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Scrapbook

Collection Creator:
Jones, William  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
bulk 1943 - 1946
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
William Jones World War II Scrapbook, NASM.2006.0067, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
William Jones World War II Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2006-0067-ref506
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Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Lumber Industry and Trade

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
4.58 Cubic feet (consisting of 10 boxes, 1 folder, 3 oversize folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical reports
Business cards
Business letters
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertisements
Business ephemera
Advertising cards
Receipts
Invoices
Printed material
Sales letters
Commercial catalogs
Trade cards
Technical manuals
Publications
Legal documents
Trade catalogs
Printed ephemera
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Manuals
Printed materials
Catalogues
Advertising mail
Print advertising
Catalogs
Correspondence
Ephemera
Reports
Advertising
Business records
Sales records
Illustrations
Letterheads
Advertising fliers
Date:
1790-1965
bulk 1840-1945
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Materials in this category document the commercial lumber trade of both raw and finished material by producers, dealers, and wholesalers. The application of lumber in residential and commercial building is well-represented, as well as other uses such as infrastructure use in railroad ties, telephones, and marine building.

Documents include receipts and invoices, correspondence, a lumber account book, advertisements, association documents, business cards, caricature, images, import/ export documents, legal documents, patents, preservation, price lists, product samples, publications, shipping and receiving documents, and trade literature.

No extensive runs or complete records exist for any single company, brand, and no particular depth is present for any singular subtopic though some publications may provide general and historical overviews of a person, company, or facet of industry.
Arrangement:
Lumber Industry and Trade is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material



Genre

Subject
Partial List of Company Names:
Alcott, C.W. & Son Lumber Dealers, New York

Allen, Gillingham & Company, Lumber Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Allen & Knight Lumber Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Allston

American Hard Wood Manufacturing Association

American Hoist and Derrick Company, Saint Paul, Minnesota

American Lumber & Manufacturing Company

American Tie & Timber Company Incorporated

American Vulcanizing Wood & Lumber Company

American Wood Carbolizing Company , New York

Anderson & Ailing

Archibald Lumber & Tie Company

Arlington Lumber Company , Condon, Oregon

Armsby, Morse & Company , Lumber Dealers, Millbury, MA

Arnold, Folsom & Company , Commission Lumber Dealers, Albany, New York

Atlantic Lumber Company, Buffalo, NY

Atwater, W.H.

Atwood & Company, J.B.

Auger & Son, Quebec

Ayers, Dr. A.B.,

Backus & Brother, Lumber Manufacturers & Whole Dealers, Detroit, MI

Barlett Brothers Mfg. Company, Roby's Corner, NH

Barnes, Lawrence Lumber Company , Burlington, Vermont

Baxter, G.S. & Company, Lumber Manufacturers and Shipping, Jacksonville, Florida

Baxter, George S.

Bearden, R.B., St. Louis, MO

Beecher & Sillimand, Albann, NH

Bell brothers Timber Dealers, NY

Bender, Wendell

Bennet & Company , Wholesale Lumber

Bennet, Ray H. Lumber Company, North Tonawanda, NY

Bennet & Dimon, Manufacturers and Wholesale Dealers in Lumber, Niles Valley, PA

Bigler & Son's Saw Mills, Timber and Lumber Dealers, New York, NY

Bingham, Herbert S., Wholesale Lumber, Scranton, PA

Binkley & Nielson Timber Company, Niagara Falls, NY

Birch, S.M., Wholesale Lumber Merchant

Blakeslee, Charles L. Lumber Mfg. Co., Albany, NY

C.L. Blakeslee & Son Mfg. Co., Albany, New York

Blakeslee Lumber Co., Albany, NY

Bliss, J.A., Mfg. & Dealer in Lumber, Tonawanda, NY

Boyd, Herbert A., Huntington, West Va.

Brown, Bowman & Bledsoe, Lumber, Baltimore, MD

Buell, Guy I., Spring Hope, NC

Burgoyne, C.R., Pensacola, Florida

Burton, B.P., Wholesale Lumber Commission Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Butler, J.H. & Brother Inc., Yonkers, NY

Cameron & Hawn, General Lumber Dealers, Albany, New York

Carolina Lumber Mfg. Co., Greenville, SC

Carr Lumber Company, Pisgah Forest, NC

Cate, L.G., Manufacturer of Lumber, Jacksonville, Florida

Chicago Car Lumber Co., Manufacturers and Wholesalers of Lumber, Chicago, IL

Chicago House Wrecking Co. (Harris Brothers Co.), Chicago, IL

Clark & Smith Saw Mill, Boston, MA

Clifford, S.L., Lumber Manufacturers, North Haverhill, N.H.

Clark & Sumner, Wholesale Lumber Merchants, Albany, New York

Consolidated Lumber Co., Savannah, Georgia

Converse, A. Place Lumber Company, Manufacturers, Wholesale, and Retail Dealers in Lumber, Dover, NH

Coolbaugh, C.C. & Son Co., Philadelphia, PA

Cornplanter Lumber Company, The, Buffalo, New York

Crane, W.B. and Co., Hardwood Lumber, Timber, and ties, Chicago, IL

Crane, Dr. H.A., Lumber & Timber Dealer

Curtis Moldings and Trim, Clinton, Iowa

Cutter, H. & Co., Mahogany & Fancy Wood Dealers

Cutting, Frank A., Hemlock Bark Dealer, Boston, MA

Cypress Lumber Co., The, Boston, MA

Dalton & Kibber, Dealers in All Kinds of Lumber, Albany, NY

Dart & Brothers, Rough and Dressed Lumber, Buffalo, NY

Deacon, H.R., Wholesale and Retail Lumber Yard, Philadelphia, PA

Deep River Lumber Corporation, Norfolk, VA

Deering, Rufus & Co., Lumber Dealers, Portland, Oregon

Deimel, H.A. Lumber Dealer, Herkimer, NY

Demeritt & Burnham, Wood and Lumber Dealers

Dexter & Noble, Manufacturers of Lumber, Elk Rapids, MI

Dickinson Bros., Ridgway, Pa

Dodd, C.H., DeRidder, LA

Dodge & Bliss Company, Manufacturers and Dealers in Lumber, Jersey City, NJ

Douglass, John & Sons, Wholesale Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Douglass, Saxe & Co., Wholesale Lumber Commission, Albany, NY

Downer & Kellogg, Dr., Dealers in Rough and Dressed Lumber, Utica, NY

Duker, Otto & Co., Steam Planning Mills & Lumber Yards

Dunham, Greene & Co., Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Eagle Square Manufacturing Co., South Shaftsbury, Vermont

Earle, T. & O.K., Building and Finishing Lumber, Worchester, MA

Easton, C.P., Wholesale dealer in Lumber, Albany, NY

Eccleston Lumber Co. Manufacturers, New York, NY

Elias, G. & Bros., Timber and Lumber, Buffalo, NY

Eschenbach, John N., Lumber Company, Wilkes-Barre, PA

Este, Charles, Lumber Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Etter, Siple & Carmany's, Steam Saw Mills, Dauphin, PA

Fee, Frank F., Dermott, Arkansas

Fogg, Ezra D., Lumber Commission Merchant, Providence, RI

Forest Lumber Co., Pittsburgh ~ Philadelphia, PA

Gage, Dr. C. & J.C., Manufacturers and Dealers in Wood and Lumber, Fisherville, NH

Ganahl, John J. Lumber Co., St. Louis, MO

Garret and Edward Green, New York

Garrison, S.B., Steam Mill and Lumber Yard, Camden, NJ

Gaskill, J.W. & Sons, Lumber commission Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Gibsons' Albany Steam Planning and Saw Mills, Albany, New York

Gratwick, William H. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Grayson & Cain, All Kinds Hardwood Lumber, Washington, DC

Green, Charles S., Manufacturers of Hemlock and Hard Wood Lumber, Roaring Branch, PA

Grieme, H.C. Co., Lumber Brick and Building Material, Amsterdam, NY

Griffin Lumber Company, Wholesale Lumber and Retail, Sandy Hill, NY

Hallam Lumber Company, Wholesale Georgia Long Leaf Pine, Macon, Georgia

Hamm, C.H. & Co., Manufacturers of and Dealers in all kinds of Long and Short Lumber, Boston, MA

Hanna, C.W. & Co., Dover, Kentucky

Harbert, Russell & Co., Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Harriman, Abel H. and Co., Manufacturers of Hogshead Shooks, Bridgton, Maine

Harrisburg Car Company's Saw Mill and Lumber Yards, Harrisburg, PA

Harrington, F.C., Dealer in Lumber, Philadelphia, PA

Harrod & Fernald, Boston, MA

Hartmann-Sanders Co., Chicago & New York

Hartough, P.C. & Co., Timber Dealers, New York, NY

Hawley, F.B., Albany, New York

Hawley, F.B., Albany, New York

Hawley, H.Q. & Co., Dr., Albany, New York

Headlam, Wm. & Sons, Albany, New York

Heinemann, B. Lumber Co., Wausau, Wisconsin

Henry & Carter, Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Higbie, Douglas & co., Commission Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Hiram Hill, Hard wood Lumber Dealer, Providence, RI

Hines, Edward Lumber Co., Chicago, IL

Hoagland, George A., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Omaha, NE

Houtz, D.K. & Co., Wholesale and Retail Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Hughes Bros. & Co., Pine Lumber & Shingles, Lapeen, MI

Hunsicker, Henry A., Lumber Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Hunter, Dexter, Lumber Merchant, Albany, NY

Hunter, Gilbert & Son, Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Hutton & Bourbonnais Co., Manufacturers of Lumber, Hickory, NC

Hutton, William, Dr., Lumber Dealer, Rondent, NY

Insuliter, The, Minneapolis, Minnesota

International Lumber and Development, Philadelphia, PA

Kraetzer-Cured Lumber Co., Moorehead, Mississippi

Kramer, H. & Bro., Lumber, Shingles, Flooring, Maria Stein, Ohio

Jones, R.T. Lumber Co., North Tonawanda, NY

Jackson, J.C. & Co., Lumber and Timber, Lockport, NY

Janney, Samuel S., Lumber Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Johnson & Sons, Lumber Commission Merchants, Baltimore, MD

Jones, R.T. Lumber Co., North Tonawanda, NY

Joslin, John H., Eastern and Western Lumber, Providence, RI

Lesh & Matthews, Warsaw, Indiana

Levering, W.A. Lumber Commission Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Lieberman, Loveman & O'Brien, Manufacturers of Rough and Dressed Lumber, Nashville, Tennessee

Lloyd, William m. & Co., Lumber dealers, Philadelphia, PA

Long Bell Lumber Co., Kansas City, MO

Loud's, H.M. Sons Co., North Tonawanda, NY

Loyal Lovejoy & Co., Lumber Dealers, Boston, MA

Lumber-Trade-Journal, New Orleans, LA

Lumbermen's Rail and Equipment Bureau, Chicago, IL

Luther, T.C., Forest Products and Wholesalers

Lyons Lumber Company, Lyons, Iowa

Marquette-Bailey lumber Company, Lumber Manufacturers, Lock Haven, PA

Maule & Brothers, Dr., Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Maule & Donohue, Dr., Lumber Dealers, Philadelphia, PA

McClave Brothers, Lumber Dealers, New York, NY

McClave, E.W. & Co., Dealers in Yellow Pine, New York, NY

McCullough & bro., Dealers in Lumber, Coal and Lime, Hills Landing

McKee, W.I. Lumber Co., Manufacturers and Wholesalers, Quincy, IL

McLean, John S., New York, NY

Mead, Dunham & Co., Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Menzies, William Timber Dealer, New York

Menzies, Viele & MAther, New York

Merchants Mutual Building Material Assn., New York

Millard Lumber Co., New York

Millard's, W. Sons Wholesale Lumber Dealers, New Hamburgh, NY

Millener, J.H. & Co., Manufacturer & Dealer of Building Timber, Tonawanda, NY

Modoc Lumber Co., Chiloqin, Oregon

Montgomery & Co. Lumber Manufacuters, Grand Rapids, MI

Moore, David Com. Lumber Merchants & Co., Newburgh, NY

Moore & McClung Retail and Wholesale Dealers, Newburgh, NY

Moore, R.H. & Zimmerman Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Morse and Company Wholesale and Manufacturers, Bangor, Maine

Morse, Wm. B. & Co., Pine and Hemlock Lumber, Rochester, NY

Morton, Black & Bro., Coal and Lumber Merchants, Chester Dock, PA

Mueller, Charles of Lumber, Lath, Davenport, Iowa

Munson, J.L. Lumber Dealer, Chapinville, NY

New England Baled Shavings Co., Albany, NY

Niedermeyer-Martin Lumber Co., Portland, Oregon

Northwestern Compo-Board Co., Minneapolis, Minn.

Park & Nelson Wholesale and Manufacturing, Redwing, Minn.

Patterson, J.E. & Co. Lumber dealers, Pittston, PA

Pease Co., The, Cincinnati, Ohio

Peckham, Wolf & Co., Wholesale and Retail Manufacturers, Schenectady, NY

Potter, James A. Retail Dealer, Providence, RI

Rathbun, Joshua & Co., Albany, NY

Reeves, Ward S. Lumber Dealer, Astoria, LA City

Remsdells & Co., Lumber Dealers, Savannah, NY

Riley, Thomas R., Dr., Lumber dealer, Washington, D.C.

Ruggles White Pine Co., Inc., Boston, MA

Salisbury & Co., Commision Wholesale Merchants, Albany, New York

Scott, Alexander & Son, Lumber Dealer, Concordville, PA

Shepard, Dave & Co. Whalesale Lumber Dealers, Burlington, Vermont

Shryock, Thom Wholesale Lumber, Baltimore, MD

Simons & Griswold Lumber retail & Wholesale Dealers, Albany, NY

Skillings, D.N. & Co., Lumber Dealers, Boston, MA

Skillings, Whitney Bros. & Barnes, Boston, MA & Albany, NY

Slocum, H.W., Lumber Retail Dealer, Providence, RI

Slocum, J.L. , Lumber Dealers, Providence, RI

Snoqualmie Falls, Lumber Co., Snoqualmie Falls, Washington

Southern Cyress, Jacksonville, Fla.

Steam Saw Mills, Winsted, Wisconsin

Stetson & Pope Timber Dealers, Boston, MA

Stetson & Post Lumber Co., Seattle, WA

Streight, A.D. Wholesale Dealer and Manufacturers of Lumber, Indianapolis, Ind.

Sullivan, C.F. Pacific Coast Lumber, Buffalo, NY

Sumner & Hascy , Commission Lumber Merchant, Albany, NY

Taylor & Mendenhall

Taylor, William Lumber Dealers, Troy, NY

Taylor & Crate Lumber Dealers, Buffalo, NY

Titcomb, F.W. Wholesale Manufacturer, Houlton, Maine

Thomas & Hyatt Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Thompson, Benj. & Co., Wholesale Dealers, Charlestown

Thomson, L. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Timber Engineering Company

Timber Structure Inc.

Towner, B.A. & Son, Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Upson Company

Towner, J.O. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Trask & Clark Wholesale Dealers, Woonsocket

Tucker & Kelly , Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Turck, William Wholesale & Retail Lumber Co.

Uhler, Peter Timber Manufacturer, Easton, PA

United States Gypsum Company

United States Plywood Co.

Vandemark, S. & Sons

Vanderbilt & Hopkins, Dealers and Manufacturers of Lumber

Vanderbeek & Sons

Vandenburg, H.L. & Co.

Valley Tie & Timber Co.

Veneer Assn.

Virginia Tie & Lumber Co., Virginia

Vose, Rodney, Lumber Merchant & Forwarder

Ward, J.C. & Son

West Coast Lumberman's Assn., Seattle, Washington

Weyerhaeuser Forest Products

White, John T. & Son, Philadelphia, PA

White, Loveland, & Co.

Whitney, Baxter D. & Son, Inc., Wichendon, MA

White Pine

Whitney, C.D. Jr. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Williams, C.P. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Williams, J.J. & F.H., Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Williams, R.D. & J.J. , Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Williamsport & Philade Lumber Co., Philadelphia, PA

Williamstown and Redfield, Railroad & Forest Co.

Wisconsin Valley Lumbermen's Association

Wood, Joshua Lumber Co., New York

Wood Preserving Co., New York

Yellow Pine Commission Lumber De3alers, Brooklyn, NY

Yellow Pine Manufacturers' Association, St. Louis, MO

Young, A., & P.B. Wholesalers and Retail Dealers, Hiram, Maine

Young, B.E. & Co. Lumber Dealers, Annandale, NJ

Youngs & Corley Lumber Dealers & Box Makers, New York

Zellerbach Corp.
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Lumber Trade and Industry is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sales promotion  Search this
Patents  Search this
Wood  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Sawmills  Search this
Lumber trade -- 19th century  Search this
Logging  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical reports
Business cards
Business letters
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertisements
Business ephemera
Advertising cards
Receipts
Invoices
Printed material
Sales letters
Commercial catalogs
Trade cards
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Publications
Legal documents
Trade catalogs
Printed ephemera
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Manuals
Printed materials
Catalogues
Advertising mail
Print advertising
Catalogs
Correspondence
Publications -- Business
Ephemera
Reports
Advertising
Business records
Sales records
Illustrations
Letterheads
Advertising fliers
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Lumber Trade and Industry, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Lumber
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Lumber Industry and Trade
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-lumber

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records

Author:
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company  Search this
Names:
Alliance Coal Mining Company  Search this
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company  Search this
Extent:
72 Cubic feet (245 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1815-1966
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of records primarily of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. Additionally, there are records of the Lehigh Navigation Coal Company and subsidiary companies including the Alliance Coal Mining Company. These records mostly describe anthracite mining in the vicinity of Mauch Chuck and Summit Hill, Pennsylvania. Also included is a smaller amount of material on railroad, canal, and river navigation work of LCNC.

Included are annual reports, 1913-1949, and a few other reports, 1912-1953. There are numerous types of fiscal records such as revenue statements, 1913-1949; ledgers, 1874-1906; financial forecasts, 1949-1953; trial balance books, 1920-1942; journals, 1874-1945; records of vouchers, 1882-1906; records of bills payable, 1907-1948; and individual ledgers, 1904-1944. Also included are records of coal production, 1900-1906; records of cost of coal mining and preparation, 1890-1954; and comparative statistical and cost data on coal mining and preparation, 1920-1939. In addition to fiscal records and records relating to coal production, there are inventories, 1898-1947 and records of improvements and special projects, 1909-1926. Also, there is a large group of payroll records, 1894-1907, and other records relating to employee compensation, 1870-1954.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into twenty-two series.

Series 1: Annual Reports, 1826-1961

Series 2: Other Reports, 1912-1953

Series 3: Revenue Statements, 1913-1949

Series 4: Ledgers, 1874-1947

Series 5: Inventories, 1877-1945

Series 6: Financial Forecasts, 1949; 1951-1953

Series 7: Trial Balance Books, 1920-1942

Series 8: Journals, 1874-1945

Series 9: Record of Vouchers, 1882-1906

Series 10: Records of Bills Payable and Collectibles, 1907-1948

Series 11: Individual Ledgers, 1904-1908; 1919-1936; 1941-1945

Series 12: Records of Improvements and Special Projects, 1907-1913; 1920-1926

Series 13: Records of Coal Production, 1856-1952

Series 14: Records of Costs of Coal Mining and Preparation, 1890-1907; 1894-1954

Series 15: Comparative Statistical and Cost Data on Coal Mining and Preparation, 1873-1939

Series 16: Payroll Records, 1882-1951

Series 17: Employee Compensation, 1870-1954

Series 18: Contracts, Agreements and Leases, 1879-1931

Series 19: Printed Materials Relating to the Anthracite Industry, 1815-1954

Series 20: Miscellaneous Materials, 1874-1966

Series 21: Oversize Materials, 1829-1945

Series 22: Photographs, 1829, 1929, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company was formed on April 21, 1820 by the merger of the Lehigh Navigation Company and the Lehigh Coal Company. Both predecessor companies and the new company were organized by Josiah White, Erskine Hazard, and George F. Hauto. The LCNC was reorganized in 1821 and incorporated by the Pennsylvania legislature in 1822.

The company was involved in anthracite mining and transportation, initially, they made the Lehigh River navigable as a means of getting their coal to Easton and then to Philadelphia via the Delaware River. Later, through canal construction, railway construction and agreements with existing railroads, the company delivered its product to New York, New England, and elsewhere. In the 1820s, LCNC laid rails from its mines to the river landing at Mauch Chunk and also began its railroad from Summit Hill, in the late 1820s, construction of the Lehigh Canal was completed from Mauch Chunk to Easton. Between 1836 and 1838 the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad was completed from the northern anthracite field, connecting Wilkes Barre to White Haven.

In 1840, the first successful iron furnace blast was made with Lehigh coal, in 1844, the company began its first important underground mining. In the 1860s and 1870s, the company completed a railroad from Wilkes Barre to Easton, and the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad was leased to the Central Railroad of New Jersey, thereby guaranteeing LCNC access to New York. Early in the twentieth century, the New England area was opened to LCNC through railroad construction.

In 1930 the Lehigh Navigation Coal Company was founded essentially as a holding company for LCNC and other companies, and other organizational changes were made. The company went out of business in 1965.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Pennsylvania State Archives

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, 1792-1978

Penn State University Libraries

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, 1835-1913

Lehigh University Special Collections

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company collection, 1826-1913
Provenance:
Donated by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company,Pennsylvania.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mining and minerals industry  Search this
Mining equipment  Search this
Citation:
The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0071
See more items in:
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0071
Online Media:

Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection

Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Names:
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader)  Search this
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Journals
Dissertations
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Place:
West Virginia -- 1930-1950
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950
Date:
circa 1920-1975
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.

The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.

Print and Manuscript Materials

The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.

The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.

The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.

De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the New York Sun, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)

The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.

Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).

Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.

Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.

The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.

The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.

De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.

Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.

In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.

Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.

Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.

There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.

Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).

Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.

A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.

Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.

Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into seventeen series.
Biographical / Historical:
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.

Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.
Gypsies in the United States:
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.

Rom

The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.

Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.

Ludar

The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.

Romnichels

The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).

Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.

'Black Dutch'

Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*

Hungarian Gypsies

The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980  Search this
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980  Search this
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.)  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950  Search this
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980  Search this
Portraits -- Gypsies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Journals -- 1930-1950
Dissertations
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970
Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0161
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0161
Online Media:

Gordon R. Smith Kentucky Photoprints

Photographer:
Smith, Gordon R.  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet (1 box, 7 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Kentucky -- 1990-2000
Appalachian Region
Date:
1994
Summary:
Photographs from a project entitled "Kentucky Coal Country," in which photographer Gordon Smith concentrates on economic and social factors in Kentucky. The photographs document poverty, erosion of the land through strip mining, and other harsh realities in Kentucky.
Scope and Contents:
The seven photographs in this group are all from a project entitled "Kentucky Coal Country," in which Gordon Smith concentrates on economic and social factors in Kentucky. They powerfully and starkly document poverty, erosion of the land through strip mining, and other harsh realities in Kentucky. All negatives were made in 1994, but these prints were made by Smith in late 1998 and/or early 1999. All are silver gelatin, printed on 16" x 20" paper, and are unmounted. Included with the prints are copies of the artist's project description and a caption list with his comments for forty images in the series.

Smith's photographs depict the Appalachian region of Kentucky, whose residents remain among the poorest in the nation. "This region, whose underground fortunes are still being ruthlessly plundered, now faces a near lifeless economy patched together by low paying service jobs, food stamps and welfare cheques," he writes. "...[The] Appalachian Regional Commission has overseen the spending of huge quantities of taxpayer dollars in an effort to penetrate the economic, geographic and cultural isolation of this mountainous region... Two thirds of these funds have been absorbed by road construction efforts which appear to have been more beneficial to local contractors and the coal and lumber industries than the population at large. The lavish spending program has had little effect in transforming the area's coal-linked economic base... The state of Kentucky has been particularly hard hit." Smith's photographs indicate his concerns about the devastation of both the land and the people in the Appalachian region of Kentucky. The photographs in this selection vividly show the effects of strip mining, as well as people living in poverty. "Machines have stolen forever the jobs that kept this land alive," he comments. "...As communities perish and families are split apart, one of America's oldest and least understood cultures is in danger of being wiped away..."
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Documents,

Series 2: Photographs,
Biographical / Historical:
Gordon R. Smith is an American photojournalist whose photographs are in the collections of the Library of Congress, the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Center for Creative Photography (Tucson, Arizona), the Houston Museum of Fine Arts, and many other American and European collections. He has been included in many group exhibitions, and he has had solo exhibitions in galleries in the United States, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. He has received grants from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts (Visual Arts Fellowship, 1994) and Eastman Kodak Company (Materials Grant, 1990).

His work has been published in the Washington Post, New York Newsday, The Philadelphia Inquirer, Photographer's Forum, S F Camerawork, Photo Metro, The Photo Review, Camera Austria, and other newspapers and magazines. He is based in Pennsylvania.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Gordon R. Smith,1999, January 25.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographer holds copyrights. Reproduction permission from artist; contact information upon request.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining -- 1990-2000 -- Kentucky  Search this
Strip mining -- Environmental aspects -- 1990-2000 -- Kentucky  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Gordon R. Smith Kentucky Photoprints, 1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0700
See more items in:
Gordon R. Smith Kentucky Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0700
Online Media:

Sharpe, Weiss and Company Papers

Collector:
Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Sharpe, Weiss and Company  Search this
Extent:
4.75 Cubic feet (13 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Microfilms
Account books
Letters (correspondence)
Invoices
Date:
1856-1889
Scope and Contents:
Invoices and letters from merchants and manufacturers with whom Sharpe, Weiss and Company, and their successors, did business; and two reels of microfilm of Sharpe and Weiss's account books.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Invoices to Sharpe, Weiss & Company, 1872-1874

Series 2: Invoices to Mr. H. C. Miler, 1884-1889

Series 3: Transportation Records for Sharpe, Weiss & Company, 1856-1859

Series 4: Receipts and correspondence for Sharpe, Weiss & Company, 1863-1889

Series 5: Summaries of Coal Shipments 1856-1874

Series 6: Other company's documents including Lehigh Coal Mine Company, Breaver Meadow, Lehigh Valley and Lehigh Cumberland Broadtop, 1792-1869 (not inclusive)

Series 7:Two rolls of microfilm containing company account books 1847-1874
Biographical / Historical:
Sharpe, Leisenring and Company was formed in 1854 as a partnership of Richard Sharpe, John Leisenring, Asa Lansford Foster, George Belford, Francis Weiss and Williams Reed. Most of the partners had been associated with the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company (LC&N). Weiss was the grandson of Jacob Weiss, founder of the predecessor Lehigh Coal Mine Company in 1792. Foster was a contemporary of John Leisenring, Sr., who had been brought to Mauch Chunk to run the LC&N's first company store. He founded the town's first newspaper in 1829. Most of the men had been partners in Belford, Sharpe & Company or Daniel Bertsch & Company, contract operators of the LC&N's mines at Summit Hill and Ashton (now Lansford) in the late 1840s and 1850s.

John Leisenring moved from Ashton to Eckley in 1854 and remained in charge of operations there until he was appointed Chief Engineer and Superintendent of the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company in July 1860. As one of the conditions, he was required to devote full time to the LC&N's affairs, and he returned to Mauch Chunk. The firm was then reconstituted as Sharpe, Weiss & Company, which it remained until the end of 1874, when Richard Sharpe surrendered the lease and moved to Wilkes Barre. William Reed had sold out his interest in 1867, Foster had died early in the following year, and George Belford died in 1873.

At this point John Leisenring, now operating at Upper Lehigh, took over. The new firm of John Leisenring & Co. was formed on January 1, 1875, the other partners being Dr. John S. Wentz, Samuel B. Price and Daniel Bertsch, Jr. In later years, the firm appears to have been limited to John Leisenring, his sons Edward B. and John, Jr. and his sons-in-law J. S. Wentz and M.S. Kemmerer. Dr. Wentz was sent to Eckley as Superintendent. The firm was continued after John Leisenring's death until the end of 1885, when E. B. Coxe terminated the lease and assumed the operations of the mines himself. During the tenure of John Leisenring and Company the town of Eckley reached its maximum size with a population of 1500.

No records of John Leisenring & Company have survived. The Sharpe, Weiss & Company records from 1850 to 1874 were given to the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, and the village of Eckley has been restored as part of the Pennsylvania Anthracite Museum Complex.

Source

From Eleuthuerian Mills Historical Library, Wilmington, Delaware
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Merchants -- 19th century  Search this
Anthracite coal industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 19th century
Microfilms
Account books -- 19th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 19th century
Invoices
Citation:
Sharpe, Weiss and Company Papers, 1856-1889, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0399
See more items in:
Sharpe, Weiss and Company Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0399

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records

Creator:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company  Search this
Names:
Anthracite Water Company  Search this
Extent:
17 Cubic feet (51 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Reports
Circular letters
Letterpress copybooks
Place:
Shamokin (Pa.)
Reading (Pa.)
Pennsylvania -- Anthracite coal industry
Pottsville (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Ashland (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Mahanoy City (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Schuylkill River (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Date:
1866-1927
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately seventeen cubic feet of records of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company, dating from the period 1866-1927. The bulk of the collection comprises 124 letterpress copybooks from the company's Engineering Department. These contain letters and reports sent by engineers located at the major centers of the company's operations in the Schuylkill coal field — Ashland, Mahanoy City, Pottsville, and Shamokin. They also include the Chief Engineer, the Assistant Engineer, division engineers, resident engineers, associate engineers, mining engineers and their assistants, and transitmen. Among these were George S. Clemens, Joseph B. Garner, John R. Hoffman, James F. Jones, Henry M. Luther, Roland C. Luther, Henry Pleasants, John H. Pollard, John H. Strauch, and S. B. Whiting.

Their letterpress copybooks reflect the evolving organization of the Engineering Department, as job titles were changed and individuals were promoted or transferred from one post to another. The copybooks either accompanied the man when he took up a new post or remained in the office, where they were used by his successors. The copybooks in this collection have been arranged into series by person and position. Several additional volumes have been placed in a series of miscellaneous records at the end of the collection.

The correspondence in these volumes deals with all aspects of mining construction and operations, engineering personnel matters, and coordination with the Railroad for the shipment of coal, as well as periodic reports of operations and wagon accounts detailing how much coal had been shipped. Also included is correspondence relating to the formation and operation of the Schuylkill Coal Exchange Committee, which was set up to ease competition among the railroads in the Schuylkill region.

The collection also includes eight letterpress copybooks kept by S. B. Whiting while he was General Manager and General Superintendent of the company (1882-ca. 1888) . Whiting also kept letterbooks in which he pasted letters received from his superiors: Series 1 of the collection consists of two volumes of letters received (1879-1883) from Franklin B. Gowen, President, and one volume of letters received (1881-1884) from George DeB. Keim, General Solicitor and Vice President. In addition, there are eight letterpress copybooks kept by Roland C. Luther during his tenure as General Superintendent (ca. 1888-1902) and one volume from his tenure as the company's Second Vice President (1903-1905) . Also included is a volume of printed circular letters from both the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad and from the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company (1874-1887), which is located in Series 16.

Of additional interest is the inclusion of letters relating to the operation of the Anthracite Water Company among the letterpress copybooks of George S. Clemens, who served as that company's manager in the 1910s. In addition, several of the circular letters pertain directly to the 1888 anthracite coal strike.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 16 series.

Series 1: Letters received, S. B. Whiting, 1881-1883

Series 2: George S. Clemens, Shamokin, Ashland, and Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1875-1921

Series 3: Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1866-1881

Series 4: John H. Pollard, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1881-1905

Series 5: John H. Pollard, T. R. Spinney, and Joseph Garner, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1888-1911

Series 6: John H. Pollard and T. B. Van Buren, Ashland and Mahanoy City, 1902-1913

Series 7: Division Engineer, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1902-1927

Series 8: Henry M. Luther and John H. Pollard, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1881-1905

Series 9: Joseph S. Harris, Pottsville, 1871-1877

Series 10: J. Price Wetherill, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1879-1881

Series 11: James F. Jones and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1881-1891

Series 12: John R. Hoffman and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1883-1909

Series 13: Henry Pleasants and S. B. Whiting, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1874-1880

Series 14: S. B. Whiting and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville and Reading, Pennsylvania, 1877-1905

Series 15: George A. Brooke and John H. Strauch, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1879-1909

Series 16: Miscellaneous Records, 1873-1987
Biographical / Historical:
The Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co. was organized in order to ensure its parent company, the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, a dominant position in the transportation of anthracite coal from the Schuylkill fields of eastern Pennsylvania. For thirty years after its incorporation in 1833, the Philadelphia & Reading had been the main carrier of coal from this region, shipping anthracite coal from independently owned mines to Philadelphia. By the mid-1860s, however, the company faced increasing competition from other railroads as well as interruptions in supply due to miners' strikes. In response, Franklin B. Gowen, President of the Philadelphia & Reading, decided to gain control of enough coal acreage to ensure the company's survival. However, since it was illegal for railroads to directly own coal fields or operate mines in Pennsylvania, the company had to organize a separate company for the purpose. Accordingly, the Laurel Run Improvement Company was incorporated in May 1871. By taking advantage of a loophole in the Laurel Run company's charter, the Philadelphia & Reading purchased it in November 1871, and thus circumvented the legal restrictions on railroad ownership of coal lands. The newly-acquired company was renamed the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company in December 1871.

The company quickly acquired coal lands: by 1872, 80,000 acres had been purchased; by 1874, almost 100,000 acres - approximately one-third of the entire Schuylkill coal field. Originally, the company did not intend to mine coal itself; rather, it would rent the collieries it had acquired to independent operators, with the stipulation that the end product must be shipped over the Philadelphia & Reading railroad's lines. Unfortunately, this arrangement did not prove to be either practical or profitable and the company had to take direct control of its mining operations. Despite this step, however, the Coal & Iron Company continued to be unprofitable. In 1913 the United States government brought suit against the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, claiming that its ownership of both the Coal & Iron Company and the Railroad were a monopoly of trade. The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled against the railroad in 1920. Under the terms of an agreement worked out by the Court, in December 1923, the Philadelphia & Reading transferred its interests in the Coal & Iron Company to a new company formed for the purpose — the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Corporation.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work & Industry has a collection of photographs from the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 1866-1927.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware The bulk of the surviving records of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company and its parent company, the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company.
Provenance:
These records were obtained by the National Museum of American History sometime prior to 1978. They were transferred from the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources to the Archives Center in July 1989. An additional thirty-five volumes were transferred to the Archives Center in July 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Anthracite coal industry  Search this
Coal -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Anthracite Coal Strike, Pa., 1902  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Reports
Circular letters
Letterpress copybooks
Citation:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records, 1866-1927, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0282
See more items in:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0282
Online Media:

Swatara Railroad Papers

Author:
Swatara Railroad Company  Search this
Donaldson, William  Search this
Swatara and Good Spring Railroad  Search this
Collector:
Agriculture, Divison of (NMAH)  Search this
Names:
Good Spring Railroad  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 vertical boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial statements
Receipts
Correspondence
Place:
Pennsylvania -- 19th century
Date:
1805-1894.
Scope and Contents:
Documents relating to the business of the Swatara Railroad Company of Danville, Pennsylvania and particularly of its president, "Judge" William Donaldson. Includes receipts, bills, contracts, operating statistics, financial statements and correspondence, filed chronologically by year.
Biographical / Historical:
The Swatara and Good Spring Railroad was incorporated in 1831 with Judge William Donaldson as president. Renamed the Swatara Railroad in 1841, it was one of several lines connecting the First Pennsylvania anthracite coal field via waterways to the East Coast. Until 1848 it was powered by horses and was extended and rebuilt periodically. In 1863, Donaldson sold his interest in the Swatara to the Philadelphia & Reading Co., which renamed it the Good Spring Railroad.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Anthracite coal industry -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial statements -- 19th century
Receipts -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 19th century
Citation:
Swatara Railroad Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0272
See more items in:
Swatara Railroad Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0272
Online Media:

Pennsylvania State Anthracite Mine Cave Commission Report

Author:
Pennsylvania State Anthracite Mine Cave Commission  Search this
Collector:
Agriculture and Mining, Division of  Search this
Extent:
1.3 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1912-1913
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the Commission's report, comprising: a 352 page report, including numerous photographs and maps; one 24 page printed copy of the report; one map of the city of Scranton, dated 1912; and eight blueprints of coal field sites.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged by type of material.
Biographical / Historical:
The Pennsylvania State Anthracite Mine Cave Commission was created by an Act of the General Assembly of the state of Pennsylvania and approved by the governor, John K. Tener, on March 24, 1911.

The Commission was appointed to investigate and report on both the physical conditions and the legal rights over the anthracite coal fields at Scranton, Pennsylvania. It was also impowered, by the state legislature, to recommend appropriate legislation over the legal and proprietary land rights of landowners and miners at Scranton.

Headed by Mr. W. J. Richards of Pottsville, the Commission was to submit its report to the legislature not later than February 1, 1913. Mr. Richards was elected President of the Commission on June 12, 1911 and the Commission's report was ready on March 1, 1913.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Anthracite coal  Search this
Metallurgical engineers  Search this
Mining  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Citation:
Pennsylvania State Anthracite Mine Cave Commission Report, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0180
See more items in:
Pennsylvania State Anthracite Mine Cave Commission Report
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0180

Samuel Morse Felton Family Papers

Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Felton, Samuel Morse, (civil engineer), 1809-1889  Search this
Felton, Samuel Morse, (son), 1853-1930  Search this
Names:
American Locomotive Sales Corporation.  Search this
Louisville Southern Railway Co.  Search this
Philadelphia RR.  Search this
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore RR.  Search this
Southern Railway and Steamship Association.  Search this
United States War Department  Search this
United States. Army  Search this
Ames, Oliver  Search this
Atterbury, W.W.  Search this
Cooke, Jay  Search this
Davis, Robert C.  Search this
Fletcher, Andrew  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Lomonossoff, G.  Search this
McAdoo, W.G.  Search this
Milliken, J.  Search this
Scott, Thomas A.  Search this
Smith, M.H.  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Reports
Clippings
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1841-1930
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains biographical material on both Feltons; a handwritten bound report by Felton on the construction of the Norfolk Co. Railroad, 1847 1849; correspondence, 1861 1927, to and from both Feltons; various reports on military railroads during the World War years; and news clippings and articles on the Feltons, 1889-1930.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into five series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1841-1921

Series 2: Correspondence, 1861-1927

Series 3: Reports, 1847-1919

Series 4:History of Transportation Department, undated

Series 5: News clippings, 1889-1930
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Morse Felton (1809 1889), civil engineer, became Superintendent and engineer of the Fitchburg Railroad in 1843 and left in 1851 to become President of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad (PWBRR). Under Felton's able management this unsuccessful and financially failing railroad was rebuilt, restored and prospered. The road was of great strategic importance during the Civil War and performed a great service by transporting troops and supplies for the Union. In 1857, he installed the locomotive engine "Daniel Webster" in service on the PWBRR. It was probably the first really successful coal burning passenger engine in regular service upon any RR in the U.S. In 1865 he left the PWBRR to become President of the Pennsylvania Steel Company. This was the first attempt in the United States to manufacture steel rails as a commercial enterprise. During this period he also served as director of many railroads including the Philadelphia, Wilmington & BRR, the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co., the Northern Pacific, the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain and several others. He was director for ten years of the Pennsylvania RR. In 1869 he was appointed by President Grant as a Commissioner to inspect Pacific Railroads.

His son, Samuel Morse Felton (1853 1930), followed in this father's footsteps. He graduated from MIT in 1873 and began a life long career in American railroading. In 1889 he became President of the Chicago and Alton Railroad, later assumed the Presidency of the Mexican Central Railroad, and became President of the Chicago Great Western Railroad in 1909. During WWI he was appointed Director General of Military Railways and in that capacity had charge of the organization and dispatch to France of all American railway forces and supplies. He continued in that position during the World War years. By 1928 he was Chairman of the Board of the Chicago Great Western Railroad, President of the Western Railroad Association, and Chairman of the Western Association of Railway Executives, to name only a few of his positions. At his death he was an advisor and associate of the Central Trust Company of Illinois.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Business records -- 1840-1930  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Slavery -- United States  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1840-1930
Reports
Clippings -- 1840-1940
Citation:
Samuel Morse Felton Family Papers, 1841-1930, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0170
See more items in:
Samuel Morse Felton Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0170
Online Media:

Effingham Buckley Morris

Artist:
Louis Hasselbusch, 1863 - 1939  Search this
Sitter:
Effingham Buckley Morris, 1856 - 1937  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
100.7cm x 80.5cm (39 5/8" x 31 11/16"), Sight
Type:
Painting
Date:
1926?
Topic:
Effingham Buckley Morris: Male  Search this
Effingham Buckley Morris: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Effingham Buckley Morris: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Financier  Search this
Effingham Buckley Morris: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
Effingham Buckley Morris: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Banking  Search this
Effingham Buckley Morris: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Coal  Search this
Effingham Buckley Morris: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Steel  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: University of Pennsylvania
Object number:
PA330344
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4bc8622ed-5c95-4bde-8940-3e9a7f4cf366
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_PA330344

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- France -- Paris  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Central Pennsylvania Coal Producers' Association, 1960, 1964

Collection Creator::
National Museum of American History. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources  Search this
Container:
Box 2 of 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 19-222, National Museum of American History. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Divisional Records
See more items in:
Divisional Records
Divisional Records / Box 2
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa19-222-refidd1e1472

The Long Cruise, 50th Anniversary AT hike, trail diary, book 1 [Appalachian Trail hike diary]

Author:
Shaffer, Earl V., 1918-2002  Search this
Collection Author:
Shaffer, Earl V., 1918-2002  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8.8" x 7.1".)
Container:
Box 6, Folder 14
Box 39
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Appalachian Trail
Date:
1998
Scope and Contents:
Trail diary written Shaffer during 1998 hike of the Appalachian Trail.
Arrangement:
In Box 39.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Use reference copies of diaries.
Collection Rights:
Copyrights to all donated materials, both printed and photographic, are retained exclusively by the Earl Shaffer Foundation.
Topic:
Hiking  Search this
Trails  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Earl Shaffer Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Earl Shaffer Papers
Earl Shaffer Papers / Series 2: Materials Related to Hiking / 2.1: Trail Notes Diaries and General Information
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0828-ref108
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View The Long Cruise, 50th Anniversary AT hike, trail diary, book 1 [Appalachian Trail hike diary] digital asset number 1

Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection

Creator:
Norrell, Thomas, 1899-1985  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (84 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1840-circa 1960
bulk 1870-1940
Summary:
Approximately 11,000 images collected by Thomas Norrell consisting of original photographic prints and photographic postcards, original film and glass plate negatives, and duplicate/copy photographic prints and negatives. The majority are external views of single locomotive engines of North American railroad and industrial companies. Images of international railroad company locomotives and of representative locomotives from various locomotive works and builders are also included. The collection contains a small number of subject-specific images covering such topics as train wrecks, funeral trains, experimental locomotives, miniature trains, and locomotives at the 1933 and 1939 World's Fairs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains material related primarily, but not exclusively, to early North American railroad locomotives. Photographs and negatives comprise the bulk of the material in the collection, with the number of individual images well exceeding 10,000. While the collection is particularly valuable for its images of locomotives from smaller or relatively obscure railroad lines and industrial concerns (such as mining and lumber companies), it also includes a substantial number of images from the leaders of the railroad industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (such as the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad).

Norrell's organization of the collection reflects his technical knowledge of railroad engines and his familiarity with various railroad companies. His use of Whyte notation as an organizational schema gives evidence to this. Whyte notation is broadly utilized by the railroad industry as a way to classify locomotives based on their wheel configuration. A count of leading (non-driving) wheels, middle driving wheels, and trailing wheels (non-driving) is represented by a three-digit hyphenated number. For example, a locomotive with four leading wheels, four driving wheels, and two trailing wheels would be classified as a 4-4-2. Norrell utilized this convention when subdividing railroad companies for which he had collected many images, such as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and the Lehigh Valley Railroad, among others. Norrell subdivided portions of his collection of Pennsylvania Railroad images based on that company's distinct classification system, where letters of the alphabet corresponded to different Whyte notations.

Norrell used other criteria to help subdivide larger assemblages of single-company railroad images, and these have been maintained. In some instances, he used the company number designation found on the locomotive itself (as in the case of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad). Other times, subject designations were used to distinguish rail yards, passenger cars, and special or prominent locomotives. Because the Pennsylvania Railroad comprised such a large segment of images, Norrell organized it according to a number of subdivision types (including year, Whyte notation, and subject) rather than any single one.

The collection is arranged into three series: Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960, and Series 3, Ephemera, undated.

Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated,contains photographic negatives and is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, and Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated.

The series contains original negative images, copy negatives of other printed images, and copy negatives of printed material, such as book illustrations. The inclusive dates for the series reflect the subject of the material photographed (as in the case of copy negatives) rather than the date the negative was created.

The negatives primarily depict views of single locomotive engines from various North American and international mainline and short line railroads. Interspersed among these are views of company-owned locomotives representing such North American industries as mining (coal, iron, limestone, copper, gold, quartz, zinc), lumber (timber, pulp, paper), metallurgical production (coke, iron, steel), stone/brick production (masonry, cement, gravel), utilities (power, light, telephone), chemical production, leather production, automotive production, and food service. A number of military railroad locomotives as well as early metropolitan transit systems are also represented among the negatives. Most of the images depict steam locomotives, though some diesel engines, diesel-electric hybrid engines, passenger and freight cars, and assorted repair/service vehicles are also spread throughout.

Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated consists of polyester film negatives ranging in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 5" x 7". Additional larger polyester film negatives are interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2 and range in size from 5" x 7" to 8" x 10".

The negatives are physically arranged by size, then by the negative series number originally assigned to them by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This numbering system generally, but not always, follows an alphabetical order by name of railroad company (North American and international) or industrial company. The majority of the film negatives are 5" x 7" or smaller, and the number series for this size of negative begins with 85-20939 and ends with 85-31126.

Film negatives larger than 5" x 7" are separated and interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2. As such, the negative series number range for these larger film negatives is not always consecutive. The first series number range begins at 82-4189 and ends at 82-4429. The second range begins at 82-13786 and ends at 82-13795. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The envelope enclosures for all negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive number, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), the year of the engine/locomotive's construction, a brief description of the image, the size of the negative, and the negative series number.

Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, consists of glass plate negatives ranging in size from 5" x 7" to 10" x 12". Three broken glass plate negatives have been re-housed and are stored separately. Otherwise the plates are arranged by size, then by original negative series number as assigned by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This number range is not always consecutive because the glass plate negatives are interfiled with the larger film negatives of Subseries 1. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The 8" x 10" glass plate negative number series begins with 82-4168 and ends with 82-4424.

The 5" x 7" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-13783 to 82-13785.

The 12" x 10" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-4430 to 82-4452.

The envelope enclosures for the negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), in some cases a brief description of the image, and the negative series number.

Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960,consists of visual material, including photographic postcards, illustrated postcards, photographic prints (made through a variety of photographic processes), and a photograph album. It contains five subseries: Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies; Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies; Subseries 3, Railroad Builders; Subseries 4, Subjects; and Subseries 5, Duplicate Images.

Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960 includes photographic and illustrated postcards and photographic prints of North American railroad companies, industrial railroads, and urban transit companies. The images range in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 8" x 10," with the majority being silver gelatin prints. Occasional albumen prints, cyanotype prints, and salted paper prints are found in the collection. The majority of the images are views of single locomotive engines, though some images of railroad stations, roundhouses, rail yards, and passenger cars are interspersed throughout. While the majority of the photographs are 4" x 6" or smaller, there are prints larger than 4" x 6" which are arranged alphabetically by railroad or industrial company name. In some cases multiple larger images from railroad companies with names close to each other alphabetically are filed together in a single folder and identified with the first common letters of the company names.

Norrell's original alphabetical organization by railroad or industrial company name has been preserved. In some instances where a substantial number of images for a particular railroad company exist, Norrell subidivided the images either by Whyte notation (wheel arrangement) or by subject. This usually follows either an alphabetical or numerical organization, but not in every case. In many instances, hand-written notes and postage appear on the reverse of the photographic postcards. Addresses and salutations indicate that many of the postcards were not sent to Thomas Norrell directly, but were acquired by him at a later date.

Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960, includes photographs, illustrated postcards, and a photograph album depicting international railroads and railroad locomotives. Of particular interest is the photograph album compiled by Thomas Norrell containing sixty individual photographs of steam locomotive engines from eighteen assorted British, continental European, and South American railroad companies. The images are all approximately 14" x 10," and each corresponds to an identification chart mounted in the front of the album indicating the railroad company, engine number, Whyte notation (wheel arrangement), and special notes about each engine.

Subseries 3, Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960 consists photographic prints and photographic postcards containing images of locomotives separated by builder. Norrell's original alphabetical arrangement of the images by locomotive works or manufacturing company name has been preserved.

Subseries 4, Subjects, 1804-1940, contains photographic prints and photographic postcards organized by subject. The images are arranged chronologically by date of the subject of the images. Of particular interest are Norrell's photographs of locomotives at the 1933-1934 Chicago and 1939-1940 New York World's Fairs.

Subseries 5, Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960, contains duplicate photographic prints and duplicate copy prints created from the either the photographs in Series 2 or from the film and glass plate negatives from Series 1. The duplicate images, including photographic postcards and photographic prints, are subdivided by first letter of the name of the railroad or industrial company. The duplicate copy prints created from the negatives are arranged numerically by a negative number recorded on the negative itself.

Series 3, Ephemera, undated,consists of an unidentified and undated piece of railroad track.

References

Staufer, Alvin F. Pennsy Power III 1847-1968. Medina, OH: Alvin F. Staufer, 1993.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series.

Series 1: Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 1: Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 2: Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Series 2: Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 1: North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 2: International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 3: Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 4: Subjects, 1804-1940

Subseries 5: Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960

Series 3: Ephemera, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Norrell was born in West Ham (Essex County) England on November 11, 1899. He emigrated to the United States as a young man and became a naturalized citizen in 1911. He took an apprenticeship at the Baldwin Locomotive Works around 1920. Although the Baldwin works benefited from a boom in the export of steam locomotives meant to replenish foreign rail systems impacted by use during the First World War, the upswing was short-lived. Business at Baldwin slowed considerably in the 1920s as diesel engines began replacing steam locomotives. Recognizing that opportunities for advancement within Baldwin were scarce, Norrell moved out of railroad work completely and into the paper box industry. He married his wife Wilhelmina in 1929, and they resided in Cranston, Rhode Island and later Silver Spring, Maryland.

Despite his shift away from railroads as a vocation, Norrell maintained a life-long interest in trains and was a collector of photographic and print material related to locomotive engines, train cars, and industrial railroads. He contributed a number of articles to various railroad periodicals and was generous in providing images from his collection to other authors for reproduction in their publications. Norrell also influenced and supported a number of prominent railroad historians, including John H. White Jr., curator of the Division of Transportation in the Smithsonian National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History). It was through White's efforts that Norrell's collection became part of the Smithsonian Institution.

In 1942 Norrell gained some degree of notoriety for having rediscovered the famed Brady Civil War negatives in the vault of the Phelps Publishing Company in Springfield, Massachusetts while searching for an unrelated daguerreotype of an early Massachusetts locomotive. The locomotive had been identified from a wood-engraving made by an artist for a Phelps subsidiary publication, and Norrell secured permission to search the Phelps Company's vault for the image. During his search, Norrell stumbled upon and recognized the famed Civil War collection from earlier printed publications of the images. He brought the collection to the attention of the National Archives, which deferred to the Library of Congress. The storage fees for the images had been unpaid for many years by their owner, and the Phelps Company, interested only in recovering compensation for the use of the space, seized the images and sold them at cost to the Library of Congress in 1944.

Norrell later lived in Fredericksburg, Virginia, close to his daughter Elise Mann. He died there on February 1, 1985.

References

Bell, Kurt R. "On the Shoulders of a Giant: A Profile of John H. White, Jr.," Railroad History, 204 (Spring-Summer 2011): 6-23.

Hodge, Robert, comp. An Index to the Death Notices in the Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), 1981-1991. Fredericksburg, VA: Robert A. Hodge (1992).

Norrell, Thomas. "The Norris Construction Record," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 150 (1983): 57-XX.

Norrell, Thomas. "Uriah Wells, Locomotive Builder of Petersburg," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 124 (1969): 40-XX.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930: Population Schedule. Massachusetts Enumeration District 9-169, Supervisor's District 10, Sheet 4-1, 1930.

Vanderbilt, Paul, comp. Guide to the Special Collections of Prints and Photographs in the Library of Congress. Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, 1955.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Baldwin Locomotive Works Collection (Engine Registers and Order Books), 1833-1956, (AC0157)

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings, 1870-1890, (AC0353)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990, (AC0523)

Materials Held by the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry

Three images from the collection, including an 1848 daguerreotype image of the locomotive "Tioga", an 1855 daguerreotype image of a locomotive on the Niagara Falls, and a circa 1870 daguerreotype image of a Rome, Watertown, and Ogdensburgh locomotive.

Materials Held by Other Institutions

Thomas Norrell photographic album, and other views of rail transportation in Canada and the United States, circa 1920-1979, R5500-27-4-E, Andrew Audubon Merrilees fonds. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation (now known as the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry) by Thomas Norrell on April 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270. The collection is stored off-site with the exception of the negatives. Some glass plate negatives are broken and may require special handling care.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown, though most images are in the public domain.
Topic:
Railroad companies -- Europe  Search this
Railroad companies -- Africa  Search this
Railroad companies -- North America  Search this
Railroad companies -- South America  Search this
Railroad accidents  Search this
Mine railroads  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Ephemera
Citation:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1174
See more items in:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1174
Online Media:

Thomas McKean

Attribution:
Charles Willson Peale, 15 Apr 1741 - 22 Feb 1827  Search this
Sitter:
Thomas McKean, 19 Mar 1734 - 24 Jun 1817  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Sight: 69.9 x 55.9cm (27 1/2 x 22")
Frame: 82.9 x 70.2 x 5.1cm (32 5/8 x 27 5/8 x 2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
after 1787
Topic:
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Bookcase  Search this
Costume\Hair Accessory\Wig  Search this
Thomas McKean: Male  Search this
Thomas McKean: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas McKean: Politics and Government\Congressman\Continental congressman  Search this
Thomas McKean: Politics and Government\Statesman\Colonial Statesman\Signer of Declaration  Search this
Thomas McKean: Politics and Government\Governor\Pennsylvania  Search this
Thomas McKean: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Delaware  Search this
Thomas McKean: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Pennsylvania  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; transfer from the Smithsonian American Art Museum; gift of the collection of George Buchanan Coale, 1926
Object number:
NPG.66.63
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4527270d1-aa8f-48fc-9c44-d7a4e50fd731
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.66.63

Advances in materials science for environmental and energy technologies IV / edited by Josef Matyáš, Tatsuki Ohji, Gary Pickrell, Winnie Wong-Ng, Raghunath Kanakala

Author:
Materials Science & Technology Conference (2014 : Pittsburgh, Pa.) creator  Search this
Materials Issues in Nuclear Waste Management in the 21st Century (Symposia) (2014 : Pittsburgh, Pa.) contributor  Search this
Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing (Symposia) (6th : 2014 : Pittsburgh, Pa.) contributor  Search this
Nanotechnology for Energy, Healthcare and Industry (Symposia) (2014 : Pittsburgh, Pa.) contributor  Search this
Materials and Processes for CO2 Capture, Conversion, and Sequestraion (Symposia) (2014 : Pittsburgh, Pa.) contributor  Search this
Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments (Symposia) (2014 : Pittsburgh, Pa.) contributor  Search this
Editor:
Matyáš, Josef  Search this
Ohji, T (Tatsuki)  Search this
Pickrell, Gary  Search this
Wong-Ng, W (Winnie)  Search this
Kanakala, Raghunath  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (ix, 220 pages) : illustrations
Type:
Congresses
Electronic books
Conference papers and proceedings
Date:
2015
Topic:
Materials  Search this
Nanostructured materials  Search this
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Engineering (General)  Search this
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Reference  Search this
Call number:
TA401.3
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1136633

Anthracite basins of eastern Pennsylvania : Pottsville to Shamokin, Pennsylvania, July 13-16, 1989 / leaders, Jane R. Eggleston, William E. Edmunds ; contributions by Christopher Wnuk

Author:
Eggleston, Jane R  Search this
Author:
Edmunds, William E  Search this
Wnuk, Christopher  Search this
American Geophysical Union  Search this
International Geological Congress (28th : 1989 : Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (vii, 29 pages) : illustrations
Type:
Guidebooks
Electronic books
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1989
Topic:
Anthracite coal  Search this
Geology  Search this
Call number:
QE157 .E44 1989 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
Use copy Restrictions unspecified
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1131788

Environmental Issues and Waste Management Technologies in the Materials and Nuclear Industries, XII : a collection of papers presented at the 2008 Materials Science and Technology Conference (MS & T08), October 5-9, 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania / edited by Alex Cozzi, Tatsuki Ohji

Author:
International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management Technologies in the Materials and Nuclear Industries (12th : 2008 : Pittsburgh, Pa.)  Search this
Cozzi, Alex (Alex Douglas) 1963-  Search this
Ohji, T (Tatsuki)  Search this
American Ceramic Society  Search this
Materials Science & Technology Conference (2008 : Pittsburgh, Pa.)  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (ix, 310 pages) : illustrations
Type:
Congresses
Electronic books
Conference papers and proceedings
Date:
2009
Topic:
Ceramic industries--Environmental aspects  Search this
Nuclear facilities--Environmental aspects  Search this
Ceramic industries--Waste disposal  Search this
Ceramic materials--Environmental aspects  Search this
Radioactive waste disposal  Search this
Materials science  Search this
Waste minimization  Search this
Refuse and refuse disposal  Search this
Green technology  Search this
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Chemical & Biochemical  Search this
Call number:
TD195.C42 I58 2009 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1126151

Report to the President on the anthracite coal strike of May-October, 1902 by the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission

Author:
United States Anthracite Coal Strike Commission  Search this
Physical description:
257 pages map 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
États-Unis
Pennsylvania
Date:
1903
Topic:
Anthracite Coal Strike, Pa., 1902  Search this
Charbon--Mines et extraction  Search this
Grèves et lock-out  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_953695

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