Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
34 documents - page 1 of 2

Apollo Flight Guidance Computer Software Collection [Hamilton]

Creator:
Hamilton, Margaret Heafield, 1936-  Search this
Names:
Hamilton, Margaret Heafield, 1936-  Search this
Extent:
1.22 Cubic feet (2 legal document boxes; 1 slim legal document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1965-1986
bulk 1965-1972
Summary:
The Apollo Flight Guidance Computer Software Collection [Hamilton] consists of reports, memoranda, and related material documenting the Apollo flight guidance software developed by Margaret Hamilton's team at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The collection also includes Hamilton's 1986 handwritten notes on selected documents.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of reports, memoranda, and related material documenting the Apollo flight guidance software developed by Margaret Hamilton's team at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Documents include a printout from an Apollo guidance computer software simulation; software program change routing slips; reports from Apollo Guidance, Navigation, and Control (formerly Apollo Guidance and Navigation); a preliminary flight plan for Apollo 7; memoranda for the submission of MIT/IL Software Development Plan, critiquing each new official version of the flight system; guidance system documents using assorted programs, including Sundisk, Skylark, and Luminary; and an oversized Charles Stark Draper Laboratory brochure. When she donated the collection in 1986, Hamilton composed handwritten notes on the history of selected documents, which are included with each document and identified in the finding aid as "[Note from Margaret Hamilton]."
Arrangement:
The materials are arranged chronologically.
Biographical Note:
Margaret H. Hamilton (b. 1936) was the Director of Software Engineering Division at Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and was responsible for the onboard flight software for NASA's Apollo and Skylab missions. She became known as the "Rope Mother," an apt description for her role and referred to the unusual way that computer programs were stored on the Apollo guidance computers.

Hamilton received a BA in Mathematics from Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, and postponed her Ph.D. work when she was offered the opportunity to work on the Apollo project. She has published over 130 papers and reports on her areas of expertise in system design and software development. In 1986, she became the founder and CEO of Hamilton Technologies, Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. On November 22, 2016, President Barack Obama awarded Hamilton the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her contribution that led to Apollo 11's successful landing.
Provenance:
Donated by Margaret Hamilton, gift, 1986-1987.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Project Apollo (U.S.)  Search this
Space vehicles -- Guidance systems  Search this
Charles Stark Draper Laboratory  Search this
Citation:
Apollo Flight Guidance Computer Software Collection [Hamilton], Accession 1986-0158, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1986.0158
See more items in:
Apollo Flight Guidance Computer Software Collection [Hamilton]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg236b98f18-3818-4b38-91a4-4a14f8cc89e4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1986-0158
Online Media:

Instrumentation Laboratory, MIT, Apollo Project Memorandum #2038, Submission of MIT/IL Software Development Plan

Collection Creator:
Hamilton, Margaret Heafield, 1936-  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
December 20, 1968
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Apollo Flight Guidance Computer Software Collection [Hamilton], Accession 1986-0158, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Apollo Flight Guidance Computer Software Collection [Hamilton]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2f839b183-e983-4f48-8036-b7c41eda6d3a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1986-0158-ref9

Minutes

Extent:
8.70 cu. ft. (9 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1846-1995
Descriptive Entry:
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead. Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from 1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
Historical Note:
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.

The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A. Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A. Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.

Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.

Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell, Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin, Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey, Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull, Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.

Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth, Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton, Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce, Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.

Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings, John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley, John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton, Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Topic:
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum trustees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 1, Smithsonian Institution, Board of Regents, Minutes
Identifier:
Record Unit 1
See more items in:
Minutes
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0001
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Minutes digital asset number 1
  • View Minutes digital asset number 2
  • View Minutes digital asset number 3

[Trade catalogs from Insight Development Corp.]

Company Name:
Insight Development Corp.  Search this
Notes content:
computer software ; "DeskPlotter" ; "LaserPlotter" ; "MatrixPlotter" ; "JetPlotter" ; "LaserControl"
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Moraga, California, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_35887
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_35887

The Roots and Remedies of Ginseng Poaching

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Interviews
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:09:00 GMT
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more posts:
Festival Blog
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_c82e980c3b0227e99f60cf65fb565819

Texas Instruments GPS Receiver

Maker:
Texas Instruments  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 13 cm x 25.5 cm x 11.5 cm; 5 1/8 in x 10 1/32 in x 4 17/32 in
Object Name:
gps receiver / power supply
Related Publication:
Texas Instruments. Texas Instruments TI 4100 NAVSTAR Navigator
ID Number:
1997.0354.01
Accession number:
1997.0354
Catalog number:
1997.0354.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Physical Sciences
Surveying and Geodesy
Measuring & Mapping
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-7bd4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_998407

Software rights how patent law transformed software development in America Gerardo Con Díaz

Author:
Con Díaz, Gerardo  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 360 pages illustrations 25 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
USA
Date:
2019
Topic:
Computer software--Patents--History  Search this
Patent laws and legislation--History  Search this
Computer software industry--Law and legislation--History  Search this
Software protection--Law and legislation--History  Search this
Computer software--Patents  Search this
Computer software industry--Law and legislation  Search this
Patent laws and legislation  Search this
Software protection--Law and legislation  Search this
Kommerzialisierung  Search this
Patentrecht  Search this
Softwarehandel  Search this
Urheberrecht  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1153552

Pickett N15-T Hydraulic Duplex Slide Rule for Georgia Iron Works

Maker:
Pickett & Eckel, Incorporated  Search this
Physical Description:
aluminum (overall material)
plastic (cursor material)
leather (case material)
wood (case material)
Measurements:
box: 6.5 cm x 35.5 cm x 10.5 cm; 2 9/16 in x 14 in x 4 1/8 in
Object Name:
slide rule
Place made:
United States: California, Alhambra
Date made:
1961
Date received:
2009
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Rule, Calculating  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Danforth W. Hagler
ID Number:
2009.0100.01
Accession number:
2009.0100
Catalog number:
2009.0100.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Slide Rules
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-3fd1-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1349076
Online Media:

Kaypro IV Portable Computer

Maker:
Kaypro Corporation  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 21.5 cm x 48 cm x 43 cm; 8 7/16 in x 18 7/8 in x 16 15/16 in
Object Name:
microcomputer
Date made:
1983
ID Number:
1992.0522.01
Catalog number:
1992.0522.01
Accession number:
1992.0522
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
Family & Social Life
Work
Computers & Business Machines
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-811b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1156670

Cladistic analysis and evolutionary relationships of the "Megaxylocopa clade" of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Author:
Mawdsley, Jonathan R.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2015
Citation:
Mawdsley, Jonathan R. 2015. Cladistic analysis and evolutionary relationships of the "Megaxylocopa clade" of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae). Tropical Zoology, 28(4): 163-171. doi:10.1080/03946975.2015.1107346
Topic:
Entomology  Search this
Insects  Search this
Natural History  Search this
See others in:
Entomology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_138191

Landmark Typology in Applied Morphometrics Studies: What's the Point?

Author:
Sholts, Sabrina B.  Search this
Guyomarc'h, Pierre  Search this
Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.  Search this
Garvin, Heather  Search this
Petaros, Anja  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2019
Citation:
Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S., Garvin, Heather, Guyomarc'h, Pierre, Petaros, Anja and Sholts, Sabrina B. 2019. Landmark Typology in Applied Morphometrics Studies: What's the Point?. Anatomical Record, 302(7): 1144-1153. doi:10.1002/ar.24005
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
Natural History  Search this
See others in:
Anthropology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_149115

Satellite telemetry : a new tool for wildlife research and management / by Steve G. Fancy [and others]

Author:
Fancy, Steve G  Search this
Physical description:
54 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1988
Topic:
Biotelemetry  Search this
Earth stations (Satellite telecommunication)  Search this
Call number:
QH324.9.B5 S28 1988
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_388051

History of computing : software issues : International Conference on the History of Computing, ICHC 2000, April 5-7, 2000, Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum, Paderborn, Germany / Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, Arthur L. Norberg (eds.)

Author:
International Conference on the History of Computing (2000 : Paderborn, Germany)  Search this
Hashagen, Ulf  Search this
Keil-Slawik, Reinhard 1953-  Search this
Norberg, Arthur L (Arthur Lawrence) 1938-  Search this
Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 283 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
2002
C2002
Topic:
Computer software--Development--History  Search this
Electronic data processing--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_739750

Scientific software systems : based on the proceedings of the International Symposium on Scientific Software and Systems, held at Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham, July 1988 / edited by J.C. Mason and M.G. Cox

Author:
International Symposium on Scientific Software and Systems (1988 : Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham)  Search this
Mason, J. C  Search this
Cox, M. G  Search this
Physical description:
265 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Kongress
Conference papers and proceedings
Place:
Shrivenham
Date:
1990
1988
Topic:
Mathematics--Data processing  Search this
Computer software  Search this
Mathématiques  Search this
Logiciels  Search this
Traitement des données  Search this
Congrès  Search this
Datenverarbeitung  Search this
Mathematik  Search this
Naturwissenschaften  Search this
Software  Search this
Softwaresystem  Search this
Wissenschaft  Search this
Mathématiques--Informatique  Search this
Kongress  Search this
Call number:
QA76.95.I58 1988X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_393090

Milestones in software evolution / edited by Paul W. Oman, Ted G. Lewis

Author:
Oman, Paul W  Search this
Lewis, T. G (Theodore Gyle) 1941-  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 319 p. : ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1990
C1990
Topic:
Computer software--Development--History  Search this
Call number:
QA76.76.D47M55 1990X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_435257

The international computer software industry : a comparative study of industry evolution and structure / edited by David C. Mowery

Author:
Mowery, David C  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 324 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1996
Topic:
Computer software--Development  Search this
Computer software industry  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_488252

Minicomputers and Microcomputers Videohistory Collection

Extent:
2 videotapes (Reference copies). 11 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1987
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Jon B. Eklund, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, interviewed six members of "The Brotherhood" at Broderbund Software, Inc., in San Rafael, California, on July 31, 1987. The group discussed the creation, publishing, marketing, distribution, and reporting of microcomputing software in the late 1970s. They also reflected on how software houses survived the leveling off of the personal computer market in 1984 and 1985, and suggested strategies for remaining competitive in the marketplace. In addition, group members demonstrated early computer games.

This collection consists of one interview session, and one supplementary session, totaling approximately 5 hours of recordings, and 59 pages of transcript.

Please note that this session is comprised of dual sets of tape from two cameras positioned at different angles, plus a supplementary direct feed from a microcomputer.
Historical Note:
An informal confederation of computer software designers, known as "The Brotherhood," formed during the late 1970s. The group began as a result of the members' mutual interest in microcomputer software development and their geographic proximity along the West Coast of the United States. Their contribution to computer graphics and games was significant in the development of more advanced systems.

Interviewees were Douglas Carlston, Ken and Roberta Williams, Margot Comstock, Jerry Jewell, and Dave Albert. Douglas Carlston wrote Software People in 1985 to document the role of "The Brotherhood" in the microcomputer industry. Carlston, a lawyer, was "bitten by the computer bug" in 1979 and began writing programs as a hobbyist. After the commercial success of his first two games, Galactic Empire and Galactic Trader, Carlston quit his practice and co-founded Broderbund Software, Inc., with his brother Gary in 1980.

Ken and Roberta Williams founded On-Line Systems in 1980 and achieved success with their creation of the first adventure/mystery games with graphics, Mystery House and later The Wizard and the Princess. In 1982, they became known as Sierra On-Line and continued to focus on games and educational software for the Apple Computer.

Margot Comstock began the journal Softalk with Al Tommervik in Los Angeles on September 12, 1980. Comstock had been hired by a small software publisher, Softape, to publish their in-house newsletter, when she transformed it into a national full-scale magazine for Apple owners. The magazine reviewed software, tracked industry news and listed the monthly top thirty best-selling computer programs.

In 1980, Jerry Jewell was working as a Computerland store manager in Sacramento, California. Less than a year later, he and partner Terry Bradley were in charge of the multimillion-dollar Sirius Software Company founded on the games of programmer Nasir Gebelli. Sirius Software was noted for its meteoric rise and fall in the games market bonanza of the early 1980s. Dave Albert, a journalism major from the University of Iowa, worked as an editor for Softside magazine. The magazine prompted its original editor, Mark Pelczarski, to form the Penguin Software Company in DeKalb, Illinois, in 1981. Albert joined Penguin as a software publisher for the Apple II-inspired graphics and animation tools and games which the company produced. Albert later moved to Electronic Arts, an educational and game software house.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Computer programming  Search this
Computer games -- Programming -- History  Search this
Computer games -- History  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9533, Minicomputers and Microcomputers Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9533
See more items in:
Minicomputers and Microcomputers Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9533

Untitled

Collection Creator::
National Museum of American History. Computer Services Center  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Summary:
LCIS Development/Computer Software:
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 02-228, National Museum of American History. Computer Services Center, Collection Information System Records
See more items in:
Collection Information System Records
Collection Information System Records / Box 6
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa02-228-refidd1e1445

Computers

Type:
Archival materials
Note:
In Sessions Five through Eight, Paul Ceruzzi, Robert Anderson, and Willis Ware interviewed thirteen participants to discuss RAND's role in the post-1945 development of computers. Along with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California, RAND pioneered computer engineering and programming on the West Coast. The Air Force initially funded this work as a means of accelerating systems analysis and missile and nuclear weapon development, but became somewhat more reluctant to underwrite RAND's research when staff there began to develop more interactive applications for computers in the 1960s. Sessions were shot at RAND Corporation headquarters in Santa Monica, California. Besides the listed participants for each session, other session participants often contributed as members of an audience.

Participants for this first session contributed to the development of computer hardware between 1945 and 1965. Paul Armer joined Project RAND in 1947 as a mathematician and desk calculator operator. Five years later he became head of the Computer Sciences Department. In 1968 Armer left RAND to direct the Stanford University Computation Center, and since then has also headed the Charles Babbage Institute for the History of Information Processing in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and presided over the American Federation of Information Processing Societies.

William F. Gunning started working for Douglas Aircraft in their Flight Test laboratory in 1941. In 1947 he transferred to Project RAND where he worked as an electronic engineer on the development of the Random Number Generator, the modification of the REAC (Reeves Electronic Analog Computer), the Williams memory of the SWAC (Standard Western Analog computer), and the JOHNNIAC.

William P. Myers began working at RAND as Tabulating Department shift leader in 1948. With the arrival of the IBM 604 programmed calculator in 1951, he headed the Operations Group of the Numerical Analysis Department before moving to the Systems Development Department. In 1958 Myers returned to the Numerical Analysis Department in various managerial capacities; he switched to the Computer Science Department in the 1970s and retired in 1984.

Robert T. Nash worked at RAND from 1948 to 1957. He rose from IBM Cards Processor to Administrative Assistant of the Numerical Analysis Department by 1955. Nash then filled the same position for the Programming Department of the Systems Development Division, where he arranged for the settlement of SDD staff at air bases of the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) defense system. In 1956 he became manager of Field Services for the SDD and kept the position in 1957 when RAND spun off the Division into an autonomous corporation.

Keith W. Uncapher also arrived at RAND in 1950 and focused on computer engineering. He began with designing components for the REAC, and was responsible for development of the Selectron memory store of the JOHNNIAC. In the late 1950s he oversaw the RAND contract with Telemeter Magnetics for the first 4,096-word, 40-bit, magnetic core store; in the 1960s he managed the development of JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System), the RAND tablet, the GRAIL system, the acquisition by RAND of larger computers, and the development of a hardened communications system for the Air Force. Uncapher left RAND in 1972.

Willis H. Ware received his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in 1941 and his S.M. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology one year later. After spending World War II at Hazeltine Electronics Corporation, he joined John von Neumann's Electronic Computer Project at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He completed his Ph.D. at Princeton in 1951 and immediately joined RAND, where he helped lead the engineering on the JOHNNIAC, particularly its Selectron and magnetic core memories. Between 1964 and 1971 Ware headed the Computer Science Division, during which time he initiated debate on computer security as a technical subject. Ware joined the Corporate Research Staff in 1973 and advised various agencies on the applications of large computer systems. Throughout his career, Ware also helped found and support professional groups associated with computing.

Participants for Session Six contributed to the development of computer software between 1945 and 1965. Morton I. Bernstein joined RAND in 1954 as an assistant mathematician. For three years he wrote programs for the IBM 701 computer, the Linear Programming group, the Logistics Department, and consulted on various war games. In 1957 Bernstein assumed responsibility for the JOHNNIAC, concentrating on programming language design and implementation. Between 1961 and 1963, when he left RAND, Bernstein worked with the engineering staff on the RAND tablet.

Irwin Greenwald worked for RAND from 1950 to 1960 and from 1964 to 1969. During the 1950s he was responsible for programming JOHNNIAC's first assignment, the computations on UNIVAC I for the first H-bomb test, RAND's system and utility programming of the IBM 701 and 704 computers, PACT-II (Project Advanced Coding Technique), and the formation of the first users' group, SHARE (Society to Help Avoid Redundant Effort). In the 1960s Greenwald masterminded the major components of the JOSS-II system and the initial software for the RAND Videographic System.

J. Clifford Shaw spent twenty-three years at RAND, beginning in 1950. He specialized in systems software, beginning with the IBM Card-Programmed Calculator, the IBM 701, and the JOHNNIAC; and in artificial intelligence, where he worked with Allen Newell and Herbert Simon on various AI programs and IPL's (Information Processing Languages) I-VI. In the early 1960s he developed JOSS and its language and the system and demonstration software for the RAND tablet. Shaw died in March 1991.

Paul Armer and Willis Ware also appeared in this session.

Participants in Session Seven contributed to the development of computer graphics hardware between 1960 and 1965. Raymond W. Clewett began working in 1937 as a machinist, model builder, and laboratory foreman for Douglas Aircraft Company. After World War II he joined Lear Incorporated as machine shop foreman and design engineer for six years, returning to Santa Monica as shop manager and design engineer for RAND in 1951. His contributions there included design and construction of JOHNNIAC, other computer hardware, nuclear reactor test equipment, the RAND tablet, and closed circuit television reading devices for the visually impaired. After 1977, Clewett was an independent design consultant and owner of HY-TECH Engineering and Development Lab.

Thomas Ellis joined RAND in 1953 after graduate research on computer engineering at UCLA, and worked on most of the projects discussed in these sessions before he left in 1972. He was responsible for the JOHNNIAC's input/output machinery, design of the JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System) terminals, the RAND tablet, GRAIL (Graphic Input Language), and the RAND/IBM Videographic system.

Paul Armer, Morton Bernstein, and Willis Ware also appeared this session.

Participants in Session Eight contributed to the development of computer graphics software between 1965 and 1975. Robert Anderson received degrees in physics, philosophy, and applied mathematics between 1962 and 1968 at the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University. He joined RAND in 1973 as head of its Information Sciences Department while holding teaching and research appointments at the University of Southern California. In 1981 Anderson founded his own computer systems consulting firm. After 1986 he was director of RAND's Institute for Research on Interactive Systems (IRIS) and resident consultant.

Barry W. Boehm received his degrees in mathematics from Harvard University and UCLA between 1959 and 1964. Concurrently with his graduate work at UCLA, Boehm headed RAND's new Information Sciences Department. From 1973 to 1989 he was Chief Scientist of TRW's Defense Systems Group, after which he became Director of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's Information Science and Technology Office. Boehm has written three books on software engineering.

Edward C. DeLand started working at RAND after finishing his Ph.D. in mathematics at UCLA in 1956. He spent the next six years managing the analog computers, REAC and TRAC, and then began developing mathematical models for blood biochemistry. After switching to physiological research in 1963, DeLand helped construct the BIOMOD program. DeLand left RAND in 1972 for UCLA's Department of Surgery where he continues to develop applications for computers in medical instruction and diagnosis.

Gabriel F. Groner was finishing a Ph.D. in electrical engineering at Stanford University when he joined RAND in 1964. His interests in character recognition, interactive systems, computer graphics and medical applications of computers were manifested in his contributions to the GRAIL program; the BIOMOD simulation system; the study of computer applications to industrial automation; and the CLINFO data system for medical research. Groner left RAND in 1978.

Thomas Ellis also appeared in this session.

The discussions detailed the development at RAND of computer hardware and software in the post-war era. Sessions provide visual documentation of early computer components.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9536, The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9536, Series 3
See more items in:
The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9536-refidd1e590

Janese Swanson Innovative Lives Presentation and Oral History

Topic:
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Interviewee:
Swanson, Jackie  Search this
Swanson, Janese  Search this
Names:
Girltech  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes,)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Videotapes
Interviews
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1998
Summary:
Janese Swanson developed video game software, a website, and an array of toys and gadgets aimed at making technology more accessible to girls. The collection contains approximately six hours of original and reference video footage of Swanson's Innovative Lives Presentation, in which she discussed her background and demonstrated her inventions with her daughter, Jackie. The material also includes a brief interview.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains six (6) hours of original (BetaCam SP) recordings, six (6) hours of master (BetaCam SP) recordings, and six (6) hours of reference (VHS) copies documenting the life and work of Dr. Janese Swanson, inventor of toys, books, a website, magazine, and software. This video documentation was created on March 25, 1998. The recordings include a presentation by Swanson for the Lemelson Center's Innovative Lives Program. Audience participants are students from Thoreau Middle School (Vienna, Virginia), Options Charter School (Washington, D.C.), Carrollton Elementary School (New Carrollton, Maryland), and Rosa Parks Middle School (Olney, Maryland). The collection also contains a brief interview with Dr. Swanson.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into three series.

Series 1, Original Videos, 1998

Series 2, Master Videos, 1998

Series 3, Reference Videos (viewing copies), 1998

Series 4, Photographs and Slides, 1998
Biographical / Historical:
Janese Swanson, a native of California, was the founder and CEO of Girl Tech (1995), a company created to bring girls into the world of technology. The second of six children, Swanson was raised by her mother after her father died in the Vietnam War. From a young age, Swanson had an interest in technology, often tinkering with household appliances. Building on her experience as a flight attendant and school teacher, Swanson served on the team at Broderbund Software that developed the video game Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego? She produced Playroom and Treehouse, early learning software, and has developed award-winning curricula, electronic toys, and books that encourage girls to explore technology and inventions. Some of Swanson's toy inventions include the Snoop Stopper Keepsake Box, Me-Mail Message Center, Zap N' Lock Journal, YakBak, and Swap-It Locket. Her publications include Tech Girl's Internet Adventures, Tech Girl's Activity Book, and Girlzine: A Magazine for the Global Girl. Swanson received her Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership Technology in 1997 from the University of San Francisco.

The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation was founded in 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History through a generous gift from the Lemelson Foundation. The Center's mission is to document, interpret, and disseminate information about invention and innovation; to encourage inventive creativity in young people; and to foster an appreciation for the central role invention and innovation play in the history of the United States. The Innovative Lives series brings together museum visitors and, especially, school aged children, and American inventors to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product. This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Provenance:
The collection was transferred to the Archives Center by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation in 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original videos are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Copies of oral history releases on file.
Topic:
Computer software -- Development  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Toys -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Photographs
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Citation:
Janese Swanson Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0642
See more items in:
Janese Swanson Innovative Lives Presentation and Oral History
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep802ae8b9e-e1df-41f7-98a8-f4bebc8bff74
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0642
Online Media:

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By