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The First Mobile Phone Call Was Made 75 Years Ago

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 16 Jun 2021 14:46:38 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_f3ae2c7be3dbd537611eb91e44d9741a

Oral history interview with Everett Ellin, 2004 April 27-28

Interviewee:
Ellin, Everett, 1928-2011  Search this
Ellin, Everett, 1928-2011  Search this
Interviewer:
Kirwin, Liza, 1957-  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12188
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)247266
AAA_collcode_ellin04
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_247266
Online Media:

Computer, Super, Cray-1, Bench Seat Cover Fronts

Manufacturer:
Cray Research, Inc.  Search this
Materials:
Non-Magnetic Metal
Plastics
Ferrous Alloy
Foam
Synthetic Fiber Fabric
Wood
Dimensions:
3-D (Short Seat Fronts): 40 × 25.4 × 5.7cm (1 ft. 3 3/4 in. × 10 in. × 2 1/4 in.)
3-D (Longer Seat Fronts): 40 × 50.8 × 5.7cm (1 ft. 3 3/4 in. × 1 ft. 8 in. × 2 1/4 in.)
Type:
INSTRUMENTS-Computers, General Purpose
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of Cray Research, Inc.
Inventory Number:
A19880565011
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9cbb98f02-3c1f-46bc-bdc8-90181f95c539
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19880565011
Online Media:

Camera, Terrain Board, USAF

Manufacturer:
Redifon  Search this
Materials:
Aluminum
Ferrous Alloy
Plastics
Electrical Wiring
Copper Alloy
Paint
Glass
Adhesive
Adhesive Sticker
Ink
Cadmium
Dimensions:
Other (Light fixture): 1 ft. 10 in. × 2 ft. (55.9 × 61cm)
Other (Liight fixture): 1 ft. (30.5cm)
Other (Camera): 2 ft. 4 in. × 2 ft. × 2 ft. (71.1 × 61 × 61cm)
3-D (Overall): 90.2 × 66 × 72.4cm (2 ft. 11 1/2 in. × 2 ft. 2 in. × 2 ft. 4 1/2 in.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Training Devices
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from the U.S. Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19890002000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98085a42d-ab0f-472c-be29-4ab4e115d13d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19890002000
Online Media:

Keyboard, Display (DSKY), Apollo 7

Manufacturer:
Raytheon Corp.  Search this
Materials:
HAZ MAT: Cadmium Plating
Aluminum Alloys
Plastics
Glass
Uncharacterized Coating
Ink
Dimensions:
3-D: 31.1 × 25.2 × 23cm, 10.4kg (1 ft. 1/4 in. × 9 15/16 in. × 9 1/16 in., 23lb.)
Type:
INSTRUMENTS-Navigational
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Inventory Number:
A19770217000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9ca0e53e5-551e-4510-ac8a-5feceee0ef73
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19770217000

Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1910-2014, undated
Scope and Contents:
This series contains documents, photographs, and personal ephemera produced and collected or produced by Joseph T. Barna (1949-2014), associated with his personal life and his position as board member of Heritage of Pride, New York, New York. Barna was born in Middlebury, Vermont and grew-up in Brandon, Vermont. His parents were teachers at Brandon High School and Otter Valley Union High School where Barna was a member of the debating team. While at Otter Valley he organized a group named The Stage Crew to assist with the lighting for dramatic productions. Barna graduated from Otter Valley Union High School in 1967. Barna graduated with a B.A. from Yale in 1971 and later went on to graduate with his M.F.A. from the Yale School of Dramatics in technical design and construction in 1981.

He occasionally taught a course on electrics at Yale as well as working as a computer programmer and later as a lighting designer for theatrical and dance productions in Oregon, New York, New York, and the New York City area. He was adjunct faculty for the Institute of Design & Construction (IDC). He was an amateur historian of wooden roller coasters. Barna died 2014 June 8 at the Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City from "a combination of illnesses."

Barna's association with Heritage of Pride (HOP), the producing organization for the annual New York Pride Parade, began in the 1980s. He was one of HOP's leading photographers up until his death in 2014. Heritage of Pride (HOP) is the successor organization to the Christopher Street Liberation Day Committee. HOP is a non-proft orgainzation that plans, coordinates, and sponsors the annual Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Pride week in New York City commemorating the Stonewall riots of June 1969. The HOP archives are housed at The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center, "The Center", in New York City. This series is divided into three subseries.
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1146, Series 15
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1271

Class photograph, Pierson Alum Yale, Kerfew (bar), Barna driver's license

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 46
Box 102, Folder 46A
Box 100, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Computer Disks
Prints
Date:
2003
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1362

Sodomy law rally, AMC Theatres, Heritage of Pride (HOP) offices, New York, New York

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 47A
Box 100, Folder 21
Box 102, Folder 47
Type:
Archival materials
Computer Disks
Prints
Negatives
Date:
2003
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1363

Heritage of Pride day after, Mueller/Julie, tree down, YRC 50th exhibit at library

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 48
Box 100, Folder 33
Type:
Archival materials
Computer Disks
Prints
Date:
2004
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1364

"QPWP, some HOP, Amy and Michelle"

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 100, Folder 34
Box 102, Folder 49
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Computer Disks
Date:
2004
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1365

Protest, New York, New York

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 57
Box 100, Folder 29
Box 102, Folder 57A
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Prints
Computer Disks
Date:
2004
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1369

Heritage of Pride (HOP), Lady Egypt, New York, New York

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 102, Folder 79
Box 102, Folder 78
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Computer Disks
Date:
2006
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1374

Hanclosky, Walter, Friends in Aid: Portraits of an Epidemic, dvd

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 22
Type:
Archival materials
Computer Disks
Date:
1997
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 3: Community Life and Subject Files / 3.6: HIV and AIDS, Ephemera and Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref2547

Scrapbook, music, clips, ephemera, DVD (five)

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 122
Type:
Archival materials
Computer Disks
Date:
1982-1990, undated
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 23: Brown, Adele "Del" and Herizon Social Club
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref2700

News 12, news story on Sabatino and Voorheis (Westchester, New York) DVD

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 178, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Computer Disks
Date:
2019
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 21: Sabatino, Michael and Voorheis, Robert
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref3000

Soviet Computing and Technology Transfer

Author:
Goodman, Seymour E.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Extent:
1 Document
Container:
Box 37, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Documents
Date:
July 1979
Scope and Contents:
Seymour E. Seymor, "Soviet COmputing and Technoogy Transfer: An Overview," World Politics 31, 4 (July 1979): 539-570.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Russian Aeronautical Collection, ACC. 2006-0034, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Russian Aeronautical Collection
Russian Aeronautical Collection / Series 4: Soviet Union and Russia (post World War II, 1946-Onwards)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2006-0034-ref1229

Air Armies - Command and Control

Collection Creator:
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 20, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Extracts from translation of unidentified Russian report, printed from multiple computer files (photocopy).
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Russian Aeronautical Collection, ACC. 2006-0034, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Russian Aeronautical Collection
Russian Aeronautical Collection / Series 3: Soviet Union (World War II, 1941-1945)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2006-0034-ref741

H. Irving Crane Papers

Creator:
Crane, H. Irving  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1927-1950
bulk 1935-1945
Summary:
H. Irving Crane worked as a chemist for Atlantic Research Associates, Inc. (a division of National Dairy Corporation) from 1933-1940s on the production of several products utilizing casein, a protein found in milk. These products include Aralac (a synthetic fiber), Aracide (a fungicide and moth repellent), spray-dried milk, casein paints, and synthetic rubbers. The H. Irving Crane papers document Crane's work as a chemist at Atlantic Research Associates, Inc. and the development of Aralac and Aracide.
Scope and Contents:
The H. Irving Crane papers illuminate the development of casein products in the 1930s-1940s, particularly a fiber and fungicide. The collection is divided into two series:

Series 1, Atlantic Research Associates, Inc., 1927-1950, consists of material relating to Crane's research and experiments while a chemist at ARA. This series is divided into eight subseries:

Subseries 1, Aralac, 1938-1945, illuminates the development, testing, production, and uses of the casein fiber Aralac. Correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports document the challenges associated with the initial production, dyeing, and adding of chemical washes to Aralac and the use of Aralac in manufacturing of cloth goods. Correspondence between ARA and customers documents the use of Aralac in carpet, military socks, lace, knitting yarn, and hats. Associated fiber samples from the dyeing process and material relating to the treatment of Aralac with Aracide are also included.

Subseries 2, Aracide, 1935-1945, consists of correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports relating to the anti-fungal agent. Another ARA employee, Laura Adams, produced several reports on Aracide. Correspondence reflects its testing for use in carpets and an attempt to obtain a patent for the fungicide.

Subseries 3, Other products, 1937-1945, contains materials relating to all the products that Crane worked on, including a spray drying process for milk dehydration and casein paints. There is a small amount of documentation of Aralac and Aracide within this subseries.

Subseries 4, Laboratory notebooks, 1937-1945, documents Crane's daily activities on the projects he worked on. Arranged chronologically, test results, notes, graphs, and experimental procedures are recorded within these notebooks. There are significant gaps in the date range listed above.

Subseries 5, Correspondence, memoranda, and reports, 1937-1948, records activities and communication within ARA. Documents written by Crane relate to his work, but many other reports document projects that Crane was not directly involved with. Two letters from F. C. Atwood, the president of ARA, illuminate occurrences within ARA: the potential drafting of Crane into military service for World War II and the reorganization of the company into NARC.

Subseries 6, Reference materials, 1936-1948, is comprised of scientific resources that Crane utilized and created. He reviewed scientific literature, indexed and summarized chemical abstracts, and compiled bibliographies related to the fields of fiber production, casein usage, and anti-fungal agents.

Subseries 7, Photographs, 1937-1941, illustrates ARA company gatherings, staff, and facilities.

Subseries 8, Printed material, 1927-1950, contains advertisements, catalogs, pamphlets, and brochures for assorted chemicals and laboratory equipment that were available to industrial chemists at the time. ARA-produced products represented include Aralac and the paints Aratone, Aralux, and Casein Deep Colors. Additional periodicals and newsletters received by Crane are also included.

Series 2, Biographical Material, 1936-1947, documents Crane's educational background, insurance needs, banking, and time spent at work.

Fiber samples and oversize material have been separated from the collection for preservation concerns. Items separated are identified by folder.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Atlantic Research Associates, Inc., 1927-1950, undated

Subseries 1, Aralac, 1938-1945, undated

Subseries 2, Aracide, 1935-1945, undated

Subseries 3, Other products, 1937-1945, undated

Subseries 4, Laboratory notebooks, 1937-1945, undated

Subseries 5, Correspondence, memoranda, and reports, 1937-1948, undated

Subseries 6, Reference materials, 1936-1948, undated

Subseries 7, Photographs, 1937-1941, undated

Subseries 8, Printed materials, 1927-1950, undated

Series 2: Biographical Material, 1936-1947, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Horace Irving Crane (1912-1984) was born on May 12, 1912. In 1929, he enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he earned an undergraduate degree in Chemistry in 1933 and a Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1936.

In 1933, Crane began working at Atlantic Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) in Newtonville, Massachusetts as a chemist. ARA was a division of National Dairy Products Corporation, which was later absorbed by Kraft Foods. ARA specialized in the development of products from casein, a protein found in milk. ARA had manufactured casein-based paints since 1927 and continued to produce other casein products such as glues, plastics, films, and paper coatings. Most of these products were given a name beginning with the prefix "Ara-" taken from the company's name.

Crane and other chemists at ARA began research into the production of a casein fiber in 1937. Aralac was first manufactured at a plant in Bristol, Rhode Island. Patents were granted to the president of ARA, Francis Clarke Atwood, for Aralac ("Method of Making Proteinaceous Fibers" US Patent #2,342,994 and "Method of Treating Fibrous Material and Product Resulting Therefrom" US Patent #2,342,634). In 1941, production moved to a larger plant in Taftville, Connecticut. The production of the fiber was as follows:

First the pH value of the milk was lowered using acid. The protein reached its minimum solubility, and with swelling was precipitated out of the milk as curd. This curd was the raw material for the production of Aralac. The casein (curd) was collected in small creameries as well as large ones. One hundred pounds of milk produced 3.7 pounds of casein, which in turn produced 3.7 pounds of fiber. After the casein arrived at the plant, it was carefully blended with casein from other producers and dissolved in water with proper solvents. Adjustments were made to the viscosity in order to produce a uniform base and ensure the complete removal of foreign materials. The solution became syrup-like and was forced through a spinnerette into a coagulating bath and was carried away. It remained in tow form through a succession of hardening and molecular modifying treatments interspersed at times with washing and drying.

Aralac is in the Azlon class of fibers. Fibers in this class are made from regenerated, naturally-occurring proteins such as milk, corn, soybeans, and peanuts. It was hoped that Aralac would be considered a luxury fiber in direct competition with the best grades of wool. It was introduced just as the United States entered World War II; during the war, Aralac was blended with rayon and acetate for use in civilian dress fabric and in felted hats. It was tested for use in carpet, military socks, lace, and knitting yarn, but was not satisfactory. Due to its low strength and the difficulty in dyeing it, Aralac had a short life. Production of the fiber ended in 1948.

Crane also worked on Aracide, a moth and mildew repellant. Aracide was initially developed as a fungicide for casein paints in 1937, but was also used to prevent moths from infesting Aralac. ARA attempted to obtain a patent for Aracide, but was rejected due to similarities with another patented fungicide.

In addition to Aralac and Aracide, Crane worked on a spray drier to evaporate milk and other assorted ARA projects. In 1945, ARA was reorganized and consolidated into a larger company, National Atlantic Research Corporation.

Following his departure from ARA, Crane worked at Sylvania Electric Products, Clevite Transistor, Computer Controls Corporation, and Honeywell. In 1957, Crane received a patent for methods of treating Germanium in relation to semiconductors (US Patent #2,793,146) while at Sylvania Electric Products.

Crane married his ARA lab technician, Laura Soule, and they raised their children in Massachusetts. He retired in 1977 and died in Vermont on April 7, 1984.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life)holds artifacts including a suit made from Aralac (Accession #2006.0096A).
Separated Materials:
Material separated for preservation reasons:

Box 9, Folder 1, Casein fiber --dyeing, undated

Box 9, Folder 2, Aratex, Inc. --Bristol, Rhode Island plant, 1940, undated

Box 9, Folder 3, Aratex, Inc. --Bristol, Rhode Island plant and Aralac --customer contacts, 1941, undated

Box 9, Folder 4, Crane --Memoranda, reports, etc. and Reports --from H. I. Crane & others, 1940, undated

Box 9, Folder 5-6, Reports --from H. I. Crane and others, 1940-1941

Box 10, Folder 1, Oversize papers, 1944

Box 10, Folder 2-4, Reports --from H. I. Crane and others, 1941 and undated

Box 10, Folder 5, [Dyed fiber samples], undated

Box 11, Folder 1-4 , [Dyed fiber samples], undated

Box 12, Folder 1, [Loose fibers that detached from dyed fiber samples], undated

Box 12, Folder 2, [Aralac/rayon blend fabric samples], undated

Box 12, Folder 3-5, [Dyed fiber samples], undated
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Irving Crane's son, Andrew Crane, in 2007.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Chemists  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Chemical abstracts -- Outlines, syllabi, etc.  Search this
Casein  Search this
Wool, Artificial  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic -- Laboratory manuals  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic -- Testing  Search this
Fungicides -- Testing  Search this
Spray drying  Search this
Synthetic fabrics  Search this
Synthetic fibers industry  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic Dyeing  Search this
Citation:
H. Irving Crane Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1119
See more items in:
H. Irving Crane Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1119
Online Media:

The Clapper

Collection Creator:
Joseph Enterprises, Inc. (Location of Meeting--San Francisco, California; )  Search this
Pedott, Joseph  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1976 - 1985
undated
Scope and Contents:
This series contains correspondence, legal documents, advertising, packaging and blueprints related to the manufacture and marketing of the clapper. The correspondence is arranged chronologically and details the finances and manufacture of the Clapper. The majority of correspondence addresses parts/components and the associated drawings from the Taiwan Electronics Mfg. Corporation and the Taiwan William Computer Mfg. Corporation. There is some correspondence with Pedott's attorney about trademark issues surrounding the Clapper. The legal documents pertain to a 1984 breach of contract between Joseph Enterprises, Inc., and Real Time Technology Ltd., regarding the timely supply of a sonic control switch for the Clapper. The advertising materials contain a 1988 script for video and audio spots and the photographs depict the Clapper's many uses.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Joseph Pedott Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0898, Series 3
See more items in:
Joseph Pedott Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0898-ref16

Letter from Dr. Jakub Tatarkiewicz (Polish computer scientist who worked with Scherbatskoy on signal extraction for measurement while drilling) regarding University of Paris Workshop

Collection Creator:
Scherbatskoy, Serge A., 1908-2002  Search this
Container:
Box 28, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989-1990
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Serge Scherbatskoy Papers, 1925-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Serge A. Scherbatskoy Papers
Serge A. Scherbatskoy Papers / Series 9: Well Logging Research Materials / 9.1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0936-ref393

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