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Pressure Suit, G3-C, Young, Gemini 3, Flown

Manufacturer:
David Clark Company, Inc.  Search this
Astronaut:
John W. Young  Search this
Materials:
Exterior: HT nylon, silk (flag), polycarbonate visor
Zippers: Cotton, brass, rubber/neoprene
Interior: Neoprene-coated nylon
Connectors, fittings and disconnects: Anodized aluminium
Dimensions:
Approximate: 2ft 3in. x 4ft 9in. x 10in. (68.58 x 144.78 x 25.4cm)
Type:
PERSONAL EQUIPMENT-Pressure Suits
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from NASA, Manned Spacecraft Center
Inventory Number:
A19730226000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9c08fded5-a96b-4d40-9945-45b06d39bbb6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19730226000
Online Media:

Slave Badge

Physical Description:
copper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2 in x 2 in; 5.08 cm x 5.08 cm
Object Name:
Tag, Identification (2)
Object Type:
tags
Place made:
United States: South Carolina, Charleston
Place used:
United States: South Carolina, Charleston
Date made:
1833
Subject:
African American  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Municipal Government  Search this
Credit Line:
Leon Banov
ID Number:
CL.309002.01
Catalog number:
309002.01
Accession number:
309002
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Ethnic
Work
Many Voices, One Nation
Exhibition:
Many Voices, One Nation
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-2354-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_671073
Online Media:

1862 - Mrs. Tom Thumb's Sewing Machine; Wheeler & Wilson

Owner:
Thumb, Tom  Search this
Bump, Lavinia Warren  Search this
Maker:
Wheeler and Wilson Manufacturing Company  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
metal (overall material)
ivory (overall material)
paint (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 27 in x 22 in x 16 in; 68.58 cm x 55.88 cm x 40.64 cm
Object Name:
sewing machine
Place made:
United States: Connecticut, Bridgeport
Made at:
United States
Date made:
1862
Credit Line:
Family of Elizabeth Quelle Jones and George E. Jones, Sr.
ID Number:
1992.0109.01
Catalog number:
1992.0109.01
Accession number:
1992.0109
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Textiles
Sewing Machines
Victorian Needlework
Textiles
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-d976-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1155223

Firefighter's Badge for Niagara Fire Company No. 8

User:
Perry, William P.  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/4 in x 3/4 in x 3/16 in; 3.175 cm x 1.905 cm x .508 cm
Object Name:
badge
Used:
United States: South Carolina, Charleston
Date made:
c 1861
Subject:
Fire Fighting  Search this
ID Number:
2021.0019.01
Accession number:
2021.0019
Catalog number:
2021.0019.01
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng4bed90818-82b4-294b-e053-15f76fa090fd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_2002489
Online Media:

Trolling for Blue Fish

Original artist:
Palmer, Frances F.  Search this
Publisher:
Currier & Ives  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 22 in x 31 in; 55.88 cm x 78.74 cm
Object Name:
lithograph
print
Object Type:
Lithograph
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1866
Subject:
Fishing  Search this
ID Number:
GA.21322
Catalog number:
21322
Accession number:
245107
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Communications
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-2db3-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1331096

Botanical subjects

Designer:
Negus, Caroline  Search this
Graphic artist:
Sharp, William  Search this
Michelin, Francis  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
sheet: 47.5 cm x 30 cm; 18 11/16 in x 11 13/16 in
Object Name:
Print
print
lithograph
Object Type:
Lithograph
Other Terms:
Print; Lithograph
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Boston
Date made:
ca 1840-1841
Subject:
Plants  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of L. Prang & Company
ID Number:
GA.01236
Catalog number:
01236
Accession number:
20593
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Communications
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-ec82-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_803296

A. Scott Crossfield Papers

Creator:
Crossfield, A. Scott (Albert Scott), 1921-  Search this
Names:
Eastern Air Lines  Search this
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
20.23 Cubic feet (42 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Date:
1940 - 2004
Summary:
This collection consists of over nine cubic feet of material documenting Scott Crossfield's aviation career, with emphasis on his involvement with the North American X-15. The following types of material are included: correspondence; reel to reel tapes; papers, manuscripts; newspaper and magazine clippings; aviation manuals; photographs; film; and Crossfield's notes and reports.
Scope and Content note:
This collection encompasses the entirety of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr.'s career as an engineer, test pilot, airline executive, and speaker and advocate for aerospace education. Records in the collection date from Crossfield's time at college in the 1940s through his death in 2006. Crossfield's papers were donated to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives by the Crossfield family in 2006 and a second batch of material was received in 2008. The collection was received without any apparent organizational scheme, but some items were received in labeled folders and these folder titles were retained when the collection was processed. One group of material was loaned by the family for copying and these items were photocopied and placed within the appropriate folder in the case of documents, or were scanned and entered into the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives image database in the case of photographs.

After his retirement from North American Aviation, Inc., Crossfield gave his papers to a former secretary, Marion Brown, so that she could organize them for his use in future writing projects. In February 1973, a U.S. Navy Vought A-7E Corsair II crashed into the apartment building where Brown lived and all of Crossfield's papers in her possession were destroyed. Due to this incident, the collection has more material from Crossfield's time with Eastern Air Lines and onwards, although the prior years are still well represented through records that were either retained in Crossfield's possession or copies that were gathered after the fact. There is correspondence from Crossfield relating to the crash in Box 11 of the collection.

The archival materials in this collection are organized into four series. The first series is composed of personal materials and includes school records, correspondence, personal photographs, records relating to various organizations in which Crossfield was active, information relating to the publication of Crossfield's autobiography, Always Another Dawn, other writings by Crossfield, financial records, subject files assembled by Crossfield, philatelic materials (Crossfield was an active collector and was a founding member and officer of The Aviation Historical Foundation, a philatelic organization), and news clippings. The material in this series is largely organized chronologically. Personal photographs and subject files are organized by topic first and chronologically within each folder and organizations are arranged alphabetically by name first and also chronologically within the individual folders.

The second series contains items relating to Crossfield's professional life, organized chronologically by place of employment. This series includes materials relating to Crossfield's work at Boeing, the U.S. Navy, the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), North American Aviation, Inc., Eastern Air Lines, Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Crossfield's work as an Independent Technical Advisor, Crossfield's application for the position of Director of the National Air and Space Museum, Crossfield's time as a member of the United States Organizing Committee, and his work with organizations such as the Scott Crossfield Foundation and The Wright Experience. During the later part of his life, Crossfield toured the country extensively giving speeches, presenting awards, etc. and there is a large amount of material relating to these appearances in this part of the collection. These materials arrived already organized chronologically by individual trip and this organizational scheme was retained. Specifically, the professional life series includes flight reports, manuals, drawings, business correspondence, administrative records, presentations and papers, travel itineraries, notebooks, calendars, speeches delivered by Crossfield, and career related photographs (which are broken out as their own subseries). The professional life series also includes a section of miscellaneous professional items including job seeking correspondence, information on the patent for a power wheel braking or driving unit designed by Crossfield, and a folder of Crossfield's résumés.

The third series consists of audiotapes and is organized first by tape format and then chronologically within each category. Subjects of the audiotapes include speeches, a large number of North American X-15 cockpit recordings and radio communications, tape produced for a television program, and autobiographical notes. A number of the audiotapes include no description. With a total of 65 examples in this series, the most common audiotape format in the collection is, by far, 7 inch reel to reel tapes. Other formats in this series include 5 inch reel to reel tapes, 3.125 by 3.5 inch metal audiotape cartridges, and Dictaphone recording belts. Please note that these audio recordings are unavailable to the researcher at the time of processing due to the format and fragility of the tapes.

The fourth series of this collection is comprised of oversized materials and additional materials including galley proofs, news clippings, drawings, charts, professional records, and photographs. The organization of this series mirrors the folder titles found in the rest of the collection.

The researcher should note that the collection also contains several motion picture films relating to the life and career of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. These films are not included in the container list but a NASM Archives staff person can assist you regarding access.
Arrangement:
The A. Scott Crossfield Papers are organized into the following series and subseries:

Series I: Personal Materials

1.1 School Records

1.2 Correspondence

1.3 Personal Photographs

1.4 Organizations

1.5 Information Related to the Publication of Always Another Dawn

1.6 Other Writings by Crossfield

1.7 Financial Records

1.8 Subject Files

1.9 Philatelic Materials

1.10 News Clippings

1.11 Miscellaneous Personal Records

Series II: Professional Life

2.1 Boeing

2.2 U.S. Navy

2.3 Kirsten Wind Tunnel, University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory

2.4 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)

2.5 North American Aviation, Inc.

2.6 Eastern Air Lines

2.7 Hawker Siddeley Aviation

2.8 Independent Technical Advisor

2.9 Application for NASM Director Position

2.10 United States Organizing Committee

2.11 Scott Crossfield Foundation

2.12 The Wright Experience

2.13 Speaking Engagements and Professional Appearances

2.14 Career Related Photographs

2.14 Miscellaneous Professional Records

Series III: Audiotapes

Series IV: Oversized Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. was born on October 2, 1921, in California. As a young boy, Crossfield was often confined indoors due to health problems related to pneumonia and rheumatic fever. During this time, he dreamed of becoming a pilot and designed and constructed model airplanes. Crossfield took his first airplane ride in 1927, at six years old, in an Alexander Eaglerock A-1 piloted by family friend Charles "Carl" Lienesch. Lienesch also encouraged Crossfield to become an engineer as well as a pilot. Unbeknownst to Crossfield's parents, he began taking flying lessons at the age of 12 at Wilmington Airport under the tutelage of pilot Vaughn McNulty. The family later moved to Washington State and it was there, at the Chehalis Airport, that Crossfield made his first solo flight in a Curtiss Robin. It was not until the summer of 1941, however, that Crossfield officially soloed and earned his pilot's license under the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA), Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP).

Crossfield enrolled in the University of Washington in 1940 and worked at the Boeing plant in Seattle, beginning in the fall of 1941, while still pursuing his studies. Crossfield's first assignment at Boeing was as an assembly page clerk. He was later promoted to the position of production expediter and shop salvage engineer. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps and continued to work at Boeing while he waited for an opening in a cadet class. In February 1942, tired of waiting on the Air Corps and eager to get into combat, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Navy instead where he joined the cadet class of May 7, 1942. Crossfield first trained in Seattle, Washington, and later was sent to the Naval Air Training Center in Corpus Christi, Texas, where he earned his Naval Aviator's wings in 1942. During his time in the Navy, Crossfield never fulfilled his ambition to see combat because he was selected instead to remain at Corpus Christi as a flight and gunnery instructor. Crossfield eventually was sent to Hawaii to prepare and train for an invasion of Japan but the war ended before this became necessary. During his time in the U.S. Navy, Crossfield flew the Grumman F6F Hellcat, Vought F4U Corsair, and the North American SNJ Texan, among other aircraft. After he separated from active duty with the Service, Crossfield remained active in the Naval Reserves and was part of an aerobatic team at Sand Point Naval Air Station that flew Goodyear FG-1D Corsairs.

Crossfield returned to his studies at the University of Washington in 1946 and was employed doing tests at the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University's Aeronautical Laboratory. Crossfield earned his Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering in 1949 and his master's degree in aeronautical science in 1950. After obtaining his degrees, Crossfield joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) as a research pilot. During his time with NACA, Crossfield flew many aircraft including the Convair XF-92A, Bell X-1, Northrop X-4 Bantam, Douglas D-558-1 Skystreak, Bell X-5, Republic F-84F Thunderstreak, Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, North American F-86 Sabre, and the North American F-100A Super Sabre. Crossfield made history in the Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket on November 20, 1953, as the first pilot to exceed Mach 2 (twice the speed of sound).

In 1955, Crossfield left NACA and joined North American Aviation, Inc. to work on the X-15 program where he would not only serve as the X-15 Project Pilot but also as a Design Specialist, a role in which he was an integral part of the design of both the aircraft and the pressure suit developed by the David Clark Company for the X-15 program. The suit served as a prototype for the spacesuits later worn by astronauts. Crossfield helped to develop the X-15's cockpit, control, and engine systems; structural design; propulsion system; engineered its escape system; and contributed to its handling quality requirements. He also developed the ground control test methodology that would later become standard on the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. Crossfield piloted the North American X-15 on its first captive flight in March 1959, first glide flight in June 1959, and the first powered flight in September 1959, as well as numerous other test flights, before the X-15 was delivered to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in February 1960. Crossfield also served as Chief Engineering Test Pilot at North American from 1955-1961 before moving to the Space and Information Systems Division first as the Director of Systems Test (1961) then as the Division Director of Test and Quality Assurance (1961-1966) where he was responsible for quality control in all North American projects including the Hounddog Missile (AGM-28, GAM-77), Paragliders for the Gemini program, Apollo Command and Service Module, and the Saturn V launch vehicles, second stage. Crossfield's final position with North American was as the Technical Director, Research, Engineering and Test from 1966-1967.

Crossfield joined Eastern Air Lines in Miami, Florida, as Division Vice President, Flight, Research, and Development, Flight Operations in 1967, a position he held until 1971 when he moved to Washington, DC, to serve as Staff Vice President, Transportation Systems Development (1971-1973). From 1974 to 1975, Crossfield served as Senior Vice President at Hawker Siddeley Aviation's U.S. subsidiary branch, an office he helped to establish. After leaving Hawker Siddeley, Crossfield served for many years as an independent technical advisor to the U.S. Congress. Crossfield also served on the United States Organizing Committee to plan the Air and Space Bicentennial. In the later part of his life, Crossfield traveled extensively to give talks, attend events, and make various professional appearances and it was on a return flight home from one such trip in 2006 that Crossfield was killed when the plane he was piloting was caught in a thunderstorm.

Crossfield was active in various organizations including the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautic Association (NAA), and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP), a group in which he was a founding member. Crossfield also created the Scott Crossfield Foundation to support aerospace education. Crossfield was the recipient of numerous awards and honors including the Sperry (Lawrence B.) Memorial Award (1954) and Chanute (Octave) Award (AIAA, 1958), Kincheloe Award (SETP, 1960), Harmon Trophy (1960), Collier (Robert J.) Trophy (1961), NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1993), and the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Trophy for Lifetime Achievement (2000).

Crossfield published his autobiography, Always Another Dawn, in 1960 with Clay Blair, Jr. and is the author of numerous other publications, articles, and technical papers.
Provenance:
Alice Crossfield, Gift, 2006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
North American X-15  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Citation:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Accession number 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Acc. 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0041
See more items in:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28d41031c-4569-4e2e-b114-8a32f81be51e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0041
Online Media:

blouse

Used by:
Washburn, Marian S.  Search this
Maker:
Washburn, Daniel T.  Search this
Measurements:
center back: 25 1/4 in; 64.135 cm
waist: 31 1/2 in; x 80.01 cm
Object Name:
Blouse
Object Type:
Main Dress
Blouse
Woman
Upper Body
Used in:
United States: New Mexico
United States: Texas
Date made:
1980-1985
Subject:
Square Dancing  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Marian S. Washburn (Mrs. Daniel T.)
ID Number:
2001.0257.001
Catalog number:
2001.0257.001
Accession number:
2001.0257
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a7-5cb3-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_892465

Quantum Leap: Does "Indian Blood" Still Matter? Part 1

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Symposia
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Thu, 06 Oct 2011 15:29:00 GMT
Topic:
Native Americans  Search this
American Indians  Search this
See more episodes:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_574b70c3dbd7bc2ea45defac6e1e81d0

Quantum Leap: Does "Indian Blood" Still Matter? Part 2

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Symposia
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Thu, 06 Oct 2011 15:29:00 GMT
Topic:
Native Americans  Search this
American Indians  Search this
See more episodes:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_c48822247f4f4dcd2610ff350a2320db

Cultural factors in the rehabilitation process proceedings of a short term training conference compiled and edited by J. Leonard Steinberg

Author:
Conference on Cultural Factors in Rehabilitation (1978 : Navajo Community College, Tsaile, Ariz)  Search this
Steinberg, J. Leonard (Jay Leonard) 1930-  Search this
United States Rehabilitation Services Administration  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 170 pages illustrations 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Southwestern States
Pacific Islands (Trust Territory)
États-Unis (Sud-Ouest)
United States
Date:
1978
Topic:
Vocational rehabilitation  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Réadaptation professionnelle  Search this
Navajo (Indiens)--Mœurs et coutumes  Search this
Navajo Indians--Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1118266

Medal of Honor bestowed on Sergeant Cornelius H. Charlton

Issued by:
United States Congress, American, founded 1789  Search this
Received by:
Sergeant Cornelius H. Charlton, American, 1929 - 1951  Search this
Subject of:
United States Army, American, founded 1775  Search this
Medium:
Medal: metal, brass, gold plating, and enamel;
Neck and service ribbons: silk;
Case: plastic, brass, and velvet
Dimensions:
Medal: H x W x D: 2 1/4 × 1 1/2 × 1/16 in. (5.7 × 3.8 × 0.2 cm)
Neck Ribbon: H x W: 1 1/4 × 22 in. (3.2 × 55.9 cm)
Service Ribbon: H x W x D: 1 7/16 × 3/8 × 1/8 in. (3.7 × 1 × 0.3 cm)
Case: H x W x D: 6 5/8 × 3 5/16 × 1 1/16 in. (16.8 × 8.4 × 2.7 cm)
Type:
medals
Date:
1952
Topic:
African American  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Military  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Ray R. and Patricia A.D. Charlton in memory of Cornelius H. Charlton
Object number:
2013.165.1.1ab-.3
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Sergeant Cornelius H. Charlton Collection
Classification:
Awards and Medals
Exhibition:
Double Victory: The African American Military Experience
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Community/Third Floor, 3 053A
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5faa0892b-03f6-408a-b319-36e1f01aefce
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.165.1.1ab-.3
Online Media:

Poster for African Liberation Day

Manufactured by:
Unidentified  Search this
Attributed to:
All-African People's Revolutionary Party, founded 1958  Search this
Owned by:
Jan Bailey, American, 1942 - 2010  Search this
Medium:
paper, printing ink
Dimensions:
H x W: 16 13/16 × 11 1/16 in. (42.7 × 28.1 cm)
Type:
posters
Place used:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1977
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Africa  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Communication  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Politics  Search this
Resistance  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Catherine M. Bailey
Object number:
2013.200.3.1-3
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Exhibition:
A Changing America: 1968 and Beyond
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 1, C1 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5bf50caf0-52a9-4096-9379-95826c568a19
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.200.3.1-3
Online Media:

Dyakout 1, 2, 3, 4

Written by:
Félix Morisseau-Leroy, Haitian, 1912 - 1998  Search this
Published by:
Haitiana Publications, Inc., American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 8 1/2 × 5 1/2 × 1/2 in. (21.6 × 14 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
paperbacks
Place printed:
Queens, New York City, Queens County, New York, United States, North and Central America
Cultural Place:
Haiti, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
Date:
1990
Topic:
African American  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Language  Search this
Literature  Search this
Migrations  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2021.1
Restrictions & Rights:
© Félix Morisseau-Leroy. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd595266f27-5c16-4d4c-aec9-f1b4406799c7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2021.1

Moses and Frances Asch Collection

Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Names:
Courlander, Harold, 1908-1996  Search this
Guthrie, Woody, 1912-1967  Search this
Jenkins, Ella  Search this
Leadbelly, 1885-1949  Search this
Ramsey, Frederic, 1915-1995  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Extent:
841 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Correspondence
Phonograph records
Photographic prints
Audiotapes
Date:
1926-1986
bulk 1948-1986
Summary:
This collection, which dates from 1926-1986, documents the output of Moses Asch through the various record labels he founded and co-founded, and includes some of his personal papers. The Asch collection includes published recordings, master tapes, outtakes, business records, correspondence, photographs, and film.
Scope and Contents:
The Moses and Frances Asch Collection measures 841 cubic feet and dates from 1926-1987, with some contemporary, relevant correspondence, clippings, and ephemera added after 1987.

Most of the collection consists of audio recordings (commercial 78 rpm and long-playing records, open reel tapes, acetate discs, and test pressings), correspondence with recording artists and producers, artwork, photographs, ephemera, clippings, record production materials, writings, and business papers relating to Folkways Records. Materials relating to Folkways Records can be found primarily in the Correspondence, Folkways Production, Business Records, Photographs, Artwork, Sound Recordings, and Film series.

The collection also contains some biographical materials and personal correspondence, including materials related to Asch's first business, Radio Laboratories, located in the Biographical Materials series. Correspondence, ephemera, photographs, record production materials, business papers, and recordings relating to Asch's record labels before Folkways Records (Asch Recordings, Disc Company of America, Cub Records) are located in the Early Label Materials series as well as the Audio Recordings and Photographs series.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged in 10 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1942-1987

Series 2: Folkways Production, 1946-1987

Series 3: Business Records, 1940-1987

Series 4: Woody Guthrie papers, 1927-1985

Series 5: Early Label Materials, 1940-1949

Series 6: Biographical Materials, 1926-1987

Series 7: Photographs

Series 8: Artwork

Series 9: Audio Recordings

Series 10: Film

At this time, the collection is partially processed. Please contact rinzlerarchives@si.edu for more information.
Biographical/Historical note:
The son of Yiddish writer Sholem Asch, Moses Asch was born in Poland in 1905. His childhood was spent in Poland, France, Germany, and New York. While young, Asch developed an interest in radio electronics, which ultimately lead him to his life's work, recording the music and sounds of the world. He established several record labels in succession, sometimes partnering with other record companies. Two of his fist record companies, Asch Recordings and DISC Co. of America, went bankrupt. They were followed by his best-known label, Folkways Records, which was founded in 1948 with Marian Distler (1919-1964). He was still working on Folkways recordings when he died in 1986.

Folkways Records sought to document the entire world of sound. The 2,168 titles Asch released on Folkways include traditional and contemporary music from around the world, spoken word in many languages, and documentary recordings of individuals, communities, and current events. Asch's business practices revolved around the commitment to keep every recording issued by Folkways in print, despite low sales. Asch stayed afloat by cutting costs where he could (such as color printing) and offering a high-quality product, meticulously recorded and accompanied by extensive liner notes. In doing this, he could charge a slightly higher price than other commercial outfits. Despite a tenuous relationship with financial solvency, Folkways grew to be not only one of the most important independent record companies in the United States in the 20th century, but also one of the largest and most influential record companies in the world.

Moses Asch's record labels featured famous and lesser known American writers, poets, documentarians, ethnographers, and grass roots musicians on commercial recordings. American folk icon Woody Guthrie recorded on the Asch, Disc, and Folkways labels, and the Asch Collection includes some of his correspondence, lyrics, drawings, and writings. The collection also includes correspondence with other notable musicians and artists such as John Cage, Langston Hughes, Margaret Walker, Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter, Pete Seeger, Peggy Seeger, Ewan MacColl, Alan Lomax, Henry Cowell, and Kenneth Patchen. Also in the collection are ethnographic field notes and photographs by as well as correspondence with Béla Barók, Sidney Robertson Cowell, Harold Courlander, Helen Creighton, Laura Boulton, and Samuel Charters. Asch hired various prominent artists and graphic designers including David Stone Martin, Ben Shahn, John Carlis, and Ronald Clyne to create album cover art for his recordings. Much of the original art and designs for these covers can be found in the Asch Collection.

Asch's output of recordings on various labels, including published recordings, open reel master tapes, outtakes, and acetate disks, in addition to his business papers, correspondence, photographs, and other files were acquired by the Smithsonian Institution in 1987. The collection came to the Smithsonian with the understanding that all 2168 titles under the Folkways label would be kept available in perpetuity.
Shared Stewardship of Collections:
The Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage acknowledges and respects the right of artists, performers, Folklife Festival participants, community-based scholars, and knowledge-keepers to collaboratively steward representations of themselves and their intangible cultural heritage in media produced, curated, and distributed by the Center. Making this collection accessible to the public is an ongoing process grounded in the Center's commitment to connecting living people and cultures to the materials this collection represents. To view the Center's full shared stewardship policy, which defines our protocols for addressing collections-related inquiries and concerns, please visit https://folklife.si.edu/archives#shared-stewardship.
Provenance:
Ralph Rinzler arranged the Smithsonian's acquisition of the Moses and Frances Asch Collection in 1987, beginning with Asch before his death in 1986 and continuing with extensive discussions between Rinzler and the Asch family. Since its acquisition, archivist Jeff Place and others have added contemporary, relevant correspondence with Folkways artists and related individuals.
Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Folk music  Search this
Folk dance music  Search this
Electronic music  Search this
Oral interpretation of poetry  Search this
Oral interpretation of fiction  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- 19th century  Search this
Music -- 18th century  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Folk music -- United States  Search this
World music  Search this
Sounds  Search this
Vocal music  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records
Correspondence
Phonograph records
Photographic prints
Audiotapes
Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk533b8a927-559a-44ac-98d2-f32d871058b4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-cfch-asch
Online Media:

Stories [sound recording]

Artist:
Chase, Richard, 1904-1988  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Contents:
A Christmas story
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-1138
General:
CDR copy; copy exists in DAMS system

Chase, Richard - "Stories" - Mono - 15 ips Richard Chase tells a story about a loyal dog that reminds a community what Christmas is all about. Noted American folklorist Richard Chase (1904-1988) has been called the man "most responsible for the renaissance of Appalachian storytelling." A collector of tales that had been handed down from generation to generation in the Appalachian regions of the United States, Chase was born in Alabama and lived in the mountains of North Carolina. - From his book "The Jack Tales"
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Storytelling  Search this
Jack tales  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-1138
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / CDR copy
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk52a6ab3a6-9cb7-4c10-9b9d-69dcd713cb5d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref19632

Shakers 2 - Interviews- Life of Brother Ricardo Belden

Artist:
Belden, Ricardo, 1870-1958  Search this
Recorder:
Count, Jerome  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Contents:
Visions--Mother Ann's trial, spirits and hell--Shaker prayer ad prayer song--Union meeting--Shaker beliefs on marriage, work order
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-1431
General:
CDR copy; The last Shaker from the Hancock Shaker Village, Massachusetts Shaker community, Brother Ricardo Belden ( 1870-1958), was interviewed by Jerome Count (d. 1968) from the Shaker Village Work Camp
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Folk songs -- United States  Search this
Shakers  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-1431
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / CDR copy
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5592bffcc-b23b-4c2b-b3b9-fcfde9b67018
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref19909

Shakers I - Interview by the children

Artist:
Belden, Ricardo, 1870-1958  Search this
Recorder:
Count, Jerome  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Contents:
Brother Ricardo's life with the shakers--The ministry or governing body of the shakers--Details of shakerism--Shaker craftsmanship--Christ, marriage, ornamentation and the shaker future--The shakers vierw on other religions, race, gender and age
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-1432
General:
CDR copy- The last Shaker brother from the Hancock Shaker Village, a Massachusetts Shaker community, Brother Ricardo Belden ( 1870-1958), was interviewed by Jerome Count (d. 1968) from the Shaker Village Work Camp
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Folk songs -- United States  Search this
Shakers  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-1432
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / CDR copy
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk537e071e5-9487-483a-83e1-3473095d4c14
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref19910

Chain Gang- prison songs recorded by Pete Seeger; dubs of Songs for PAC album

Recorder:
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Seeger, Toshi  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
Texas
United States
Contents:
Wings of Harmony--Rough and rocky road--Southern prayer--Calvary--Over there; --Job (on My way to Cannan's land)--Wasn't that a time; Jesse McKinney--In the wilderness--You don't treat me right; Pete Seeger--Cumberland Mountain bear chase---Midnight Special; --- Dubs of Songs for PAC album-- Pete Seeger and others--A doillar ain't a dollar--Voting union--Get out and vote--Dollar for PAC--Oh what congress did to me--4 nursery rhymes--No No No discrimination--Oh Walter Oh walter--DDT--Fare thee well congressmen; Shep Ginades--Its sister Jenny's turn to throw the bomb; Weavers--Clementine--True love (Papers and pins)--Taking it easy--Pinone
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-1512
General:
CDR copy--Recorded by Pete & Toshi Seeger in the winter of 1951 at two Texas prison farms, this album represents some of the oldest and most traditional work songs found among African American prison communities in the southern United States. Traditionally a participatory art form, these songs were typically sung while groups of 10-30 prisoners performed tasks such as chopping and hoeing. With origins reaching back to their West African ancestry as well as during the era of African American slavery, work songs served the purpose of alleviating the mundane nature of repetitive tasks as well as providing a forum for the song leader to keep the group together through rhythms and lyrics. Pete Seeger narrates and dubs various songs from 78s.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Folk songs -- United States  Search this
Prisoners' songs  Search this
Work  Search this
Prisons  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-1512
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / CDR copy
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5526f6692-e81b-41f4-8532-5852b1703c0d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref19973

Pearl Bowser Audiovisual Collection

Names:
Andrade-Watkins, Claire  Search this
Bambara, Toni Cade  Search this
Dash, Julie  Search this
Gerima, Haile  Search this
Gunn, Bill, 1934-1989  Search this
Jafa, Arthur  Search this
Jones, Robert Earl, 1904-2006  Search this
Massiah, Louis  Search this
Micheaux, Oscar, 1884-1951  Search this
Moses, Ethel  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Sanchez, Sonia, 1934- (poet, reader)  Search this
Snead, James A., 1953-1989  Search this
Spence, Louise, 1945-  Search this
Tucker, Lorenzo  Search this
Donor:
Bowser, Pearl, 1931-  Search this
Extent:
approximately 100 Motion picture films
213 Sound cassettes (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Sound cassettes
Sound cassette
Oral histories (document genres)
16mm motion picture film
Vhs (videotape format)
Place:
England
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
Roanoke (Va.)
Memphis (Tenn.)
Date:
bulk 1920-2001
Biographical / Historical:
Pearl Bowser is a filmmaker, producer, author, lecturer, and highly acclaimed scholar of African American film who is recognized as an authority on the works of Oscar Micheaux, a noted writer, director, and producer of race films from 1919 to 1948.

Born Pearl Johnson on June 25, 1931, in Sugar Hill, Harlem, New York, she was named after her mother (also Pearl Johnson), a domestic worker who had been raised in a Catholic nunnery. On occasional Saturdays, the younger Pearl would accompany her mother to work in apartments in lower Manhattan, where she would assist her by folding handkerchiefs for a small allowance. After moving to a lower part of Harlem when she was about four years old, she met Harlem entrepreneur "Bumpy" Johnson, for whom she and other children in the neighborhood did odd jobs such as counting coins or attending to his ice-cream stand. Johnson, who would sometimes give the children joy rides in his Cadillac, occasionally allowed Pearl and the other children to borrow books from his extensive library, provided that they read them and submitted to a quiz.

As a child, Bowser had several racist encounters. For example, one of her white kindergarten teachers at her elementary school wore gloves in the classroom as to not touch Black pupils. She was also occasionally teased for having a gap between her teeth but felt insulated from sustained bullying because she had several older brothers who sometimes protected her. On a separate occasion, when she was about nine years old, her mother sent her on a trip from New York to the South to visit relatives. Although her mother had purchased tickets for her to be in a Pullman car, when she changed trains in Washington, DC., she was forced to ride in the car behind the engine, which left her covered in soot.

An avid reader, Pearl excelled in elementary and high school and received a scholarship to attend Brooklyn College, where she majored in biology. She supplemented her income by recording the numbers in one of Bumpy Johnson's shops. Disappointed with the quality of the education she was receiving, Bowser withdrew from Brooklyn College, eventually landing a job at CBS where she worked on a team that analyzed Nielsen ratings.

In 1955, Pearl married fellow New Yorker LeRoy Bowser. By the mid-1960s, although Pearl and LeRoy Bowser had separate interests, they both were working simultaneously in the civil rights movement. While LeRoy was active in Brooklyn CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) and went to the South in the summer to teach for what was the beginning of HeadStart, Pearl, along with other production activists, took to the streets documenting African American culture and issues—working to bring these films to schools. Additionally, Bowser wanted to write a cookbook to earn funds for Brooklyn's CORE organization. She was approached by David Davis, the editor of Tuesday Magazine. Tuesday had distribution in the Herald Tribune across the country as a Sunday supplement. As the urban-world magazine exploded in Black communities, "Joan" Bowser's two-page pictorials on Southern cooking with a set of recipes became very popular in the five years she wrote them. Bowser retained copyrights to the articles, and easily completed her cookbook a short time later.

Bowser's colleague at ABC, Charles Hobson, found a used book written by Peter Noble about Black films and Oscar Micheaux. The volume was slim and contained what little information contained in the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) files. Hobson and his colleagues wanted to write a book about the topic, and they assigned Bowser to begin the research. As part of the project, Bowser went to California to interview actors who may have been in early Black films or may have worked with Micheaux. What she learned began her intensive scholarship into Micheaux and his fellow filmmakers.

In 1971, she organized her first film festival, the Black Film History Series. In 1979, she organized the nation's first American women's film festival in New York City. She also presented a major retrospective, Independent Black American Cinema 1920-1980, which toured the country during 1981 and 1982. She also directed the Journey Across Three Continents film and lecture series, which toured the country from 1983-1985. Bowser also served as president of the prestigious Flaherty Film Seminar in 1987. In 1989, she, alongside Grant Munro, programmed the 35th Flaherty Film Seminar, which featured films such as Finzan, Zajota and the Boogie Spirit, Daughters of the Dust, and many more. She has also been a judge at the world-renown Pan-African Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou (FESCPACO) in Burkina Faso (formerly known as Upper Volta).

In the 1980s Bowser was awarded an independent artists grant by the Ford Foundation to travel west and collect oral histories from individuals in Oscar Micheaux's orbit, loosely following the route he would have travelled decades earlier. Stopping in cities such as Roanoke, Virginia; Memphis, Tennessee; and Jackson, Mississippi, she collected dozens of oral histories from actors, actresses etc. that knew Oscar Micheaux. Through this research she became an eminent figure in the Black independent film industry. Working as a programmer, she travelled around the United States and the world showing films by domestic and Black filmmakers within the Diaspora.

Despite her wealth of experience working as a programmer, it wasn't until the 1990s that Bowser made her directorial debut with the documentary film Midnight Ramble. Funded by American Experience, the film looks at African Americans and Hollywood movies from 1910 through the 1950s. In 2000, she, along with Louise Spence, co-authored Writing Himself into History: Oscar Micheaux, His Silent Films and His Audiences, a book about the pioneering filmmaker. Additionally, she is founder and director of Chamba Educational Film Services, a film distribution company that specialized in distributing films by African American filmmakers. In the early 1980s, she renamed her company/collection as African Diaspora Images, a collection of historical and contemporary films documenting Black film history. She subsequently joined Third World Newsreel, where she was director of their theater department.

In 2012, Pearl Bowser donated her extensive collection of books, sound cassettes, films, film memorabilia, and papers to the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.

Sources:

1940 United States Federal Census; New York, New York, New York, population schedule, p. 61B, house number 1486, family 195, Pearl Bowser; Ancestry.com. 1940 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012 accessed: 10 Sept 2022); citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm: m-t0627-02665

Bowser, Pearl. Pearl Bowser Oral History. Interview by Tuliza Fleming and Jennifer Lyon, July 21, 2011.
Provenance:
Acquired as a donation from Pearl Bowser in 2012.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Occupation:
Filmmakers  Search this
Actors -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Documentary films  Search this
Film festivals  Search this
African American actors  Search this
African American actresses  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Race films  Search this
African American motion picture producers and directors  Search this
African American women authors  Search this
Meetings  Search this
Conferences  Search this
Lectures and lecturing  Search this
Amateur films  Search this
Motion picture soundtracks  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Radio broadcasts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound cassette
Oral histories (document genres)
16mm motion picture film
VHS (videotape format)
Citation:
Pearl Bowser Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2012.79.AV
See more items in:
Pearl Bowser Audiovisual Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io3209e9c6d-3045-4a0a-941e-6519385b18d5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2012-79-av

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