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Amateur Radio construction

Collection Creator:
Du Mont, Allen B. (Allen Balcom), 1901-1965  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Container:
Box 4 (Series 15), Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1928
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used. Contact the Archives Center for more information: archivescenter@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection, 1929-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection / Series 15: Non-Du Mont Publications / 15.7: Radio
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0018-ref1119

FCC public notice: lifting construction and authorization "freeze"

Collection Creator:
Du Mont, Allen B. (Allen Balcom), 1901-1965  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Container:
Box 31 (Series 8), Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1952
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used. Contact the Archives Center for more information: archivescenter@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection, 1929-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection / Series 8: Federal Communications Commission
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0018-ref348

I.C.E. Integrated Circuit Collection

Creator:
Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Project Socrates.  Search this
Extent:
164 Cubic feet (224 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Records
Newsletters
Date:
1970-1997
Summary:
Collection documents the 30 year history of Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation which provided consulting expertise in the field of integrated circuits and semiconductors.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains reports, litigation documentation, trade catalogs, company newsletters, professional journals, audio visual materials, artwork, company profiles, contracts and project files documenting the 30 year history of Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation which provided consulting expertise in the field of integrated circuits and semiconductors.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty series.

Series 1: Status Reports, 1970-1997

Series 2: Product Analysis, 1966-1971

Series 3: Product Evaluations, 1977-1983

Series 4: Construction Analysis, 1997, undated

Series 5: Information Reports, 1966-1986

Series 6: Manufacturing Facilities, 1980-1983

Series 7: Packaging, 1982

Series 8: Company Profiles, 1991-195

Series 9: ICECAP Reports, 1980-1990

Series 10: Government/Military, 1977-1981

Series 11: Artwork, undated

Series 12: Trade Catalogs, undated

Series 13: Hybrid Circuits, undated

Series 14: ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) Outlook, 1984-1997

Series 15: TASC Files, undated

Series 16: Project , undated

Series 17: Litigation, 1968-1971, undated

Series 18: Audio Visual Materials, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation provided consulting expertise in the field of integrated circuits and semiconductors for over 30 years.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Information, Technology and Society (now the Division of Work and Industry) has integrated circuits (intact and exposed in various stages of investigation).
Provenance:
The Integrated Circuit Engineering Collection was donated to the Division of Information, Technology and Society (now the Division of Medicine and Science), National Museum of American History on June 15, 1998, through Glen Madland.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Integrated circuits  Search this
Semiconductors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Records
Newsletters -- 1950-2000
Citation:
I.C.E. Integrated Circuit Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0600
See more items in:
I.C.E. Integrated Circuit Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0600
Online Media:

Pratt, Read Corporation Records

Donor:
Nickse, Hugo  Search this
Johnson, Hanford  Search this
Steinway, Henry Ziegler  Search this
Creator:
Comstock, Cheney and Co.  Search this
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Extent:
84 Cubic feet (106 boxes, 28 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Financial records
Employee records
Advertisements
Minute books
Sales records
Design drawings
Manufacturing records
Legal documents
Annual reports
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Labels
Stock records
Place:
Ivoryton (Conn.)
Date:
1839-1990
Summary:
Records documenting Pratt, Read and Company; its early competitor and later partner, Comstock, Cheney and Company; and a number of predecessor, subsidiary and related companies. Other topics include the late 19th century African ivory trade and Pratt, Read's production of troop-carrying gliders during World War II.
Scope and Contents:
Pratt, Read & Company, located in the Essex area of Connecticut, was once the world's largest producer of ivory products. Beginning with the manufacture of combs, collar buttons, and toothpicks, the company moved on to the production of piano and organ key veneers, and soon dominated the field. Eventually, it began to produce complete piano and organ keyboards and actions, becoming the major supplier to the American piano industry. The records in this collection document Pratt, Read & Company; its early competitor and later partner, Comstock, Cheney & Company; and a number of predecessor, subsidiary, and related companies. Other topics of interest dealt with in this collection include the late nineteenth century African ivory trade and Pratt, Read's production of troop carrying gliders during World War II.
Arrangement:
The Collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Predecessor and Miscellaneous Companies, 1839-1870s

Series 2: Comstock, Cheney and Company, 1863-1936

Series 3: Pratt, Read and Company, 1863-1988

Series 4: Gould Aeronautical Division, 1941-1977

Series 5: Subsidiary and Related Companies, 1859-1980

Series 6: Information on Related Companies, 1977-1992

Series 7; Addenda, 1837-2004
Historical:
Pratt, Read & Company is one of the oldest companies in the state of Connecticut. The firm traces its origins to 1798, when an Essex goldsmith and clockmaker named Phineas Pratt invented a circular saw to cut the teeth on ivory combs. In 1809, George Read and his brother in law, Phineas Pratt II, dammed the Deep River in the nearby town of Deep River and constructed a waterwheel to power ivory cutting machinery. Read left the partnership in 1816, and Phineas Pratt II joined with Alfred Worthington to manufacture ivory combs under the name of Pratt Worthington & Company. When Worthington died in 1830, two of Phineas Pratt II's sons, Ulysses and Alexis, took over the business, operating as U & A Pratt. The name was changed in 1844 to Pratt Spencer & Company, when a new partner was added, and changed again in 1850, to Pratt Brothers & Company. In 1856 the company erected a much larger factory in Deep River.

In the meantime, Julius Pratt, another of Phineas Pratt I's sons, had joined with Thomas Howard to set up an ivory comb factory in the town of Meriden. This firm was known as Howard, Pratt & Company. After Howard's death in 1822, it became Julius Pratt & Company. In 1854, the firm began to produce wooden piano keyboards, which then were fitted with keys of ivory. One half interest in this firm was owned by George Read.

When Read left his original partnership with Phineas Pratt II in 1816, he joined with Essex comb maker Ezra Williams to set up a new ivory working factory in Deep River. This new firm was known as Ezra Williams & Company. In 1829, Read became the senior partner and the company's name was changed to George Read & Company. This company later secured a very important contract to supply ivory keys for the first American manufacturer of pianos, Chickering & Sons of Boston.

In 1863, the firms of George Read & Company, Julius Pratt & Company, and Pratt Brothers & Company, were merged to form Pratt, Read & Company. The new company further enlarged its factory in Deep River in 1866. In 1871, the old Julius Pratt & Company factory in Meriden was closed and its operations moved to Deep River. Though this factory was destroyed by fire in 1881, a larger factory was quickly rebuilt and the company was back in business early in 1882.

With the election of George L. Cheney as president in 1892, Pratt, Read & Company began a period of continued expansion. In December of that year the company joined with another Connecticut piano component manufacturer, Comstock, Cheney & Company, to organize a midwestern manufacturing branch, under the name of the Piano & Organ Supply Company. This firm was to serve the territory west of Toledo, Ohio, operating in competition with its parent companies. In 1929 Pratt, Read and Comstock, Cheney combined to buy out the Piano & Organ Supply Company and it was dissolved.

In 1910 Pratt, Read & Company decided to begin the manufacture of piano actions. An independent manufacturer of piano actions, New York based Wasle & Company, and its subsidiary, the Wasle Unique Player Action Company, were acquired that same year. In 1914, Pratt, Read built a second factory solely for the production of player piano actions in Deep River. Wasle & Company was dissolved in 1919 and its production was continued under the Pratt, Read name. The company soon acquired two additional keyboard and action manufacturers: the Sylvester Tower Company of Cambridge, Mass., was purchased, dissolved, and all its equipment was moved to Deep River in 1924; and Strauch Bros. Company of New York was purchased in 1926. The Deep River player action plant operated until 1928, when business declined and production of player piano actions was discontinued in favor of manufacturing small motorboats. This line of business also soon declined and the project was abandoned by 1932.

COMSTOCK, CHENEY & COMPANY. Meanwhile, other manufacturers of ivory products had been at work in the Essex area. Chief among these was the firm of Comstock, Cheney & Company of Ivoryton. The dominant figure in this company was Samuel M. Comstock. He had learned the ivory cutting trade while working in his older brother's Saybrook area ivory cutting shop, known as Joseph A. Comstock & Company. By 1838, Samuel had left his brother's shop and joined with Edwin Griswold to set up Comstock & Griswold Company further west up the Falls River in Centerbrook. In 1848, the company moved its operations to a new factory in the Ivoryton area, where combs, toothpicks, and other ivory products were made. At the same time, the firm's name was changed to S. M. Comstock & Company, reflecting Samuel's sole ownership.

In 1860, Samuel Comstock allied his firm with George A. Cheney to form Comstock, Cheney & Company. Cheney had invested in Comstock's firm and was one of the principals in the important New York based ivory importing firm of Arnold, Cheney & Company. The new firm began production of thin slices of ivory for mounting on wooden piano keys. It also had its own agents buying ivory in Africa, most of which went toward production of piano keys. The company was formally incorporated in 1872 and in 1873 it opened an even larger factory in Ivoryton.

1936 MERGER. On December 31, l936, Pratt, Read & Company of Deep River was consolidated and merged with Comstock, Cheney & Company of Ivoryton. The resulting corporation was titled Pratt, Read & Company, Inc. By l938, all manufacturing operations had been consolidated in Ivoryton and the Deep River factory closed. During World War II, both the Deep River factory and the Ivoryton factory were used to produce CG 4A "Waco" troop carrying gliders for the U.S. Army Air Forces, along with LNE 1 training gliders and the GLOMB experimental plane for the U.S. Navy. Production of piano keyboards and actions was sharply curtailed for the duration of the war, and was slow to resume afterward. In l946 the Deep River factory was sold.

From 1948 to l957, the Ivoryton factory was enlarged and modernized on a large scale. During the Korean War, the company contracted to make helicopter blades for the Kaman Corporation of Bloomfield, Conn., and this partnership lasted for fourteen years. In l958, Pratt, Read transferred all of its piano action manufacturing operations to a newly built plant in Central, S.C. This move was made primarily in order to modernize production facilities at a lower cost than would have been possible through continued renovation of the Ivoryton plant.

With the election of Peter H. Comstock (a great grandson of one of the founders of Comstock, Cheney & Company) as President in 1954, the firm began an ambitious plan of diversification. The Cornwall & Patterson Company of Bridgeport, Conn., manufacturer of piano hardware, was purchased in l957. In 1959, Pratt, Read joined with six British Commonwealth firms to acquire British Piano Actions, Ltd., of Wales. Keyboards, Inc., a Chicago based producer of keyboards for electronic organs, was acquired in 1960. The Tech Art Plastics Company of Morristown, N.J., a custom molder of plastics materials especially for the piano industry, was acquired in 1961. The F. Kelly Company of Derby, Conn., which specialized in the production of small metal parts, was acquired in l964, and operated as a division of Cornwall & Patterson. In l966, Pratt, Read purchased the Allen Rogers Corporation of Laconia, N.H., which produced wooden furniture and piano components.

MERGER WITH VOCALINE COMPANY. In February l968, Pratt, Read & Company, Inc., was merged into the Vocaline Company of America, Inc., of Old Saybrook, Conn. Peter H. Comstock became chairman and chief executive officer of Vocaline Corporation, while remaining president of Pratt, Read. Vocaline was then organized into two major divisions the Vocaline Division and the Pratt, Read Division. The Pratt, Read Division concentrated on the production of piano keys and actions. It operated three subdivisions: the Ivoryton Division (keyboards, wooden and plastic moldings, and unfinished furniture); the Action Division (piano actions); and the Lund Division, formerly Keyboards, Inc., (electronic organ components). Both of the latter divisions operated out of the Central, S.C., plant. The Lund Division was known as the Electronics Division by 1970.

The Vocaline Division produced and sold electric motors, timing devices, and other small electromechanical mechanisms through its Electronics Section and its Bristol Motor and Timer Section. Another subsidiary of the Vocaline Division Altron, Inc., based in Westerly, R.I. produced wire coils. Through its Research and Development Center in Waldboro, Maine, Vocaline conducted antisubmarine warfare research for the U.S. Navy. By 1970, the Vocaline Division had been streamlined into four divisions: the Allen Rogers Corporation (small shaped wood products); Altron, Inc. (wire coils); the Bristol Division, later known as the Bristol Saybrook Company (electric motors and timers); and the Cornwall & Patterson Company (piano hardware and small tools). In addition, research for the Navy had been expanded and combined with other oceanographic research under the control of a subsidiary company, VAST, Inc., with operations in both Maine and the Caribbean.

PRATT READ CORPORATION. In October 1970, the Vocaline Corporation changed its name to the Pratt Read Corporation. This was done partly to increase identity with its oldest traditions and partly to reflect a shift away from the early emphasis on the Vocaline side of the corporation. The new corporation continued to refine its interests under the direction of Peter H. Comstock, who became company president in February 1970. The Tech Arts Plastic Company was sold off in May 1972, although it remained a source of supply for custom molded parts. In 1974 Pratt Read purchased the Atlas Plywood Company of Morrisville, Vt., in order to use its mill and kilns in the preparation of lumber for the Ivoryton factory, whose own facilities were overburdened. This company was operated as a subsidiary of Pratt Read.

By 1976, the Pratt Read Corporation was organized into five operating divisions. The Allen Rogers Corporation produced toys, golf tees, spools, knobs, and other turned and shaped wood products. Altron, Inc., produced bobbins and coils of copper wire. The Bristol Saybrook Company produced small electric motors and timers. The Cornwall & Patterson Company produced piano hardware parts, screwdriver blades, and other small hand tools. Pratt, Read & Company produced wooden components for pianos and other musical instruments. The company's ownership of VAST, Inc., was sold off in March 1976. Later that year, the company acquired Sight Line Corporation, a Freehold, N.J., manufacturer of golf clubs. This subsidiary, operated as the Sounder Sports Division, was sold in May 1979.

In October of 1979, James H. Tucker replaced Peter H. Comstock as president of Pratt Read; Comstock remained chairman of the board and chief executive officer. His nephew, Harwood B. Comstock, became the next president in October 1982. In June 1982, the Ivoryton factory was severely damaged by flooding after two dams burst upstream during a torrential rainstorm. Although the administrative offices were destroyed and the plant filled with several feet of mud and debris, the facility was back in production within two weeks. In August 1982, Pratt Read acquired the Sohmer Piano Company, a 111 year old Long Island based manufacturer of pianos, and in December 1982 Sohmer's production facilities were moved into the Ivoryton factory. By July 1983 Sohmer was producing about six upright pianos a day in its new location.

By the early 1980s, the American piano industry had entered a period of decline and even Peter Comstock's diversification efforts could not keep it out of trouble. A major blow came in 1984 with the loss of a large contract to manufacture keyboards for Mattel Electronics's Intellivision home video system. This was exacerbated by a slump in the piano industry in mid year. The increased import of Japanese and Korean pianos further undercut the American industry, resulting in slowdowns and profit losses for Pratt Read. Attempting to compete on the same basis with this foreign competition, Pratt Read joined with the Baldwin Piano and Organ Company in May 1985 to establish the Pratt Win Corporation. This joint venture resulted in the closing of Pratt Read's Central, S.C., piano action manufacturing plant and the transfer of its operations to a new Baldwin plant in Juarez, Mexico. Pratt Read sold its interest in Pratt Win to Baldwin in October 1986.

Piano sales continued to decline, however, and Pratt Read continued to suffer losses. In March 1986, the company was acquired by Crescent & Company, a corporation controlled by Harwood B. Comstock, president of Pratt, Read & Company. It became a wholly owned subsidiary of Crescent & Company, but retained the name Pratt Read Corporation. In April 1986, the company sold its Sohmer piano subsidiary together with the Ivoryton factory where it was housed; Sohmer & Company continued to produce upright pianos under independent ownership in Ivoryton until December 1988. In December 1986 the Bristol Saybrook Company was sold off. By 1990, the company had sold off all remaining assets except for a sawmill in Vermont and the Cornwall & Patterson Company in Bridgeport, Conn., where the remaining corporate staff relocated.

Sources

Deep River Historical Society, Inc. A History of Pratt Read & Co. 1973.

1899 Souvenir of Essex, Connecticut. Rpt., The Ivoryton Public Library, 1979.

Johnson, Curtiss S. "From Ivory Combs to Carnegie Hall and Today:The History of the Pratt Read Corporation." [Unpublished history in the collection.]

Moore, Ernst D. "History of Pratt, Read & Company." [Unpublished history in the Ernst D. Moore Collection, Archives Center Collection #321.]

Newspaper Clippings in the collection.

Pratt Read Corporation. Annual Reports.

Vocaline Corporation. Annual Report, 1970.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Records relating to Pratt, Read and to Comstock, Cheney can be found in a number of other collections, both within the Archives Center and in other repositories. The Wood & Brooks Company Records (Archives Center coll. #457) contain significant information on Pratt, Read's operations and an important record of production statistics gathered by George Wood while he was factory superintendent and taken with him when he set up a rival firm in Buffalo. While the Ernst Moore Collection (Archives Center coll. #321) primarily documents the purchase of ivory in Africa (much of which was ultimately used by Pratt, Read), it also includes a history of Pratt, Read written by Moore while he was employed by them. The Sohmer & Company Records (Archives Center coll. #349) document the piano manufacturing firm that Pratt Read acquired in 1982.
Separated Materials:
The Pratt Read Corporation also donated a number of objects to the National Museum of American History at the same time as their 1988 donation of archival records. Included were combs and letter openers and other examples of products made from ivory; piano components, such as gauge boards, key actions, and keys; and such diverse items as tools used in the factory, World War II employee I.D. badges, and a uniform from the company sponsored basketball team.
Provenance:
Donated by Pratt, Read Corporation in 1989. In addition to the papers donated by the company, several individuals donated Pratt, Read materials in their possession.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Piano  Search this
Ivory industry  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
Ivory  Search this
Gliders (Aeronautics)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Financial records
Employee records
Advertisements -- 20th century
Minute books
Sales records
Design drawings
Manufacturing Records
Legal documents
Annual reports
Publications
Photographs -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Labels
Stock records
Citation:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records, 1839-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0320
See more items in:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0320
Online Media:

What do animal signals mean?

Author:
Rendall, Drew  Search this
Ryan, Michael J.  Search this
Owren, Michael J.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2009
Topic:
Tropics  Search this
Biology  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_110584
Online Media:

M.R. Harrington: Correspondence, Personal

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 232, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1927 - 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref14766
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View M.R. Harrington: Correspondence, Personal digital asset number 1

George Pepper: Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 266, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1921-1922
Scope and Contents:
Correspondents: David McCord, Neil M. Judd, William M. Stone, G.B. Gordon, Frederick Houghton, Clark Wissler, Malcolm Stone, R.B. Orr, Charles B. Harendeen, Joseph Keppler, Ellis Soper, Joseph H. Shaffner, Charles Sargent, A.V. Kidder, Stephen Van Rensselaer, Harmon Hendricks, E.B. Renaud, George Gustav Heye, John Clarke, John B. Stetson, Arthur C. Parker, Warren K. Moorehead, S.J. Guernsey?, Internal Review, Arthur Hardin, Maggs Bros.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref16048
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View George Pepper: Correspondence digital asset number 1

George Pepper: Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 265, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan-Feb 1903
Scope and Contents:
Correspondents: Frederic Ward Putnam, Walter L. Johnson, F.J. Skiff, A.N. Marquis, Franz Boas, C.F. Millspaugh, Rudolf Cronau, John Lloyd Thomas.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref7427
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  • View George Pepper: Correspondence digital asset number 1

George Pepper: Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 265, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Mar-Apr 1903
Scope and Contents:
Correspondents: H.F. Robinson, John Lloyd Thomas, D.F. Tozier, Elizabeth Putnam Herse, T. Mitchell Prudden, Archibald Reid, Homer Sargent.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref7429
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  • View George Pepper: Correspondence digital asset number 1

George Pepper: Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 265, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Nov-Dec 1903
Scope and Contents:
Correspondents: George Kunz, John Swanton, Isaac Wetherill, Frank Strowger, Frank P. Sauerwen, Mary Schenk Woolman, Richard Wetherill, G.E. Stechert, Fred Volz, Homer Sargent, Edgar L. Hewett, Charles Lummis, Frederick W. Hodge, Benjamin Talbot Babbitt Hyde, C. Hart Merriam, Otis T. Mason, William Henry Holmes, Sumner Matteson.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref7437
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  • View George Pepper: Correspondence digital asset number 1

George Pepper: Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 266, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan 1905
Scope and Contents:
Correspondents: Frank M. Chapman, John H. Cobbs, John Lorenzo Hubbell, Nicolas Leon, Frederick W. Hodge, Ales Hrdlicka, John H. Hinton, Juan B. Ambrosetti, George Gustav Heye, Wilhelm (Guillermo) Bauer, George Grant MacCurdy, William Newell, William L. Brown, Sumner Matteson, George W. Buskirk, Alma P. Kraft, Otis T. Mason, Edgar L. Hewett, Cyrus Thomas, Zelia Nuttall, Benjamin Talbot Babbitt Hyde, Homer Sargent, Harriet Parsons, Frederic Ward Putnam, J. T. Pike, H. Van Altena, Emily de Forest, Caroline M Hills, Hermon C. Bumpus, Arthur Seligman, William Henry Holmes, J. Dynley Prince, Marshall Saville.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref7477
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  • View George Pepper: Correspondence digital asset number 1

Comptometer Model J With Operator's Lock

Maker:
Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 13.5 cm x 24 cm x 37.2 cm; 5 5/16 in x 9 7/16 in x 14 21/32 in
Object Name:
adding machine
Place made:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Date made:
1926
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Victor Comptometer Corporation
ID Number:
MA.323644
Maker number:
J279,961
Catalog number:
323644
Accession number:
250163
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Adding Machines
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-0dc9-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_690468
Online Media:

Rectangular Protractor

Physical Description:
ivory (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: .2 cm x 15.2 cm x 4.4 cm; 3/32 in x 5 31/32 in x 1 23/32 in
Object Name:
protractor
Date made:
19th century
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Protractor  Search this
Drafting, Engineering  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of John William Christopher Draper and James Christopher Draper
ID Number:
MA.335349
Accession number:
304826
Catalog number:
335349
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Protractors
Science & Mathematics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a7-393c-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_904338
Online Media:

Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection

Extent:
21.66 cu. ft. (34 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (11 3x5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Glass negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Alaska
Mexico
France
Saint Michael (Alaska)
Wrangell Island (Wrangell, Alaska)
Arizona
California
Date:
circa 1873-1946 and undated
Descriptive Entry:
This collection consists primarily of papers documenting the professional career and personal life of Edward William Nelson. A smaller amount of material was created by Edward Alphonso Goldman and relates to both professional and private matters. Apparently, Goldman assumed control of Nelson's papers after the latter's death, probably for reference in his continuing work summarizing the results of their Mexico field investigations. Due the pair's close professional relationship, it was decided to keep the collection intact. The papers of each individual have been kept distinct and reside in separate series, with the exception of photographs, which mostly document the Mexico field work. Other photographic materials have been placed in the same series as a matter of convenience.

Nelson's papers are valuable in documenting his work as a field naturalist, particularly in Alaska and Mexico; his administrative career with the Bureau of Biological Survey and consequential involvement in conservation issues of the day; his research on birds and mammals; his participation in professional societies and conservation organizations; personal and family matters; and commercial ventures, especially his ownership of fruit-growing businesses in California and Arizona.

The papers include a large file of incoming and outgoing correspondence that relates to all aspects of his professional life, but is particularly important in documenting his administrative tenure with the Bureau of Biological Survey, 1914-1927. The letters provide information on the role of the Biological Survey in conservation issues of the era, as well as Nelson's own attitudes on the matters--attitudes that sometimes clashed with other conservationists, including William Temple Hornaday. He corresponded extensively with most of the major figures in the conservation movement including Hornaday, John B. Burnham, Charles Sheldon, George Bird Grinnell, and John C. Phillips. Especially well represented by correspondence are the negotiations for the passage of the Migratory Bird Treaty between the United States and Great Britain, 1916, and the protracted fight over the Public Shooting Grounds-Game Refuge Bill during the 1920s. The correspondence also relates Nelson's role in the formative periods of several professional societies and conservation organizations including the American Society of Mammalogists, the American Game Protective Association, and the American Wild Fowlers.

Nelson's career as an explorer and field worker is documented in a series of journals and notebooks maintained between 1877 and 1930. The journals kept during his landmark work in Alaska and Mexico provide a running narrative of his daily activities and include notes on the fauna, flora, and physiography of the areas explored; information on specimens and artifacts collected; observations on native peoples and their cultures; and sketches of people, villages, fauna, and natural phenomena. The journals from his Alaska work are relatively complete; however, journals from the Mexico investigations from 1903 to 1906 are missing. Also included is a journal from the Death Valley Expedition, 1890-1891, and journals and notebooks kept during many of Nelson's official trips for the Bureau of Biological Survey.

The collection includes a series of records documenting Nelson's private life and business affairs. Especially well represented is his involvement with the Nelson-Goldman Orchard Company, 1911-1933, and the Arizona Orchard Company, 1921-1923. Also included is a voluminous correspondence with his brother, Fred W. Nelson, which concerns family and business matters; and various records concerning health issues, investments, real estate, and other financial matters.

Nelson's research is documented in a large series of notes, lists, manuscripts, newspaper clippings, photographs, and publications. Most of the material concerns his work on birds and mammals. The file also contains collected materials on many of the conservation issues of the day.

The papers of Edward Alphonso Goldman found in this collection are just a fragment of the material generated during his long career with the Bureau of Biological Survey. They are most valuable in documenting his biological survey of Mexico with Nelson. Included is an incomplete series of journals which contain a chronological narrative of Goldman's activities. Specific volumes are devoted to notes of birds and mammals observed and collected. Other papers of Goldman include correspondence, mostly with Nelson, and his brothers, George and Luther; and materials documenting his research on mammals.

The collection contains a series of photographs, photograph albums, and glass plate negatives documenting the careers of both men. Most of the material relates to their biological investigations of Mexico, 1892-1906. Included are images of areas visited, native peoples, and flora and fauna. Many of the photographs are unidentified. Also included are photographs of Nelson and Goldman; photographs of colleagues; and photographs taken in France during Goldman's service in World War I.

The collection also contains some papers of the conservationist Charles Sheldon, a close personal friend of Nelson. Apparently, Nelson acquired the papers when he was writing a biographical memorial on Sheldon. They consist of correspondence, notes, photographs, manuscripts, and related materials documenting Sheldon's work in conservation and natural history.

Finally, the collection includes a manuscript (with Nelson's annotations) of George Shiras' "Hunting Wild Life with Camera and Flashlight; A Record of Sixty-Five Years' Visits to the Woods and Waters of North America," and a few pieces of correspondence concerning the manuscript.

Additional materials documenting field work of Nelson and Goldman can be found in Smithsonian Institution Archives Record Unit 7176, Field Reports of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 1860-1961, Field Reports. Voluminous field notebooks, lists, and other specimen related records for both men are housed in the Division of Birds and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History.
Historical Note:
The biological explorations made by Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman in Mexico from 1892 to 1906 have been described as ". . . among the most important ever achieved by two workers for any single country." They conducted investigations in every state in Mexico, collecting 17,400 mammals and 12,400 birds, as well as amassing an enormous fund of information on the natural history of the country. The best account of the work is Goldman's Biological Investigations in Mexico, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 115, July 1951.

EDWARD WILLIAM NELSON (1855-1934)

Described by Theodore Roosevelt as ". . . one of the keenest naturalists we have ever had . . .," Edward William Nelson was born in Manchester, New Hampshire. He developed an interest in the outdoors around his boyhood home in New England, and in Chicago where his family moved in 1868. Shortly after enrolling in Cooke County Normal School in 1872, Nelson was invited to join Edward Drinker Cope and Samuel Garman on a fossil collecting trip to the Badlands of Wyoming. After returning to Chicago, his interest in natural history continued to grow as he became acquainted with Joel Asaph Allen, Robert Ridgway, Stephen A. Forbes, Henry W. Henshaw and others.

In the winter of 1876, Nelson traveled to Washington, D.C., to meet Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and enlist his help in securing a position as a field naturalist. Through Baird's influence, Nelson traveled to Alaska as a weather observer in the Signal Corps of the United States Army in April 1877. From June 1877 to June 1881, he was stationed at St. Michael on the Bering Sea coast of Alaska with a charge to ". . . secure an unbroken series of meteorological observations, and, in addition, to obtain all the information possible concerning the geography, ethnology, and zoology of the surrounding region." Nelson made several dog-sled excursions around the region, compiling data on the lives and customs of the native people, and making ethnological and natural history collections for the Smithsonian. The results of his work were published in "Report upon Natural History Collections Made in Alaska between the Years 1877-1881," 1887, and "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," 1900. In June 1881, he accompanied the revenue steamer Corwin on its search for the missing arctic ship Jeannette. The expedition was the first to reach and explore Wrangell Island.

Nelson spent most of the period from 1882 until 1890 in Arizona recovering from pulmonary tuberculosis contracted in Washington, D.C., while preparing his report on the birds of Alaska. In 1890, he accepted an appointment as a Special Field Agent with the Death Valley Expedition under C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy, United States Department of Agriculture. This was the start of a career with the Division and its successor, the Bureau of Biological Survey, that would continue until 1929. In January 1892, Nelson received orders to conduct a three-month field survey in Mexico with Edward Alphonso Goldman, whom he had recently hired as an assistant. The trip evolved into an exhaustive, fourteen-year biological investigation of the entire country.

After concluding the Mexico work, Nelson's duties with the Bureau of Biological Survey gradually shifted from scientific to administrative. He was Chief Field Naturalist, 1907-1912; Assistant in charge of Biological Investigations, 1913-1914; Assistant Chief, 1914-1916; Chief, 1916-1927; and Senior Biologist, 1927-1929. Nelson was also an honorary Research Associate of the Smithsonian Institution from 1930 until his death. During the decade in which he led the Biological Survey, Nelson was actively involved in most of the major conservation issues of the era. He helped negotiate the Migratory Bird Treaty of 1916 with Great Britain and was an enthusiastic supporter of the Public Shooting Grounds-Game Refuge Bill, the Alaska Game Law Bill, and the Migratory Bird Conservation Act. He was also instrumental in developing policies to improve conditions of domestic reindeer herds in Alaska, and the promoting of bird-banding as a method of ornithological research.

In the field, Nelson was an all-round naturalist, observing and collecting most things that he encountered. He was a prolific author, and his bibliography included over two hundred titles, mostly concerning birds and mammals. Over one hundred animals and plants were named in his honor. Nelson Island and Nelson Lagoon, along the coast of the Bering Sea, and Nelson Range, a short mountain range in California, also bear his name. Nelson was President of the American Ornithologists' Union, 1908-1909, the Biological Society of Washington, 1912-1913, and the American Society of Mammalogists, 1920-1923. He received an honorary M.A. from Yale University in 1920, and an honorary Doctor of Science from the George Washington University in the same year.

Nelson was involved with the Goldman family in the operation of fruit orchards in California and Arizona. He was a co-owner and director of the Nelson-Goldman Orchard Company, 1911-1934, and the Arizona Orchard Company, 1921-1923.

For more detailed biographical information on Nelson, see Edward Alphonso Goldman, "Edward William Nelson - Naturalist," The Auk, April 1935, vol. 52, no. 2; Margaret Lantis, "Edward William Nelson," Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska, December 1954, vol. 3, no. 1; and William W. Fitzhugh and Susan A. Kaplan, Inua. Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982).

EDWARD ALPHONSO GOLDMAN (1873-1946)

Edward Alphonso Goldman, field naturalist and mammalogist, was born in Mount Carroll, Illinois. His family moved to Tulare County, California, in 1888, and he went to work as a foreman in a vineyard near Fresno at the age of seventeen. After a fortuitous meeting between his father and Edward William Nelson of the Bureau of Biological Survey, Goldman was hired by Nelson in January 1892 to assist his biological investigations of California and Mexico. Thus began an association with Nelson and the Biological Survey that would continue for the remainder of his life. Shortly thereafter, he received appointment as a Field Naturalist with the Biological Survey, and he spent most of the next fourteen years with Nelson collecting in every region of Mexico.

Goldman served in a variety of positions with the Biological Survey. He was Field Naturalist, 1892-1917; Biologist in Charge, Division of Biological Investigations, 1919-1925; Biologist in Charge, Game and Bird Reservations, 1925-1928; and Senior Biologist, Division of Biological Investigations, 1928-1943. Goldman also had an honorary position with the Smithsonian Institution as Associate in Zoology from 1928 to 1946. His service with the Biological Survey was marked by extensive field investigations in every region of the United States.

In 1911-1912, Goldman conducted faunal studies as part of the Biological Survey of Panama during construction of the canal. His results were published in The Mammals of Panama in 1920. During World War I, he was a Major in the Sanitary Corps of the American Expeditionary Forces, in charge of rodent control in France. In 1936, he was chosen to assist the United States Government in negotiations with Mexico for the protection of migratory birds and game mammals.

Goldman's bibliography included more than two hundred titles. He named over three hundred forms of mammals, most of them subspecies. Approximately fifty mammals, birds, reptiles, mollusks, and plants bear his name. Goldman Peak in Baja California was also named in his honor. A member of many professional organizations, Goldman was President of the Biological Society of Washington, 1927-1929, and the American Society of Mammalogists, 1946.

For additional biographical information on Goldman, see Stanley P. Young, "Edward Alphonso Goldman: 1873-1946," Journal of Mammalogy, May 1947, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 91-109.
Chronology:
-- CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF EDWARD WILLIAM NELSON

1855 -- Born in Manchester, New Hampshire, May 8

1868 -- Family moved to Chicago

1872 -- Assisted Edward Drinker Cope and Samuel Garman on a fossil collecting expedition to the Badlands of Wyoming

1876 -- Visited Washington, D.C. and met Spencer F. Baird

1877-1881 -- Weather Observer for the Signal Corps of the U.S. Army at St. Michael, Alaska. Made extensive natural history and ethnology collections and observations of the Bering Strait Eskimos.

1881 -- Accompanied revenue steamer Corwin on search for missing arctic exploring ship Jeannette. Was a member of the first party to explore Wrangell Island.

1887 -- "Report upon Natural History Collections made in Alaska between the years 1877-1881" (Arctic Series of Publications Issued in Connection with the Signal Service, United States Army, no. 3)

1890-1891 -- Special Field Agent, Death Valley Expedition, Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy, United States Department of Agriculture

1890-1907 -- Field Naturalist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1892-1906 -- Field investigations of Mexico with Edward Alphonso Goldman

1899 -- "Revision of the Squirrels of Mexico and Central America" (Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 1)

1900 -- "The Eskimo about Bering Strait" (Eighteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Pt. 1)

1907-1912 -- Chief Field Naturalist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1908-1909 -- President, American Ornithologists' Union

1909 -- "The Rabbits of North America" (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 29)

1911-1934 -- Part owner, Nelson-Goldman Orchard Company, Orosi, California

1912-1913 -- President, Biological Society of Washington

1913-1914 -- Assistant in charge of Biological Investigations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1914-1916 -- Assistant Chief, Bureau of Biological Survey

1916-1927 -- Chief, Bureau of Biological Survey

1918 -- "Wild Animals of North America" (National Geographic Society; rev. ed., 1930)

1918-1919 -- Vice-President, American Society of Mammalogists

1920 -- Honorary Master of Arts, Yale University

1920 -- Honorary Doctor of Science, George Washington University

1920-1923 -- President, American Society of Mammalogists

1921-1922 -- President and Director, Arizona Orchard Company

1922 -- "Lower California and its Natural Resources" (Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 16)

1927-1929 -- Senior Biologist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1930-1934 -- Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution

1934 -- Death, May 19

-- CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF EDWARD ALPHONSO GOLDMAN

1873 -- Born in Mount Carroll, Illinois, July 7

1888 -- Family moved to Tulare County, California

1891 -- Hired by Edward William Nelson as a field assistant, beginning a long professional and personal association

1892-1917 -- Field Naturalist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1892-1906 -- Biological investigations of Mexico, mostly with Nelson

1910 -- Revision of the Wood Rats of the Genus Neotoma (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 31)

1911 -- Revision of the Spiny Pocket Mice (genera Heteromys and Liomys) (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 34)

1911-1912 -- Conducted faunal studies as part of the Biological Survey of the Panama Canal Zone

1913-1917 -- Biological investigations of Arizona

1918 -- Rice Rats of North America (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 43)

1918-1919 -- Major, Sanitary Corps, American Expeditionary Forces, in charge of rodent control in France

1919-1925 -- Biologist in Charge, Division of Biological Investigations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1920 -- Mammals of Panama (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 69, no. 5)

1922-1937 -- Reserve Major, Sanitary Corps, U.S. Army

1925-1928 -- Biologist in Charge, Game and Bird Reservations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1928-1944 -- Senior Biologist, Division of Biological Investigations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1928-1946 -- Associate in Zoology, United States National Museum

-- 1936 assisted with negotiations of United States-Mexico migratory bird and mammal treaty

1944 -- "The Wolves of North America," with Stanley P. Young (American Wildlife Institute)

1944-1946 -- Collaborator, United States Fish and Wildlife Service

1946 -- President, American Society of Mammalogists

1946 -- "The Puma: Mysterious American Cat," with Stanley P. Young (American Wildlife Institute)

1946 -- Death, Washington, D.C., September 2

1951 -- Biological Investigations in Mexico (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 115)
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Orchards  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Glass negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7364, Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 7364
See more items in:
Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7364
Online Media:

Vail Telegraph Collection

Topic:
The Telegraph Register of the Electro-magnetic Telegraph Companies in the United States and the Canadas (Monograph : 1849)
The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph (Monograph)
Extent:
10.14 cu. ft. (10 document boxes) (4 half document boxes) (6 16x20 boxes) (oversize material)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Field notes
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Date:
1830-1898, 1912-1917
Descriptive Entry:
This collection contains papers concerning the invention and development of the telegraph by Samuel F. B. Morse, Alfred Vail, and others, especially Vail's work with telegraph instruments and operation of telegraph stations, patent litigation, and Vail's publications concerning the telegraph; correspondence between Alfred and George Vail concerning their investment in the early telegraph enterprise; correspondence between Alfred Vail, Morse, Amos Kendall, and others, from 1837, relating to development of the telegraph; litigation and patents; administration of companies, especially the Magnetic Telegraph Company; the Morse-Joseph Henry dispute and litigation between Morse, Francis O. J. Smith, and Henry O'Reilly; correspondence between Alfred Vail and many persons concerning construction of lines and training of operators (especially valuable is that concerning construction of the Washington-Baltimore line); some Alfred Vail research notes and correspondence relating to insulation and insulators, receiving magnets and keys, and laying line in lead pipe; account books, copies of contracts, agreements and assignments, and patent applications; extensive telegraph journals; data accumulated by Alfred Vail concerning rates and telegraph lines; correspondence, returned questionnaires, and other items relating to Vail's publications, especially The Electro Magnetic Telegraph and The Telegraph Register of the Electro-magnetic Telegraph Companies in the United States and the Canadas; scrapbooks kept by Alfred Vail and his wife Amanda relating to the history of the telegraph; and correspondence of Amanda Vail after Alfred's death, relating to his role in telegraph development.
Historical Note:
Alfred Vail (1807-1859) was born in Morristown, New Jersey, where his father was owner of the Speedwell Iron Works. After working in his father's shop and preparing for the Presbyterian ministry, Alfred became interested in Samuel F. B. Morse and his telegraph. In 1837 a contract was drawn between Vail and Morse whereby Vail would construct a complete set of instruments and secure U. S. and foreign patents for them at his expense, in return for one-fourth interest in the American rights and one-half interest in the patents secured abroad. Stephen and George Vail (Alfred's father and brother) invested. Alfred, Morse, and Leonard D. Gale worked in the Speedwell shops and on January 6, 1838, demonstrated the improved telegraph. Some sources give Alfred Vail the major credit for the perfection of the instruments. Congress did not purchase the telegraph as they had hoped, but Congressman Francis O. J. Smith became a partner with 4/16 interest; subsequently, friction developed between Smith and others in the telegraph enterprise. On the capital completed by Smith's contribution, Morse went to Europe to establish the enterprise there, and Alfred lost interest; from 1839-1843, Alfred conducted his father's business in Philadelphia. In 1843, when Congress passed the act to build the Washington-Baltimore line, Vail became Morse's chief assistant and stayed with Morse until 1845, but then was relieved from duty in Washington by Morse, and by 1848 resigned as superintendent in Philadelphia. In 1845, Alfred published The Electro Magnetic Telegraph and in 1849, The Register of the Electro Magnetic Telegraph Companies. After 1848, Vail's interest in the telegraph was mostly passive. He realized little money from his interest in the telegraph and died poor in 1859.
Restrictions:
Some items cannot be reproduced due to bindings.
Topic:
Technology -- History  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Field notes
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7055, Vail Telegraph Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 7055
See more items in:
Vail Telegraph Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7055

Correspondence, 1846-1850, 1 bound volume; incoming and outgoing correspondence, arranged chronologically, relating to operation of lines and to matters of patents, stock, and construction plans arising from contracts and agreements; especially regardi...

Container:
Box 2 of 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Some items cannot be reproduced due to bindings.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7055, Vail Telegraph Collection
See more items in:
Vail Telegraph Collection
Vail Telegraph Collection / Series 1: ALFRED VAIL CORRESPONDENCE. / Box 2
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7055-refidd1e336

Miscellaneous Telegraph Papers, 1846-1848, 1 bound volume; includes The Electromagnetic Telegraph, copies of proposals for telegraph construction in the District of Columbia area, "Difficulties of telegraphy on the Baltimore and Philadelphia Line, 1846...

Container:
Box 5 of 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Some items cannot be reproduced due to bindings.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7055, Vail Telegraph Collection
See more items in:
Vail Telegraph Collection
Vail Telegraph Collection / Series 2: ALFRED VAIL DIARIES AND RESEARCH NOTEBOOKS. / Box 5
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7055-refidd1e449

John A. Wood Papers

Creator::
Wood, John A., 1932-  Search this
Extent:
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Clippings
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Venus (Planet)
Moon
Solar system
Date:
1950-2005
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist primarily of correspondence and include photographs, clippings, research files and biographical information on John A. Wood.
Historical Note:
John A. Wood is a world leader in meteoritics and planetary science. Wood served as Geologist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), 1957-1963; Research Associate, Harvard University, 1957-1963; Research Associate, Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago, 1962-1965; Research Associate, Harvard College Observatory, 1965-2004; Geologist, SAO, 1965-2004; Lecturer in Geology, Harvard University, 1973-1976; Professor of the Practice of Geology, Harvard University, 1976-1994; and Associate Director, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 1981-1986.

Wood's primary research has been the petrological study of chondritic meteorites as a source of information about the origin of the solar system. Wood worked extensively in lunar sample studies (during the Apollo program), and constructed global models of lunar formation and internal evolution. Wood was a member of the RADIG team that interpreted the radar data collected by the Magellan mission to Venus. Wood has served on NASA advisory committees concerned with allocation of lunar samples to laboratory investigators, mission planning, and peer review of grant proposals, and has chaired the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), under the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council.
Topic:
Meteorology  Search this
Planetary scientists  Search this
Geology  Search this
Petrology  Search this
Chondrites (Meteorites)  Search this
Lunar petrology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Clippings
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 05-265, John A. Wood Papers
Identifier:
Accession 05-265
See more items in:
John A. Wood Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa05-265

Clay Spohn papers

Creator:
Spohn, Clay Edgar, 1898-1977  Search this
Names:
School of Visual Arts (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
University of California, San Francisco. School of Fine Arts  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Corbett, Edward, 1919-  Search this
Corbett, Rosamond Walling Tirana, 1910-1999  Search this
Fryworth, Teressa, 1906-1981  Search this
McChesney, Mary Fuller  Search this
Neininger, Urban  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne, 1903-  Search this
Ribak, Louis, 1902-1979  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Sievan, Maurice  Search this
Sihvonen, Oli, 1921-  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Extent:
20.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Account books
Ambrotypes
Photographs
Date:
circa 1862-1985
bulk 1890-1985
Summary:
The Clay Spohn papers measure 20.4 linear feet and date from circa 1862 to 1985 with the bulk of the material dating from 1890 to 1985. The collection consists of biographical material, correspondence, business records, notes and writings, art work, printed material, and photographs which reflect the life and career of painter and educator Clay Spohn.
Scope and Content Note:
The Clay Spohn papers measure 20.4 linear feet and date from circa 1862 to 1985 with the bulk of the material dating from 1890 to 1985. The collection consists of biographical material, correspondence, business records, notes and writings, artwork, printed material, and photographs reflecting the life and career of painter and educator Clay Spohn.

Part 1 includes sketchbooks with annotated drawings by Spohn, writings including reminiscensces by Spohn, letters, clippings, and photographs of Spohn's artwork.

Part 2 includes biographical material; correspondence between Spohn and his colleagues; business records such as Spohn's general accounting records; Spohn's notes and writings on a variety of subjects; drawings and sketchbooks; printed material such as exhibition announcements and catalogs; and photographs of subjects such as Spohn, his family and colleagues, his house, and his artwork.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three parts. Part 1 was lent to the Archives of American Art in 1964 by Clay Spohn, and was microfilmed and returned to Spohn. Part 2 was donated to the Archives of American Art by Urban Neininger in 1978 and was partially microfilmed. Because material from part 2 was not processed until over three decades after filming Part 1, the overall organization is inconsistent. In general, material within folders is arranged chronologically.

Part 1: Clay Spohn Papers, 1926-1963

Part 2: Clay Spohn Papers, circa 1862-1985 (boxes 1-22, OV 23, 19.9 linear ft.)

Part 3: Addition to the Clay Spohn Papers, 1958-1977 (box 24; 0.4 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Clay Edgar Spohn was born November 24, 1898, in San Francisco, to Lena (Schaefer) and John Henry Spohn. From 1919 to 1921, Spohn studied at the University of California at Berkeley, and from 1922 to 1924, he studied at the Art Students League in New York under Kenneth Hayes Miller, Boardman Robinson, George Luks and Guy Pene Du Bois. He also became acquainted with Alexander Calder at the Art Students League. In 1924, Spohn was employed as an assitant designer to muralist Ezra Winter. From 1926 to 1927 he studied in Paris at the Academie Modern, a school run by Fernand Leger and Orthon Fireze.

Returning to San Francisco in 1927, Spohn became an active member in the Bay Area art scene. The Treasury Department commissioned him, in 1938, to execute a mural for the Montebello, California post office, and in 1939, he completed another mural under the sponsorship of the WPA for Los Gatos Union High School in Los Gatos, California.

In 1942, the San Francisco Museum of Art mounted Spohn's solo exhibition "Fantastic War Machines and Guerragraphs", consisting of a series of drawings inspired by dreams of World War II. From 1945 until his resignation in 1950, Spohn was employed as instructor of drawing and painting at the California School of Fine Arts, where he befriended Clyfford Still and Mark Rothko. In 1949, at the California School, he organized a group exhibition entitled "The Museum of Unknown and Little Known Objects", in which Spohn's extraordinarily-constructed objects were a focal point.

Spohn moved to Taos, New Mexico in 1952, and participated in several national exhibitions. He was Visiting Lecturer at Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, in 1958, after which he moved to New York City where he executed a series of paintings under the sponsorship of the collector J. Patrick Lannan. From 1964 to 1969, he taught at the School of Visual Arts in New York.

After a two year move to Taos, Spohn returned to New York in 1971. In 1974, the Oakland Museum sponsored a retrospective of Spohn's work.

Clay Spohn died in New York City on December 19, 1977.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (D169) including sketchbooks, writings, correspondence, and related material. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are described in the first series of the finding aid.
Provenance:
The material on reel D169 was lent for filming by Clay Spohn in 1964. The material on reel 5461-5474 was donated by Spohn's friend and the executor of his estate, Urban Neininger, in 1978. An additional 0.4 linear feet of papers were donated by Spohn's biographer, David Beasley, in 2008.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of unfilmed material requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Abstract -- France -- Paris  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Account books
Ambrotypes
Photographs
Citation:
Clay Spohn Papers, circa 1862-1985, bulk 1890-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.spohclay
See more items in:
Clay Spohn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-spohclay

[New] Jerusalem Missionary Bapt[ist] Church [May 23, 1975 : black-and-white cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
New Jersualem Missionary Baptist Church  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet, 2.5" x 3".)
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
May 23, 1975
Scope and Contents:
Building interior, empty and under construction. "Insurance Regulations prohit customers in work area" written on sign on wall. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: "Jerusalem Missionary Bapt. Church Rev. Wm. Roundtree / 1718 Good Hope Rd. S.E. 20020 B/W 5/23/75 1 EA 8 x 10 Glossies 13 Photographs". "KODAK SAFETY FILM" and "8" edge imprint. Unnumbered.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baptist church buildings  Search this
Buildings -- Repair and reconstruction  Search this
Buildings -- Washington (D.C.) -- 1970-1980  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1970-1980 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client / 4.6.1: Black and white negatives Part 1 / New Jerusalem Missionary Baptist Church
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-06-ref27415

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