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The Staggering Price Tag of NYC's Rockefeller Center

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-12-21T16:30:01.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Wo21g1fHu80

Inka Engineering Symposium 6: Road Construction Technologies

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-11-20T15:52:29.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_DwvIuuVepyU

White Fathers photographic collection, undated

Creator:
White Fathers  Search this
Physical description:
circa 20,000 photographs
Type:
Two-dimensional graphics
Collection descriptions
Topic:
Catholics  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_256470

To Be Done Around the House - Plans of Construction Projects

Collection Creator:
O'Neill, Gerard  Search this
Container:
Box 56, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1962-1980
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Gerard K. O'Neill Collection, Acc. 2014-0005, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Gerard K. O'Neill Collection
Gerard K. O'Neill Collection / Series 3: Personal Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2014-0005-ref568

Project Records, 2002-2011

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Office of Exhibits Central  Search this
Subject:
Archives of American Art  Search this
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Affiliations (Program)  Search this
Smithsonian Associates  Search this
Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Archives  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Libraries  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of the Secretary  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center  Search this
Smithsonian Community Committee  Search this
Smithsonian Forum on Material Culture  Search this
Smithsonian Institution National Collections Program  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Architectural History and Historic Preservation  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Development  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Government Relations  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of the Chief Information Officer  Search this
Physical description:
2 cu. ft. (2 record storage boxes)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Compact discs
Electronic records
Drawings
Color photographs
Date:
2002
2002-2011
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Project management  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 12-189
See more items in:
Project Records 1995-2011 [Smithsonian Institution Office of Exhibits Central]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_338162

Fred Wiseman Scrapbook

Creator:
Wiseman, Fred, 1875-1961  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Wiseman-Peters (Fred Wiseman and J. W. Peters) (Aircraft manufacturer)  Search this
Extent:
0.59 Cubic feet (1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Tickets
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1909-1968
bulk [ca. 1910s, 1950s]
Summary:
Fred Wiseman, along with J. W. Peters and D.C. Prentiss, built a biplane named the Wiseman-Peters. During July 1910, both Peters and Wiseman flew the Wiseman-Peters and the following year Wiseman entered the 1911 Aviation Meet at Selfridge Field, Michigan. On February 17, 1911, Wiseman made the first airplane-carried mail flight officially sanctioned by any local U.S. post office and made available to the public when he carried mail, a bundle of newspapers and a sack of groceries from Petaluma, CA, to Santa Rosa, CA. After the 1911 season, Wiseman gave up flying.

This collection consists of a large scrapbook. Inside the scrapbook are newspaper clippings, correspondence, 1st Day Covers, race tickets, and photographs chronicling both Wiseman's automobile and aviation careers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a large scrapbook. Inside the scrapbook are newspaper clippings, correspondence, 1st Day Covers, race tickets, and photographs chronicling both Wiseman's automobile and aviation careers.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
Materials are in the order the donor attached them to the scrapbook. Correspondence is often located within the envelope that is attached to the scrapbook. Some materials are loose and have been left in the arrangement in which they were found, unless a portion of a newspaper article could be matched to its other parts.
Biographical / Historical:
Fred Wiseman (1875-1961) was born in Santa Rosa, California, and after attending local schools he engaged in both the bicycle and automotive businesses. Wiseman won considerable fame racing Stoddard-Dayton cars on the West Coast as well as in the Chicago area. He became interested in aviation after attending the Wright brothers' homecoming celebration in 1909 and the first Los Angeles aviation meet at Dominguez Field in 1910.

After these two events, Wiseman was convinced he wanted to learn to fly and so he returned to his home in Santa Rosa and persuaded Ben Noonan to put up $10,000 to build a plane. Wiseman, along with J. W. Peters and D.C. Prentiss, built a biplane named the Wiseman-Peters. During July 1910, both Peters and Wiseman flew the Wiseman-Peters and the following year Wiseman entered the 1911 Aviation Meet at Selfridge Field, Michigan.

On February 17, 1911, Wiseman made the first airplane-carried mail flight officially sanctioned by any local U.S. post office and made available to the public when he carried mail, a bundle of newspapers and a sack of groceries from Petaluma, CA, to Santa Rosa, CA. (The first air mail flight sanctioned by the U.S. Post Office in Washington, D.C., took place on September 23, 1911, when Earle Ovington carried mail from Garden City, Long Island, to Mineola; and the first continuously scheduled U.S. air mail service began on May 15, 1918, with routes between Washington, Philadelphia, and New York.)

During 1911, Wiseman had an active season of exhibition work, including flying for one week at the California State Fair. However, after this season Wiseman gave up flying because he thought there was no future in it. He sold his plane and returned to the automobile business. He later worked for Standard Oil Company of California. Wiseman was a member of the Early Birds of Aviation, an organization of pilots who flew solo in an aircraft prior to December 17, 1916.

Weldon Cooke, another pioneer aviator from California, bought and modified the Wiseman-Peters aircraft, renaming it the Wiseman-Cooke. Cooke flew the Wiseman-Cooke for exhibition and air mail flights. The Wiseman-Cooke aircraft is currently part of the Smithsonian Institution's collections.
Provenance:
No donor information, Gift?, unknown, XXXX-0618, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Automobile racing  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Wiseman-Peters #2 Biplane (1910)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Tickets
Correspondence
Clippings
Citation:
Fred Wiseman Scrapbook, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0618, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0618
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0618
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Online Media:

Mills, Frank

Collection Creator:
Morehouse, Harold E., 1894-1973  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies Collection, Acc. XXXX-0450, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection
Harold E. Morehouse Flying Pioneers Biographies collection / Series 1.1: Biographies of Flying Pioneers 1.1
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0450-ref247
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  • View Mills, Frank digital asset number 2

Ruth Law Scrapbook

Collection Creator:
Law, Ruth  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1916-1918
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Law Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0387, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ruth Law Collection
Ruth Law Collection / Series 1: Ruth Law Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0387-ref517
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  • View Ruth Law Scrapbook digital asset number 1

Newspaper Articles

Collection Creator:
Scott, Blanche Stuart, 1889-1970  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1956 - 1969
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Blanche Stuart Scott Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0062, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Blanche Stuart Scott Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0062-ref14
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  • View Newspaper Articles digital asset number 1
  • View Newspaper Articles digital asset number 2

STS-76 Earth Observations Training Manual [KidSat], (folder 2 of 2)

Collection Creator:
Ride, Sally, 1951-2012  Search this
Container:
Box 33, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Sally K. Ride Papers, Acc. 2014-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Sally K. Ride Papers
Sally K. Ride Papers / Series 5: Sally Ride STEM Education Projects / 5.1: KidSat/EarthKAM Project
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2014-0025-ref465
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  • View STS-76 Earth Observations Training Manual [KidSat], (folder 2 of 2) digital asset number 1

Ride's Columbia Investigation Notes

Collection Creator:
Ride, Sally, 1951-2012  Search this
Container:
Box 16, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Sally K. Ride Papers, Acc. 2014-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Sally K. Ride Papers
Sally K. Ride Papers / Series 2: NASA Career / 2.2: NASA Commissions and Reports / 2.2.3: Columbia Accident Investigation Board / NASA's Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Flight and Beyond Report 2003
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2014-0025-ref259
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  • View Ride's Columbia Investigation Notes digital asset number 1

Scrapbook

Collection Creator:
Jones, William  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
bulk 1943 - 1946
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
William Jones World War II Scrapbook, NASM.2006.0067, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
William Jones World War II Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2006-0067-ref506
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  • View Scrapbook digital asset number 3

[Newspaper Clippings]

Collection Creator:
Berau, Rubye, 1900-1978  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1943-1977 and undated
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Rubye Berau Collection, Acc. 2004.0066, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Rubye Berau Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2004-0066-ref509
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  • View [Newspaper Clippings] digital asset number 1

Air Transport Association of America (ATA), Information Bulletins

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
August 1963 to January 1968
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 1: 1992 Acquisition
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref505
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  • View Air Transport Association of America (ATA), Information Bulletins digital asset number 1
  • View Air Transport Association of America (ATA), Information Bulletins digital asset number 2

Stock Holders and Financial Relation Program

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 1: 1992 Acquisition
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref573
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Studies, "The Federal Budget: The Airline Interest"

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 36
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1963
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 1: 1992 Acquisition
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref671
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  • View Studies,

Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection

Creator:
Sklarek, Norma Merrick, 1926-2012  Search this
Names:
American Institute of Architects  Search this
Gruen Associates  Search this
Covington, Garnett K.  Search this
Davis, Carolyn Armenta, 1944-  Search this
Diamond, Katherine  Search this
Donaphin, Alexa Barnes  Search this
Grant, Bradford C.  Search this
Gruen, Victor, 1903-1980  Search this
Harney, Henrietta  Search this
Hermanuz, Ghislaine  Search this
Hinton-Lee, W. Chris  Search this
Hutchinson, Louise Daniel  Search this
LeGendre, Laurette  Search this
Love-Stanley, Ivenue  Search this
Mills, Marlene E.  Search this
Moseley-Olaleye, Joyce  Search this
Pelli, Cesar  Search this
Schwartz, Robert (Robert E.)  Search this
Siegel, Margot  Search this
Sklarek, Rolf  Search this
Sutton, Sharon E., 1941-  Search this
Tyler, Kathryn B.  Search this
Washington, Roberta  Search this
Williams, Paul R., 1894-1980  Search this
deJongh, Donna  Search this
Extent:
4.8 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.)
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
Los Angeles (Calif.)
Date:
1944-2008
Scope and Contents:
The Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection documents the prestigious and groundbreaking career of one of the early women architects who also broke ground for African American architects as well. The collection highlights Sklarek's journey and accomplishments as she paved the way for future women architects and architects of color. The collection is comprised of family records, resumes, business ephemera, photographs, correspondence, publications, clippings, architectural drawings, as well as her many awards and accolades.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been separated into eight series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content and chronology. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Biographical / Historical:
Norma Merrick Sklarek was a renowned architect and a woman of firsts who broke racial and gender barriers earning her place in the male-dominated world of architecture. She was the first Black woman member and esteemed fellow of the highly respected architectural professional organization, American Institute of Architects (AIA). Norma was distinguished in her career for leading challenging assignments and managing large, complex construction projects.

Norma Merrick was born April 15, 1926 to Dr. Walter Ernest Merrick, and Amelia (Amy) Willoughby in Harlem, New York City, New York. Her parents had emigrated from Trinidad, though her father was born in St. Vincent, West Indies. Norma's parents were a part of the first significant Caribbean immigration waves to the United States in the early 20th century. Arriving just a year before her birth, her parents saw possibility and education there. Her father, Walter attended Howard University and eventually became a physician. While her mother, Amy worked as a seamstress in a factory to make ends meet as Walter "wasn't much of a businessman" as described by Norma in an oral history interview. He practiced medicine in Harlem, New York. Norma stated that her father often served as a physician to African American celebrities such as Hazel Scott, Ethel Waters and Art Tatum. Walter was also a talented musician and carpenter that supported his daughter's love of art and math and encouraged her to pursue a career in architecture.

Around 1940, Norma was enrolled at the prestigious Hunter College High School for the intellectually gifted and "Ivy League-bound" young women. Excelling academically, Norma attended Barnard University, the prestigious women's college formerly administered by Columbia University. She attended Barnard initially in order to gain a year of a liberal arts education so that she could be accepted into then-known Columbia University School of Architecture. In 1947, she met and married, Dumas Flagg Ransom, law student at nearby Wagner University. She subsequently gave birth to her first son, Gregory Merrick Ransom shortly thereafter. She graduated from Columbia in 1950 with a Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) degree. She was one of only two women and the only African American in her graduating class.

Despite her Columbia University pedigree, her race and gender made it predictably difficult to obtain employment. Norma easily recalls in an oral history interview later in life that she was turned down by nineteen prospective employers. It was on the twentieth interview with the Department of Public Works (DPW) that she was hired as a junior draftsperson for New York City. She passed her architecture licensing examination in 1954 becoming the first Black woman believed to be licensed to practice architecture in New York. Despite a poor recommendation from her DPW supervisor, she worked briefly at Katz, Waisman, Blumenkranz, Stein and Weber as a junior associate. She felt stifled and unchallenged and left that firm to do some rendering coloring work with notable New York architect, Bob Schwartz. In 1955, she started working at notable architectural firm, Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill (SOM) in New York City where she was given larger-scale projects. At the same time, she taught architecture courses at New York City Community College (presently called the New York City College of Technology) located in Brooklyn, NY. She was the school's first woman faculty member. It was also during her tenure at SOM that Norma joined AIA and inadvertently became the organization's first African American woman member. She was a member of the Council for the Advancement of the Negro in Architecture, a New York-based group. During all this groundbreaking work, Norma was a twice-divorced mother of two sons with the birth of her second son, David Merrick Fairweather from her union with Benjamin Fairweather. Norma depended on the assistance of her family in raising her sons while she worked and advanced her career.

In an effort to advance her career, Norma moved to Los Angeles, California to work with architectural firm, Gruen Associates in 1960. A requisite for an architect in California, Norma became the first Black woman to be a licensed architect in the state. Gruen Associates, founded by visionary Austrian architect Victor Gruen, was notable for their pioneering work with shopping malls and multi-use buildings. At Gruen, in 1965 she earned the director of architecture position where she was responsible for hiring and overseeing multiple staff members as well as serving as project manager on several high-profile projects for the firm.

Her projects included the high-rise multi-use building California Mart (1963), now known as California Market Center; skyscraper Fox Plaza (1966) in San Francisco and some of Norma's most notable work for Gruen, The Pacific Design Center (1975), a multi-use facility utilized by the California's bustling apparel and fashion industry. Norma's contributary design is affectionately known by California's locals as the "Blue Whale." Norma worked on the latter project with Gruen's lead architect at the time, Cesar Pelli, known for some of the world's tallest buildings, most notably World Finance Center (Brookfield Place) in New York City. Pelli also shared his credit with Norma for her exemplary contribution to the renovation and redesign of the San Bernardino City Hall (1972) in California as well as their work on the U.S. Embassy (1976) in Tokyo, Japan. While at Gruen, Norma married Rolf Sklarek, a fellow architect at the firm. She also taught architecture courses at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and the University of Southern California (USC). At UCLA, she was the first African American member of the faculty.

In 1980, she was finally recognized for all of her trailblazing and innovative work, when she became the first African American woman elected to the AIA College of Fellows. The highest honor within the architecture profession. This prestigious award gave her assurance that she could take her career to another level. She departed Gruen for Welton Becket & Associates, a prominent California firm renowned for iconic music and cultural centers, including the iconic Capitol Records building in Los Angeles. Norma was appointed as the vice president of the firm and lead project manager on one of her most notable works, Terminal One at the Los Angeles International Airport. She was recognized for the timely completion of the project as preparation for the influx of travelers to Los Angeles the for the 1984 Olympic Games. Norma also suffered the loss of her husband, Rolf Sklarek, the same year.

It was her work from the Los Angeles Airport project that empowered Norma to break yet another barrier. 1985 proved to be significant year as she became first African American woman to found and co-own a woman-owned architectural firm. Norma collaborated with fellow veteran architects Margot Siegal and Katherine Diamond to create Siegel-Sklarek-Diamond (SSD). SSD was one of the largest woman-owned architecture firms at the time. Their largest project was the Tarzana Promenade, a 90,000 sq. ft. medical and retail center, and the remodel and renovation of the Lawndale Civic Center; both located in California. Norma also designed work for the proposed Marva Collins Preparatory School in Compton, CA. The school was named after seminal educator, Marva Collins that had revolutionized education for low-income students in a crime-ridden area in Chicago, Ill. The hope was the replicate Collins' important work for children in Compton.

Being a new firm amidst the prevalence of racism and sexism within the profession left SSD at a disadvantage. Their projects were mainly residential and smaller commercial projects that didn't bring the income and accompanying challenges like larger scaled projects. Sklarek left SSD in 1989 for Jerde Partnership, an established innovator in the design and construction of shopping malls around the world. Norma was hired as the principal on the project management for the design and construction of the Mall of America. Located in Bloomington, Minnesota, it is considered to be the largest shopping mall in United States.

In 1992, Norma retired from the profession but did not resign herself to stop working. Norma became an active advocate in broadening the profession to include more women and people of color. She focused her work on teaching, lecturing, and mentoring. Over the years, she served as faculty and lecturer at several universities including UCLA, USC, University of Iowa, Kansas State University, California Polytechnic as well as her alma mater Columbia University. In an effort to inspire Black architects, Norma regularly lectured at HBCUs including Howard University, Hampton University, Tuskegee University, and Southern University.

Sklarek's work was recorded and recognized by the black press and publishers, such as her being included in Ebony magazine as early as 1958, in their article on "Successful Young Architects." In 2008, the AIA awarded her with the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Award that recognizes architects who represented the profession's responsibility to address social issues. She also served on multiple professional boards and committees, such as the California Architects Board, Professional Qualifications Committee, California State Board of Architectural Examiners, the AIA National Ethics Council and many more.

On February 6, 2012, Sklarek died in the Pacific Palisades, California at the age of 85. She was survived by her husband Cornelius Welch, whom she married in 1985; her son, David Merrick Fairweather, stepdaughter Susan Welch as well as three grandchildren. She was predeceased by her son Gregory Merrick Ransom in 2006.

Historical Timeline

1926 -- Norma Merrick was born to Amy Willoughby and Walter Merrick in Harlem, New York.

1944 -- Graduated from Hunter College High School, New York, NY

1944-1945 -- Attended Barnard College, New York, NY

1945-1950 -- Attended Columbia University in New York City earning a bachelor's degree in architecture (B.Arch.).

1947 -- Married Dumas Flagg Ransom and had son, Gregory Merrick Ransom. They later divorced.

1950 -- Married Elwyn (Benjamin) Fairweather and had son, David Merrick Fairweather. They later divorced.

1950-1955 -- Worked at the Department of Public Works, New York, NY

1954 -- Licensed in the state of New York; believed to be the first black woman architect licensed in New York

1959 -- First African American woman member of the American Institute of Architects (AIA).

1955-1960 -- Worked at Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill in New York, NY

1957-1960 -- Architecture faculty member at New York City Community College, Brooklyn, NY

1960 -- Married Francis "Harry" Pena in New York, NY. Moved to California and began working at Gruen Associates and served as the Director of Architecture until 1980.

1962 -- First African American woman architect licensed in California

1963 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the California Mart, Los Angeles, CA.

1966 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction Fox Plaza in San Francisco, CA.

1967 -- Sklarek divorced Pena and married Rolf Sklarek, a fellow architect at Gruen Associates.

1970 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the Park Center Commercial Complex in San Jose, CA .

1972-1973 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the San Bernardino, City Hall in San Bernardino, CA.

1973 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of Commons-Courthouse Center in Columbus, IN.

1973-1978 -- Served as faculty member in the UCLA School of Architecture and Urban Planning

1976 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the U. S. Embassy in Tokyo, Japan.

1978 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of Pacific Design Center in Los Angeles, CA.

1980 -- First African American woman fellow of the AIA

1980-1985 -- Worked as VP and project manager at Welton Becket & Associates in Santa Monica, CA

1984 -- Sklarek working with Welton Becket Associates coordinated the design and construction of Terminal One at the Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA. Rolf Sklarek died in February.

1985 -- Sklarek along with Margot Siegal and Katherine Diamond formed their own firm, Siegel- Sklarek-Diamond. Sklarek married Dr. Cornelius Welch.

1989 -- Left the Siegel-Sklarek-Diamond and joined The Jerde Partnership, in Venice, CA, as the principal project manager.

1989-1992 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the Mall of America in Minneapolis, MN.

1992 -- Retired from The Jerde Partnership

2003-2007 -- Served as commissioner on the California State Board of Architectural Examiners

2008 -- Awarded American Institute of Architects' Whitney M. Young Jr. Award

2012 -- Norma Merrick Sklarek died in the Pacific Palisades, California at the age of 85.
Provenance:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of David Merrick Fairweather and Yvonne Goff
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Business  Search this
Design  Search this
Women  Search this
Japan -- Tokyo  Search this
Entrepreneurship  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Education  Search this
Gender  Search this
Identity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection, 1944-2008. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.23
See more items in:
Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-23
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Andrew Dreselly, 1981 June 26

Interviewee:
Dreselly, Andrew, 1893-1985  Search this
Dreselly, Andrew, 1893-1985  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F  Search this
Subject:
Cascieri, Arcangelo  Search this
Krichmayer, Johann  Search this
Rockefeller, John D., Jr. (John Davison)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Sculptors -- Interviews  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Church decoration and ornament -- United States  Search this
Carving (Decorative arts) -- United States  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13153
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212229
AAA_collcode_dresel81
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212229
Online Media:

Lumber Industry

Artist:
William Arthur Cooper, born Hillsboro, NC 1895-died St. Louis, MO 1974  Search this
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
24 1/8 x 29 7/8 in. (61.3 x 75.9 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1934
Topic:
Architecture\industry\mill  Search this
Occupation\industry\lumber  Search this
New Deal\Public Works of Art Project\Tennessee  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the U.S. Department of Labor
Object number:
1964.1.154
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7d32753f3-3c00-4075-828e-577611c40f4d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1964.1.154

Interstate Highway System 50th anniversary shirt, 2006

Physical Description:
cotton (overall material)
grey (overall color)
Measurements:
overall: 36 in x 42 1/4 in x 1/4 in; 91.44 cm x 107.315 cm x .635 cm
chest: 23 in; 58.42 cm
shoulder to shoulder: 22 in; 55.88 cm
Object Name:
shirt
Place made:
Myanmar
Credit Line:
Gift of Alan E. Pisarski
ID Number:
2011.0274.01
Catalog number:
2011.0274.01
Accession number:
2011.0274
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Transportation, Road
Transportation
Road Transportation
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-7f6b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1421728

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