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20,000 coal company stores in the United States, Mexico and Canada 750 illustrated tokens

Author:
Dodrill, Gordon  Search this
Physical description:
287 p illus 28 cm
Type:
Directories
Répertoires
Place:
United States
États-Unis
Date:
1971
Topic:
Coal mines and mining  Search this
Coal mines and mining--Directories  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Company towns--Directories  Search this
Charbon--Mines et extraction  Search this
Call number:
HD7395.C6 D6X
HD7395.C6D6X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_12484

Historic Footage of Pennsylvania Colliery, ca. 1930-1940

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-11-02T17:47:54.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
See more by:
HSFAFilmClips
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
YouTube Channel:
HSFAFilmClips
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_UVYm-Baq7UM

Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials

Donor:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Manufacturer:
Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Extent:
23 Cubic feet (99 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Window displays
Date:
1885-1940s
Summary:
The collection documents the building, operation and daily life of coal mining communities in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Ohio between 1911 and 1946. The collection is a valuable for the study of mining technology and the social conditions of the time period and regions.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists mostly of photographs depicting Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company mines and mining towns in Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Subjects include worker housing, schools for miners' children, gardens, churches, recreational facilities, health services, company stores, safety, mining machinery, construction of mines and related structures, and the interiors of mines.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1904-1933

Series 2: Photographs, 1885-1940s

Subseries 2.1: Photograph Albums, 1885-1932

Subseries 2.2: West Virginia Division, 19091-1917

Subseries 2.3: Glass Plate and Film Negatives, 1911-1940s

Subseries 2.4: Numbered Photographs, 1911-1930

Subseries 2.5: Miscellaneous, 1913, 1916
Historical Note:
The Consolidation Coal Company was started in 1864 to mine bituminous coal deposits in Maryland's Cumberland region. it expanded by acquiring other mine companies as well as rail and other transportation companies. It went into receivership in 1932. The Pittsburgh Coal Company, founded in 1900, took over the firm in 1945 and formed the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Consolidation Coal Company (Maryland)

The Consolidation Coal Company was incorporated in Maryland on March 8, 1860, for the purpose of effecting a merger of a number of coal operators mining the Georges Creek basin in Allegany County, Maryland. Because of the Civil War, during which Confederate armies frequently blocked the region's only outlet to market, the company was not actually organized until April 19, 1864. Starting life as the dominant operator in this small but significant coal field, "Consol" rose to become the nation's top producer of bituminous coal.

The Georges Creek or Cumberland Coal Field, occupying part of the triangle of western Maryland, contained a high-quality, low-volatile bituminous steam coal which was also, thanks to the Potomac River, the coal of this type most accessible to Eastern markets. Coal had been mined in the region beginning in the 1700s, and the first coal company, the Maryland Mining Company, had been incorporated in 1828. However, large-scale development could not occur until the mid-1840s, after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Cumberland and provided reliable transportation. This also coincided with the development of ocean steam navigation and a rapid growth in the number of railroad locomotives and stationary steam engines. Cumberland coal was ideal for ship bunkering, and much of the output was shipped to New York Harbor. Naturally, New York capitalists and manufacturers played a leading role in developing the field. Lewis Howell's Maryland and New York Iron and Coal Company rolled the first solid U.S. railroad rail at its Mount Savage mill in 1844. The Consolidation Coal merger was put together by New Yorkers such as William H. Aspinwall, Erastus Corning, the Delanos and Roosevelts, and the Boston financier John Murray Forbes, who already had substantial investments in the region.

Upon its formation, the Consolidation Coal Company acquired the properties of the Ocean Steam Coal Company, the Frostburg Coal Company, and the Mount Savage Iron Company totaling about 11,000 acres. The last named company brought with it control of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad, which connected the mines to the Baltimore & Ohio and later the Pennsylvania and Western Maryland railroads. In 1870, Consol absorbed the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company of 1840, the next largest operator in the field, and gained an additional 7,000 acres. Further purchases from the Delano interests gave it over 80 percent of the entire Cumberland Field.

Soon after its hated rival, the Pennsylvania Railroad, gained access to the Cumberland Coal Field, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began purchasing large blocks of Consolidation Coal stock to protect its traffic base in 1875, eventually gaining a 52 percent interest. A B&O slate of directors was elected in February 1877, with Charles F. Mayer of Baltimore as president, and the company offices were moved from New York to Baltimore.

Until the turn of the century, Consolidation Coal's mining operations were confined to the small soft coal region of western Maryland. The company purchased the 12,000 acre Millholland coal tract near Morgantown, W.Va. in 1902 and acquired controlling interests in the Fairmont Coal Company of West Virginia and the Somerset Coal Company of Pennsylvania the following year. These acquisitions boosted Consolidation's annual production more than six-fold in only three years. The company purchased the 25,000 acre Stony Creek tract in Somerset County, Pa., in 1904. The Fairmont Coal Company purchase included a joint interest in the North Western Fuel Company, which owned and operated docks and coal distribution facilities in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

In 1906, the Interstate Commerce Commission held a formal investigation of rail ownership of coal companies, which resulted in the passage of the Hepburn Act and its "Commodities Clause," which prohibited railroads from dealing in the commodities they hauled. In anticipation of the new regulations, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad sold its entire holdings of Consolidation stock to a Baltimore syndicate headed by Consol president Clarence W. Watson, J. H. Wheelwright and H. Crawford on April 26, 1906. At the time of the B&O's divestiture, the aggregate annual output of Consolidation's mines totaled more than 10 million tons and the company controlled more than 200,000 acres. The John D. Rockefeller interests began purchasing Consol securities in 1915, eventually securing a controlling interest. The company's offices were returned to New York City in May 1921.

After the B&O divestiture, Consol began expanding into the Southern Appalachian coal fields, which were just being opened by railroads on a large scale. The mines in this region yielded a low volatile coal that provided an ideal fuel source for stationary steam engines, ships, and locomotives. Of equal importance, operators in the remote mountains had been able to resist unionization and thus achieve lower operating costs, while all of Consol's previous holdings had been in the so-called "Central Competitive Field" to the north, which had been unionized in the 1890s. Consolidation Coal purchased 30,000 acres in the Millers Creek Field of Eastern Kentucky in 1909 and 100,000 acres in the Elkhorn Field the next year. In February 1922, Consol secured a long term lease and option on the Carter Coal Company, whose 37,000 acres straddled the borders of Virginia, West Virginia and Kentucky. In 1925, Consol became the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal, excluding the captive mines of the steel companies.

During the Great Depression, Consolidation Coal experienced serious financial difficulties and was forced into receivership on June 2, 1932. The Rockefellers liquidated their holdings at a loss, and the Carter Coal Company was returned to the Carter heirs in 1933. Consol was reorganized and reincorporated in Delaware as the Consolidation Coal Company, Inc. on November 1, 1935, and was able to retain its position as one of the nation's top coal producers. Eventually, stock control passed into the hands of the M.A. Hanna Company group of Cleveland, dealers in coal and iron ore. Although production reached record levels during the Second World War, management feared a recurrence of the collapse that had followed World War I. It also faced the prospect of increased competition from oil and natural gas and the loss of traditional markets such as home heating and locomotive fuel. As a result Consol opened negotiations with another large producer, the Pittsburgh Coal Company, which was the dominant operator in the Pittsburgh District.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was a product of the great industrial merger movement of the late 1890s. In 1899, two large mergers were effected in the Pittsburgh District.

The Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on October 1, 1899 to merge the properties of over 90 small firms operating mines along the Monongahela River south of Pittsburgh. Some of these operations dated to the early 1800s, and all of them shipped coal down the Ohio-Mississippi River system by barge from close to the mine mouth, or later by the railroads built along the river banks. The combination controlled 40,000 acres of coal land, 100 steam towboats, 4,000 barges, and facilities for handling coal at Cincinnati, Louisville, Vicksburg, Memphis, Baton Rouge and New Orleans.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in New Jersey as a holding company on September 1, 1899 and acquired the properties of over 80 operators located in the areas back from the river on both sides of the Monongahela south of Pittsburgh. The combination was engineered by some of the most prominent Pittsburgh industrialists, including Andrew W. Mellon, Henry W. Oliver, and Henry Clay Frick. It controlled over 80,000 acres and six collector railroads, the longest of which was the Montour Railroad. Most of its output was shipped by rail, with a large share being transferred to ships on the Great Lakes for distribution throughout the industrial Midwest. The company owned coal docks and yards at Chicago, Cleveland, Duluth, West Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Ashtabula, Fairport and Thornburg. Subsequently, the company expanded in southwestern Pennsylvania and the Hocking Valley of Ohio through the lease of the Shaw Coal Company in 1901 and the purchase of the Midland Coal Company in 1903. Most of the properties were vested in a separate Pittsburgh Coal Company, an operating company incorporated in Pennsylvania.

Unlike the Consolidation Coal Company, which had grown by gradual accretion, the Pittsburgh Coal Company had been created in a single stroke. As with many mergers of the period, its capitalization probably contained a high percentage of "water" in anticipation of profits from future growth. Unfortunately, the years after the merger saw explosive growth in the coal fields of Southern Appalachia instead. Although farther from major consuming centers, they enjoyed several advantages. The coal itself was superior, low-volatile with higher BTU content and altogether cleaner than the high-volatile coals of Ohio and the Pittsburgh District. As already noted, the southern mines were also non-union. With the inroads of Southern Appalachian coal, the Pittsburgh Coal Company continuously lost ground in the crucial Lake and western markets from 1900 to 1915. The company's capitalization proved unwieldy in the unsettled economic conditions following the Panic of 1907. A reorganization plan was devised under which a new Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on January 12, 1916 by merging the old Pittsburgh Coal Company of Pennsylvania and the Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company. The old holding company was then liquidated and the stock of the new operating company distributed to its stockholders. Dissension between the common and preferred stockholders delayed consummation of the plan until July 16, 1917.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company, which had all its operations in the Central Competitive Field, had a much more difficult time than Consolidation in breaking the 1923 Jacksonville Agreement with the United Mine Workers in 1925-1927 and reverting to non-union status. The three-year struggle ended the company's ability to pay dividends. Pittsburgh Coal survived the Depression without receivership but with ever-increasing arrearages on its preferred stock. By the end of World War II, its managers were just as eager as those at Consol to attempt greater economies through merger. The Pittsburgh Coal Company and the Consolidation Coal Company merged on November 23, 1945, with exchange ratios of 65 to 35 percent. Pittsburgh Coal Company, the surviving partner, changed its name to the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company

After the merger, the M.A. Hanna Company interests of Cleveland became the dominant factor in Pitt-Consol's affairs. Hanna had transferred its pre-merger Consol stock to its subsidiary Bessemer Coal & Coke Corporation in 1943. This led to a restructuring whereby Pitt-Consol acquired Hanna's share of the North Western-Hanna Fuel Company in April 1946 and the Hanna coal properties in eastern Ohio on June 16, 1946 These included large reserves of strippable coal that accounted for about 20 percent of the state's production. Pitt-Consol later acquired Hanna's holdings of coal land in Harrison, Belmont and Jefferson Counties, Ohio, on December 30, 1949. It purchased the New York Central Railroad's 51 percent interest in the Jefferson Coal Company, giving it full control, in 1952 and merged it into the Hanna Coal Company Division.

Pitt-Consol sold its last major railroads, the Montour Railroad and the Youngstown & Southern Railway to the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad on December 31, 1946. The Northwestern Coal Railway had been sold to the Great Northern system, and the Cumberland & Pennsylvania Railroad had been sold to the Western Maryland Railway in May 1944.

In addition, a new Research and Development Division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods, new outlets for coal consumption, coal-based synthetic fuels and chemical byproducts. A new coal gasification plant opened at Library, Pa., in November 1948, and the company began the manufacture of a smokeless fuel briquette under the trademark "Disco" at Imperial, Pa., in 1949. An experimental coal slurry pipeline was built in Ohio in 1952.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, Pitt-Consol made many changes in its coal holdings, selling high-cost or less desirable properties, diversifying its reserves across many different coal fields, rationalizing property lines to permit large mechanized underground or strip mines and forming joint ventures with steel companies to secure guaranteed customers. Pitt-Consol acquired the Jamison Coal and Coke Company in 1954 and the Pocahontas Fuel Company, Incorporated, a large producer of low-volatile Southern Appalachian coal, in 1956. In the latter year, it sold its Elkhorn Field properties to the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. As Pittsburgh District operations became less central, the corporate name was changed back to Consolidation Coal Company in April 1958.

The Consolidation Coal Company, CONOCO and CONSOL Energy, Inc.:

Consol continued to expand into the early 1960s. On April 30, 1962, it absorbed the Truax-Traer Coal Company of Illinois. Truax-Traer also mined lignite in North Dakota, a low-grade but low-sulfur coal that was taking a greater share of the power generation market as environmental laws placed greater restrictions on high-sulfur coal from the Central Competitive Field. The following year Consol acquired the Crozer Coal and Land Company and the Page Coal and Coke Company, owners of additional reserves of low-volatile, low-sulfur steam coal in southern West Virginia.

In 1966, just two years after the company marked its centennial, Consolidation Coal was acquired by the Continental Oil Company (Conoco). This was part of a general trend whereby U.S. oil companies extended their reach by acquiring coal reserves and large coal producers. In turn, Conoco was acquired by E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company in 1981. This purchase was motivated by DuPont's desire to obtain better control of chemical feedstocks in an era of high oil prices. Consolidation Coal was not a major factor in the Conoco acquisition and did not really fit into DuPont's strategy, especially after coal and oil prices declined. As a result, it was quickly sold off when DuPont was restructured a decade later. In 1991, a new holding company CONSOL Engery, Inc. was incorporated as a joint venture of DuPont Energy Company and the German energy conglomerate Rheinisch-Westfalisches Elektrizitatswerk A.G., through its wholly owned subsidiaries Rheinbraun A.G. and Rheinbraun U.S.A. GmbH. Consolidation Coal Company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of CONSOL Energy, Inc. DuPont eventually sold most of its half interest, so that by 1998, Rheinbraun affiliates owned 94% of CONSOL Energy stock, while DuPont Energy retained only 6%. CONSOL Energy purchased the entire stock of the Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company on September 22, 1998. CONSOL Energy stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "CNX" in 1999, with an initial public offering of more than 20 million shares.

CONSOL Energy produced more than 74 million tons of coal in 1999, accounting for approximately 7% of domestic production. The company currently operates 22 mining complexes, primarily east of the Mississippi River.

Source

Historical note from the Consolidation Coal Company Records, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Archives Center holds a number of collections that document coal.

Coal and Gas Trust Investigation Collection (NMAH.AC.1049)

Hammond Coal Company Records (NMAH.AC.1003)

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records (NMAH.AC.0071)

Lehigh Valley Coal Company Records (NMAH.AC.1106)

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records (NMAH.AC.0282)

Materials in Other Organizations

Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

CONSOL Energy, Inc. Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1857-2002

AIS.1991.16

The CONSOL Energy Inc. collection contains coal mine maps, related documents and topographical information, as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents. Additionally, there are technical drawings, outside notes on multiple mines, traverse and survey books, information on companies and railroads with which CONSOL conducted business, and a variety of non-print materials including photographs, negatives and aperture cards. Digital reproductions of selected material are available online.

CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1880-1994

AIS.2004.22

The CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection contains coal mine maps as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents in West Virginia and Eastern Ohio. Additionally, there are technical drawings, related documents, traverse and survey books, publications and photographs.

Consolidation Coal Company Records, 1854-1971, bulk 1864-1964

AIS.2011.03

The Consolidation Coal Company (Consol) was created by the merger of several small operators mining the Georges Creek coal basin in Allegany County, Maryland. The company expanded rapidly in the early twentieth century through the purchase of substantial tracts in the coal fields of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky as well as docks and distribution facilities in the Great Lakes region. By 1927, Consol was the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal. Following a merger with the Pittsburgh Coal Company in 1945, the company pursued a policy of acquiring companies which afforded opportunities for greater diversification while selling off unprofitable lines. In addition, a new research and development division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods and new outlets for coal consumption. The records of the Consolidation Coal Company and its affiliated companies are arranged in seven series. Minute books and contract files provide the most comprehensive documentation in this collection.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of American History in 1987 by Bethlehem Steel Corporation.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Accidents  Search this
Children -- 20th century  Search this
Coal miners  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Churches  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Safety measures  Search this
Construction  Search this
Dams  Search this
Gardens  Search this
General stores  Search this
Hospitals  Search this
Housing  Search this
Kindergarten  Search this
May Day  Search this
Mine safety  Search this
Mines -- Kentucky  Search this
Mines -- Maryland  Search this
Mines -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mines -- West Virginia  Search this
Mining corporations  Search this
Mining equipment  Search this
Mining -- Kentucky  Search this
Mining -- Maryland  Search this
Mining and minerals industry  Search this
Mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mining -- West Virginia  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Schools -- school houses -- Classrooms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Window displays
Citation:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1007
See more items in:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86027ae9f-9a84-4277-adcf-d0b5e919ac6a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1007
Online Media:

Attica | History Film Forum

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-11-17T19:57:53.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_oTJ3EFVN2RI

Lockwood-Greene Records

Creator:
Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated  Search this
Lockwood-Greene Company  Search this
Whitman, David  Search this
Greene, Stephen  Search this
Lockwood, Amos  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (233 boxes, 850 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs
Trade literature
Date:
1784-2004, undated
bulk 1915-1930
Summary:
The engineering firm that became Lockwood Greene was founded by David Whitman, a mill engineer, in 1832. Amos D. Lockwood, a consultant, succeeded Whitman and entered a partnership with Stephen Greene in 1882. The firm specialized in industrial engineering and construction; they designed and built a wide variety of structures and work environments worldwide over the next century. Lockwood Greene was acquired by CH2M HILL in December, 2003. Before its acquisition by CH2MHILL it was reportedly the oldest industrial engineering, construction, and professional services firm in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Lockwood Greene records are a comprehensive range of documents related to the appraisal, building, construction, design, evaluation, and engineering of facilities for a variety of clients. The material covers the entire period of industrialization of the United States, and, provides a thorough record of the textile industry, both in New England and the South. Some of the textile mills are documented with unusual completeness, showing water and steam power layouts, factory village plans, and landscaping schedules. A broad range of other building typologies is also covered, including projects with public or retail functions, such as early automobile showrooms, hospitals, apartments and private dwellings, churches, and schools.

In-depth study of the company's earliest history is hampered by a scarcity of records, many of which were lost in the great fire that destroyed Boston's city center in 1872. Nevertheless, graphic and textual evidence does exist within the collection that illuminates these early projects, in addition to the fabric of surviving buildings. The Lockwood Greene records document several commissions that the firm would return to again and again over the course of many decades as clients requested plant additions, upgrades to mechanical and operating systems, and other substantive changes. Researchers are encouraged to examine the blueprints, elevations, and plans for these later additions in order to find illustrations of the firm's earlier interventions at the site. In addition to drawings, other visual evidence for nineteenth-century projects can be found in the company's extensive photo files, which often document structures for which drawings do not exist.

The Lockwood Greene records contain an abundance of graphic and textual evidence for structures designed after 1910 until the 1930s. After this period, visual documentation becomes much more limited. This is partially due to the evolution of drafting tools and information management technologies within the architecture and engineering profession. Lockwood Greene was an early adopter of technological innovations in rendering and data capture, beginning with the introduction of aperture cards and microfilm and extending to the adoption of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. These more modern formats were not part of the acquisition, and, at the time of writing, still reside with the company.

The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of interest to historians of architecture and engineering, as well as those that study the history of business and labor relations. It provides extensive textual and documentary evidence on the evolution and growth of American engineering and the increasing professionalization of the discipline through specialization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rich holdings of architectural drawings, photographs, and specifications provide unparalleled resources that trace the evolution of industrial buildings and their typologies; experimentation with building materials and systems, particularly with regards to fireproofing; and the history of textile manufacture in the United States. In addition, there is also rich visual and documentary evidence of the changing relationships between corporations and their employees through photographs, plans, and designs for company towns and mill villages, as well as through corporate records that illustrate the work culture of Lockwood Greene itself. The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of special interest to historic preservationists as the awareness of the significance of industrial and vernacular buildings continues to grow, and detailed design drawings and other visual material will be of especial value for restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive-reuse projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Project Drawings, Renderings, and Plans, 1784-1969, undated

Series 2, Photographs and Slides, 1881-2001, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photo Albums, 1906-1934

Subseries 2.2: Photographic Files, 1881-1956

Subseries 2.3: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1948-1974

Subseries 2.4: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1919-1999

Subseries 2.5: Project Negatives and Transparencies, 1956-1970

Subseries 2.6: Project Slides and Transparencies, 1985-2001

Subseries 2.7: Project Slides and Transparencies, Culls, 1974-2001

Subseries 2.8: Project Slides and Transparencies, Corporate Photography, 1976-1998

Subseries 2.9: Photograph Album Covers, 1920, undated

Series 3: Job Files, 1872-1957, undated

Subseries 3.1, Specifications, 1913-1942, undated

Subseries 3.2: List of Drawings, 1872-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3: Project Files, 1919-1969, undated

Subseries 3.4: Reports, 1913-1969

Subseries 3.5: Job Cost Records, 1913-1957, undated

Series 4, Corporate Records and History, 1881-2004, undated

Subseries 4.1: Meeting Minutes, 1913-1995

Subseries 4.2: Corporate Files, 1891-2004, undated

Subseries 4.3: Historical Research and Reference Files and Photographs, 1881-1983, undated

Subseries 4.4: Corporate Publications, 1917-2001, undated

Series 5, Non-Lockwood Greene Publications, 1910-1984, undated

Series 6, Audio-Visual, 1964
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood Greene, one of the nation's oldest engineering firms, traces it roots to 1832, when Rhode Island native David Whitman began a machinery repair service. Riding the wave of the early industrial revolution in textile manufacturing, Whitman added mill design services to his repertoire, which formed the backbone of a flourishing consulting business for the rest of the century. Whitman was one of the first itinerant mill engineers or "doctors" that traveled throughout New England advising various industrialists on the placement, design, and construction of their factories and the layout of the complicated system of machinery and shafting that they contained. His largest commission was the design of the Bates Manufacturing Company complex in Lewiston, Maine, which was incorporated in 1850 and soon became one of the largest textile producers in New England.

Upon Whitman's death in 1858, his unfinished work was assumed by Amos D. Lockwood, a prominent mill agent and astute businessman who had built a name for himself in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The successful completion of the projects at Lewiston brought enough additional demand for Lockwood's services to prompt him to relocate to Boston, where he formally opened an independent consulting office with partner John W. Danielson in 1871. For the next ten years, A.D. Lockwood & Company was involved in a least eight major mill design projects, half of which were for new construction. One of these projects, the design and construction of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company in Greenville (now Piedmont), South Carolina was especially significant and is considered to be a prototype for the Southern textile industry.

In 1882, Lockwood established a new business, Lockwood, Greene and Company, with Stephen Greene, a professionally-trained civil engineer who had joined the firm in 1879. As the firm grew, it expanded its scope as consultants supplying all of the necessary architectural and engineering services a prospective owner needed to initiate, equip, and run a complete plant. Acting as the owners' representative, the company supervised construction and installation but did not directly act as builders or contractors. Lockwood

Greene's objective expertise was legendary and made it a leader in this emergent field. As Samuel B. Lincoln explains in his history of the company:

"The new firm's knowledge and experience in the textile industry enabled it to analyze samples of cloth and, from such samples, to provide everything necessary for a completed plant to make such goods in any desired quantity. It did not at any time act as selling agents for machinery or equipment, neither did it accept commissions or rebates from suppliers: by this policy it maintained a position as impartial and independent engineer." (pages 105-107)

Greene became president of the company upon Lockwood's death in 1884. Under his leadership, the company expanded into additional industries and designed an array of other industrial building types that would prefigure the diversity of later work. In 1893, the company revolutionized American industry by designing and constructing the first factory whose operating power was provided entirely over electric wires from a remote power plant, rather than relying upon a water source or a stockpiled fuel supply. The Columbia Mills project created a great deal of publicity for the firm and was a signal to other manufacturers that there were viable alternatives to the use of steam power.

As changing economic conditions led Lockwood Greene to move away from its traditional reliance upon the textile manufacturing industry, it was very successful at soliciting projects for a wide variety of structures, from newspaper plants and automotive factories to convention halls and schools. After 1900, Lockwood Greene expanded its operations and opened branch offices in other cities, including Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Atlanta, and Charlotte. In 1915, Edwin F. Greene, president and son of Stephen Greene, reorganized the firm as Lockwood, Greene & Company, Incorporated This new entity served as the parent company and controlled three subsidiaries: one to own and operate cotton mills that Greene had acquired; one to manage other companies' textile mills; and one to provide engineering services.

Lockwood Greene expanded its operations tremendously as the textile industry boomed under wartime demand and in the years following. The severe textile depression from 1923 to 1928 caused the collapse of this structure, however, as Lockwood Greene continued to suffer deep losses in the textile mills that it owned. The parent company was dissolved in 1928 and the engineering subsidiary, which had remained profitable, was salvaged as Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated.

After a rocky start with the onset of the Depression, the company began to prosper during the Second World War and its growth continued steadily throughout the next several decades. In the late 1960s, as a result of declining business, the company's headquarters was transferred from Boston to Spartanburg, South Carolina. In 1981, Phillipp Holtzman USA, a subsidiary of Phillipp Holtzman AG of Frankfurt, Germany, acquired a majority interest in Lockwood Greene. In 2003, CH2M Hill, a global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services based in Denver, Colorado, acquired the company.

From its beginnings under David Whitman, Lockwood Greene has become one of the most diversified engineering firms in the United States. The firm is best known as a designer of industrial and institutional buildings, but the company has become a leader in many additional areas in recent years. Lockwood Greene dominates the market in the design and production of the germ- and dust-free "clean room" facilities required by the pharmaceutical industry and micro-electronics manufacturers. The company has also developed expertise in designing integrated security and networking systems for industrial plants, international port facilities, and military installations worldwide.

Banham, Raynor. A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

Biggs, Lindy. The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Bradley, Betsy Hunter. The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Greene, Benjamin Allen. Stephen Greene: Memories of His Life, with Addresses, Resolutions and Other Tributes of Affection. Chicago, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1903.

Heiser, William J. Lockwood Greene, 1958-1968, Another Period in the History of an Engineering Business. Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated, 1970.

Lincoln, Samuel B. Lockwood Greene: The History of an Engineering Business, 1832-1958. Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1960.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated The Lockwood Greene Story: One-Hundred-Fifty Years of Engineering Progress. Spartanburg, South Carolina: Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated; undated.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Instituion Libraries

"[Trade catalogs from Lockwood, Greene & Co.]", Trade Literature at the American History Museum Books, Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lockwood Greene, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1997 (original drawings). An addendum to the collection was donated by CH2M HILL in 2007.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Architects  Search this
Architecture, Commercial  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Construction industry  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Textile mills  Search this
Mills  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Industrial buildings -- Design and construction  Search this
Industrial buildings  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Factories -- Power supply  Search this
Factories -- Design and construction  Search this
Factories  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Commercial buildings  Search this
Electric power production  Search this
Genre/Form:
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Trade literature
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Lockwood Greene Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1113
See more items in:
Lockwood-Greene Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85090342a-0c7e-4667-8b37-fa0e8309b5ac
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1113
Online Media:

A view of the city market, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
K 3 ZAI 55 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
68
Frame value is 1.
Slide No. K 3 ZAI 55 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 9052
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo78eaa2a44-c8b9-4515-a182-13111d87d7a6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref26048

A view of the city market, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
K 3 ZAI 55.1 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
68
Frame value is 14.
Slide No. K 3 ZAI 55.1 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 9053
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7e3591dde-3569-4b68-99aa-fd1a96c5762e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref26050

A view of the city market, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
K 3 ZAI 55.2 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
68
Frame value is 3.
Slide No. K 3 ZAI 55.2 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 9054
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7155e3301-2320-41a3-80d5-57dea0c8d8b0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref26051

A view of the city market, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
K 3 ZAI 55.3 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
68
Frame value is 2.
Slide No. K 3 ZAI 55.3 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 9055
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo75520600f-28a9-4dce-9e69-ea58da50b76d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref26052

A view of the city market, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
K 3 ZAI 55.3.1 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
68
Frame value is 16.
Slide No. K 3 ZAI 55.3.1 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 9056
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7e7e56841-ff54-4c46-b9cf-7d69d22e63b9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref26053

A view of the city market, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
K 3 ZAI 55.4 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
68
Frame value is 15.
Slide No. K 3 ZAI 55.4 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 9057
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo74265f4fb-4644-407f-93fc-8f25a9d91d78
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref26054

A view of the city market, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
K 3 ZAI 55.5 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
68
Frame value is 4.
Slide No. K 3 ZAI 55.5 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 9058
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7cc8e8f87-71f4-4f39-8438-001703474499
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref26055

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.36 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 21.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.36 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13703
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7f08b89da-35ec-42ec-b291-49ceca7c71b9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4683

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.36.1 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 15.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.36.1 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13704
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo760555fde-9193-4540-aa6d-051207ca49d5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4685

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.36.2 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 14.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.36.2 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13705
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo776391fea-df5c-4fd5-8a78-83e68c4106d9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4686

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.36.3 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 13.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.36.3 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13706
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7d5a09dfb-ce0c-4a4c-b998-ec23bdc028b8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4687

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.36.4 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 12.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.36.4 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13707
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7bad4ca37-49f0-4771-bde8-9088335dabe6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4688

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.36.5 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 11.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.36.5 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13708
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo71129443a-2b28-4af0-a873-ca141fc8cd91
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4689

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.36.6 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 34.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.36.6 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13709
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7ed0c937c-10e7-4ced-8346-95656443d54d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4690

An industrial center, Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A company town dominated by the mining industry, Lubumbashi is an administrative urban sub-region, lying on the Shaba high plateau. Open-pit and underground mines operate around the city as well as refineries that produce semirefined, and pure copper, rolled and wire copper products, as well as by-products of copper ore. It is also a manufacturing center for cigarettes, textiles, shoes, metalwork, palm oil, and food processing industries." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited Lubumbashi, the capital of Katanga region. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
Q 3 ZAI 9.37 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
66
Frame value is 33.
Slide No. Q 3 ZAI 9.37 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Mod. architecture/cityscape -- Photographs  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 13710
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Lubumbashi, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7b7f75e88-0e75-4503-901d-057595969d75
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref4691

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