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Artworks

Collection Creator:
Alexander, Robert, 1923-1987  Search this
Temple of Man (Venice, Calif.)  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1965
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Robert Alexander papers and Temple of Man records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Robert Alexander papers and Temple of Man records, 1938-2015. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Robert Alexander papers and Temple of Man records
Robert Alexander papers and Temple of Man records / Series 3: Correspondence and Artists Files / Herms, George
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-alexbob-ref133

Records, 1968-1979

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Office of the Treasurer  Search this
Physical description:
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Date:
1968
1968-1979
Topic:
Museum finance  Search this
Budget process  Search this
Museums--Administration  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 82-046
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_255890

Society of Architectural Historians: Annual Meetings, 1960-1970 (4 folders)

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary. Special Assistant to the Secretary (Richard Hubbard Howland)  Search this
Container:
Box 15 of 17
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 618, Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary, Special Assistant to the Secretary (Richard Hubbard Howland), Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Series 8: Correspondence with Professional Organizations, 1959-1978 / Box 15
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0618-refidd1e5039

Dr. Abbot's Correspondence, 1960-1970

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession T90108, Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary, Administrative Records
See more items in:
Administrative Records
Administrative Records / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fat90108-refidd1e393

Jay DeFeo papers

Creator:
DeFeo, Jay, 1929-1989  Search this
Names:
Berman, Shirley  Search this
Berman, Wallace, 1926-1976  Search this
Blum, Irving, 1930-  Search this
Conner, Bruce  Search this
Hedrick, Wally, 1928-2003  Search this
Lobdell, Frank, 1921-  Search this
McClure, Michael  Search this
Peterson, Margaret, 1903-  Search this
Remington, Deborah  Search this
Sinton, Nell, 1910-1997  Search this
Terrill, Ruth  Search this
Extent:
1.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1940s-1970s
Summary:
The papers of artist Jay DeFeo measure 1.3 linear feet and date from circa 1940s to circa 1970s. The collection documents her career through biographical material, correspondence with friends, personal business records, writings, printed material, artwork, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Jay DeFeo measure 1.3 linear feet and date from circa 1940s to circa 1970s. The collection documents her career through biographical material, correspondence with friends, personal business records, writings, printed material, artwork, and photographs.

About half of the collection is made up of correspondence and photographs. DeFeo maintained ongoing communications with many artists, friends, and business associates. Notable correspondence is with Wallace and Shirley Berman, Irving Blum/Ferus Gallery, Bruce Conner, Frank Lobdell, Fred Martin, Michael McClure, Margaret Peterson, Deborah Remington, Ruth Terrill, and Eleanor (Nell) Sinton. The photographs document her adult years, although there are some as a teenager. DeFeo, her artist husband Wally Hedrick, and friends appear in many of the images. The remainder of the collection includes printed materials, exhibition information, some writings and some limited artwork. The collection is particularly rich in documentation on her artwork, The Rose.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series

Series 1: Biographical material, 1948-1969 (1 folder; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1960-1970s (0.3 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1960s (3 folders; Box 1)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1964-1974 (2 folders; Box 1)

Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1950s-1970s (2 folders; Box 1, OV 3)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1940s-1970s (0.4 linear feet; Box 1, OV 3)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1950s-1960s (0.2 linear feet; Box 2)
Biographical / Historical:
Jay DeFeo (1929-1989) lived and worked in Northern California where she was a prominent figure in the San Francisco Bay Area art scene as a painter in the progressive art community. She identified her artistic style as expressionist and symbolist.

DeFeo was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, and was three years old when her family moved to the Bay Area. She attended the University of California Berkeley and earned an Associate's Degree in 1948, a B.A. in 1950 and a M.A. in Fine Arts in 1951. After earning the M.A. she took 18 months to travel in France, Spain, northern Africa, and Italy. She spent 6 months in Florence where she painted and produced her first important body of work. DeFeo returned to San Francisco at the end of her trip.

DeFeo married fellow artist Wally Hedrick in 1954. They settled in a large Victorian flat at 2322 Fillmore Street and actively participated in Beat counter culture. DeFeo and Hedrick counted many artists among their friends and colleagues, including musicians, painters, poets, and photographers. They threw large parties with hundreds of guests. DeFeo produced a range of works during her four-decade long career. She began working on her most celebrated and massive painting, The Rose, in the Fillmore flat.

In the mid-1960s, DeFeo began teaching at the San Francisco Art Institute. She and Wally Hedrick divorced in 1969, and she moved to Larkspur in Marin County to regroup from personal set-backs and the draining experience of working on The Rose. In 1980 she joined the art faculty at Mills College. She maintained personal and professional correspondences with many people, and her papers include letters about conservation efforts for The Rose.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art has an oral history interview with DeFeo conducted 1975 June 3-1976 January 23 by Paul Karlstrom for the Archives of America Art. An 83 page transcript is available online.

The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley holds some of DeFeo's archival materials.
Provenance:
Donated between 1975-1981 by Jay DeFeo.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Jay DeFeo papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Painters -- California -- San Francisco Bay Area  Search this
Topic:
Photography -- California -- San Francisco Bay Area  Search this
Photographers -- California -- San Francisco Bay Area  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Photography -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Jay DeFeo papers, circa 1940s-1970s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.defejay
See more items in:
Jay DeFeo papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-defejay
Online Media:

Hale Woodruff papers

Creator:
Woodruff, Hale, 1900-1980  Search this
Names:
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Date:
1920-1977
bulk 1960s-1970s
Summary:
The papers of Hale Woodruff measure 0.6 linear feet and date from 1920 to 1977 with the bulk of the collection dating from the 1960s to the 1970s. The papers contain biographical material, professional files, writings, printed material, photographs, and photocopies of a scrapbook, and of artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Hale Woodruff measure 0.6 linear feet and date from 1920 to 1977, with the bulk of the collection dating from the 1960s to the 1970s. The papers contain biographical material, professional files, writings, printed material, photocopies of a scrapbook, photographs, and photocopies of artwork.

Biographical material includes a resume, awards and honorary degrees, and an interview transcript.

Professional files consist of correspondence, committee files, and materials related to exhibitions and projects.

Writings include an illustrated notebook; drafts and copies of lectures, statements, articles, book reviews, and exhibition text; and notes on note cards, as well as photocopies of notes Woodruff took in Mexico while studying with Diego Rivera.

Printed Material includes exhibition announcements, exhibition catalogs, publications in which Woodruff is featured, clippings, and other assorted printed material.

The scrapbook consists of photocopies of scrapbook pages. The originals do not appear in the collection, but mostly contained clippings and printed material, with some correspondence.

Photographs include black and white photographs with an accompanying piece of correspondence, and photocopies of photographs of artwork.

Artwork includes photocopies of sketches and drawings.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1966-1977 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 2: Professional Files, 1944-1973 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 3; Writings, 1920-1977, undated (Box 1; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4; Printed Material, 1920s-1970s (Box 2, 4 folders)

Series 5: Scrapbook, 1927-1928, 1940-1960 (Box 2, 1 folder)

Series 6: Photographic Material, 1926-1977 (Box 2, 2 folders)

Series 7: Artwork, 1939-1952, undated (Box 2, 1 folder)
Biographical / Historical:
Hale Aspacio Woodruff (1900-1980) was a painter, muralist, and arts educator. His most well-known works are the Amistad murals, painted between 1939 and 1940 for Talladega College's Savery Library.

Woodruff was born in Cairo, Illinois, and grew up in Nashville, Tennessee. He studied at the John Herron Art Institute in Indianapolis, and at the Art Institute of Chicago. After winning an award from the Harmon Foundation, he traveled to Paris and attended the Academie Moderne and the Academie Scandinave. He also spent a summer studying mural painting in Mexico with Diego Rivera.

In 1931, Woodruff established one of the earliest art departments at a black college at Atlanta University – teaching classes at the University's Laboratory High School, Morehouse College, and Spelman College as well. He also established the Atlanta Annuals, one of the earliest national exhibition opportunities for African American artists. In 1946 he moved to New York and taught in the art department at New York University until his retirement in 1968.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Hale Woodruff conducted by Al Murray, November 18, 1968.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American of Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 4222), the majority of which was included in subsequent donations. Loaned materials not donated at a later date remain with the lender and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
The Hale Woodruff papers were lent for microfilming by Woodruff in 1970. Most of the material was subsequently donated in 1978, along with additional material.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Georgia -- Atlanta  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- United States  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Citation:
Hale Woodruff papers, 1920-1977, bulk 1960s-1970s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.woodhale
See more items in:
Hale Woodruff papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-woodhale
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Woodruff, Hale, 1900-1980  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1944-1973
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Collection Citation:
Hale Woodruff papers, 1920-1977, bulk 1960s-1970s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Hale Woodruff papers
Hale Woodruff papers / Series 2: Professional Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-woodhale-ref12

Professional Files

Collection Creator:
Woodruff, Hale, 1900-1980  Search this
Extent:
4 Folders (Box 1)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1944-1973
Scope and Contents:
Professional Files consist of correspondence, committee files, and materials related to exhibitions and projects. The correspondence is primarily professional in nature and arranged chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Collection Citation:
Hale Woodruff papers, 1920-1977, bulk 1960s-1970s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.woodhale, Series 2
See more items in:
Hale Woodruff papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-woodhale-ref2

Folder 8 Correspondence, 1960-1970

Collection Creator::
Knight, Harry H.  Search this
Container:
Box 2 of 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 82-027, Harry H. Knight Papers
See more items in:
Harry H. Knight Papers
Harry H. Knight Papers / Box 2
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa82-027-refidd1e475

The Zorach Family papers

Creator:
Zorach Family  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Brooklyn Museum  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976  Search this
Ipcar, Dahlov Zorach, 1917-  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Partridge, Roi, 1888-1984  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite, 1887-1968  Search this
Zorach, Tessim  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Extent:
4.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Prints
Articles
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Notes
Writings
Date:
1900-1987
Summary:
The Zorach Family papers measure 4.4 linear feet and consist of materials relating to the lives and careers of sculptor and painter William Zorach, his wife painter and weaver Marguerite, and their children, painter and multi-media artist Dahlov Ipcar and collector and art dealer Tessim Zorach. The bulk of the papers consists of letters to Tessim regarding his parent's artwork. Additional materials include scattered letters to William Zorach; writings and notes by William, Marguerite, and Tessim; a sketchbook and drawings by William; prints by Marguerite; Marguerite's scrapbook; printed materials; and photographs of the Zorach family and of William Zorach in his studio and at work.
Scope and Content Note:
The Zorach Family papers measure 4.4 linear feet and consist of materials relating to the lives and careers of sculptor and painter William Zorach, his wife painter and weaver Marguerite, and their children, painter and multi-media artist Dahlov Ipcar and collector and art dealer Tessim Zorach. The bulk of the papers consists of letters to Tessim regarding his parent's artwork. Additional materials include scattered letters to William Zorach; writings and notes by William, Marguerite, and Tessim; a sketchbook and drawings by William; prints by Marguerite; Marguerite's scrapbook; printed materials; and photographs of the Zorach family and of William Zorach in his studio and at work.

The majority of correspondence is between Tessim Zorach and various museums and galleries concerning exhibitions and donations of his parents' works of art. There are scattered letters to William Zorach among the correspondence. Business records consist of materials relating to the Collection of the Zorach Children, including lists of works of art by the Zorach's, a file relating to an exhibition of Zorach artwork at the Brooklyn Museum, and photographs of works of art considered for donation.

Writings and Notes include a typescript of an article written by Marguerite Zorach, writings by William Zorach, a typescript of Young Poems by William and Marguerite, as well as articles written by others about the Zorachs. Artwork by Marguerite Zorach includes two prints and a tracing. Also found is one sketchbook, and additional drawings by William Zorach. There is one unsigned lithograph.

The majority of exhibition announcements, catalogs, and clippings concern William and Marguerite Zorach although there are two announcements for Dahlov Ipcar. There is one scrapbook of clippings about Marguerite.

The papers include photographs of Marguerite and William Zorach, their parents, baby photos of Tessim and Dahlov, family pictures of the Zorachs, and of Marguerite and William in their studios. There are several folders of William Zorach working in his studios and additional photos of him carving a relief sculpture and a sculpture for the Southwest Bank. Most of these photographs contain detailed annotations written by William Zorach about the work. There is one folder of photographs of William in France in 1910-1911, including one of Zorach in Roi Partridge's studio. There is one photograph of Zorach taken by Ansel Adams in Yosemite, a photo of Zorach working by Arnold Newman, and several taken by Imogen Cunnigham.

Other photographs are of works of art, most of which depict William's works.

Artifacts include Marguerite's batik tools and approximately fifty commercially made printing blocks.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1907-1969 (Box 1, 6; 3 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1982 (Box 1-2; 1.75 linear feet)

Series 3: Business Records, 1967-1971, circa 1960s-1970s (Box 2-3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, circa 1930s-1973, 1987 (Box 3; 8 folders)

Series 5: Artworks, 1900-circa 1920s (Box 3, 6; 12 folders)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1922-1953 (Box 3; 1 folder)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1912-1982 (Box 3; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, 1908-1966 (Box 3-5; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts, circa 1910s, circa 1950s (Box 4; 0.5 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
William Zorach (1887-1966) was a modernist painter and sculptor working primarily in New York city, along with his wife Marguerite (1887-1968) who worked as a fauvist painter, printmaker, and textile artist. Their children were painter Dahlov Ipcar (1917-) and art collector Tessim Zorach (1915-1995.)

Born in Lithuania, William Zorach immigrated to the United States where his family settled in Cleveland, Ohio. An early interest in art led to a printmaking apprenticeship. He then moved to New York City and enrolled in the National Academy of Design where he studied painting and drawing. In 1910, Zorach traveled to Paris to study and where he met his wife Marguerite Thompson at the La Palette art school. Marguerite grew up in Fresno, California and studied art at Stanford University. Both artists were heavily influenced by the fauvist and cubist art movements.

Returning to America, Marguerite and William married and both continued to create and experiment with varied media. Their paintings were featured in the 1913 New York City Armory Show and they are credited with being among the first artists to introduce European modernist styles to American modernism. The Zorachs were very close both as a couple and as working active artists.

In the 1920s, Marguerite began to experiment with textiles and created large, fine art tapestries and hooked rugs. Also, she used batik dying techniques on fabrics. William also expanded his genre by creating direct sculpture in 1918, which would become his primary medium.

In 1915, William and Marguerite started a family with their son, Tessim. Two years later, their daughter Dahlov was born. The Zorachs divided the year and lived in New York City, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In 1923, the family bought a farm on Georgetown Island, Maine where they lived, worked, and entertained friends.

Dahlov and Tessim were exposed to art from an early age. Dahlov showed artistic promise as a child and her parents supported her creativity by allowing her to express herself without formal training. Dahlov pursued painting and later became an illustrator for children's books. Additionally, she wrote fantasy novels and short stories. Dahlov married Adolf Ipcar in 1936. Like the rest of his family, Tessim Zorach developed an interest of art and along with his wife Peggy, he amassed a large private collection of ancient to modern art.

William and Marguerite continued to sculpt and paint until their deaths in 1966 and 1968, respectively.

Together, Dahlov and Tessim established the Collection of the Zorach Children which coordinated donations of their parents' art to many museums throughout the United States and the world. The artwork of both artists is found in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, Delaware Art Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Farnsworth Art Museum, Portland Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum, The Philips Collection, and educational institutions such as Colby College, University of Vermont, Williams College, Bowdoin College, and the University of Virginia. In addition William has works associated with many public buildings, among them: Radio City Music Hall, New York City Municipal Court, the U.S. Post Office in Washington D.C. as well as Farleigh Dickinson University.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds the Dahlov Ipcar papers, 1906-1997. Also found is one oral history interview with William Zorach conducted by by John D. Morse on April 2, 1959 and an oral history interview with Dahlov Ipcar conducted by Robert F. Brown on November 13, 1979.

The bulk of William Zorach's papers are held by the Library of Congress.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming on reels NY59-1-NY59-4 and NY59-19. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are now held by the Library of Congress, Manuscript Division. This material is not described in the collection container inventory or finding aid.
Provenance:
William Zorach lent papers for microfilming to the Archives of American Art in 1959. Tessim Zorach donated materials between 1976-1987.
Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Zorach Family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artist couples  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Weavers  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Prints
Articles
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Notes
Writings
Citation:
The Zorach Family papers, 1900-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.zorazora
See more items in:
The Zorach Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-zorazora

John G. Vasquez papers

Creator:
Vasquez, John G.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Notebooks
Sketches
Patents
Date:
1942 - 2005
Summary:
Papers document independent inventor John G. Vasquez. The papers include drawings, sketches, correspondence, notebooks, photographs, and prototypes for two of Vasquez's inventions.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document the work of independent inventor John G. Vasquez and include drawings, sketches, correspondence, notebooks, photographs, and a prototype of Vasquez's invention, the Magnetic Retainer.

Series 1, Inventions and Ideas, 1942-2005, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Chronological, 1942-2005 and Subseries 2, Miscellaneous, 1948-2003. The majority of the inventions and ideas consist of one file folder per invention/idea and contain sketches and/or notes. Many of the inventions/ideas are signed and dated by Vasquez. The random ideas folder contains a letterhead for "John G. Vasquez, inventor, designer of practical ideas for improved living." Subseries 2, Miscellaneous, 1948-2003, is comprised of numbered lists of ideas. In some instances, the lists contain small sketches.

Series 2, Notebooks, 1960s-1970s, undated, consists of fourteen 3" x 5" spiral bound notebooks maintained by Vasquez to record his thoughts, dreams, ideas and inventions. The notebooks contain statistics, facts, newspaper clippings, motivational phrases, and other data such as how much energy an appliance uses or the qualities of a "good shop man."

Series 3, Patents, 1945-1956, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, United States Patents, 1945, 1947, and Subseries 2, Poor Man's Patents, 1955, 1956. The patents are arranged chronologically by patent number and there is one file folder of poor man's patents. A "poor man's patent" is when an inventor writes a description of his/her invention and mails it to themselves or someone else by regular or certified mail to protect one's invention. Unfortunately, this method does not protect an invention.

Series 4, News clippings, 1948, 1981, contain three newspaper articles from the Hartford Daily Courant about Vasquez.

Series 5, Photographs, 1948, undated, contains three black-and-white photographs; two document Vasquez, the other features his Multiple Compartment Handbag (United States Patent #2,429,856) of 1945.

Series 6, Artifacts, 1945 and 1947, contains two prototypes: a Magnetic Retainer (United States Patent #2,521,885) 1947, and a Combined Ash Tray and Holder for Smokers' Articles, 1945 (United States Design Patent #D142, 753).
Arrangement:
Collection organized into six series.

Series 1: Inventions and Ideas, 1942-2005

Subseries 1, Chronological, 1942-2005

Subseries 2, Miscellaneous, 1948-2003

Series 2: Notebooks, 1960s-1970s, undated

Series 3:Patents, 1945-1956

Subseries 1, United States Patents, 1945, 1947

Subseries 2, Poor Man's Patents, 1955, 1956

Series 4: News clippings, 1948, 1981

Series 5: Photographs, 1948, undated

Series 6: Prototypes, 1945 and 1947
Biographical / Historical:
John George Vasquez was born in Meriden, Connecticut, on February 22, 1916 to Italian immigrants, John and Sebastiana (Larosa) Vasquez of Canicattini Bagni, Sicily. In the late 1920s, John apprenticed as a barber, which became a favorite lifelong hobby. He was later recognized as a "Master Barber." Vasquez graduated from Hartford Public High School and attended the University of Connecticut.

In 1941, Vasquez married Lillia B. Schultz (b. 1920) of Wilmington, Vermont. They raised five children of their own: John E. Vasquez, Benedict R. Vasquez, Lewis P. Vasquez, Constance I. Sullivan, and Joseph D. Vasquez. Additionally, Vasquez and his wife were foster parents to at least fifty children in the State of Connecticut. The Vasquezes lived in Hartford until 1959 when they moved to Rocky Hill, Connecticut. Vasquez had a successful career designing and tool making at Pratt & Whitney Tool and Die Company of West Hartford. While working at Pratt & Whitney, John filed his first patent for a combined ash tray, and he began recording his thoughts, dreams, ideas and inventions in pocket-size notebooks. Vasquez holds three United States patents: Combined Ash Tray and Holder for Smokers' Articles, 1945 (#D142,753); a Multiple Compartment Handbag, 1947 (#2,429,856); and Magnetic Retainer, 1950 (#2,521,885). Vasquez completed his career as a blueprint supervisor at Pratt & Whitney with over 30 years of service. John G. Vasquez died on January 6, 2006.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Lillia Vasquez, widow of John G. Vasquez, 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Notebooks
Sketches
Patents -- 20th century
Citation:
John Vasquez Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0942
See more items in:
John G. Vasquez papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0942
Online Media:

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera

Collector:
Udkoff, Robert, 1918- (businessman)  Search this
Names:
Swedish Music Academy  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Extent:
1.33 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Photographs
Clippings
Programs
Correspondence
Television scripts
Date:
1924-1990
Scope and Contents:
Photographs, event programs, periodicals, cassette audio tapes, correspondence, TV program scripts and pamphlets documenting Duke Ellington's career as a musician, 1924-1974, and his legacy after his death.
Arrangement:
Divided into five series.

Series 1; Photographs, 1964-1968

Series 2: Publications, 1944-1990

Series 3: Memorabilia, 1965-1981

Series 4: Correspondence and sketches, 1958-1990

Series 5; Cassette audio tapes, 1924-1933
Biographical / Historical:
Businessman and Ellington enthusiast, Robert Udkoff was born in Chicago and first heard Duke Ellington perform at Chicago's Oriental Theater in 1928. In 1932 he established a cordial relationship with Ellington that lasted until Ellington's death in 1974.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Robert Udkoff, 1991, January 29.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes -- 1920-1940
Photographs -- 1960-1970
Clippings
Programs
Correspondence -- 1940-2000
Television scripts
Citation:
Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera, 1924-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0388
See more items in:
Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0388
Online Media:

New England Gravestone Imagery [1650-1815]

Author:
Parker, Ann  Search this
Neal, Avon  Search this
Sponsor:
Art in America  Search this
Donor:
Ludwig, Saul  Search this
Photographer:
Ludwig, Allan I.  Search this
Collector:
Cultural History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Cultural History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Rubbings
Portfolios (groups of works)
Photographs
Place:
New England -- Gravestones
Date:
1957-1959
1963
Scope and Contents:
This collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1: PHOTOGRAPHS BY ALLAN LUDWIG, 1957-1959

408 photoprints with captions. The photos were originally divided into 6 volumes. These were then consolidated into 3 binders. The original 6 divisions have been maintained here. Each photograph has been numbered. The number corresponds to the "List of Identifications."

Series 2: PORTFOLIOS OF RUBBINGS, 1963

Forty-two rubbings of gravestones issued in three portfolios of different sizes. There are fourteen rubbings in each box. The portfolios are number #16 of an edition of 50.
Arrangement:
Divided into two series.

Series 1: Photographs by Allan Ludwig, 1957-1959

Series 2: Portfolios of rubbings by Ann Parker and Avon Neal, 1963
Biographical / Historical:
Allan I. Ludwig, an historian and photographer, was born in 1933 in Yonkers, NY. He studied at Yale University, earning a BFA in 1956, a MA in 1960, and a PhD in 1964. Additionally, from 1960 to 1963 he was a Bollingen fellow.Graven Images: New England Stonecarving and Its Symbols was originally published by Wesleyan University Press, and has most recently (1999) been reprinted by the University Press of New England. It continues to be a seminal work. He works in platinum and silver gelatin photographic printing media. Ludwig took the photographsfor this survey between 1957 and 1959.

In 1963, as part of its 50th Anniversary program, Art in America magazine sponsored the publication of a series of portfolios of original gravestone rubbings made by Ann Parker and Avon Neal. The work was conducted under a Ford Foundation Grant. A limited number of each of the rubbings was made for the portfolios, issued in three different sizes. They are published under the title: A Portfolio of Rubbings from Early American Stone Sculpture Found in the Burying Grounds of New England.
Related Materials:
From the Ludwig photographs, seven stones were selected by the Museum in 1960 to be reproduced in plastic resin for exhibition; the replicas were executed by Smithsonian craftsmen under the direction of Allan Ludwig. The reproductions are in the Division of Cultural History collections.
From the Ludwig photographs, seven stones were selected by the Museum in 1960 to be reproduced in plastic resin for exhibition; the replicas were executed by Smithsonian craftsmen under the direction of Allan Ludwig. The reproductions are in the Division of Cultural History collections.

The Division of Cultural History retains a number of objects relating to death, dying, and mortuary services (including coffin manufacturing). The Division also has tools and other objects relating to stone carving and gravestones.
Provenance:
The Ludwig portion of the collection was donated to NMAH (formerly United States National Museum) in 1959 by Saul Ludwig. The three portfolios were purchased by the Museum in 1964 from Ann Parker and Avon Neal. The materials were transferred to the Archives Center in 1998 from the Division of Cultural History and combined to form one collection.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Tombstones  Search this
Cemeteries -- 1650-1810 -- New England  Search this
Epitaphs -- 1650-1810 -- New England  Search this
Sculpture -- 1650-1810 -- New England  Search this
Genre/Form:
Rubbings
Portfolios (groups of works) -- 1960-1970
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-1960
Citation:
New England Gravestone Imagery, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0658
See more items in:
New England Gravestone Imagery [1650-1815]
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0658
Online Media:

Cage, John

Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Container:
Box Asch_01_006, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1959-1997
Scope and Contents note:
Photograph rehoused in OS01-02
Correspondence, 1959-1992; royalty statements, 1960-1970; sales records, 1959-1960; clippings, 1992-1997; promotional material; miscellaneous materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at rinzlerarchives@si.edu or (202) 633-7322 for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, File Asch_01_006_005
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref537

Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Project Collection

Creator:
Koenig, Ruth  Search this
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 1942-  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Articles
Business records
Newsletters
Diaries
Place:
Holly Springs (Miss.) -- 1960-1970
Date:
1964-1966
Summary:
Materials related to the Civil Rights struggle, voter registration drive in Holly Springs, summer 1964: includes diaries, correspondence, business records, periodical articles, newsletters, and ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
The Ruth Koenig collection includes personal and business correspondence, pictures, and various printed material. The collection is arranged in four series as follows:

Series 1: CORRESPONDENCE: letters to/from Ruth Koenig, "The Gang," and other people.

Series 2: BUSINESS RECORDS: organizational documents pertaining to "Friends of SNCC" and the Holly Springs Project and financial records. There is also a sub-series that holds documentation concerning SNCC, which includes press releases and Mississippi incident reports from 1964.

Series 3: EPHEMERA: two diaries written by Ruth Koenig, and transcripts of two Freedom Songs.

Series 4: PRINT MEDIA: issues of various independent and local newspapers including the Student Voice and the South Reporter; also clippings pertaining to the Mississippi Summer Project from national newspapers and magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1964, the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project was established by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), an alliance of four civil rights groups: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE); and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The purpose of the Freedom Summer was to develop a unified voter registration program in Mississippi to support the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) at the National Democratic Convention in Atlantic City. Furthermore, COFO hoped to attract the government and nation's attention through the help of hundreds of predominately northern, white students.

Lasting from late June to mid-August 1964, the Freedom Summer Project was closely followed by the northern media, and grabbed the attention of the New Left. Ultimately, the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project established a black political presence in the state of Mississippi, as well as organized various programs including the Freedom Schools and Community Centers.

Ruth Koenig was a 23-year-old schoolteacher from Schenectady, New York, when she volunteered for the Mississippi Freedom Summer in Holly Springs, Mississippi. She stated that it was the 1963 Birmingham bombing which compelled her to participate in the Freedom Summer. During her three months in Mississippi, Koenig taught at the Freedom Schools, signed new members for the MFDP, and helped to organize voter registration drives. In 1966, Koenig returned to Mississippi to observe the changes she helped to generate through her participation in the Mississippi Freedom Summer. Since that time, she has worked predominately in the education field, and has continued to rally for human rights, as well as environmental and peace issues.
Related Materials:
Ruth Koenig Papers [unprocessed manuscript collection], University of Southern Mississippi, McCain Library and Archives, accession number: AM01-114.
Provenance:
The Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Collection was donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1996 by Bernice Johnson Reagon.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Human Rights -- 1960-1970  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements -- 1960-1970 -- Mississippi  Search this
Political rights -- 1960-1970  Search this
Voter registration -- 1960-1970 -- Mississippi  Search this
African Americans -- Civil rights  Search this
State action (Civil rights) -- Mississippi  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1960-1970
Articles -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Newsletters -- 1960-1970
Diaries -- 20th century
Citation:
The Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Project Collection, 1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0558
See more items in:
Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Project Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0558
Online Media:

Records, 1964-1971

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary  Search this
Subject:
Ripley, S. Dillon (Sidney Dillon) 1913-2001  Search this
Carmichael, Leonard 1898-1973  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Administration  Search this
National Museum of History and Technology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Academic Studies  Search this
Smithsonian Resident Associate Program  Search this
Smithsonian National Associates Program  Search this
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars  Search this
Renwick Gallery  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Symposia and Seminars  Search this
Yale University  Search this
Peabody Museum of Natural History  Search this
Festival of American Folklife  Search this
Physical description:
297.65 cu. ft. (568 document boxes) (91 3x5 boxes) (1 oversize folder)
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Collection descriptions
Serials (publications)
Clippings
Manuscripts
Architectural drawings
Date:
1964
1964-1971
Topic:
Museums--Administration  Search this
Museums--Public relations  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU000099
See more items in:
Administrative Records 1835-2017 [Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary]
Budget Records 1892-1971 [Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary]
Correspondence 1863-1971 [Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary]
Governmental Relations Records 1907-1971 [Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_216705

Krispy Kreme Corporation Records

Creator:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Rudolph, Vernon Carver  Search this
Extent:
16.5 Cubic feet (40 boxes, 2 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records
Commercials
Photographs
Training films
Videotapes
Date:
1932 - 2009
Summary:
Correspondence, administrative records, operational records, company newsletters, news clippings, photographs, photograph albums, and audio-visual materials.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: History of Krisy Kreme, includes records and materials which document the history of Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. Included are stories about the company and its founder, Vernon Rudolph ("A Man and an Enterprise" is in booklet form while "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme" is 115 pages) and also a story about the employees and facilities of the Corporation; a report that includes the organization's history and brief biographies of the management team; and overall operating reports from 1948 and 1950. There is also information pertaining to Krispy Kreme's association with Beatrice Foods Company as well as a biography of William Lewis Rudolph, brother of Vernon. This series also contains a draft (from 1952) of a report to the Government Purchasing Agencies about Krispy Kreme's mix plant operations, comprising a detailed list of equipment, cost controls, and a chronology of Krispy Kreme store openings. These are located in a folder marked "Historical Data." There is also a folder entitled "Vernon Rudolph" which contains a photocopy of two photographs -- one is of the front of a house while the other is of a family -- and a funeral tribute, dated 1973, to Vernon Rudolph.

Series 2: Administrative Records, contains those records which deal with the overall operation of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. This series is arranged into the following subseries:

Subseries 2.1: Correspondence, contains copies of letters to and from Vernon Rudolph and vendors, banks, Krispy Kreme stores and office personnel, local organizations, government agencies. The dates range from the 1930s through 1972. There is one original letter and its accompanying envelope from 1939. Subseries 2.2: Executive Records, contains the articles of incorporation, bylaws, minutes, and resolutions of the Board of Directors. The dates range from 1946-1977. This subseries also includes an organizational chart from the mid-1970s as well as an article of incorporation for Frozen Products, Inc., a subsidiary of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. There is also an Incorporation Plan from 1946 that includes a plan of organization, bills of sale, and a balance sheet. The folder marked "Miscellaneous," contains minutes from the first meeting of the incorporators in 1946 and a short note from 1952 concerning floor space at the Ivy Street plant. Subseries 2.3: Financial Records, ca. 1940-1996, includes annual and audit reports, gross sales statements for the company and the corporation as well as for doughnut mix. This subseries also contains balance sheets, a general accounting ledger, and operating reports. In the folder "Canceled Checks," there are signed checks by Vernon Rudolph as well as a handwritten listing of expenses that is titled "Personal Bank Records." There is also a prospectus dated from 1975 which is one year before the merger with Beatrice. Subseries 2.4: Legal Records, 1947-1982, deals mostly with trademark issues. It contains the correspondence and registration applications pertaining to trademark laws. Also included are the actual trademark registrations from all 50 states (since expired) as well as a list of expiration dates for the registrations. This subseries also contains correspondence between Krispy Kreme and Prudential Insurance Company concerning loans. There is also a folder "Miscellaneous Agreements and Contracts" that contains a lease agreement from 1957 and an accident claims agreement from 1955. Subseries 2.5: Personnel Records, dates range from the 1950s-1985. It includes information concerning employee benefits and manuals on selling doughnuts and running doughnut machines. Female employees are provided with guidelines in both a booklet, ca. 1963, titled "Salesgirl," and a plaque from the early 1960s that instructs them on appearance, retail manner, and attitude. Also contained in this subseries are award certificates given for years of service and a photograph of service award pins, jewelry, watches, and a clock. Other certificates were those for Associates and store operators certifying that they are fully capable and properly trained to operate a Krispy Kreme store. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there are memorandums to employees, want-ad clippings, and a thank you card from the Corporation to its employees for 50 years of success. Subseries 2.6: Professional Associations, contains a certificate of membership into the US Chamber of Commerce, 1955. Subseries 2.7: Stock Records, deals with the purchase and sale of stocks from 1947-1975. There are copies of two agreements -- one regarding Krispy Kreme selling an employee stocks and the other concerning Krispy Kreme buying stocks in the Pinebrook Real Estate and Development Corporation. The folder "Stockholders," contains a 1950 end of year letter to stockholders and a brief report on a court case entitled "How Not to Sell Company Stock to Key Employees" from a 1949 newsletter, "Estate and Tax Letter." There is a stockholders ledger dated 1947-1975 which also has a list of stockholders attached to one page. Subseries 2.8: Testimonial Letters, are from customers and date from 1994-1997. In some cases, Krispy Kreme responses were attached with the original, in others they were not. All the letters are copies of the originals and are on acid-free paper. Subseries 2.9: Miscellaneous, contains drawings and pictures of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC, and of exterior store signage. It also includes logo designs from the 1960s through 1989, samples of stationery, a brochure for and a photograph of the Krispy Kreme plane, and a program for the 1994 Krispy Kreme Annual Conference. There is also a folder containing Holiday greeting cards from Krispy Kreme management and a program from their 1990 Christmas party. Series 3: Operational Records, contains those records which pertain to all aspects of the production and sale of Krispy Kreme doughnuts. This series has the following subseries:

Subseries 3.1: Advertising and Promotions, ca. 1947-1993, contains small and full page newspaper advertisements from 1947 through 1993 (including some undated advertisements), the mats and layouts that the retail stores used in their own in-store advertising, and information and correspondence concerning billboard advertising. This subseries also includes television commercial storyboards and an audience pre-test report for three of them. There is also materials on the different promotions Krispy Kreme used. The "Miscellaneous" folder contains a variety of indoor and outdoor advertisements. Subseries 3.2: Equipment and Engineering, is itself broken down into three categories: American Gas Association (AGA), Equipment Design, and Equipment Information. The "American Gas Association" section contains correspondence between the AGA and Krispy Kreme regarding AGA inspection of and seal of approval for Krispy Kreme-made equipment. "Equipment Design" contains the notes, sketches, test results, and photographs of various pieces of equipment designed and made by Krispy Kreme. "Equipment" information includes equipment brochures and booklets and more detailed information on the use of the equipment. Subseries 3.3: Franchises/Associates, ca. 1940s-1990s, contains literature to attract potential new franchisees as well as samples of franchise agreements. This subseries also includes photographs and press releases concerning store openings. These are located in three folders: "Grand Opening Summary," "Knoxville Grand Opening," and "Krispy Kreme Locations." There is also a videocassette that highlights Krispy Kreme's foray into New York City in 1996. Subseries 3.4: Fundraising, includes a variety of materials that concern Krispy Kreme's program of assisting local organizations in their fundraising efforts. The dates range from the 1940s-1990s. It contains brochures, ca. 1940s-1990s, which explain the fundraising plan and its benefits. There are also guides geared towards Krispy Kreme salespersons to help them present the plan to potential clients. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there is a newspaper advertisement from September 1988 promoting the fundraising plan. There is also a photo collage done by Krispy Kreme Fundraising Representative, Sharon Craig, to commemorate a local parade in Memphis, TN (at the Elvis Presley Boulevard plant). Subseries 3.5: Marketing, contains a 1996 marketing standards manual and press kits from 1997. The marketing manual was directed to store operators to assist them in promoting and selling their products. The press kits were given to the Smithsonian when discussions concerning Krispy Kreme's donation to the museum began in the spring of 1997. Subseries 3.6: Packaging, ca. 1930s-1992, contains examples of the different packaging used by Krispy Kreme to market their food products and mixes. Also included are designs for new packaging. One example is for doughnuts done by Comet Products Inc. (of MA) in 1979. Four samples of pie packaging designs were created by Pike & Cassels, Inc. (of NC) in late 1991 and early 1992. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are examples of other Krispy Kreme packaging. Subseries 3.7: Quality Control Laboratory, ca. 1959-1976, consists of two items. The first one, which was originally housed in a binder, is a notebook of information on lab procedures and on the chemical consistency and test concerning doughnut ingredients. This belonged to David Downs, Chief Chemist at Krispy Kreme. The second item is a "pictorial" prospectus of the entire Krispy Kreme operation -- departments, individual stores, products and packaging -- which belonged to the Laboratory. Subseries 3.8: Sales Records, ca. 1950s-1980s, contains materials that would assist both franchise managers and operators (with in-store sales) and route salespeople (in selling wholesale Krispy Kreme products to groceries, etc). It includes a Route Book, ca. late 1950s, that contained order information and belonged to Robah G. Hendrick, a Krispy Kreme salesman. There is also a sales order pad, ca. 1950s-early 1960s, used by a Krispy Kreme store in Memphis, TN. There are also two in-house catalogs -- in folders "Posters, inserts, cards..." and "Shelf talkers catalog" -- that contain items that can be ordered by managers and that are used to sell store products. Shelf talkers are signs posted near the merchandise or on grocery display shelves. They, like the posters, inserts, cards, are used to attract customers with specials and promotions. Samples of shelf talkers are included in this subseries. There is also a "Miscellaneous" folder which contains a Krispy Kreme coupon, a book of gift certificates, another example of a shelf talker sign, and brochures of different store displays. Subseries 3.9: Store Operations, ca. 1960s-1970s, deals primarily with items that are meant for store operators and mangers to help them in running a Krispy Kreme store. Two manuals -- Production and Extruded Doughnut manuals -- instruct managers in producing high quality products. Two other manuals -- Associates Operations and Branch Plant Managers' Manual -- discuss doughnut production, but also give directives and policies on other store issues, such as safety, sanitation, and personnel. The Branch Plant Managers' Manual also delves into the natural gas crisis in January 1977 and deals with advertising, security, and photo requests. This subseries also includes five 8"x6" laminated cards that contain doughnut recipe information and checklists of cleanup and sanitation procedures. There is also a plaque entitled "What is a Customer?" which explains to employees why a Krispy Kreme customer is so important. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are two guides that advise on how to promote and sell items and a store/production area sign containing the store mission statement. [Also see Series 2: Administrative Records, Subseries E: Personnel, for a guide entitled "Salesgirl" which instructs the female Krispy Kreme employee on matters pertaining to dress and attitude.] Series 4: Newsletters, 1957-1998, includes, Krispy Kreme News, Krispy Kreme Management Circle, and Hot Doughnut News.

Krispy Kreme News, 1957-1998, is geared towards all members of the Krispy Kreme community -- management, operators and managers, and employees. Its articles discuss new store openings, Corporation news, community (or news-related) events, and provides instructions and reminders concerning store upkeep and sanitation. There are sections announcing upcoming retirements, congratulating outstanding employees, and honoring long service to Krispy Kreme. Also included are articles that do not necessarily pertain to Krispy Kreme, but, rather, add a human element to the newsletters, such as humorous stories, articles on birds, and tips on highway safety. Some articles of interest are a history of chocolate (September 1963), "You Can Improve Your Memory" (May 1967), "A Communist is a Rich Marxist" (July 1967), and a discussion on skirt lengths and their relation to economics (February 1970). [In addition, there are two early issues of Krispy Kreme News (May 9 and May 15, 1951) in a folder entitled "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme, 1977" which is located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme.] Also included in this subseries and relating to Krispy Kreme News are a subject index, a questionnaire form, and signed release letters. Krispy Kreme Management Circle, 1995-1997, is a quarterly newsletter geared towards Krispy Kreme management and leadership. The articles focus on product quality, marketing and promotions, and training. At the end of each issue, there is a ranking of stores in different sales categories, i.e., average customer purchases (in dollars), highest percentages of customers buying beverages with their food or buying a second dozen doughnuts. Hot Doughnut News, 1997, caters primarily to Krispy Kreme store operators, providing reports on stores and ideas for marketing. Series 5: Press Clippings, 1949-1998, contains articles and stories that cover the Corporation, its history, its founder and subsequent leaders, and its community programs and promotions. The bulk of the clippings are from newspapers with a scattering of magazine articles. The largest number clippings come from the Winston-Salem Journalof Winston-Salem, NC, where Krispy Kreme is based. All articles have been copied onto acid-free paper.

Some clippings have been separated from the rest. One folder, "Davey Allison," contains clippings concerning the sudden death of this popular NASCAR driver and Krispy Kreme spokesman, in 1993. The folder titled "Ralph Simpson and Associates, July-Sept 1995" contains articles and news briefs on Krispy Kreme and its competitors collected by a Winston-Salem public relations firm. Two other folders with clippings from the Simpson PR firm concern Krispy Kreme's donation into the Smithsonian in July 1997. The contents of these two folders are not on acid-free paper. "School Computers" documents the efforts of the Krispy Kreme Corporation to help distribute computers to schools across North Carolina. The "TV Monitoring Report, July 1997" folder does not contain any clippings, but includes a listing of news stories that appeared on television about the Krispy Kreme donation to the Smithsonian. Series 6: Photographs, ca. late 1930s through the mid 1990s, consists of black-and-white and color photographs and some negatives and transparencies. This series is divided into the following subseries:

Subseries 6.1: Corporate Staff, Associates, and Store Managers, ca. 1940s-early 1990s, is broken down into the following two categories: "Corporate Staff" and "Associates and Store Managers." Corporate Staff contains photographs of the officers of the corporation as well as members of the staff at the headquarters in Winston-Salem. Most are portrait shots with some group photos, e.g., the Board of Directors. There are also photographs of a 1974 retirement party for Mike Harding (Chairman of the Board and CEO) and Louise Joyner (editor of the Krispy Kreme News) and of a wedding cake made in 1990 for the wedding of headquarters accountant Cathy Rogers. The cake and the wedding were featured in the winter 1991 issue of Krispy Kreme News. [Also of interest are two photocopies of photographs -- of a house and a family -- located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme, Folder: "Vernon Rudolph."] The Associates and Store Managers photographs consist mostly of group portraits taken at their respective annual meetings: Associate Operators' Meeting and Store Managers' Conference. Also included are scenes of store manager training, which was mandatory for all new Krispy Kreme managers. Subseries 6.2: Corporate Headquarters, date from the late 1940s through the late 1980s. This subseries contains photographs of the General Offices, Equipment Department, Laboratory, Mix Department, and Warehouse. [Other photographs pertaining to these areas can be found in Series 6: Photographs, Subseries H: "Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff."] The General Offices photographs include exterior and interior views of the headquarters on Ivy Avenue. The Equipment Department photographs show various pieces of doughnut equipment as well as the designing, manufacturing, and assembling of said equipment by Krispy Kreme. [For more technical information on the different equipment, please refer to Series 3: Operational Records, Subseries B: "Equipment and Engineering."] The Quality Control Laboratory photographs consist of views that show the interior of the laboratory and of the chemists at work. There are also some images of test results of the doughnut mixes for quality and consistency. In addition, there are pictures of lab results of tests on glaze made with and without stabilizers. The Mix Department photographs contain views of the different stages of department operations. They also show the equipment used to prepare the dry doughnut mixes, which later are sent to the Krispy Kreme stores. The Warehouse photographs show bags of Krispy Kreme prepared mixes stacked in a large warehouse at the headquarters and waiting to be shipped. Subseries 6.3: Retail Shops and Plants, ca. 1937-1994, contains photographs of specific Krispy Kreme stores. They show the exterior and interior views of the shops including storefront, signage, retail, and production areas, as well as employees and customers. The bulk of the photos range from the 1950s through the 1970s. They are arranged by state, by city within the state, and then by street name within the city. Subseries 6.4: General Photographs, ca. 1940s-mid 1990s, concern unspecified Krispy Kreme shops and plants. They include views of store exteriors (storefront and signage) and interiors (production and retail areas and signage). The production area photographs show the various stages of the production of doughnuts, pies, and honeybuns. There are also photographs of customers, employees, and of students participating in the Krispy Kreme fundraising plan. The employee photographs consist of general in-store action and posed shots as well as views of employees receiving service awards for years of service. The fundraising photographs show students picking up boxes of doughnuts from Krispy Kreme shops or selling those boxes in an effort to raise money. This subseries also contains photographs of the trucks used by the Krispy Kreme stores throughout the years to deliver their products to groceries and other food stores. [A a set of press clippings that detail the use of Kripsy Kreme trucks in delivering school computers to North Carolina schools. These can be found in SERIES 5: Press Clippings, in the folder titled "School Computers, May-June 1993."] Subseries 6.5: Trade Shows, range in date from the 1950s through 1970s. This subseries includes photographs of Krispy Kreme displays at trade shows in the United States (Atlanta and St. Louis) and in Greece, Indonesia, Japan, and Pakistan. Subseries 6.6: Products and Packaging, ca. late 1940s-early 1990s, shows samples of various grocery store displays as well as photographs of doughnuts, fried pies, and honeybuns -- with and without packaging. There is also a folder that contains shots of Krispy Kreme coffee cups. Subseries 6.7: Advertising and Promotions, dates from 1965-1990s. The bulk of the photographs centers around shots of Davey Allison's race car. Allison was a Krispy Kreme spokesman for their Race to Daytona Sweepstakes in 1991. The other photographs consist of views of various advertising posters used in shops and grocery stores. There are also photographs that show Krispy Kreme advertising displays in airports. Subseries 6.8: Photo Albums, consist of six albums, all falling within the date range of the 1950s through the mid 1980s. The first album, "Exterior and Interior shots of Unspecified Retail Shops," contains photographs that date from the late 1970s-mid 1980s; these consist of exterior and interior views of various stores. The second album, entitled "Krispy Kreme Album," dates from 1962. A Christmas gift to Vernon Rudolph from the Corporate staff and associates, it contains photographs of the individual staff members and associates as well as group shots of the associates at annual meetings. There are also photographs of various shop storefronts. This album also includes exterior and interior views of the corporate headquarters. "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co.," ca. 1950s-1960s, is the third album. It served as a pictorial marketing tool used to attract new associates and franchisees. It shows exterior views of the corporate headquarters, various storefronts, and views of a typical Krispy Kreme trade show display. There are also photographs showing retail doughnut production as well as images of packaging and final products. In addition, there is a price list of equipment and mixes. The "Plant and Production" album dates from the 1960s. It consists of photographs showing the different stages of doughnut production and the preceding steps involving the equipment and mix departments and laboratory. There are also exterior views of various retail shops and of the headquarters in Winston-Salem. The "Production Equipment Album," ca. 1960s-early 1970s, is similar to the "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co." album with regards to the subject of the photographs. Additionally, there are photographs of the officers of the Corporation as well as images of advertising posters used in grocery stores. The sixth album, entitled "Social Gatherings Album," dates from 1951-1971. It contains photographs of female corporate staff members at various social gatherings, such as bridal and baby showers, picnics, birthdays, and Christmas parties. Subseries 6.9: Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff, contains photographs that were taken on May 28, 1997. The photos, taken by Smithsonian photographer Rich Strauss, depict a tour of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC. One highlight of interest is a view of the safe where the secret Krispy Kreme recipe is kept (located in the "Quality Control Laboratory" section of this subseries). The photographs are arranged according to the order of the tour. Series 7: AUDIOvisual Materials, remains unprocessed as of the date of this finding aid. This series consists of training films, videotapes, TV and radio commercials, and slide presentations. A rough inventory of these materials is provided in the container list.
Biographical / Historical:
The Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation started with a recipe, a Pontiac, a pack of cigarettes, and a dream. Add in hard work and a commitment to quality and consistency and what emerges is a company that is at the top of its field and beloved by its customers. It is an organization that has been innovative over the years, but has also remained true to its belief in making top quality products and ensuring excellent customer service. All of this has made Krispy Kreme doughnuts and its company a Southern icon.

The story of Krispy Kreme is the story of one man: Vernon Rudolph. Vernon Rudolph opened his first Krispy Kreme shop in the 1930s and from there built a corporation which he led until his death in the early 1970s. There is another part of the story and that is the continuation of the dream by Joseph McAleer. It was after some years under corporate food giant, Beatrice Foods, that McAleer, beginning in 1982, steered Krispy Kreme back to its traditional emphasis on excellent doughnuts as well as on a family atmosphere within the entire corporation.

The story begins on June 30, 1915 in Marshall County, Kentucky with the birth of Vernon Carver Rudolph. He was the eldest son of Rethie Nimmo Rudolph (mother) and Plumie Harrison Rudolph (father) and had a strict, but loving, upbringing. Vernon Rudolph did well in school, both academically and athletically. He also found time to work in his father's general store as well as helping his neighbors with odd jobs.

After graduating from high school, Rudolph then began his life's work when he went to work for his uncle, Ishmael Armstrong. It seems Armstrong bought a doughnut shop -- along with the assets, name, and recipe -- from a Frenchman from New Orleans, Joe LeBeau. So in 1933, Rudolph began selling the yeast-based doughnuts door to door for the Krispy Kreme Doughnut shop in Paducah, Kentucky. Not only did Rudolph sell doughnuts, he took part in producing them, thereby giving him an all-around experience in the doughnut business.

The economic depression that rocked the country also affected the shop. Armstrong decided to move from Paducah to the much bigger Nashville, Tennessee, hoping that business would be better there. Vernon Rudolph went with him to the new location, hoping for the same. But after trying, Armstrong, in 1935, decided to sell the shop and return to Kentucky. Rudolph wanted to buy it, but unfortunately did not have the money. However, his father -- whose general store had closed and who was working for the doughnut shop as a salesman -- stepped in. He borrowed the money and soon after Krispy Kreme was operating under new ownership. It was also at this time that one of Rudolph's younger brothers, Lewis, joined the family business.

The shop was doing well, enough so that in 1936 Rudolph's father opened another shop in Charleston, West Virginia. Awhile later, a third shop opened in Atlanta, Georgia. While this growth was occurring, Vernon Rudolph still wanted to own his own Krispy Kreme store. In the summer of 1937, he left Nashville with two friends in their new 1936 Pontiac and $200. Carrying start-up doughnut equipment the three young men set out towards an unknown destination, but with a known dream.

Louise Skillman Joyner, Krispy Kreme News editor, recounts how Rudolph and his friends settled on Winston-Salem, North Carolina as the location for their shop.

After some disappointments in looking for a suitable location, Vernon Rudolph, standing on a street corner in Peoria, [Illinois], one evening, wondered what the next move should be. Rents were quite high in that section of the country and the trio was running out of money. He took a pack of Camel cigarettes from his pocket and noticed that they were manufactured in Winston-Salem, N.C. "Why not Winston-Salem?" he thought, "A town with a company producing a nationally advertised product has to be a good bet." So off across the mountains to North Carolina they went.

With only $25 left, they arrived in Winston-Salem. Using that money to rent a space on Main Street and then getting the ingredients and some equipment on credit (which they paid back promptly), the three men began making yeast doughnuts. That day was July 13, 1937. Vernon Rudolph believed in producing only doughnuts of high quality and those were the only ones that were ever sold. That belief (as well as the mouth-watering doughnuts) endeared them to the people of Winston-Salem. What also caught their eye (and their taste buds) was the doughnut production that occurred in the store's front window and the free samples given away in the evenings.

Krispy Kreme at this time was primarily a wholesale enterprise. Using trucks to deliver the products, Rudolph was able to sell doughnuts throughout the area. But soon the wonderful aroma that came from the shop caused passersby to ask for doughnuts right there on the spot. This led to the beginning of Krispy Kreme's retail operations.

In the midst of all this, Rudolph met and married an Atlanta woman, Ruth Ayers, in 1939. This family increased by one in 1943 when the Rudolphs adopted a baby girl, whom they named Patricia Ann. Sadly, Ruth Ayers Rudolph was killed in an automobile accident in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1944.

The number of Krispy Kreme stores continued to grow in the years that followed. But instead of Rudolph owning all of them outright, he entered into partnerships or into associate (franchise) relationships. The arrangements gave the operators of these particular shops that use of the Krispy Kreme name, recipe, and later the ingredients. But more importantly, they had to agree to adhere to the Krispy Kreme philosophy of producing only the highest quality doughnuts. In those early years, the business was truly family-oriented. This atmosphere continued with these associate owners.

In 1946, Rudolph began thinking about consolidating all the Krispy Kreme resources together under a corporation. This umbrella, he believed, would enable Krispy Kreme to grow further and also give the shops a sense of uniformity. So on October 1, 1946 a corporation named the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company was formed. Less than a year later, on June 3, 1947, a new corporation, the Krispy Kreme Corporation, was incorporated. The Company concerned itself with individual store operations, while the corporation took care of producing dry mixes used by the shops. Vernon Rudolph served as President and Chairman of the Board.

It was also in 1946 that Rudolph married again -- to Lorraine Flynt of Winston-Salem. Their family of three grew over the years to include Vernon Carver Jr., Sanford, Curtis, and Beverly.

The formation of the corporation was followed by the creation of three important departments within Krispy Kreme: the Mix Department, the Laboratory, and the Equipment Department. Each had an essential role in the overall success of the company. The Mix Department has grown since its creation in 1948. Its primary mission: to mix, in bulk, the key ingredients needed by the shops to make doughnuts -- both yeast- and cake-doughnuts -- but also newly added products -- fried pies and honeybuns. By providing these mixes, Krispy Kreme was able to ensure that all stores made the same excellent products.

The Laboratory was created in 1949. Vernon Rudolph's beliefs in top quality and uniformity were put in action. The Laboratory tested ingredients that were in the prepared mixes and experimented with others to see if perhaps a new ingredient would make a great product better.

Rudolph started the Equipment Department because Krispy Kreme's main supplier of yeast doughnut machines, the Doughnut Corporation of America, decided to enter the retail doughnut business itself. So with the help of consultants and staffed with engineers and machinists, the Equipment Department began manufacturing its own equipment in 1949.

The push towards automation that swept the nation also affected Krispy Kreme. One piece of equipment that illustrates this is the Ring King Junior. Designed for cake doughnut production and taking up only seven square feet, the Ring King Junior cut, fried, turned, and cooled about 30 to 75 dozen per hour. How different from the early days of Krispy Kreme when everything had to be done by hand -- measuring, cutting, frying. The Ring King not only saved space and time, but also ingredients used. And it gave a uniformity to the doughnuts produced -- something Vernon Rudolph liked very much.

Over the years, Krispy Kreme has followed a philosophy of excellent quality and customer service. It recognizes the importance of the customer -- because without him or her there would be no reason to be in business. Along with giving their customers the best, getting involved in the community is another way Krispy Kreme has endeared itself to them. They do this by primarily helping area schools raise money for equipment, uniforms, trips, etc. In order to accomplish its goals, the company needs hard-working and dependable people. Krispy Kreme recognizes the value of its employees. The family atmosphere of those early days has continued.

Vernon Rudolph believed in that philosophy and always strove to make Krispy Kreme the best in the doughnut business. His death on August 16, 1973, left a large void and the years immediately afterwards were tough. Then, in 1976, Krispy Kreme merged with corporate giant Beatrice Foods Company of Chicago. It was still headquartered in Winston-Salem and continued its operations, but as a subsidiary.

For Beatrice, showing a profit was extremely important. To help its Krispy Kreme division, Beatrice encouraged additions to the menu and substitutions of ingredients in the doughnut mixes. This did not appeal to long-time Krispy Kreme associates, but unfortunately there was not much that could be done at that time.

Beatrice's association with Krispy Kreme was not as profitable as it had hoped it would be. So in 1981, the food corporation decided to sell its subsidiary. One Krispy Kreme associate saw this as an opportunity to bring the doughnut company back to the basic traditions upon which it had built a successful enterprise. The associate, Joseph A. McAleer, Sr., had been with the company for almost thirty years when this situation arose. An Alabama native, he went to work for the company in 1951 after he saw an advertisement in the Mobile Press Register for qualified people to join a profitable organization -- the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. After meeting with Vernon Rudolph, McAleer worked at the Pensacola, Florida store for $1 per hour in order to learn all aspects of a shop's operations. Rudolph had initially wanted McAleer to work for no pay, but with a family to care for, McAleer could not do this and so the $1 an hour agreement was arranged.

McAleer worked 120 hour weeks for over a year. This experience enabled him, in 1953, to start a shop of his own, in Pritchard, Alabama, a suburb of Mobile. His first effort there was not a success -- due to a poor location. He opened another shop in 1956 -- this time off of a busy street in Mobile -- and this time was successful. Over the next 17 years, McAleer opened up other Krispy Kreme shops in Alabama and Mississippi and all promised to provide the highest quality product and the best service. And continuing the family-oriented tradition, members of his immediate family worked in the different shops.

The death of Vernon Rudolph and Beatrice's purchase of Krispy Kreme seemed to send the doughnut company in a new direction -- one not everyone, including McAleer, liked. When Beatrice wanted to sell Krispy Kreme, McAleer talked with his fellow associates and those with ties to the company -- people, like him, who had a stake in Krispy Kreme's success -- and through his efforts was able to form a group of investors. In 1982, the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation had new owners.

These new owners, though, saw Krispy Kreme as a specialty-type of operation with a certain uniqueness and familial closeness and one which needed to concentrate on its basic foundation. That is, going to back to Vernon Rudolph's philosophy of top quality and top service as well as focusing on people, both customers and employees. They are beliefs and values that have proven successful and have helped Krispy Kreme grow from a small doughnut shop in Winston-Salem to a large corporation that still makes the same much-loved doughnut.
Related Materials:
There is a folder of duplicate Krispy Kreme material in Archives Center collection #439, the Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera. The Archives Center also contains collection #662, two scrapbooks from the Doughnut Corporation of America. Artifacts donated by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation to the National Museum of American History are located in the Division of Cultural History and the Division of the History of Technology.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on July 17, 1997, by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. Additional items were donated on July 17, 1997, by V. Carver Rudolph and on August 6, 1997, by Steve Cochran.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bakers and bakeries  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records -- 20th century
Commercials
Photographs -- 20th century
Training films
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Videotapes
Citation:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0594
See more items in:
Krispy Kreme Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0594
Online Media:

Cards, Holiday (by surname)

Collection Creator:
McCausland, Elizabeth, 1899-1965  Search this
Container:
Box 49, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1960-1970
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Elizabeth McCausland papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Elizabeth McCausland papers, 1838-1995, bulk 1920-1960. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Elizabeth McCausland papers
Elizabeth McCausland papers / Series 15: Elizabeth McCausland Material from the Estate of Berenice Abbott / 15.2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-mccaeliz-ref1606

Cards, Holiday (by surname)

Collection Creator:
McCausland, Elizabeth, 1899-1965  Search this
Container:
Box 49, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1960-1970
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Elizabeth McCausland papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Elizabeth McCausland papers, 1838-1995, bulk 1920-1960. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Elizabeth McCausland papers
Elizabeth McCausland papers / Series 15: Elizabeth McCausland Material from the Estate of Berenice Abbott / 15.2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-mccaeliz-ref2784

Robert Dennis Reid papers

Creator:
Reid, Robert Dennis, 1924-2000  Search this
Names:
ADI Gallery  Search this
Fairweather Hardin Gallery  Search this
Galerie Darthea Speyer (Paris, France)  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
Grand Central Moderns (Gallery)  Search this
Rose Fried Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
University of Notre Dame Art Gallery  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1961-1977
Summary:
This small collection of papers of African American artist and educator Robert Dennis Reid consists primarily of correspondence (75 items), and scattered exhibition catalogs and announcements, clippings, and photographs and slides of Reid's artwork. There is also one photograph of Reid. Within the correspondence are six letters from Romare Bearden.
Scope and Content Note:
This small collection of papers of African-American painter and fine arts professor Robert Dennis Reid consists of a resume, 75 letters to and from Reid, scattered exhibition catalogs and announcements, clippings, and photographs and slides of Reid's artwork. There is also one photograph of Reid. Within the correspondence are six letters from Romare Bearden, as well as correspondence with Grand Central Modern Gallery, Grand Central Galleries, University of Notre Dame Art Gallery, Fairweather Hardin Gallery (Chicago), Rose Fried Gallery, Galerie Darthea Speyer (Paris), Benson Gallery, ADI Gallery, Inc. (San Francisco, Calif.), and the Young Gallery (Calif.).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 4 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1960s (Box 1; 1 item)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1960s-1970s (Box 1; 75 items)

Series 3: Printed Material, circa 1961-1975 (Box 1; 3 folders)

Series 4: Photographs and Slides, 1964-1977 (Box 1; 2 folders)
Biographical Note:
African American painter and fine arts professor Robert Dennis Reid was born in Atlanta, Georgia in 1924. He studied at Clark College in Atlanta from 1941-1943 and continued his art education at the Art Institute of Chicago. Later, Reid studied at the Parsons New School of Design in New York City.

Throughout his career, Reid exhibitied at Grand Central Art Gallery in New York City, the UCLA Gallery, and the Whitney Museum of American Art. In addition, the 1st World Festival of Negro Artists in Dakar, Senegal (1965) featured Reid's work. Reid held positions as a professor of painting and drawing at the Summit Art Center in New Jersey and the Rhode Island School of Design. He also exhibited with the U.S. State Department in the "Arts in the American Embassies" program. To supplement his income, Reid worked for the United States Post Office in the evenings. Robert Dennis Reid died in 2002.
Provenance:
Robert Dennis Reid donated his papers to the Archives of American Art on November 4, 1974.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Robert Dennis Reid papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Robert Dennis Reid papers, 1961-1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.reidrobd
See more items in:
Robert Dennis Reid papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-reidrobd

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