appliances without ever leaving the farm. Mail order also allowed rural American to reap the benefits of growing mass production. Homemade clothing gave way to ready-to-wear clothes sold through retail outlets and through mail order catalogues. Likewise tools and machinery that had been locally built and maintained gave way to parts and machinery that could be purchased through mail order as well as local equipment company dealers. Mail-order buying was made even more accessible in 1896 with the first rural free delivery (RFD) service.

Gender and ethnic aspects of farm life are documented in the collection. For example, sausage, lard, pudding making and similar tasks were traditionally done by women; labor was often divided along racial or ethnic lines and used different machinery and tools for various types of farms in different locations. The collection has a sizeable component of community materials related to farm life such as county and state fair catalogues, National Grange materials, and instructional booklets given away by feed and machinery manufacturers. "How to" booklets and pamphlets covering virtually every aspect of the farm and farm work targeted members of the farm family and its labor force.

The collection complements the Smithsonian's invention holdings as innovation was taking place on the farm as well as in the factory throughout the Industrial Revolution. The machinery manuals with their operation and repair guidelines, the schematic drawings and details on "new and improved" machinery provide a cohesive span of primary material to inform the evolution of farm work from hand and physical labor involving many people to the more mechanized farming capable of being done by one farmer alone or with minimal family or hired help.

The collection includes the business records (1971-1981, undated) for Custom Auto and Equipment Sales of Manassas, Virginia, a John Deere dealership. These records include equipment inventories, a John Deere Consumer Products Dealer Parts Administration Manual, JD Dart operators manual, and a Sperry New Holland dealer sales aid manual, sales accounts, all of which help document the transition from manual based accounting systems to product specific (in this case JD Dart for John Deere) computer based systems. This portion of the collection is illustrative of suburbanization. With the farm crisis of the early 1980s, Custom Auto and Equipment ceased selling farm machinery and concentrated on the urban aspect of the John Deere brand: lawnmowers, tillers and those pieces of machinery used in housing developments being built in and around Manassas. The market for farming equipment nearly ceased to exist and in an effort to salvage their business they adapted to the environment around them.

This collection also includes sales materials for Todd Equipment Company located in Chesapeake, Virginia with a branch office in Hagerstown, Maryland. Todd serves farm equipment dealers in the states of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. They carry an extensive line of machinery catering to all types of agricultural cultivation, care, and harvesting. As of 2015 they are still in business.

The collection is arranged in eight series with items arranged chronologically and in some series alphabetically.

Series 1, Allis-Chalmers, AGCO Allis, and Deutz Allis, 1957-1980, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains operator's manuals, sales ephemera, brochures, service manuals, setting up directions, a lease plan, and a sales book. This series includes brand names AGCO Allis, Allis-Chalmers, Athens Plow Company, Baldwin, and Jeoffroy Manufacturing Incorporated, L&M

Series 2, Case, Case-IH, International Harvester, 1903-1986, undated. This series is arranged chronologically. This series includes brand names McCormick-Deering, Farmall, International-Farmall, and McCormick. It includes sales brochures, price lists, operator and maintenance manuals, product guides, advertisements, pamphlets and brochures, catalogues, and a program from McCormick Day, 1931 in Blacksburg, Virginia.

Series 3, John Deere and Company, John Deere Plow Company, 1910-2008, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains publications, operator's and maintenance manuals, sales brochures and pamphlets, sales manuals, catalogues, product magazines, and safety manuals.

Series 4, Sperry-New Holland, 1975-1984, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains operator's and maintenance manuals, sales brochures and pamphlets.

Series 6, Custom Auto and Equipment Sales of Manassas, Virginia Business Records, 1971-1981, undated. These records include equipment inventories, John Deere Consumer Products Dealer Parts Administration Manual, JD Dart operator,s manual, and a Sperry New Holland dealer sales aid manual, and sales accounts.

Series 6, Todd Farm Equipment, Incorporated, 1973-1980, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains the contents of Todd's sales manual detailing various companies and their products. The series includes sales brochures, equipment specifications and capabilities as outlined in corporate sales material, and a Todd catalogue.

Series 7, Assorted Companies, Catalogues, Periodicals, and Publications, 1859-2011, undated. This series is arranged chronologically and then alphabetically for the undated material. This series contains material from a variety of companies and purveyors of farm-related equipment, products, and disciplines as well as farm culture-related materials. This series includes mail order catalogues, sales and instructional pamphlets, almanacs, advertisements, government publications, magazines, catalogues, convention and souvenir brochures, National Grange materials, manuals, cook books, record books, price lists, county and state fair ephemera, beekeeping-related materials, dairying related publications and equipment brochures, operator's manuals, and the auction catalogue from the Parlett Farm-Life Museum auction.

Series 8, Poultry, 1912-1949, undated, is arranged alphabetically. This series contains material related to the production of poultry. It includes magazines, advertisements for poultry products, and educational materials related to poultry.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eight series.

Series 1, Allis-Chalmers, AGCO Allis, and Deutz Allis, 1957-1980, undated.

Series 2, Case, Case-IH, International Harvester, 1903-1986, undated.

Series 3, John Deere and Company, John Deere Plow Company, 1910-2008, undated.

Series 4, Sperry-New Holland, 1975-1984, undated.

Series 6, Custom Auto and Equipment Sales of Manassas, Virginia Business Records, 1971-1981, undated.

Series 6, Todd Farm Equipment, Incorporated, 1973-1980, undated.

Series 7, Assorted Companies, Catalogues, Periodicals, and Publications, 1859-2011, undated.

Series 8, Poultry, 1912-1949, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
John K. Parlett (1937-2005) was born in St. Mary's County, Maryland, and was a life-long resident of the county and state. He was a farmer and businessman and served as a St. Mary's County Commissioner from 1974-1978 and as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates from 1981-1986.

Parlett began collecting farm equipment and agriculture-related ephemera in the 1960s. His son, John K. Parlett, Jr., stated, "The more he collected the more his passion grew." Even though Parlett lived in Maryland, his collecting was national in scope and included materials he and his wife bought on collecting trips around the country. Parlett expanded his collection of equipment and agricultural ephemera after retiring in 1986. John K. Parlett, Jr., stated, "he [Parlett Sr.] caught 'the antique bug' . . . [they] went out almost every weekend collecting more things." Parlett did not merely collect old machinery, he sought and acquired catalogues, equipment operation manuals, posters, ephemera, county and state fair ephemera, and even records from an agricultural equipment dealer, Custom Auto and Equipment Sales, in Manassas, Virginia.

Between 1988 and 1993 the collection grew so large that Parlett built a 60,000 square foot building on his farm to hold the machinery component. He converted many farm sheds, turkey and chicken houses into display areas and a library. Parlett eventually founded the John K. Parlett Farm Life Museum of Southern Maryland located on his farm, known as Green Manor. Beginning in 1996, the museum was opened annually for the Farm Life Festival, benefitting the St. Mary's County Christmas in April program, founded by Parlett. The collection was open by appointment for study; the local Amish community consulted some of the materials in the collection for help in repairing their outdated equipment. Parlett was highly respected in collecting circles. He was a tenacious and indefatigable collector who made an effort to collect all types of agricultural machinery as well as archival materials relating to farm life. Rare or obsolete items are included in this collection, as are ephemeral items relating to farm and ranch life. "If it was used on the farm or in rural America in the last 100 years, chances are it'll be at the Southern Maryland Farm Life Festival," enthused Agrifarm.com in 2008 when describing the Parlett holdings.

The last year for the Farm Life Festival was 2009. The Parlett Collection, consisting of 1007 lots of machinery, tools, tractors, household, and general store items, was auctioned by Aumann Auctions in the fall of 2011. At the auction, some materials and machinery were purchased by The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan and other museums throughout the United States.

NMAH Curators Pete Daniel and Larry M. Jones surveyed the collection while Parlett was still alive. Jones was credited with advising Parlett while he was building the collection. Jones commented on the collection in 2005, "I was blown away by what he had put together; here was a man who turned an interest into one of the best rural farm life collections I've ever seen. And John has such an eye for good and appropriate stuff. It's just a sensational collection." He reportedly wrote a memo suggesting the Museum "investigate the possibility" of acquiring portions of the collection if and when Parlett was willing to donate items. There was no further discussion of acquiring any of the collection until 2010, when Craig Orr, archivist-curator, talked with John K. Parlett Jr., who expressed a willingness to donate the archival materials as the entire collection was being prepared for auction. Orr and Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., archives specialist, surveyed the collection in early 2011 and selected the materials included in the collection.
Related Materials:
Maid of Cotton, Cotton Council Collection, Southern Agriculture Oral History, Robinson and Via Family Papers, Louisan Mamer Papers, Harness-Maker's Account Books, Memphis Cotton Carnival Records, New England Merchant and Farmer Account Book, Hagan Brothers Account Books, Product Cookbook Collection, Maryland Farm Diary (1879-1894), Bermis B. Brown Collection, and The Cincinnati Boss Collection. The William E. Kost Farm Records, 1939-1989 and The Kent Family Records, 1879-1933.

There are holdings in the Division of Home and Community Life related to farming and agriculture including farm clothing, home arts materials such as needlework, quilts, sewing, kitchen appliances, farming implements and machinery, and 4-H objects. The Lemelson Center has assited in acquiring objects and archival collections in the field of invention and innovation in various divisions of NMAH.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Catherine Parlett, widow of John K. Parlett, in 2012.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Tobacco -- 20th century  Search this
Tobacco  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Farmers  Search this
Farm ownership  Search this
Farm management  Search this
Tobacco farmers  Search this
Farm produce -- 1820-1850  Search this
Farm buildings  Search this
Family farms  Search this
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Farmers' markets  Search this
Farmers -- Virginia  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Cotton farming  Search this
Hay  Search this
Community organization  Search this
Family  Search this
Factories  Search this
Machinery -- 1940-1990  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Harvesting machinery  Search this
Machinery -- 1960-1990  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Machinery  Search this
Farmers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Farmers -- 1940-1990  Search this
Farmers -- 19th century  Search this
Farmers -- 1860-1870  Search this
Citation:
John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1225
See more items in:
John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1225

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records

Director:
Daniel, Pete  Search this
Interviewee:
Accardo, Paul  Search this
Aguirre, Gloria Olmos  Search this
Allen, David  Search this
Anderson, Adra  Search this
Anderson, Walter  Search this
Andrews, John William  Search this
Ardoin, Leslie  Search this
Bailey, Charles  Search this
Bailey, Howard Taft  Search this
Baird, George E., Jr.  Search this
Baronet, Joe  Search this
Bell, Walter M.  Search this
Bennett, Novella  Search this
Bennett, W.J.  Search this
Benson, Dick  Search this
Benton, Aubrey  Search this
Benton, Ina Belle  Search this
Blackstock, Tom  Search this
Blackstock, Velva  Search this
Blanchard, J.F.  Search this
Booth, Mrs. N.J.  Search this
Booth, N.J.  Search this
Bosselman, Willie  Search this
Bossleman, Norman  Search this
Bowman, Wilbert A.  Search this
Bradford, Nara N.  Search this
Bradford, Norwood)  Search this
Brantley, L.D.  Search this
Breaux, Jessie Al., Sr.  Search this
Brinkley, Johnnie  Search this
Brinkley, Lucile  Search this
Broussard, Sam  Search this
Brown, Gordon  Search this
Brown, Mamie  Search this
Bunting, Benny  Search this
Bunting, Joe  Search this
Burkett, Ben  Search this
Burkett, Bennie F.  Search this
Bush, Miller  Search this
Byers, Ruby  Search this
Byers, Sanford  Search this
Caesar, Clarence  Search this
Carline, Herman C.  Search this
Carnahan, Cotton  Search this
Carter, Ethel H.  Search this
Castleberry, Guy W.  Search this
Caughron, Kermit  Search this
Caughron, Rex  Search this
Caughron, Roy  Search this
Cazer, Garland  Search this
Ceras, Delfino  Search this
Claffery, Clegg, Sr.  Search this
Clapp, Clyde  Search this
Clark, Fletcher Talmadge  Search this
Clayton, WIlliam P.  Search this
Cockerham, Lester  Search this
Cockerham, Marie  Search this
Cole, Buster  Search this
Coleman, Harold  Search this
Coleman, Mrs. Harold  Search this
Colvin, R.C.  Search this
Comeaux, Lewis  Search this
Connell, Alton  Search this
Cromertie, John L.  Search this
Crosby, Ruth  Search this
Crosby, Victor  Search this
Cummins, Mary Lee  Search this
Cummins, W.R.  Search this
Cunningham, Tom  Search this
Daniel, Florentine  Search this
Davies, W. J. K.  Search this
Davis, Fredda  Search this
Davis, Otto  Search this
Davis, Pauline  Search this
Delasbour, Anna  Search this
Derbigney, Durrell  Search this
Dillard, John T.  Search this
Dorminy, Henry Clayton  Search this
Dove, Dorothy  Search this
Ducrest, Jesse  Search this
Dulaney, T.W.  Search this
Elam, Edward  Search this
Feilke, Mabel  Search this
Felknor, Jessie F.  Search this
Finchum, Amos  Search this
Finchum, Eva  Search this
Fleming, Arthur B.  Search this
Fletcher, Mrs. Merle Ford  Search this
Flores, Roque Olmos  Search this
Foster, Jim  Search this
Foster, Vergie  Search this
Friesen, Viola Liechty  Search this
Gardner, C.E.  Search this
Garrich, Carl  Search this
Gay, Andrew  Search this
George, Leler  Search this
Gosney, Jessie  Search this
Gosney, Kenneth  Search this
Gray, Leonard  Search this
Gray, Wardell  Search this
Green, Alone  Search this
Green, Clarence  Search this
Griffin, A.C.  Search this
Griffin, Grace  Search this
Hahn, E.L.  Search this
Hall, Joe  Search this
Haransky, Charlotte  Search this
Harper, Woodrow, Sr.  Search this
Harrington, A.M.  Search this
Harris, Edna  Search this
Harris, John, Rev.  Search this
Harris, Robert B.  Search this
Hawkins, Charlie  Search this
Hemphill, Elvin  Search this
Hemphill, Mattie  Search this
Hill, Frank  Search this
Jefcoat, Laz  Search this
Jensen, Olga B.  Search this
Johnson, Herbert  Search this
Kilby, T.H.  Search this
Knight, Martin  Search this
Koen, Eulah  Search this
Lamson, Alfred Ellis  Search this
Landry, Steve  Search this
Lane, Clyde D.  Search this
Laney, John B.  Search this
Langley, Nellie  Search this
Latoilas, Donald  Search this
Lawrimore, Rufus B.  Search this
Leary, Mrs. Stillman  Search this
Leary, Stillman  Search this
Legnon, Hilton  Search this
Legnon, Lena Porrier  Search this
Lenius, Jane  Search this
Lewis, Bobby  Search this
Lewis, Dorothy  Search this
Lewis, Ralph  Search this
Littlejohn, Andrew  Search this
Loewer, Arthur  Search this
Long, Welchel  Search this
Lowder, Clayton  Search this
Lowder, Kathy R.  Search this
Mangum, O.L.  Search this
Martin, Lillian  Search this
McBrayer, Loomis  Search this
McCarty, Ben  Search this
McGee, Dean  Search this
Mercer, Midi  Search this
Minchew, Edna  Search this
Mire, John  Search this
Mohamed, Ethel Wright  Search this
Moody, Edgar  Search this
Morris, Edward  Search this
Murphree, Leo  Search this
Murray, Lurline S.  Search this
Nacquin, Leo  Search this
Nix, Agnes  Search this
Nix, Joe  Search this
Parker, Jonah  Search this
Patout, William A.  Search this
Patterson, Vanona  Search this
Pender, Bessie  Search this
Petticrew, Donald  Search this
Player, C.B., Jr.  Search this
Porter, Virginia  Search this
Proffitt, Harry, Jr.  Search this
Purvis, Clyde  Search this
Redmond, Virgie  Search this
Reed, Bunice  Search this
Reed, Howard  Search this
Rice, Frank  Search this
Richardson, Rosetta  Search this
Rivers, Marion  Search this
Roberts, Gerti  Search this
Roberts, James  Search this
Rodriguez, Ignacio  Search this
Rountree, G. Emory  Search this
Rucker, William  Search this
Salas, Maria  Search this
Sarten, Della  Search this
Scoggins, Lillie  Search this
Scroggins, Alma M.  Search this
Seidenschwarz, Rosie  Search this
Seidenstricker, L.F.  Search this
Seidenstricker, Laverne  Search this
Serrano, Adolofo  Search this
Serrano, Edith  Search this
Serrano, Lidia  Search this
Shannon, Jack  Search this
Shepherd, Grady  Search this
Sims, Lavana  Search this
Sizemore, Martiel  Search this
Skinner, Annie  Search this
Skinner, Jarvis  Search this
Smith, Ethel  Search this
Smith, George  Search this
Soileau, Rouseb  Search this
Spicer, J.M.  Search this
Spivey, Wayland  Search this
Starke, Granville  Search this
Steen, Albert  Search this
Stowers, J.W.  Search this
Strange, Fred  Search this
Strohl, Carl  Search this
Strohl, Mary  Search this
Sumner, Ruby C.  Search this
Temple, Effie  Search this
Thomas, Lottie  Search this
Thompson, Mioma  Search this
Thresto, Chuck  Search this
Tomlinson, Clifton  Search this
Turner, Mrs. O.C.  Search this
Van Houten, Rosetta  Search this
Van Houten, Rudy  Search this
Vickers, Lloyd  Search this
Vidrine, Levie A.  Search this
Walton, W.W.  Search this
Watson, Mary  Search this
Welborn, S.L.  Search this
Wells, Arnalee  Search this
Wells, Homer, Dr.  Search this
White, Wallace  Search this
Wigley, Mabry  Search this
Willey, Gretchen  Search this
Willey, John F.  Search this
Winskie, Dent  Search this
Woodard, Henry  Search this
Yohe, Alma M.  Search this
Yohe, Perry  Search this
Young, Walter  Search this
Interviewer:
Jones, Lu Ann  Search this
Extent:
25 Cubic feet (79 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs
Place:
Arkansas -- Agriculture
Mississippi -- Agriculture
Georgia -- Agriculture
South Carolina -- Agriculture
Tennessee -- Agriculture
Virginia -- Agriculture
North Carolina -- Agriculture
Louisiana -- Agriculture
Date:
1986-1991
Scope and Contents note:
The collection is divided into four series. Series 1: Oral History Transcripts, 1982-1991 are transcribed versions of the oral interviews. Correspondence and/or notes pertaining to the interviewed individual collected or written by the interviewer are filed in this series following the transcription. The majority of the oral histories were done by Lu Ann Jones between1985-1991. There are a few interviews done by Pete Daniel in the early 1980s and some reference copies of oral histories done elsewhere. This series is divided into eight sub-series: Sub-series 1.1: Arkansas, Sub-series 1.2: Georgia, Sub-series 1.3: Louisiana, Sub-series 1.4: Mississippi, Sub-series 1.5: North Carolina (including transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project in English and Spanish), Sub-series 1.6: South Carolina, Sub-series 1.7: Tennessee, and Sub-series 1.8: Virginia. Files are arranged alphabetically by state and there under by name; within the file materials are arranged chronologically. Interview files may contain transcribed copies of the oral history interviews and subsequent draft copies with corrections by the interviewer or subject. The file also may contain distillations or edited versions of the interview done by the researcher for possible publication. Correspondence and notes files may include Life History Forms, correspondence, newspaper articles, interviewer's notes, business cards, and paper copies of photographs. Signed releases are on file in the registrar's office, NMAH, with copies in the control file of the Archives Center.

Series 2: Project Files and Reference Materials, 1928-2004 contain notes and correspondence kept by Jones in support of the oral history project. This series is divided into four sub-series: Sub-series 2.1: State Files, Sub-series 2.2: Project and Reference Files, 1985-1991, Sub-series 2.3: Reference Publications, Pamphlets and Articles, 1928-2004 and Sub-series 2d: Computer Floppy Disks, 1985 and undated. This series include bills, receipts, photo orders, travel brochures, reference materials, articles, correspondence, fundraising proposals and materials, USDA Extension Service bulletins, product cookbooks, and ephemera. These materials are valuable in documenting the methodology of the oral history project. They are also valuable in detailing the funding and maintenance of the project over its five-year lifespan. There is also a great deal of information on black farmers. This series is arranged alphabetically by state and county or by article/publication title and within the file chronologically.

Series 3: Photographic Prints and Slides, 1987-1991 documenting the individuals interviewed, their homes and businesses, and geographic locations that were studied as part of the oral history project. The series is arranged numerically then chronologically by year. This series is followed by detailed photographic descriptions arranged alphabetically by state then subject. Photograph files contain photographs taken by a Smithsonian photographer or Jones and any copies of photographs supplied by the subject. Most of the photographs are black and white.

Series 4: Original Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CD), 1986-1991 are the original tapes of the individual interviews conducted by Jones. This series is divided into eight sub-series. Reference numbers for CDs matching the original tapes are noted after the tapes. CDs 495-497 are for the Smithsonian Photographer's Show: Sub-series 4.1: Arkansas, Sub-series 4.2: Georgia, Sub-series 4.3: Louisiana, Sub-series 4.4: Mississippi, Sub-series 4.5: North Carolina (within this sub-series are the transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project there may be an English language transcription as well as one in Spanish), Sub-series 4.6: South Carolina, Sub-series 4.7: Tennessee and Sub-series 4.8: Virginia and Sub-series 4.9: Miscellaneous and Duplicates, within the sub-series tapes are arranged alphabetically by subject.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series:

Series 1, Oral History Transcript

Series 2, Project Files

Series 3, Photographic Prints and Slides

Series 4, Original Oral History Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CDs) are the original interview tapes and the accompanying reference copy cds.
History:
The history of the American South is intricately entwined with the history of agriculture in North America. Until very recently, post 1950, the South was predominately rural and agricultural in both its production and culture. By the 1980s American agriculture, and particularly agriculture in the south, was under attack on various fronts especially cultural, financial, and technological. This assault threatened the very existence of the small and family farm. Many small farming operations went bankrupt and the face of American agriculture was becoming more corporate. It was amidst these troubling times that the Agricultural Division of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History undertook a massive project to document southern agriculture through oral history.

Through the efforts of NMAH staff, Pete Daniel, curator and project director, LuAnn Jones, researcher, and with countless support from staff photographers and personnel, Jones conducted approximately 159 interviews of individual persons, couples and sometimes small groups, in eight southern states over a five year period, 1986-1991. The project was funded by a series of grants from various sources. Not only were oral histories taken but also substantial documentary photographs and slides of the many interviewees. The interviews ranged from individual farmers to individuals at companies and corporations involved with agriculture. The range of crops discussed included tobacco, cotton and rice. The project interviewed a wide range of subjects: male, female, black, white, and Mexican. The project has contributed to at least two books, Mama Learned Us to Work: Farm Women in the New South by LuAnn Jones and Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall and others of which Jones was a contributing author.
Related Collections:
#60 Warshaw Collection

#149 Kulp Collection of Account Books, 1755-1904

#475 Robinson and Via Family Papers

#481 William C. Kost Farm Records

#767 Timothy B. Bladen, Southern Maryland Photoprints
Provenance:
A transfer from the Division of History of Technology (Agriculture), NMAH, July 2001
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farmers -- Arkansas  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Agriculture -- History  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Farmers -- Georgia  Search this
Farmers -- Louisiana  Search this
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Farmers -- Mississippi  Search this
Farmers -- North Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- South Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- Tennessee  Search this
Farmers -- Virginia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0773
See more items in:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0773
Online Media:

National Cotton Council of America (NCC) Photographs and Film

Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
28 Cubic feet (48 boxes)
224 Motion picture films
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Slides (photographs)
Date:
circa 1945-1999, undated
Summary:
The collection consists primaily of photographs and films created by the National Cotton Council of America (NCC) to document cotton production and use and to support the advocacy and educational work of the organization.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of photographs, slides, and 16mm films created by the National Cotton Council of America (NCC) to document cotton production and use and to support the educational and advocacy work of the organization. It is arranged into four series.

Series one contains black and white photographic prints dating primarily from the 1950s-1970s. The photographs document every aspect of cotton farming, from before the seed is planted to the production of finished cloth. Most of these prints illustrate agricultural practices, including land preparation, planting, bedding, plowing, harrowing, drainage, cultivation, stripping, and harvesting. Another group documents pests and infestations – boll weevils, fleas, mites, pink bollworm, hoppers - and the methods of countering them with insecticide and herbicide applications. Other photographs illustrate more general topics, including the history of cotton, research programs, trading, foreign cotton farming, printing, spinning, and weaving. There are also photographs of agricultural equipment manufactured by International Harvester. In addition, a small group of photographs consist of images from movies produced by the National Cotton Council of America (NCC). The photographs were maintained in the order that was created by the National Cotton Council of America (NCC).

Series two include slides and color photographs which date from the 1980s-early 2000s. These materials document many of the same topics as the black and white photographic prints during a later time. Many of the slides were created and assembled for use in presentations. In addition, there are slides of individuals and activities from the National Cotton Council of America (NCC) board meetings and conferences.

Series three consists of publications and reference materials.

Series four contains two hundred and fourteen films that were created by the National Cotton Council of America (NCC) and date from the 1960s-1980s. Films primarily document cotton farming and its versatility and use in consumer goods. A consistent theme and message are to promote cotton to the fashion industry and for home use.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Black and White Photographic Prints, 1945-1970s, undated

Subseries 1.1, Cultivation and Production of Cotton, 1950s-1970s

Subseries 1.2, Film Stills, 1956-1971, undated

Subseries 1.3, Subjects and Events, 1945-1965

Series 2, Slides, 1979-1999, undated

Series 3, Publications, 1954-1981

Series 4, Films, 1953-1996, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The National Cotton Council of America (NCC) is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts were found; as synthetic fibers were developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and as foreign competition in farming and manufacturing grew. The National Cotton Council's website states that its current mission is "to ensure the ability of all United States cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and United States-manufactured product markets at home and abroad." Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for industry issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusinesses, and consumers.

The National Cotton Council of America (NCC) initially gave this collection to the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange early in 2008, during the move of the Memphis-based NCC's corporate offices into a much smaller facility. Calvin Turley, president of the Board of the Cotton Museum, accepted the materials with the understanding that he could do with them as he wished. Ultimately, he decided that the collection was outside the scope of the Cotton Museum's mission. Turley offered the collection to the National Museum of American History in the belief that this was "the best possible place in the whole world for it."
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Maid of Cotton Records (NMAH.AC.1176)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (NMAH.AC.0060)

Peter Paul Haring Papers (NMAH.AC.1014)

Sally Fox Innovative Lives Presentation (NMAH.AC.0646)

William Mason Papers (NMAH.AC.0045)

Anne E. Peterson Stereograph Collection (NMAH.AC.0402)

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records (NMAH.AC.0773)

Uriah A. Boyden Papers (NMAH.AC.0982)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2009 by the Cotton Museum.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Cotton growing  Search this
Cotton picking  Search this
Cotton manufacture  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Cotton  Search this
Cotton farming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Motion pictures (visual works)
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1177
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America (NCC) Photographs and Film
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1177

Greetings from Texas: The Lone Star state [postcard book]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Publisher:
E. C. Kroop Co. Publ. Milwuakee  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Philatelic Collection, Smithsonian Institution.  Search this
Blenkle, Victor A., Dr., 1900-1978 (physician)  Search this
Collection Source:
Extractive Industries, Division of.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (color, 3-1/2" x 5-1/2".)
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
Texas -- History -- 1846-1950
Alamo (San Antonio, Tex.)
Scope and Contents:
Postcard book depicts various scenes from Texas mythology: the Alamo, "Judge Roy Bean, the law west of Pecos, holding court...trying a horse thief...", cattle and cotton farms during harvest season. The booklet includes a postcard-length history of Texas, from Republic to state to Confederacy to Union membership. The images include Texas industries such as oil, cotton, cattle, etc.
General:
Series 1, Box 13--U.S.A.--Texas.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Agriculture -- Texas  Search this
Industries, Regional  Search this
Historic sites -- Texas  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards -- 1900-1920
Picture postcards -- 1900-1920
Collection Citation:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection, c. 1880-c. 1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution,
See more items in:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection / Series 1: Geographical Locations within United States / Texas - Geographical Views
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0200-ref2239

Kitchen Wall, Alabama Farmstead

Artist:
Walker Evans, born St. Louis, MO 1903-died New Haven, CT 1975  Search this
Publisher:
Double Elephant Press  Search this
Printer:
Richard Benson, born Newport, RI 1943-died Providence, RI 2017  Search this
John Deeks  Search this
Medium:
gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
sheet and image: 9 3/8 x 12 in. (23.9 x 30.5 cm)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
1936, printed 1974
Topic:
Architecture\farm  Search this
Landscape\Alabama  Search this
Architecture Interior\domestic\kitchen  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Lee and Maria Friedlander
Object number:
2006.13.1.8
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7cc1de0a1-ccd1-42e2-b3ab-e5cf2ca9def4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_2006.13.1.8

22c Arkansas Statehood single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2167
Medium:
paper; ink (multicolored); adhesive / photogravure
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
Arkansas
United States of America
Date:
January 3, 1986
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
1987.0235.7317
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8da7c3e64-6cf2-4093-a950-1d31840a7884
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1987.0235.7317

International Harvester Mechanical Cotton Picking Machine

User:
Producers Cotton Oil Company  Search this
Maker:
International Harvester  Search this
Physical Description:
steel (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
Object Name:
cotton picking machine
Date made:
1943
Credit Line:
Gift of Producers Cotton Oil Company
ID Number:
AG.70A01
Catalog number:
70A01
Accession number:
288163
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Agriculture
Work
Agriculture
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-1d9d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_857080

Cotton Picking Sack

Object Name:
Cotton Picking Sack
ID Number:
1989.0425
Accession number:
1989.0425
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Agriculture
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-e725-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1301992

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