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Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Concrete

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
0.72 Cubic feet (consisting of 1.5 boxes, 1 folder, 1 oversize folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1891-1959
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Concrete forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of trade catalogs, manuals, reference books, primers, handbooks, pamphlets, printed advertisements, caricatures, scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, articles, instruction books and bulletins from manufacturers of cement and products made of concrete.

Most of the products produced by these companies are for home, industrial and public use. Concrete home products include garden furniture, porches, terraces, garages, walls, gateways, steps, walkways, driveways, pools and bird baths. Industrial and public concrete products include pipes, roads, highways, bridges, septic tanks, sewers and tennis courts. A number of the companies manufactured other products such as plates for reinforced concrete construction of roofs, floors and siding; collapsible steel forms; culverts; lime and plaster.

There are a number of publications included in the materials. Most of these are organized alphabetically by name of company and are found with the rest of the company related materials. Topics include concrete construction about the home and on the farm, concrete highway construction, design and control of concrete mixtures and concrete building frames. Many of these publications include a variety of photographs, diagrams and building specifications. Literature that is not an official publication of a manufacturing company is found at the end of company related materials.

The bulk of the material dates from the twentieth century. Box one is organized alphabetically by name of company. Materials in box two are also organized by company name. There are four folders arranged by type: related publications including bulletins, periodicals, pamphlets and books. There also is a folder of miscellaneous materials.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 2 subseries:

Subseries 1: Manufacturers and Distributors, circa 1891-1952

Subseries 2: Related Publications, circa 1907-1959
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Concrete is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cement  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Concrete  Search this
garden furniture  Search this
Roofing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Concrete
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Concrete
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a64bea57-483b-46bc-a470-28593ca54cc3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-concrete

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records

Creator:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad  Search this
Donor:
ConRail  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Names:
Passaic Steel Company (Paterson, N.J.)  Search this
Extent:
22.3 Cubic feet (1 box, 59 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Cyanotypes
Place:
Paterson (N.J.)
Hoboken (N.J.)
Date:
1878-1971
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of: a 1903 book of photographs entitled "Illustrations Showing the Works of the Passaic Steel Company at Paterson, New Jersey"; photograph albums (including several cyanotype albums) of the port of Hoboken, the terminal and buildings and other structures; a "souvenir" photograph album of the Clarks Summit/Halstead cut-off, 1914, published by the American Society of Civil Engineers; reports from the 1950s and 1960s itemizing the precise costs of the elements of the Hoboken terminal; track maps; and approximately 10,000 oversized drawings, tracings and blueprints of structures built by the railroad.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into two series.

Series 1: Business Records

Series 2: Drawings
Historical:
The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on April 7, 1832, as the Liggetts Gap Railroad Company. Its name was changed to the Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company on April 14, 1851, and to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western (DL&W) Railroad Company on March 11, 1853, at which time it absorbed the Delaware & Cobbs Gap Railroad Company.

The first section of railroad, from Scranton to Great Bend, opened in October, 1851. The Southern Division of the railroad was opened between Scranton and the Delaware River on May 27, 1856, forming a more direct route to New York City in connection with the Warren Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey. The DL&W leased the Morris & Essex Railroad in 1868 and, after upgrading it to permit a heavy coal tonnage, secured its own line to New York Harbor. Other extensions carried the Lackawanna to Utica, Syracuse, Ithaca, and Oswego in central New York State and to Buffalo in the early 1880s. The DL&W had a particular advantage in that it was allowed to directly operate coal mines. The DL&W began mining on its own account in 1851, when a Coal Department was organized. The Lackawanna was exceptionally well placed to supply both New York City and New England via the Southern Division and also upstate New York, the Great Lakes, and Canada via the Northern Division.

The DL&W was still bound by its 1856 traffic contract with the Central of New Jersey, and on March 16, 1872, the two companies agreed to consolidate, being managed by a joint committee of directors from the two companies. However, the two companies were actually now competitors, with roughly parallel lines between Scranton and New York. The consolidation broke up after about a year over arguments as to which company would be the dominant partner. All connection between the two companies was severed in 1875.

During the long presidency of the conservative Samuel Sloan (1867-1899), the road became extremely prosperous as a coal hauler. Financial control was exercised by Moses Taylor and his National City Bank of New York, who had bought into the company at the time of the Panic of 1857. In March 1876 the DL&W converted from 6-foot gauge to standard gauge.

In 1880 Jay Gould acquired an interest in the company and promoted its extension to Buffalo (1882), giving it a significant share of the truck line business for the first time. However, Taylor and his successors refused Gould any further voice in the management. In 1890 William Rockefeller became a director, reflecting the alliance between the Standard Oil group and the National City Bank.

William H. Truesdale replaced Sloan as president and began a massive modernization of both the company's management and the physical plant. The company began issuing full annual reports for the first time since 1857. Two major line relocations were built to the highest engineering standards, across western New Jersey and between Scranton and Binghamton, to improve grades and clearances. They featured massive cuts and fills and huge viaducts, the Tunkhannock Viaduct, 240 feet high, being the largest concrete arch bridge in the world. The DL&W was a pioneer in the adoption of reinforced concrete construction for all types of structures. Under Truesdale's successor, John M. Davis, the principal New Jersey commuter services were electrified in the early 1930s.

After successful government prosecution of the other anthracite railroads for antitrust violations, the DL&W voluntarily divested itself of its Coal Dept., which became the Glen Alden Coal Company in 1921.

After World War II the DL&W hoped to merge with its principal western connection, the Nickle Plate, but was unsuccessful. After continuing losses from commuter service and heavy storm damage to its main lines in 1955, the company began to explore the possibility of consolidation with the roughly parallel Erie Railroad. The merger, forming the Erie Lackawanna Railroad Company, took effect on October 17, 1960.

Source

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, Accession 1643, Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, 1849-1960

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Coal Department photographs (Accession 1990.267), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department

The Enderlin Collection of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Records, 1835-1956

The collection consists of material acquired by Enderlin during his career with the Lackawanna, primarily the kind of historical miscellany that flowed into the secretary's office. Two-thirds of the collection consists of newsclippings on labor matters (ca. 1900-1919), and the remainder of agreements, letters of resignation, statistics and rough minutes. John G. Enderlin was born on August 16, 1888. In 1903, he began work as an office boy in the New York City headquarters of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, rising through the ranks in the president's and secretary's offices to become secretary-treasurer in 1933. He retired at the end of 1956 and died on September 28, 1981.

Syracuse University Libraries

Lackawanna County Historical Society

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad was one of the largest and most prosperous anthracite mining and transporting companies in Pennsylvania.Their records consist of minutes of the DL&W and its two direct predecessors.
Provenance:
The oversized items were donated to the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering by Consolidated Rail Corporation (ConRail) through William M. Wehner in 1987. Provenance for the rest of the collection is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad stations -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Cyanotypes
Citation:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1074
See more items in:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82dc280d2-5ac8-418a-a422-7194d28d2b2a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1074

Periodical Articles, General

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 4: Waco Company History
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d6bcac3e-6e7c-4b43-be42-4ccb468c08ad
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref162
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Periodical Articles, General digital asset number 1

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, RenĂ©  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Gallery Records
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
Online Media:

The Foundation Company Records

Creator:
Foundation Company (The).  Search this
Names:
Chase Manhattan Bank  Search this
Ohio Edison Company.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
9 Cubic feet (17 boxes, 28 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Blueprints
Sketches
Reports
Contracts
Drawings
Date:
1887-1969
Scope and Contents note:
These records include sketches, drawings, blueprints, contracts, and reports relating to highway and railroad bridges, tunnels, subways, mine shafts, canals and waterways, dams, concrete buildings, concrete construction, derricks and derrick barges, cranes, caissons and caisson construction, air locks, pumps, jacks, engines, and turbines; also photographs, photograph albums, and newspaper clippings concerning projects for office building and power plant foundations, docks, dry docks, and piers, and work for the Ohio Edison Company, Chase Manhattan Bank, and the Boston Common Underground Garage.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photographs

Series 2: Drawings
Biographical/Historical note:
The Foundation Company was a New York subaqueous concrete construction firm founded in 1902. It was created to pool the knowledge of engineers who specialized in the construction of bridge piers and building foundations. The compnay was a leader in the development of the pneumatic caisson method for the construction of foundations. This method made possible the skyscrapers of New York City. Additonally, the company also worked on power houses/stations, shipyards, and docks.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) in 1966.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Pumping machinery  Search this
Mine shafts  Search this
Lifting-jacks  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Air locks (Chambers)  Search this
Subways  Search this
Roads -- Design and construction  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Dams  Search this
Derricks  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Caissons  Search this
Canals  Search this
Concrete  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Underwater tunnels  Search this
Waterways  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Engines  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Blueprints
Sketches
Reports
Contracts
Drawings
Citation:
The Foundation Company Records, circa 1887-1962, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0974
See more items in:
The Foundation Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep802d7a43d-8b93-4f6b-89ac-b933b13cfd13
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0974
Online Media:

Tromanhauser System of Sub-aqueous Concrete Construction

Collection Creator:
Foundation Company (The).  Search this
Container:
Box 17, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes photographs of the floating pontoon system of concrete construction.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Foundation Company Records, circa 1887-1962, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Foundation Company Records
The Foundation Company Records / Series 3: Printed Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87dac9895-da7f-4690-84a2-bf964fa0a6cd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0974-ref775

Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records

Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Names:
American Society of Civil Engineers.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (36 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Place:
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Date:
1884-1952 and undated
Scope and Contents:
The Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records consists primarily of correspondence and business records documenting Robert A. Cummings' firm, consulting work, and participation in professional associations, especially the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1892-1893, circa 1900-1939; technical data and publications on soils testing, 1900-1939; and drawings, blueprints, and photographs and glass negatives of construction projects.

Series 1, Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated documents the professional life of Robert A. Cummings. There are three subseries within this series: Subseries 1, Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated; Subseries 2, Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated; and Subseries 3, Writings, 1908-1939 and undated. This series includes documents related to the Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, including patents, photographs, and advertisements. The series also includes documents relating to professional organizations such as the Allegheny County Authority, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the World Engineering Congress. Cummings was also a member of the Soils Committee for the American Society of Civil Engineers, and those documents are included in this series. Cummings wrote published and unpublished articles regarding concrete, soil, and construction methods. His writings are also included in this series.

Series 2, Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated consists of six subseries: Subseries 1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated; Subseries 3, Contracts (for projects), 1902-1930 and undated; Subseries 4, Legal Materials, 1907-1916; Subseries 5, Financial, 1894-1921 and undated; and Subseries 6, Personnel, 1918-1921. This series contains the bulk of the information about Cummings' concrete business. Within this series are administrative materials that document the running of the business, including daily reports, bond and insurance papers, specifications, supply notes, field requisitions, and design notebooks. Also included is correspondence to and from Cummings. Recipients of the correspondence include company employees and corporations that did business with the company. A portion of the correspondence is divided topically into subjects such as soil sampling apparatus and barge claims.

The bulk of this series consists of contracts for projects on which Cummings worked. The majority of the projects consist of bridges, water tanks, commercial buildings, and retaining walls. Materials include correspondence, receipts from vendors, hand-written notes, accident reports, blueprints, sketches, and laboratory test reports on materials. The contracts are arranged by contract number as assigned by Cummings. The unnumbered contracts are listed alphabetically. The legal materials consist of documentation that relate to legal matters Cummings dealt with, including the lawsuits Robert Cummings vs. William J. Stewart, Alexander Melville vs. Robert Cummings, andLock Joint Pipe Company vs. Frederick Melber and Electric Welding Company. This series also contains financial and personnel records, including account books, bills, receipts, proposals, estimates, and business journals, as well as applications for employment, correspondence, and weekly progress reports.

Series 3, Subject Files, 1891-1949 and undated consists of correspondence, pamphlets, printed materials, and drawings. The topics within the subject files include soil testing and standards, roads, railroads, minerals, electricity, and concrete barges.

Series 4, Publications, 1887-1955, includes published material related concrete. The series is divided into two subseries: publications by title and publications by subject. Included are booklets, articles of incorporations, charters and by-laws, journals, and government publications. Some of the materials are in German or French.

Series 5, Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated includes 3" x 5", 8" x 10" and other various sizes of photographic prints. The series contains black and white and sepia toned prints. Some of the prints have been mounted onto cardboard or cloth, and some prints have tape on the corners. Some of the prints are annotated on the back. Most of the images are of construction sites in various stages of progress, the interiors of buildings being constructed, manufacturing equipment, and laborers working. Some of these images document early twentieth century methods of manufacturing, such as the use of rope pulleys.

Series 6, Photograph Negatives, undated includes about 75 photograph film negatives. The images in these negatives are primarily of construction scenes, including workers, equipment and work sites.

Series 7, Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated includes 8" x 10", 5" x 8", and 3" x 4" glass plate negatives containing images of bridges, slabs of concrete, construction scenes, the interiors and exteriors of hotels, and the interiors and exteriors of railroad stations.

Series 8, Lantern Slides, undated includes images of the work of the Cummings Structural Concrete Company on 4.5" x 5" glass slides. The images are of industrial machinery, construction sites, and workers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated

Subseries 1.2: Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.3: Writings, 1908-1939 and undated

Series 2: Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.3: Project Contracts, 1902-1930 and undated

Subseries 2.4: Legal Materials, 1907-1916

Subseries 2.5: Financial, 1894-1921 and undated

Series 3: Subject Files, 1891-1970 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Alphabetical, 1891-1970

Subseries 3.2: Testing, 1904-1916

Series 4: Publications, 1887-1955

Subseries 4.1: By title, 1887-1953

Subseries 4.2: By subject, 1902-1940 and undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated

Series 6: Photograph Negatives, undated

Series 7: Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated

Series 8: Lantern Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Augustus Cummings (1866-1962) was a consulting civil engineer who worked primarily in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was born in Norfolk, England and attended the Gresham School at Holt in Norfolk. He trained as a civil engineer with William J. Brewster in his offices, located in Westminster, London, England. During his early career, he worked as a surveyor and field examiner at the Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland before he relocated to Canada to conduct engineering work on the Grand Trunk Railroad. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Cummings was employed as a general draftsman for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in Philadelphia. He worked later as a designer of heavy dredging machinery for the Bucyrus (Ohio) Steam Shovel and Dredge Company and as an assistant engineer of the Norfolk and Western Railroad in Roanoke, Virginia. Cummings established a firm as a civil and consulting engineer in Philadelphia in 1893 before relocating to Pittsburgh in 1899. He founded the Cummings Structural Concrete Company and the Electric Welding Company in 1900, and in 1902 he founded the Lehigh Valley Testing Laboratory, all of which were located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1936, he partnered with his son in the consulting firm of Robert A. Cummings, Jr. and Associates.

During his career, Cummings worked on the design and construction of a variety of projects, including bridges, warehouses, filtration systems, private residences, machine shops, dry docks and piers, factories, dams, and locks. He additionally conducted railroad and land surveys, researched various types of cement, and designed rock, hydraulic, and elevator dredges. Cummings is best known for inventing the "Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete," in which iron or steel bars are embedded within a mixture of Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel or broken stone. As Cummings stated in a 1904 presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, reinforced concrete "makes an excellent paint for preserving iron or steel, adhering to the metal very firmly and protecting it thoroughly against corrosion. It can easily be made water tight, and its durability is beyond question. These properties of cement mortar can be utilized in re-enforced concrete. This material is well adapted for molding into a monolithic structure, which does not disintegrate when subjected to shocks such as are produced by railroad trains and vibrates much less for a given load than structural steel. Correctly designed re-enforced concrete structures are not liable to sudden failures, as is the case with ordinary concrete, but gives warning by the falling off of the surface concrete long before the point of failure is reached."

Cummings belonged to a number of professional organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Engineering Societies Library Board, the American Railway Engineering Association, the American Society for Testing Materials, and the Institution of Civil Engineers of London, England. He married Mary Eloise Hood on December 14, 1892, and had two children, Robert Augustus Jr. and Eloise Hood. Robert A. Cummings died on October 21, 1962, in Pittsburgh.

References

Cummings, Robert A. Presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, Meeting of Structural Section. November 22, 1904.

Hool, George A. Concrete Engineers Handbook, Data for the Design and Construction of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1918.
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0218
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cc352bb7-f4b5-4c5d-9f0d-2441f3d219fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0218
Online Media:

Welding reinforcement for concrete by Electric Welding Company [photoprint]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3.8" x 4.8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
Circa early 1900s
Scope and Contents:
From US Shipping Board, Concrete Ship Construction Department.
Arrangement:
In box 1 ?, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000003 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Shipbuilding  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 1: Biographical / 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete / Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87ad8de60-b390-444f-a717-e2b18569a147
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1171

Concrete work by Cummings for a Pittsburgh commercial building [photoprint]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 3.8" x 4.9")
Container:
Box 25, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1911
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000004 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Building  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 5: Photographs / Pittsburgh commercial building (near Heinz Building), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d9d5b35e-eb5c-40d4-9342-c98185246b6e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1172

Concrete work by Cummings for a Pittsburgh commercial building [photoprint]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 3.8" x 4.8")
Container:
Box 25, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1911
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000005 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Building  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 5: Photographs / Pittsburgh commercial building (near Heinz Building), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83823bf35-4f17-47a7-a125-7909fdb03c16
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1173

Robert A. Cummings, Jr. holding Cummings reinforced system [photoprint]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4.1" x 3.5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
Circa 1905
Arrangement:
In box 3, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000006 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 1: Biographical / 1.4: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87f326afb-781f-48c0-bc34-4742d8873b9f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1174

Cummings system of concrete column reinforcing [photoprint]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4.4" x 3.4")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1913
Arrangement:
In box 3, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000007 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 1: Biographical / 1.4: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep884110a8d-7c1c-4060-9b3e-b7966283c4d4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1175

Robert A. Cummings [photoprint]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Names:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4.7" x 3.3")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Arrangement:
In box 3, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000008 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 1: Biographical / 1.4: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84b43251c-7d84-4300-a02a-a0d5048e79ac
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1176

Cummings reinforced system [photoprint]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3.8" x 4.9")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
Circa 1905
Arrangement:
In box 3, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000009 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 1: Biographical / 1.4: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833b44edc-2fd2-44b7-a82f-b078a094ad5c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1177

Scott Paper Company, Chester, Pennsylvania [scrapbook]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Names:
Scott Paper Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Photoprints mounted on scrapbook paper pages., 4.9" x 6.0")
Container:
Box 15, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Blueprints
Photographs
Date:
1916-1917
Scope and Contents:
Pages of labeled construction photographs and blueprint.
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000010-01 (AC Scan No.)

AC0218-0000010-20 (AC Scan No.)

AC0218-0000010-46 (AC Scan No.)

AC0218-0000010-49 (AC Scan No.)

AC0218-0000010-61 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 2: Operational Records / 2.3: Project Contracts / #93 Tissue paper mill, Chester Paper Company [Scott Paper Company], Chester, Pennsylvania, scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81a29e12c-23e9-4908-b2c8-ef01323ce577
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1178
Online Media:

Reinforced Concrete - The Cummings System [pamphlet]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 3.5" x 2.6")
Type:
Archival materials
Pamphlets
Date:
Circa 1907
Arrangement:
In box 1, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000001 (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pamphlets
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 1: Biographical / 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete / Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83b045e54-1ced-47b9-9367-86d4623f352a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1179

Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete [pamphlet]

Collector:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 1.6" x 3.1")
Type:
Archival materials
Pamphlets
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Scan of interior page.
Arrangement:
In box 1, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0218-0000002 (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pamphlets
Collection Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records / Series 1: Biographical / 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete / Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8807ad85a-1a9a-445c-8a0f-5a86eef0e961
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0218-ref1180

Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 43

Author:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (6.0" x 3.5")
Container:
Box 21, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Date:
1926 November 3-1927 May 15
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Leo H. Baekeland Papers / Series 4: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8118f4036-4ec3-4b88-997d-edaff2a1124b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref332
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 43 digital asset number 1

[Trade catalogs from CECO Steel Products Corp.]

Company Name:
CECO Steel Products Corp.  Search this
Related companies:
Concrete Engineering Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Metal lathing materials for ceilings and walls; metal windows and doors; steel joists; screens and storm windows; steel forms for concrete construction.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
8 pieces; 2 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Hardware and hand tools  Search this
Iron and steel products (castings; sheet steel; steel wire; wire rope; pig iron and structural steel products )  Search this
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Hardware  Search this
Iron industry and trade  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Tools  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10238
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10238

[Trade catalogs from Christiani & Nielsen]

Variant company name:
Established 1904  Search this
Company Name:
Christiani & Nielsen  Search this
Notes content:
Reinforced concrete construction.
Includes:
Trade catalog and histories
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Copenhagen, Denmark
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Road building machinery and equipment  Search this
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Construction and earth-moving machinery  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Bridge construction industry  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Earthmoving machinery  Search this
Road machinery  Search this
Roads -- Design and construction  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10916
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10916

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