The Apollo Flight Guidance Computer Software Collection [Hamilton] consists of reports, memoranda, and related material documenting the Apollo flight guidance software developed by Margaret Hamilton's team at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The collection also includes Hamilton's 1986 handwritten notes on selected documents.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of reports, memoranda, and related material documenting the Apollo flight guidance software developed by Margaret Hamilton's team at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Documents include a printout from an Apollo guidance computer software simulation; software program change routing slips; reports from Apollo Guidance, Navigation, and Control (formerly Apollo Guidance and Navigation); a preliminary flight plan for Apollo 7; memoranda for the submission of MIT/IL Software Development Plan, critiquing each new official version of the flight system; guidance system documents using assorted programs, including Sundisk, Skylark, and Luminary; and an oversized Charles Stark Draper Laboratory brochure. When she donated the collection in 1986, Hamilton composed handwritten notes on the history of selected documents, which are included with each document and identified in the finding aid as "[Note from Margaret Hamilton]."
The materials are arranged chronologically.
Margaret H. Hamilton (b. 1936) was the Director of Software Engineering Division at Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and was responsible for the onboard flight software for NASA's Apollo and Skylab missions. She became known as the "Rope Mother," an apt description for her role and referred to the unusual way that computer programs were stored on the Apollo guidance computers.
Hamilton received a BA in Mathematics from Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, and postponed her Ph.D. work when she was offered the opportunity to work on the Apollo project. She has published over 130 papers and reports on her areas of expertise in system design and software development. In 1986, she became the founder and CEO of Hamilton Technologies, Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. On November 22, 2016, President Barack Obama awarded Hamilton the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her contribution that led to Apollo 11's successful landing.
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after
approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no
manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead.
Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from
1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
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Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley,
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Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton
Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton,
Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson,
Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Mawdsley, Jonathan R. 2015. Cladistic analysis and evolutionary relationships of the "Megaxylocopa clade" of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae). Tropical Zoology, 28(4): 163-171. doi:10.1080/03946975.2015.1107346
Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S., Garvin, Heather, Guyomarc'h, Pierre, Petaros, Anja and Sholts, Sabrina B. 2019. Landmark Typology in Applied Morphometrics Studies: What's the Point?. Anatomical Record, 302(7): 1144-1153. doi:10.1002/ar.24005
History of computing : software issues : International Conference on the History of Computing, ICHC 2000, April 5-7, 2000, Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum, Paderborn, Germany / Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, Arthur L. Norberg (eds.)
International Conference on the History of Computing (2000 : Paderborn, Germany) Search this
Scientific software systems : based on the proceedings of the International Symposium on Scientific Software and Systems, held at Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham, July 1988 / edited by J.C. Mason and M.G. Cox
International Symposium on Scientific Software and Systems (1988 : Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham) Search this
Minicomputers and Microcomputers Videohistory Collection
2 videotapes (Reference copies). 11 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have
been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical
research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that
reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.
Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological
sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries,
laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education,
and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Jon B. Eklund, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, interviewed six members of "The Brotherhood" at Broderbund Software, Inc., in San Rafael,
California, on July 31, 1987. The group discussed the creation, publishing, marketing, distribution, and reporting of microcomputing software in the late 1970s. They also
reflected on how software houses survived the leveling off of the personal computer market in 1984 and 1985, and suggested strategies for remaining competitive in the marketplace.
In addition, group members demonstrated early computer games.
This collection consists of one interview session, and one supplementary session, totaling approximately 5 hours of recordings, and 59 pages of transcript.
Please note that this session is comprised of dual sets of tape from two cameras positioned at different angles, plus a supplementary direct feed from a microcomputer.
An informal confederation of computer software designers, known as "The Brotherhood," formed during the late 1970s. The group began as a result of the members' mutual
interest in microcomputer software development and their geographic proximity along the West Coast of the United States. Their contribution to computer graphics and games
was significant in the development of more advanced systems.
Interviewees were Douglas Carlston, Ken and Roberta Williams, Margot Comstock, Jerry Jewell, and Dave Albert. Douglas Carlston wrote Software People in 1985 to document
the role of "The Brotherhood" in the microcomputer industry. Carlston, a lawyer, was "bitten by the computer bug" in 1979 and began writing programs as a hobbyist. After the
commercial success of his first two games, Galactic Empire and Galactic Trader, Carlston quit his practice and co-founded Broderbund Software, Inc., with his
brother Gary in 1980.
Ken and Roberta Williams founded On-Line Systems in 1980 and achieved success with their creation of the first adventure/mystery games with graphics, Mystery House
and later The Wizard and the Princess. In 1982, they became known as Sierra On-Line and continued to focus on games and educational software for the Apple Computer.
Margot Comstock began the journal Softalk with Al Tommervik in Los Angeles on September 12, 1980. Comstock had been hired by a small software publisher, Softape,
to publish their in-house newsletter, when she transformed it into a national full-scale magazine for Apple owners. The magazine reviewed software, tracked industry news and
listed the monthly top thirty best-selling computer programs.
In 1980, Jerry Jewell was working as a Computerland store manager in Sacramento, California. Less than a year later, he and partner Terry Bradley were in charge of the
multimillion-dollar Sirius Software Company founded on the games of programmer Nasir Gebelli. Sirius Software was noted for its meteoric rise and fall in the games market
bonanza of the early 1980s. Dave Albert, a journalism major from the University of Iowa, worked as an editor for Softside magazine. The magazine prompted its original
editor, Mark Pelczarski, to form the Penguin Software Company in DeKalb, Illinois, in 1981. Albert joined Penguin as a software publisher for the Apple II-inspired graphics
and animation tools and games which the company produced. Albert later moved to Electronic Arts, an educational and game software house.
In Sessions Five through Eight, Paul Ceruzzi, Robert Anderson, and Willis Ware interviewed thirteen participants to discuss RAND's role in the post-1945 development
of computers. Along with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California, RAND pioneered computer engineering
and programming on the West Coast. The Air Force initially funded this work as a means of accelerating systems analysis and missile and nuclear weapon development, but became
somewhat more reluctant to underwrite RAND's research when staff there began to develop more interactive applications for computers in the 1960s. Sessions were shot at RAND
Corporation headquarters in Santa Monica, California. Besides the listed participants for each session, other session participants often contributed as members of an audience.
Participants for this first session contributed to the development of computer hardware between 1945 and 1965. Paul Armer joined Project RAND in 1947 as a mathematician
and desk calculator operator. Five years later he became head of the Computer Sciences Department. In 1968 Armer left RAND to direct the Stanford University Computation Center,
and since then has also headed the Charles Babbage Institute for the History of Information Processing in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and presided over the American Federation
of Information Processing Societies.
William F. Gunning started working for Douglas Aircraft in their Flight Test laboratory in 1941. In 1947 he transferred to Project RAND where he worked as an electronic
engineer on the development of the Random Number Generator, the modification of the REAC (Reeves Electronic Analog Computer), the Williams memory of the SWAC (Standard Western
Analog computer), and the JOHNNIAC.
William P. Myers began working at RAND as Tabulating Department shift leader in 1948. With the arrival of the IBM 604 programmed calculator in 1951, he headed the Operations
Group of the Numerical Analysis Department before moving to the Systems Development Department. In 1958 Myers returned to the Numerical Analysis Department in various managerial
capacities; he switched to the Computer Science Department in the 1970s and retired in 1984.
Robert T. Nash worked at RAND from 1948 to 1957. He rose from IBM Cards Processor to Administrative Assistant of the Numerical Analysis Department by 1955. Nash then filled
the same position for the Programming Department of the Systems Development Division, where he arranged for the settlement of SDD staff at air bases of the SAGE (Semi-Automatic
Ground Environment) defense system. In 1956 he became manager of Field Services for the SDD and kept the position in 1957 when RAND spun off the Division into an autonomous
Keith W. Uncapher also arrived at RAND in 1950 and focused on computer engineering. He began with designing components for the REAC, and was responsible for development
of the Selectron memory store of the JOHNNIAC. In the late 1950s he oversaw the RAND contract with Telemeter Magnetics for the first 4,096-word, 40-bit, magnetic core store;
in the 1960s he managed the development of JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System), the RAND tablet, the GRAIL system, the acquisition by RAND of larger computers, and the development
of a hardened communications system for the Air Force. Uncapher left RAND in 1972.
Willis H. Ware received his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in 1941 and his S.M. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology one year
later. After spending World War II at Hazeltine Electronics Corporation, he joined John von Neumann's Electronic Computer Project at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton,
New Jersey. He completed his Ph.D. at Princeton in 1951 and immediately joined RAND, where he helped lead the engineering on the JOHNNIAC, particularly its Selectron and magnetic
core memories. Between 1964 and 1971 Ware headed the Computer Science Division, during which time he initiated debate on computer security as a technical subject. Ware joined
the Corporate Research Staff in 1973 and advised various agencies on the applications of large computer systems. Throughout his career, Ware also helped found and support
professional groups associated with computing.
Participants for Session Six contributed to the development of computer software between 1945 and 1965. Morton I. Bernstein joined RAND in 1954 as an assistant mathematician.
For three years he wrote programs for the IBM 701 computer, the Linear Programming group, the Logistics Department, and consulted on various war games. In 1957 Bernstein assumed
responsibility for the JOHNNIAC, concentrating on programming language design and implementation. Between 1961 and 1963, when he left RAND, Bernstein worked with the engineering
staff on the RAND tablet.
Irwin Greenwald worked for RAND from 1950 to 1960 and from 1964 to 1969. During the 1950s he was responsible for programming JOHNNIAC's first assignment, the computations
on UNIVAC I for the first H-bomb test, RAND's system and utility programming of the IBM 701 and 704 computers, PACT-II (Project Advanced Coding Technique), and the formation
of the first users' group, SHARE (Society to Help Avoid Redundant Effort). In the 1960s Greenwald masterminded the major components of the JOSS-II system and the initial software
for the RAND Videographic System.
J. Clifford Shaw spent twenty-three years at RAND, beginning in 1950. He specialized in systems software, beginning with the IBM Card-Programmed Calculator, the IBM 701,
and the JOHNNIAC; and in artificial intelligence, where he worked with Allen Newell and Herbert Simon on various AI programs and IPL's (Information Processing Languages) I-VI.
In the early 1960s he developed JOSS and its language and the system and demonstration software for the RAND tablet. Shaw died in March 1991.
Paul Armer and Willis Ware also appeared in this session.
Participants in Session Seven contributed to the development of computer graphics hardware between 1960 and 1965. Raymond W. Clewett began working in 1937 as a machinist,
model builder, and laboratory foreman for Douglas Aircraft Company. After World War II he joined Lear Incorporated as machine shop foreman and design engineer for six years,
returning to Santa Monica as shop manager and design engineer for RAND in 1951. His contributions there included design and construction of JOHNNIAC, other computer hardware,
nuclear reactor test equipment, the RAND tablet, and closed circuit television reading devices for the visually impaired. After 1977, Clewett was an independent design consultant
and owner of HY-TECH Engineering and Development Lab.
Thomas Ellis joined RAND in 1953 after graduate research on computer engineering at UCLA, and worked on most of the projects discussed in these sessions before he left
in 1972. He was responsible for the JOHNNIAC's input/output machinery, design of the JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System) terminals, the RAND tablet, GRAIL (Graphic Input Language),
and the RAND/IBM Videographic system.
Paul Armer, Morton Bernstein, and Willis Ware also appeared this session.
Participants in Session Eight contributed to the development of computer graphics software between 1965 and 1975. Robert Anderson received degrees in physics, philosophy,
and applied mathematics between 1962 and 1968 at the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University. He joined RAND in 1973 as head of its Information Sciences
Department while holding teaching and research appointments at the University of Southern California. In 1981 Anderson founded his own computer systems consulting firm. After
1986 he was director of RAND's Institute for Research on Interactive Systems (IRIS) and resident consultant.
Barry W. Boehm received his degrees in mathematics from Harvard University and UCLA between 1959 and 1964. Concurrently with his graduate work at UCLA, Boehm headed RAND's
new Information Sciences Department. From 1973 to 1989 he was Chief Scientist of TRW's Defense Systems Group, after which he became Director of the Defense Advanced Research
Project Agency's Information Science and Technology Office. Boehm has written three books on software engineering.
Edward C. DeLand started working at RAND after finishing his Ph.D. in mathematics at UCLA in 1956. He spent the next six years managing the analog computers, REAC and TRAC,
and then began developing mathematical models for blood biochemistry. After switching to physiological research in 1963, DeLand helped construct the BIOMOD program. DeLand
left RAND in 1972 for UCLA's Department of Surgery where he continues to develop applications for computers in medical instruction and diagnosis.
Gabriel F. Groner was finishing a Ph.D. in electrical engineering at Stanford University when he joined RAND in 1964. His interests in character recognition, interactive
systems, computer graphics and medical applications of computers were manifested in his contributions to the GRAIL program; the BIOMOD simulation system; the study of computer
applications to industrial automation; and the CLINFO data system for medical research. Groner left RAND in 1978.
Thomas Ellis also appeared in this session.
The discussions detailed the development at RAND of computer hardware and software in the post-war era. Sessions provide visual documentation of early computer components.
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9536, The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation Videohistory Collection
Janese Swanson developed video game software, a website, and an array of toys and gadgets aimed at making technology more accessible to girls. The collection contains approximately six hours of original and reference video footage of Swanson's Innovative Lives Presentation, in which she discussed her background and demonstrated her inventions with her daughter, Jackie. The material also includes a brief interview.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains six (6) hours of original (BetaCam SP) recordings, six (6) hours of master (BetaCam SP) recordings, and six (6) hours of reference (VHS) copies documenting the life and work of Dr. Janese Swanson, inventor of toys, books, a website, magazine, and software. This video documentation was created on March 25, 1998. The recordings include a presentation by Swanson for the Lemelson Center's Innovative Lives Program. Audience participants are students from Thoreau Middle School (Vienna, Virginia), Options Charter School (Washington, D.C.), Carrollton Elementary School (New Carrollton, Maryland), and Rosa Parks Middle School (Olney, Maryland). The collection also contains a brief interview with Dr. Swanson.
The collection is organized into three series.
Series 1, Original Videos, 1998
Series 2, Master Videos, 1998
Series 3, Reference Videos (viewing copies), 1998
Series 4, Photographs and Slides, 1998
Biographical / Historical:
Janese Swanson, a native of California, was the founder and CEO of Girl Tech (1995), a company created to bring girls into the world of technology. The second of six children, Swanson was raised by her mother after her father died in the Vietnam War. From a young age, Swanson had an interest in technology, often tinkering with household appliances. Building on her experience as a flight attendant and school teacher, Swanson served on the team at Broderbund Software that developed the video game Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego? She produced Playroom and Treehouse, early learning software, and has developed award-winning curricula, electronic toys, and books that encourage girls to explore technology and inventions. Some of Swanson's toy inventions include the Snoop Stopper Keepsake Box, Me-Mail Message Center, Zap N' Lock Journal, YakBak, and Swap-It Locket. Her publications include Tech Girl's Internet Adventures, Tech Girl's Activity Book, and Girlzine: A Magazine for the Global Girl. Swanson received her Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership Technology in 1997 from the University of San Francisco.
The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation was founded in 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History through a generous gift from the Lemelson Foundation. The Center's mission is to document, interpret, and disseminate information about invention and innovation; to encourage inventive creativity in young people; and to foster an appreciation for the central role invention and innovation play in the history of the United States. The Innovative Lives series brings together museum visitors and, especially, school aged children, and American inventors to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product. This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
The collection was transferred to the Archives Center by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation in 1998.
Collection is open for research but the original videos are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at email@example.com or 202-633-3270.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Copies of oral history releases on file.