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Bruce McCandless II Papers

Extent:
29.28 Cubic feet (75 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Correspondence
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Conferences
Date:
1954-2012
Summary:
Bruce McCandless II (1937--2017) was a naval aviator, astronaut, and engineer who was the first human to conduct a spacewalk without a safety tether linked to a spacecraft. The youngest of 19 astronauts selected in 1966, he served as the voice of Mission Control during the Apollo 11 mission in 1969, talking with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their historic walk on the Moon. He helped develop an early maneuvering unit tested on Skylab in 1973-74 and then on the design and testing of the shuttle-era Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). McCandless also had a keen interest in creating tools for extravehicular activity, including a patented connection system that eased tool transport and use in space called the "McTether," which became a standard tool on Shuttle missions. Altogether McCandless logged 5,000 hours in jet aircraft and 312 hours in space. This collection consists of approximately 30 cubic ft of papers, including reports, presentations, notes, office files, photographs and video/film created or collected by Bruce McCandless II. The papers show McCandless' myriad contributions to spaceflight and space science at both NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems, focusing on his contributions to the MMU and inputs to the development of hardware and procedures for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Solar Maximum Repair Mission.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 30 cubic feet of papers, including reports, presentations, notes, office files, photographs and video/film collected by Bruce McCandless II. The papers show McCandless' myriad contributions to spaceflight (with 312 hours in space and the first person to make an untethered spacewalk), and space science at both NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems, focusing on his contributions to the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and inputs to the development of hardware and procedures for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Solar Maximum Repair Mission. Many of the documents are hand annotated.
Arrangement:
This collection is composed of ten series:

Series 1: Personal Material

Series 2: Naval Career

Series 3: Education

Series 4: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Subseries 4.1 STS-41-B

Subseries 4.2: STS-31

Subseries 4.3: Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU)

Subseries 4.4: Hubble Space Telescope

Subseries 4.5: Miscellaneous

Series 5: Post-NASA Career

Subseries 5.1: Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI)

Subseries 5.2: Martin Marietta/Lockheed Martin

Subseries 5.3: Speeches, Presentations and Appearances

Series 6: Awards and Publicity

Series 7: Miscellaneous

Series 8: Photographs, Slides and Negatives

Series 9: Oversize Materials

Series 10: Audiovisual Material
Biographical / Historical:
Bruce McCandless II, astronaut, engineer and inventor, instantly became an icon of human ingenuity on February 7, 1984, when he was photographed free floating in the inky blackness of space, hundreds of feet from the Space Shuttle Challenger, using the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a machine he spent almost twenty years developing during his career at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on June 8, 1937, to Rear Admiral Bruce and Sue McCandless. From a young age, he was interested in science, winning first place in a competition sponsored by the American Chemical Society as a teenager. Upon graduating from Woodrow Wilson High School in Long Beach, California, he enlisted in the Navy, just as his father and grandfather had done previously, both of whom were Medal of Honor recipients. In June of 1958, McCandless earned a Bachelor of Science degree, graduating second in his class from the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland.

After flight training in Pensacola, Florida, and Kingsville, Texas, McCandless got his Navy wings in March of 1960 after six successful solo landings aboard the USS Antietam. While enrolled in additional aviation courses in Memphis, Tennessee, he met Bernice Doyle. A few months later, they married and moved to Key West, Florida, where he received further instruction in the Douglas F4D-1 Skyray. He was assigned first to Fighter Squadron 101, the Grim Reapers, and, later, to Fighter Squadron 102, the Diamondbacks, until February 1964. He saw duty aboard the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) and, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the USS Enterprise (CVA(N)-65). He then served as an instrument flight instructor at the Naval Air Station in Oceana, Virginia. McCandless then reported for duty at the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps Unit at Stanford University where he earned a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering in 1965 and immediately began pursuing his PhD in plasma physics. On April 4, 1966, McCandless left Stanford after finishing all his coursework but without completing a dissertation because, at age 28, he had been selected as the youngest member of NASA's Astronaut Group 5.

Two months later, the McCandless' and their two young children, Bruce III and Tracy, arrived in Houston, Texas. Any hope he had of finishing his dissertation while being an astronaut was quickly dashed by the relentless schedule. Classroom training in subjects such as orbital mechanics, geology, space medicine and navigation were conducted three days a week. The remaining days were reserved for field trips to the Grand Canyon in Arizona, the Kīlauea Iki Crater in Hawaii, the Pinacate Peaks of Mexico, and the volcanoes and ice fields of Iceland, to gain hands-on geology experience. The astronaut trainees also went to Panama and Nevada for survival training. The intensive schedule lasted until September of 1967.

In October 1966, the new recruits received their first technical assignments. McCandless was assigned to the Experiments Branch. In February of 1967, the Experiments Branch became part of the Apollo Application Program (AAP). Around this time, McCandless tested the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU, also sometimes referred to as the M-509 Unit) in a simulator. Developed by the United States Air Force, the AMU was a rocket pack worn over the pressure suit. First used with less-than-ideal results by Eugene Cernan during the Gemini IX-A mission, NASA continued to seek ways to enable astronauts to move efficiently and safely in both the near-vacuum of space and inside increasingly spacious spacecraft. McCandless, NASA's Charles E. "Ed" Whitsett, Jr. and Walter W. "Bill" Bollendonk from Martin Marietta worked on improving this "jet pack" technology for almost two decades. The next iteration was the Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU), which proved to be a distinct improvement and was used during Skylab 3 and 4. The trio eventually won The Collier Trophy in 1984 for the final version, the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU).

In 1969, McCandless served as Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) for the Apollo 10 and 11 missions. His is the voice you hear saying, "Roger, Tranquility. We copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot," in response to Armstrong's announcement that the Eagle had indeed landed on the lunar surface. Subsequent years saw him perform the same role for Apollo 14 (1971) and Skylab 3 and 4 (both in 1973). Additionally, he, along with Russell "Rusty" Schweickart and Story Musgrave, served as the backup crew for Skylab 2.

In 1978, McCandless was assigned to define and evaluate all the astronaut crew operational aspects of the Large Space Telescope, which included on-orbit maintenance. This required him to make countless drives in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at Marshall Space Flight Center and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at Johnson Space Center. The giant pools simulated the microgravity environment of space and allowed him and others to practice repair and servicing techniques in orbit on a mock-up of the telescope, which was eventually renamed the Hubble Space Telescope. By the time Hubble deployed twelve years later, his work ensured that each of the five scientific instruments attached to it were either fully replaceable or serviceable by astronauts during spacewalks. Only the main wiring harness and the primary and secondary mirrors were not designed to be fixed while in space, which would become significant in subsequent years.

In 1979, NASA began testing the newly renamed Manned Maneuvering Unit. Manufactured by Martin Marietta, it snugly fit over an astronaut's pressure suit like a backpack and featured 24 propulsion nozzles fueled by two aluminum nitrogen gas tanks wrapped in Kevlar. The wearer controlled movement with small handles on the armrests that required minimal hand gestures to operate. It was specially constructed to operate in the extreme temperature fluctuations of space. Initially, the MMU was slated for use on the first Shuttle mission to allow the astronauts to inspect and repair any damaged thermal tiles. Due to the brevity of the mission, the crew opted not to use it during their two days in orbit. The following year, McCandless was detailed to the Astronaut Office On-Orbit Branch. In addition to his work on the MMU and servicing Hubble, he also oversees developments on the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), an uncrewed booster rocket used to lift payloads to a higher orbit in space.

On February 3, 1984, McCandless, together with Commander Vance Brand, Pilot Robert L. "Hoot" Gibson, and Mission Specialists Robert L. Stewart and Ronald E. McNair, launched aboard the Challenger on the 11th shuttle mission, STS-41-B. Four days later, McCandless became the first human to ever fly untethered in space, using an MMU. The jet-powered backpack allowed him to travel 4.8 miles a second and venture over 100 yards away from the orbiter. The spacewalk lasted approximately 6 hours. Two months later, the crew of STS-41-C successfully retrieved, repaired, and redeployed the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite while donning MMUs. McCandless was instrumental in the development of the plan to fix the satellite's altitude-control system and white-light coronagraph/polarimeter while still in orbit, thanks to the Trunnion Pin Attachment Device (TPAD). This was the first time a satellite repair was performed in space. The year concluded with McCandless being awarded patent number 4,483,639 for a connection system that simplified and eased the ways in which astronauts could transport and use tools in space without additional connectors. Called the "McTether," it worked easily with spacesuit-gloved hands and became a part of the standard tool kit on Shuttle missions.

McCandless made his final trip into space with STS-31 on April 24, 1990. Also on board the Discovery were Commander Loren Shriver, Pilot Charles Bolden, Jr., and Mission Specialists Steven Hawley and Kathryn Sullivan. The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed into a low-Earth orbit, forever changing how we see the universe. The telescope weighs over 24,000 lbs. and was the largest payload to date. This was documented by an IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) and a hand-held IMAX camera. This footage was used in the IMAX films "Destiny in Space" (1994) and "Hubble 3D" (2010).

On August 31, 1990, Bruce retired from both the Navy and NASA. The very next day, he was on a plane to Munich, Germany, as a consultant for the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). He and eighteen other experts gathered to determine why the images from Hubble were blurry. The problem was determined to be the primary mirror, which was thought to be unrepairable while in space. The Hubble Space Telescope Strategy Panel formulated a plan to fix the primary mirror's spherical aberration (which was later done successfully during 1993's STS-61 mission). In November of 1990, he accepted a position at Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (in 1995, they merged with the Lockheed Corporation to form Lockheed Martin). During his fifteen years there, he was the Chief Scientist in Advanced Launch Systems. He worked on the Orbital Space Plane, the Space Launch Initiative, the Space Transportation Architecture Study, the Orbiter Electric Auxiliary Power Unit, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). He retired from Lockheed on March 31, 2005, but was retained on a consulting basis.

Bruce McCandless II passed away in Los Angeles, California, on December 21, 2017, at the age of 80.

Bruce McCandless II: Awards and Honors

1953 -- Southern California Chemistry Prize

1974 -- Exceptional Service Medal, NASA

1974 -- Victor A. Prather Award, American Astronautical Society

1974 -- American Expeditionary Service Medal

1974, April 18 -- National Defense Service Medal

1984 -- Victor A. Prather Award, American Astronautical Society

1984, March 13 -- Jackson, Mississippi, honorary citizen

1984, September 24 -- American Society of Cinematographers, honorary member

1985, January 30 -- Superior Service Medal, Department of Defense

1985, May 10 -- Collier Trophy, the National Aeronautic Association

1985, October 4 -- The National Air and Space Museum Trophy

1985, October 8 -- Exceptional Engineering Achievement Award, NASA

1986 -- Spirit of St. Louis Medal, American Society of Mechanical Engineers

1987 -- Haley Space Flight Award

1988 -- Legion of Merit

1990 -- Space Flight Medal, NASA

1991 -- Exceptional Service Medal, NASA

2003, March 27 -- Three Certificates of Merit, Lockheed Martin's Intellectual Property Review Board

2005 -- U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame induction

2012 -- Distinguished Graduate Award Medal, the United States Naval Academy.
General:
Below is a list of acronyms that most frequently appear frequently in McCandless' papers.

ACS - Advanced Camera for Surveys

AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AMRV - Astronaut Maneuvering Research Vehicle

AMU - Astronaut Maneuvering Unit/M-509

ASMU - Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit

CAPCOM - Capsule Communication

CCA - Communications Carrier Assembly

CCCD - Crew Compartment Configuration Drawing

CEV - Crew Exploration Vehicle

CFP - Conceptual Flight Profile

CIL - Critical Items List

CIR - Cargo Integration Review

DSO - Detailed Supplementary Objectives

DTO - Development Test Objective

EAPU - Electric Auxillary Power Unit

EMU - Extravehicular Mobility Unit

EVA - Extravehicular Activity

EVCS - Extravehicular Communications System

FAA - Federal Aviation Administration

FIAB - Flight Integration Assessment Baseline

FMEA - Failure Modes Effects Analysis

FOC - Faint Object Camera

FOP - Flight Operations Panel

FRD - Flight Requirements Document

FSS - Flight Support System/Structures

GAPC - Gas Autonomous Payload Controller

GEIA - Global Emissions Initiative

GFE - Government Furnished Equipment

HHMU - Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit

HRSDM - Hubble Robotic Servicing Deorbit Missions

HRVDM - Hubble Robotic Vehicle Deorbit Module

ICBC - IMAX Cargo Bay Camera

IMSS - In-Flight Medical Support System

IRN - Interface Revision Notice

IUS - Inertial Upper Stage

JIMO - Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

JSC - Johnson Space Center

JWST - James Webb Space Telescope

LDRI - Laser Dynamic Range Imager

LIDAR - Light Detection and Ranging

LIDS - Low Impact Docking Station

LON - Launch on Need

MDF - Manipulator Development Facility

MFR - Manipulator Foot Restraint

MLI - Multilayer Insulation

MMS - Multimission Modular Spacecraft

MMU - Manned Maneuvering Unit

MOMS - Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner

MSFC - Marshall Space Flight Center

MXER - Momentum Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost

M&R - Maintenance and Repair or Refurbishment

NBS - Neutral Buoyancy Simulator

NSTS - National Space Transportation System

OFP - Operational Flight Profile

OOSS - On-Orbit Servicer System/Study

ORI - Orbital Replacement Instrument

ORU - Orbital Replacement Unit

ORUC - Orbital Replaceable Unit Carrier

OWG - Operations Working Group

OWS - Skylab Orbital Workshop

PDR - Preliminary Design Review

PFR - Portable Foot Restraint

PIP - Payload Integration Plan

POWG - Payload Operations Working Group

PRM - Primary Deployment Mechanism

PROMS - Programmable Read Only Memory

PRT - Platinum Resistor Thermometer

PRT - Power Rachet Tool

PSIA - Pounds per Square Inch Absolute

RNS - Relative Navigation System

SADA - Solar Array Drive Arm

SAMS - Space Assembly, Maintenance and Servicing

SCAN - Selected Current Aerospace Notices

SCM - Soft Capture Mechanism

SDM - Secondary Deployment Mechanism

SM-4 - Servicing Mission Four

SMM - Solar Maximum Mission

SPAS - Shuttle Pallet Satellites

SRBTVC - Solid Rocket Booster Thrust Vector Control

SSEOP - Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project

SSME - Space Shuttle Main Engine

STIS - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

STS - Space Transportation System

TAODS - Tethered Augmented Orbiter Deorbit System

TPAD - Trunnion Pin Attachment Device

TRDS - Tracking and Data Relay Satellite

TSS - Tethered Satellite System

USIA - United States Information Agency

VGS - Video Guidance Sensor

WETF - Weightless Environmental Training Facility

WF/PC - Wide Field Planetary Camera

WIF - Water Immersion Facilities
Related Materials:
Space Shuttle Discovery from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Space Shuttle Discovery, A20120325000.

The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Manned Maneuvering Unit, A20120325000.

McTether Ratchet Wrench Tool from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: McTether, A20130114000.

McCandless' name tag from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: McCandless' name tag, A19970596000.

Robert J. Collier Trophy from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Collier Trophy, A19520061000.

Sketch of Capsule Communicator Bruce McCandless from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Sketch, A19760552000.

Hubble Space Telescope 1:5 model from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Hubble model, A19830233000.
Provenance:
Bruce and Pati McCandless, III, Gift, 2023, NASM.2023.0036
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Naval aviation  Search this
Manned space flight  Search this
Hubble (Large) Space Telescope  Search this
Apollo Project  Search this
Skylab Program  Search this
Space Shuttle Program (U.S.)  Search this
Military records -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Correspondence
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Conferences
Citation:
Bruce McCandless II Papers, Acc. 2023.0036, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2023.0036
See more items in:
Bruce McCandless II Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg23e5a7688-3a17-4ec7-b939-ea86c9ff8f66
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2023-0036
Online Media:

This Videographer Strikes Gold with a Dwarf Minke Whale

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-02-02T16:30:01.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_3_JZ0F-UFuI

Jake Blount - "Once There Was No Sun" (Official Music Video)

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2022-07-20T13:46:29.000Z
YouTube Category:
Music  Search this
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianfolkways
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianfolkways
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_0hfI8dhgElc

Jake Blount - "Didn't It Rain" (Official Music Video)

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2022-09-19T15:00:55.000Z
YouTube Category:
Music  Search this
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianfolkways
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianfolkways
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_fbFwHDx3wXQ

Love is the Message: An Evening with Arthur Jafa

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-03-16T18:18:23.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_yOYd_IAPIe0

D-Day: Normandy 1944 3D Trailer

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-06-23T14:40:07.000Z
YouTube Category:
Film & Animation  Search this
See more by:
smithsoniantheaters
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution
YouTube Channel:
smithsoniantheaters
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_eCawutT0M7g

Aerobatic Flight

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-08-12T20:33:51.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_qYqs4kCa7NY

Innovative Lives: Beverly Wood

Creator:
Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2023-04-13T19:41:55.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
LemelsonCenter
Data Source:
Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
LemelsonCenter
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_zAqRXpS_Ecw

Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project

Topic:
Marlboro (cigarette brand)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Zinn, Manfredo  Search this
Marx, Dick  Search this
Nunez, Raul  Search this
Winfield, Darrel  Search this
Kwan, William  Search this
Kwong, Goddard  Search this
Adams, Hall  Search this
Landry, Jack  Search this
Arguelles, Rafael  Search this
Fockler, Knut  Search this
Philip Morris, Inc.  Search this
Gil, Felipe  Search this
Jarrard, Tom  Search this
Names:
Leo Burnett, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
17.4 Cubic feet (53 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color slides
Commercials
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Posters
Proofs (printed matter)
Newsletters
Articles
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Brazil -- advertising
Argentina -- advertising
China -- advertising
Hong Kong -- advertising
Switzerland -- advertising
West Germany -- advertising
Dominican Republic -- advertising
Date:
1926-1988
Scope and Contents:
The Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project is the result of a two-year effort supported in part by a gift from Philip Morris, Inc. Sixty oral history interviews and a variety of television commercials, print advertising, promotional materials, packaging, and industry publications were gathered to document Marlboro cigarette advertising. The bulk of the collection focuses on the period between 1954 and 1986, and examines the "Marlboro man", "Settle Back" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns. The collection is a rich source of information for researchers interested in advertising and marketing history, issues of smoking and health, and the export of both tobacco and American cultural symbols abroad. The core of the collection is a series of interviews conducted during 1985-1987 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth, an independent scholar and oral historian. The broad range of interviewees included executives of Philip Morris, advertising agency personnel from Leo Burnett, photographers, production staff, sales and marketing personnel, and Marlboro cowboys. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted overseas, in Argentina, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Hong Kong, Switzerland, and West Germany. Conducted primarily with Marlboro licensee and affiliate staff, the interviews focus on the marketing and advertising history of Marlboro in the six nations. These interviews and others conducted with executives of Philip Morris International in New York City also address the history of Marlboro advertising in Africa, the Middle East, China, Eastern Europe and elsewhere in Europe and Latin America. The interviews cover events from the 1930s through the 1980s. They focus on the theory and development of Marlboro advertising, its content and creation, and its modifications over the years. The foreign interviews also discuss the structure of the local cigarette marketplace, marketing and advertising techniques, and the use and modification of Marlboro advertising for different cultures. Finding aids to the oral histories include abstracts of each interview indicating the major topic discussed, a cumulative index to personal names and topics in the interviews, and brief biographical and scope notes.
Arrangement:
Dthe collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1987

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1986

Series 3; Oral History Interviews, 1986

Series 4: Advertising Materials, 1926-1986

Series 5: Promotional items and packaging, 1926-1986

Series 6: Publications and Research Material, 1960-1988

Series 7: Travel Slides Generated by Project Team, 1926-1986
Biographical / Historical:
The history of Marlboro cigarettes offers insight into one of the great advertising and marketing success stories of the 20th century. Marlboro cigarettes were marketed from the Victorian era through the first half of this century as a women's cigarette, with tag-lines that aimed to appeal to female smokers, such as "Marlboro - Mild As May." In 1955, two transformations occurred which would affect both profitability and brand recognition: the addition of an integrated filter and the re-invention of the market through the debut of the "Marlboro Man" advertising campaign. The original Marlboro Man campaign featured close-up images of all kinds of men using the product -- the cowboy was one, along with lifeguards, sailors, drill sergeants, construction workers, gamblers and other types suggestive of a masculine spirit and rugged independence. By 1963, the "Marlboro Country" campaign began. This campaign focused on the cowboy and his symbolic canon: boots, hats, horses, and western landscapes. By the mid-1980s, Marlboro was the best-selling brand in the United States and the world, and the Marlboro cowboy was among the most widely recognized of American cultural symbols. Sold in over 180 nations, both the cigarettes and the ad campaign had become a global phenomena.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Philip Morris, Inc. in 1986.
Restrictions:
The materials in the Marlboro Collection are made available for research according to the established practices and principles of the Archives Center and the National Museum of American History.
Rights:
In making these materials available for research, the Smithsonian Institution makes no claims of ownership of the copyrights or related rights. All responsibility for infringement of legal authorship rights and or copyright is assumed by the user of the materials. In addition, the user indemnifies and holds harmless the Smithsonian Institution for all claims, actions, damages, judgments and expenses that may result from use of these materials. In addition, the donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction or broadcast of collection materials by third parties. The reproduction or broadcast of print ads and television commercials in the collection is subject to prior written consent from: Nancy Lund, Vice President, Marketing,Philip Morris International, 120 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017;(917) 663-5000
Occupation:
Cinematographers  Search this
Topic:
T.V. commercial producers  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Accountants  Search this
advertising -- Cigarettes -- 20th century  Search this
Cowboys -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising, Newspaper -- 20th century  Search this
Smoking -- 1940-1990  Search this
Travel photography -- 1940-1990  Search this
Photography, Advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising photography  Search this
Advertising campaigns -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarette industry -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarettes -- advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 20th century  Search this
Television advertising -- Cigarettes -- 1940-1990  Search this
Advertising, magazine -- 20th century  Search this
Art directors  Search this
Copy writers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides -- 1960-1990
Commercials
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990
Videotapes
Posters
Proofs (printed matter)
Newsletters
Articles
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0198
See more items in:
Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f7c0f552-962a-4574-bdd1-3955d34fce16
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0198
Online Media:

Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection

Artist:
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Names:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Extent:
196.8 Linear feet
186 Nitrate negatives
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Photographic photoprints
Photographs
Place:
New York, New York
Date:
1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972
Summary:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.
Scope and Contents:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.

Correspondence is with collectors, museums, galleries, artists, friends, family, charity organizations, admirers and those admired by Cornell, and World War II European pen pals. Discussions about the appreciation, donation, sale, purchase, and exhibition of Cornell's works are frequent, with the inclusion of shipping and loan documentation or notices of payment installments. Galleries and museums frequently request that Cornell agree to an exhibition, which he often declines, and fans request free works be mailed or affordable works be sold to them. With friends, artists, and those he admired, Cornell discussed topics that fascinate him, included bits of poetry or philosophical musings, sent clippings or a collaged letter, and occasionally discussed a project or work in process. After World War II, when so many were displaced by the war in Europe, Cornell answered ads for pen pals in the "Christian Science Monitor," often responding to requests for clothing or other goods, and sometimes exchanging many letters over several years. Family correspondence is with his mother, sisters, brother, and others, and often notes activities of the day, foods eaten, and general musings, as well as occasionally mentioning a project or artwork. Correspondents of note include Stan Brakhage, Betty Freeman, Charles Henri Ford, Allegra Kent, Yayoi Kusama, Roberto Matta, Marianne Moore, Octavio Paz, Sonia Sekula, Pavel Tchelitchew, Parker Tyler, Dorothea Tanning, and Betsy von Furstenberg, among others.

Cornell was often preoccupied with his thoughts, feelings, memories, a project or thematic "exploration," and jotted notes on seemingly any surface available. Notes and musings are on napkins, the backs of envelopes, newspaper clippings, and paper bags from record and magazine stores. Frequently, an observation would trigger a lengthy nostalgic moment, or a "feé," fairy-like child or girl, would capture his imagination and lead him to thoughts of 18th-century ballerinas and silent film stars. Cornell wrote longer diary notes, sometimes expanding on an earlier notation or emotion, and often wrote when he experienced trouble sleeping or woke early. Drafted letters to imaginary muses or admired individuals are interspersed among diaries, often revealing Cornell's yearnings to find emotional intimacy and human connection. Over time, Cornell revisited his notes and occasionally made further notations about renewed thoughts on a topic, dating the note with "revisited" or "reviewed." Notes are often written in a stream-of-consciousness style, for example, jumping from the mention of a record album or composer, to a ballerina of the same period, a note about a French poet, the memory of childhood, or an observation made earlier in the day, all in the space of a few lines. Notes about artistic processes or meanings behind works or images do occasionally emerge from the tangled, poetic notations. Notes also often provide insights into Cornell's internal emotional state and give clues about his intentions behind an artwork or a particular thematic fixation.

Financial materials document Cornell's professional and personal business activities, including the sale of artworks, annual expenses for supplies and household incidentals, payments and schedules for personal assistants, receipts for donations to charities and nonprofits, and tax documents. There is also information about who worked as assistants, or "helpers," in his later years and where Cornell purchased art supplies. Additionally, specific details are documented through receipts and invoices, such as what kind of paint he purchased. Estate records include preparations made for Cornell's artworks after his death, and clippings about other deceased artist's estates show that he thought often about such arrangements in his later years.

Exhibition files highlight several select solo exhibitions for Cornell, as well as preparations and planning for the "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" in honor of his brother in 1966. Also included are several early exhibition catalogs and announcements, including "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932) and "Exhibition of Objects (Bibloquet) by Joseph Cornell" (December 6-31, 1939) at the Julien Levy Gallery, and "Romantic Museum: Portraits of Women, Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946) at the Hugo Gallery.

Film projects and collected film materials consist of files related to Cornell's various experimental film projects: "Aviary," "Cappuccino," "Centuries of June," "Fable for Fountains," "Nymphlight," "Serafina's Garden," and unrealized film scenario "Monsieur Phot." Files include film-making notes, correspondence, and photographs. Cornell's interest in film also led him to collect film-related materials, such as film stills, film posters, and screening programs. Scattered correspondence documents the interest other institutions and individuals had in purchasing and viewing his collection. Though most of his collected film stills and movie posters were donated to the Anthology Film Archives, film stills from "Escape Me Never" (1935) and "The Passion of Joan of Arc" (1928) are still within the collection, as well as film-screening programs for Cornell's collection of films.

Writing and design projects document Cornell's work authoring articles and designing issues of specialty dance magazine "Dance Index," and his layouts for popular magazines like "Good Housekeeping," "House and Garden," and "Mademoiselle." Other writing projects include brochures dedicated to opera singers Maria Malibran and Giulia Grisi, "Maria" and "Bel Canto Pet." Materials used for these brochures, such as copper photo engraving plates, are also found. Design work includes a series of Christmas cards created with The Museum of Modern Art as well as traced patterns ("textile tracings") and design clippings from Cornell's time working as a "textile designer" for Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio.

Cornell acquired troves of source material from bookstalls, antique stores, sporting good and department stores, hardware stores, and magazine and record shops. He kept boxes and files of material on admired individuals, such as actresses, artists, dancers, and singers, as well as on art projects or thematic "explorations." Files are on general topics such as American history, scientific phenomena, animals, plants, and humankind, as well as on series of artworks, such as "Castles," "Homage to the Romantic Ballet," and "Medici Slot Machines." Focused "exploration" projects include "Celestial Theatre," "Colombier," "GC 44," and "Switzerland," among others. Materials include photographs, photostats, maps, book fragments, autographed letters, notes, collage clippings and cutouts, collected prints and engravings, box and collage fragments, and scattered artifacts.

Collected ephemera includes large amounts of blank postcards and greeting cards, stamps, collected bus and train tickets, food labels and packaging, decals, and other materials. Artifacts are three-dimensional collected objects and source objects, which include found objects from the streets, dried flowers, and pieces of nature gathered from walks around his neighborhood. Cornell may have gathered materials because they inspired a memory or nostalgic feeling, or because they fit with a bin of other similar objects to select from for an artwork in progress.

Photographs found within the collection are of Cornell at work and as a child with family. Also found are assorted personal and family photographs, photographs of Cornell's attic and garage storage, and photographs of his Utopia Parkway house. Photographs of artwork include few installation photographs, in addition to photographs of Cornell's boxes and collages. Collected photographic materials include vintage photographs, such as tintypes, a cyanotype, stereoscopic glass slides, albumen prints, cabinet cards, and cartes-de-visite. Cornell also collected cased photographs, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and one opalotype. Negatives and photostats were often produced from various prints and even other photographs and used in Cornell's boxes and collages. Images are of men and women, actors, authors, dancers, performers, well-known men and women, royalty, places, and artwork. Photographs of note include those by Hans Namuth of Willem and Lisa de Kooning and of Edward Hopper's bedroom; photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson; a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron; photographs by Brassai; and a photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz from "Camerawork."

Also found in the collection are works of art by others, including a sketch by Pavel Tchelitchew, as well as artwork by Cornell, such as unfinished collages, Rorschach drawings or ink blots, and childhood artwork. Printed material includes assorted bulletins, flyers, exhibition materials for other artists, journals, and sent printed membership and charity materials. Magazines, including "View," are also included, and often have annotations by Cornell or a note to "cut" or "review" with page numbers. A large amount of magazine and newspaper clippings are in the collection, sometimes collected with a group of like material by Cornell, and at other times simply gathered in heaps. Occasional annotations are also found on the clippings.

Cornell's personal library and book collection includes over 2500 titles, ranging from fiction, poetry, and cinema, to history, science, and travel. Notable among the titles are "Baedeker's" travel guides that Cornell often sourced for his "Hotel" box series, as well as an influential publication by Max Ernst, "La Femme 100 têtes," which includes a typed letter and exhibition flyer tucked within. Books often have annotations, some fairly extensive, by Cornell, and assorted collected items, notes, and correspondence tucked between pages. Pages were often cut by Cornell, either to make photostats and use in a box, or to file with other thematic "explorations." A wide range of authors and topics provide insight into Cornell's interests and to ideas behind artwork and diary notes. Cornell's collection of record albums includes over 145 records. These contain inserted notes and clippings and are often referenced in diary notes Cornell made, noting a recent album or song listened to while at work in his studio.

The papers of Cornell's mother, Helen Storms Cornell, and his brother, Robert Cornell, are also included in the collection. Both lived with Cornell his whole life, spending the most time with him at their home at 3708 Utopia Parkway. Financial materials document shared responsibilities for billing, utilities, household fixes and chores, and expenditures, and Helen kept detailed financial records in a series of ledgers. Robert notes when he borrowed money from Cornell, or when he means to pay Cornell back for the purchase of a typewriter. Activities documented in diaries also occasionally cross paths with Cornell, noting his visitors or an exchange of letters continued after introductions through Cornell. Personal activities, such as Robert's interest in his train collection and his drawing projects and cartoon series, are also documented.
Arrangement:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection is arranged into 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1972 (Boxes 1, 98, OV118; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1813, 1934-circa 1973 (Boxes 1-8, 86; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Notes, 1940-1976 (Boxes 8-10, 98-99, 135, OV108, OV119; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business and Estate Records, 1950-1978 (Boxes 10-14; 4.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1932-1973 (Box 14; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Film Projects and Collected Film Materials, circa 1924-1972 (Boxes 14-16, 100, 133; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Writing and Design Projects, circa 1910s, 1936-1962 (Boxes 16-18, 86, 100, 131-132, OV109-OV111, OV120-OV122; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Source Material, 1750-circa 1911, 1926-1972 (Boxes 19-49, 86-92, 96, 100-105, 126-130, 132-137, OV112-OV115, OV125; 42.2 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, 1768, circa 1839-1972 (Boxes 49-52; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1800s-1972 (Boxes 52-56, 80-86, 93, 106, 128, 133, OV116, OV123-OV124; 7.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1810-1972 (Boxes 56-57, 107, OV117; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1855-1972 (Boxes 57-76, 94-96, 107; 16 linear feet)

Series 13: Book Collection and Personal Library, 1722-1980 (99.8 linear feet)

Series 14: Record Album Collection, circa 1925-1974 (3.2 linear feet)

Series 15: Cornell Family Papers, 1910-1980 (Boxes 77-79, 97, 107; 3.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) was a self-taught assemblage and collage artist, and filmmaker, active in New York City. He was born in Nyack, New York on December 24, 1903, and died of heart failure at his home in Queens, New York on December 29, 1972. The oldest of four children, he was born Joseph I. Cornell to his mother, Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), and his father, Joseph I. Cornell (1875-1917). Cornell had two younger sisters, Elizabeth ("Betty") Cornell Benton (1905-2000) and Helen ("Sissy") Cornell Jagger (1906-2001), as well as one brother, Robert Cornell (1910-1965), who had cerebral palsy.

Cornell attended the Phillips Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, beginning shortly after his father's death in 1917. He attended for four years but did not receive a diploma, and soon began work as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in Manhattan. His work took him, by foot, through the city, visiting secondhand bookshops on Fourth Avenue, browsing music stores and magazine shops, and catching early shows at the Metropolitan Opera House. He would occasionally wait outside the stage doors for favorite singers and dancers to emerge, requesting signatures on photographs or bits of costumes.

Around 1926, Cornell joined the Christian Science Church, joined by his brother Robert shortly thereafter, and both continued to be lifelong members. Cornell kept a number of books in his personal library on Christian Science teachings and regularly subscribed to "The Christian Science Monitor."

After living in several rental houses in Bayside, New York, Cornell's mother purchased a house for the family in 1929 in Flushing, Queens. Cornell, along with his mother and brother, would live at 3708 Utopia Parkway, for the rest of their lives. His two sisters soon married and moved away, eventually settling in Westhampton, Long Island and in the poultry-farming business.

With no formal art training to speak of, Cornell's first work was a Max Ernst-inspired collage, "Untitled (Schooner)," created in 1931. He was especially inspired by Ernst's collage novel, "La Femme 100 têtes," published in 1929. French artist Odilon Redon was also among the few artists Cornell named as an influence on his art. His first sculptural works were small, cardboard pill boxes with bits of ephemera, costume adornments, and nature hidden inside. Cornell also created a series of glass bell jar works, placing small trinkets and Victorian-era-like compositions within. It was these early collages and bell jar works that were included in Cornell's debut exhibition, "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932), a group show at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell designed the announcement for the show and exhibited alongside Max Ernst, Man Ray, Pierre Roy, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Atget, George Platt Lynes, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dalí. Months later, Cornell was invited to have his first solo show, "Objects by Joseph Cornell: Minutiae, Glass Bells, Shadow Boxes, Coups d'Oeil, Jouets Surréalistes" (November 26-December 30, 1932), also at the Julien Levy Gallery.

In 1932, after eleven years of work, Cornell was laid off from the William Whitman Company due to the Great Depression. Soon after, he took on more responsibility in the church, working part-time as an attendant in the Christian Science Reading Room in Great Neck, New York. Beginning in 1933, he taught Sunday school classes for three years and in 1935, became the Sunday school librarian. However, his religious activities and artistic ventures continued to remain separate.

In the early 1930s, Cornell progressed from movie lover to filmmaker. When Julien Levy began his New York Film Society in 1933, holding screenings of various experimental films in the gallery, Cornell began buying and collecting films and film stills in earnest. He set up a 16-millimeter projector in his home to screen favorites, such as those by Georges Méliès, D.W. Griffith, and Louis Feuillade. His collection quickly grew to over 2,500 film stills and several hundred films, and included silent era films, such as nature documentaries, goofy newsreels, travelogues, early cartoons, and slapstick comedies, as well as several feature films. In 1933, Cornell wrote a screenplay, or "scenario," entitled "Monsieur Phot." Between 1935 and 1937, Cornell also occasionally created publicity photomontages for Universal and Columbia studios. Of the nearly thirty films Cornell created, periods of activity can generally be separated into two areas: collage films of the late 1930s, consisting of combined elements from films in his own collection, and films he directed in the 1950s, which were collaborations with other filmmakers set in New York City. "Rose Hobart," Cornell's most celebrated collage film, was created and shown in the Julien Levy Gallery in 1936 and includes clipped footage from "East of Borneo." Later films were directed and filmed with cinematographers Stan Brakhage, Rudy Burckhardt, and Larry Jordan.

In 1934, Cornell began a job at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio as a "textile designer," a job he held for six years. Continuing to work at his kitchen table in the evenings, Cornell completed his first assemblage box construction, "Untitled (Soap Bubble Set)," in 1936. It was first exhibited at The Museum of Modern Art's show, "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" (December 9, 1936-January 17, 1937). This work was also the first to be acquired by a museum, purchased for $60.00 by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut in 1938. Cornell's European debut was also in 1938, as one of three Americans represented in the "Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" (January 17-Febuary 24, 1938) at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris, alongside Man Ray and Anne Clark.

At the end of 1939, Cornell began corresponding with poet Charles Henri Ford, founder of avant-garde magazine "View," Pavel Tchelitchew, and Parker Tyler. After his "Soap Bubble Sets," this period saw the development of Cornell's homages to singers and actresses, including "Untitled (Fortune-Telling Parrot for Carmen Miranda)," the destroyed "Garbo (Greta Garbo in the Legendary Film 'The Crystal Mask,' c. 1845)," and "Dressing Room for Gilles." He also began using photostats of art reproduction prints, as with the print of Jean Antoine-Watteau's painting, "Pierrot" (circa 1719), used in his "Gilles" box.

In the 1940s, the Romantic ballet emerged as Cornell's new topic of interest. Through his friend Pavel Tchelitchew, Cornell was introduced to the School of American Ballet and New York City Ballet founders, Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine. Cornell collected dance memorabilia and had a great love of the Romantic ballet. His favorite dancers were primarily ballerinas of the nineteenth century, including Fanny Cerrito, Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Lucille Grahn, and Carlotta Grisi. Cornell's "Homage to the Romantic Ballet" works largely took the shape of jewel-box style wooden boxes with glass overlays and included bits of velvet, tulle, sequins, crystals, and chiffon, occasionally collected from dancers themselves. His most well-known work of this series is "Taglioni's Jewel Casket" (1940). Cornell also admired several living ballet dancers, including Tamara Toumanova, Zizi Jeanmaire, and Allegra Kent, who would all make their way into Cornell's box works and/or collages. Collecting for the "exploration," "Portrait of Ondine," Cornell's cased portfolio dedication to Fanny Cerrito and her role in the ballet "Ondine," began in the 1940s, though not completed until around 1960.

In late 1940, Cornell quit his job at Traphagen to concentrate on freelance commercial magazine design and editorial work during the day and his artwork at night. That same year, Charles Henri Ford started "View" magazine to promote Surrealists and Neo-Romantics in New York City and often asked Cornell to contribute. Published in the December 1941-January 1942 issue, one of his early contributions was a collage dedication to stage actress Hedy Lamarr: "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (1941). Along with writing the accompanying text, he created a photomontage of Lamarr with her face overlaying the painted portrait of a Renaissance boy by Italian painter Giorgione. Peggy Guggenheim, at the advice of Marcel Duchamp, purchased multiple Cornell works prior to opening her new gallery, Art of This Century. Cornell also befriended Roberto Matta Echaurren, another Surrealist living in exile, who introduced him to Robert Motherwell.

After deciding to fully dedicate his time to his art in early 1940, he set up a studio in his basement. Complete with floor-to-ceiling wooden shelving, he kept his large collection of boxed source material stacked with handwritten labels in cardboard boxes. Themed folders of materials such as "Stamps" or "Maps" were kept in stacks and works in progress and finished works were stored in the basement, garage, and attic. Entering a renewed period of productivity, Cornell embarked on many new and important box projects in 1942. One of the first boxes created in his new basement studio, and the first of the "Penny Arcade" or "Medici Slot Machine" series, was "Medici Slot Machine" (1942), which includes a photostat of "Portrait of Marquess Massimiliano Stampa" (1557) by Sofonisba Anguissola. Another work from this time is the first of his "Castle" or "Palace" series, "Setting for a Fairy Tale" (1942), which uses a photostat of a French building from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's book, "Les Plus excellents bastiments de France" (1576). "Untitled (Pharmacy)" (circa 1942) was the first of his "Pharmacy" series and included twenty-two apothecary jars. Cornell tended to work in series and created thirteen "Palace" boxes between 1942 and 1951, and ultimately created six "Pharmacy" works.

In 1943, Cornell began working at an electronics company, the Allied Control Company, Inc., to do his part to contribute to the defense effort during the war. He also sent correspondence and care packages to displaced Europeans, who listed their needs in "The Christian Science Monitor." Influenced by World War II, one of his strongest works to emerge in 1943 was "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery." Another notable work to come out of this period, "The Crystal Cage (Portrait of Berenice)," was an excerpt from one of his album "explorations" that was published in the January 1943 issue of "View."

Cornell left his job at Allied Control in 1944, but soon began working at the Garden Centre in Flushing, owned by a fellow Christian Scientist. Cornell was often nostalgic for this time in his life, devoting an entire "exploration" of material fondly remembered as "GC 44." He rode a bicycle to work and enjoyed collecting trips gathering dried grasses, driftwood, shells, and other relics of nature on the same bicycle as he rode through the streets of Queens. During this time, he continued to tend to his projects for "Dance Index," a magazine founded in 1942 by Lincoln Kirstein, but taken over by Donald Windham in 1944. Cornell designed several covers for the magazine and was given control of the entire summer 1944 issue, which he devoted to the Romantic ballet. He also devoted a special 1945 issue to Hans Christian Andersen, making great use of the New York Public Library Picture Collection.

Throughout the 1940s, Cornell continued to support himself with commercial design work for magazines like "Vogue," "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar," "Town & Country," and "Mademoiselle." In 1946, after thirteen years at the Julien Levy Gallery, he joined the Hugo Gallery. In December 1946, Cornell's solo exhibition, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell," celebrated his favorite movie stars, singers, and ballet dancers, and included his work created for the show, "Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall)." Cornell's "Greta Garbo" box, as well as "Souvenir for Singleton," an homage to Jennifer Jones and her role in the film "Love Letters," were also included in the show. In late 1948, his West Coast debut was in the exhibition, "Objects by Joseph Cornell," held at the Copley Gallery. The end of the 1940s saw the final issue of "View" magazine in 1947, the closure of the Julien Levy Gallery in April 1949, and Cornell's departure from the Hugo Gallery after his last show in November 1949.

In late 1949, Cornell joined the Charles Egan Gallery, known primarily for showing Abstract Expressionists. At this time, Cornell was working on a new series of boxes known as his "Aviary" works, most of which include a white-painted box with cutouts of birds mounted on wood. Though he had worked on bird-related boxes before, including an "Owl" series in the mid-1940s, his "Fortune Telling Parrot" (1939), and "Object 1941" (1941), these newer works were stripped of French elements and left "clean and abstract" by design. His first show at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 7, 1949-January 7, 1950), included twenty-six "Aviary" works, nearly all created in 1949. Donald Windham agreed to write the foreword for the exhibition catalog, a single folded sheet, and Cornell gave him one of the boxes in the show, "Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet," in appreciation. Through the Egan Gallery, Cornell became friends with a new group of artists, including Franz Kline, Jack Tworkov, and Willem de Kooning. Cornell also held two screenings of a selection of his collected films at Subjects of the Artist, an art school founded by Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, David Hare, and William Baziotes.

In 1950, Cornell's second show at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other New Work" (December 1, 1950-January 13, 1951), introduced his new "Observatory" series. These works are largely defined by stark, whitewashed spaces with astronomical charts and constellations replacing colorful birds. The Museum of Modern Art purchased its first Cornell work from this show in early 1951, "Central Park Carrousel, in Memoriam" (1950).

For three months in 1951, Cornell was beset by various ailments and had trouble finding the energy to create new work. He worried more for his aging mother and the health of his brother. After a monthlong vacation with his sisters in Westhampton, he returned with renewed interest in Emily Dickinson's poetry. His whitewashed boxes took on a new form in his newest "Dovecote" series, using grids and circular cutouts. The works then transformed into homages to Dickinson, notably "Toward the Blue Peninsula: For Emily Dickinson" (circa 1953), and then to his "Hotel" series. Cornell's "Hotel" boxes include photostats of vintage European ads for hotels collected from vintage travel guides, especially "Baedeker's," adhered to the back walls of the boxes. Another new series of work, his "Juan Gris" series, was dedicated to Cubist artist Juan Gris. Between 1953 and the mid-1960s, Cornell created at least fifteen "Juan Gris" boxes, which often include a cutout of a white cockatoo in a Cubist-collage habitat. Cornell's third and last show at Egan Gallery, "Night Voyage" (February 10-March 28, 1953), included some of these newest works. After leaving Egan Gallery, his work was introduced to Chicago collectors in a solo show at the Frumkin Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: 10 Years of His Art" (April 10-May 7, 1953), which included nearly thirty pieces. Cornell's first museum retrospective was this same show held at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis (July 12-August 30, 1953).

As New York City continued to change, Cornell grew more nostalgic for the city he had explored since the 1920s. The impending closure of the Third Avenue El train prompted him to dream up a film project to capture its last days, resulting in "Gnir Rednow," a reworking of Stan Brakhage's 1955, "Wonder Ring." During this time, Cornell joined the Stable Gallery, run by Eleanor Ward, interacting often with Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Joan Mitchell, remaining there until the end of the 1950s. His astronomy-themed exhibition, "Winter Night Skies" (December 12, 1955-January 13, 1956), included his "Night Skies" series of work with celestial chart fragments, Greek mythological figures, and paint-splattered "windows" representative of star-filled night skies. In 1956, he became aware of ballerina Allegra Kent, and began a series of work devoted to her, the first of which was "Via Parmigianino (Villa Allegra)" (1956), which included a photostat of a painting by Parmigianino, "The Madonna of the Long Neck" (circa 1540). In late 1957, after two years, Cornell had his last show at Stable Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: Selected Works" (December 2-31, 1957), consisting of a series of "Sand Fountain" boxes and "Space Object" or "Celestial Navigation" works. The "Sand Fountain" boxes included different colors of sand meant to flow within, often from the tops into cordial glasses. His "Celestial Navigations" included galaxy-like compositions set within the boxes, with rolling, painted cork balls, metal rings, and constellation charts, sometimes hovering over cordial glasses or clay pipes. This last Stable Gallery show earned him his first published profile, written by Howard Griffin for the December 1957 issue of "Art News." Also in 1957, he won the Kohnstamm Prize for Construction at the Art Institute of Chicago's 62rd Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture.

Towards the end of the 1950s, Cornell spent less time creating new bodies of work, and focused more on revisiting previous series and reviewing piles of collected source material. In 1959, Cornell returned to making collages, frequently sourcing popular magazines. In December 1959, Cornell was awarded $1,500 for his "Orion" collage, entered in the Art Institute of Chicago's "63rd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture." Also in December, he was offered a show at Bennington College in Vermont, which he titled, "Bonitas Solstitialis: Selected Works by Joseph Cornell and an exploration of the Colombier" (November 20-December 15, 1959). The show included one of his newest "explorations" of collected material related to "colombier," or pigeon houses.

By 1962, Cornell was working diligently on new collages, using Masonite boards and colorful magazine clippings. He also began creating collages using nude images interspersed with constellation clippings or hazy blue dyes. As in previous decades and art movements, Cornell became acquainted with new artists, spending less time in the city and more time hosting visitors at his Utopia Parkway home. Visitors included artists Walter De Maria, Robert Whitman, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and Robert Indiana. Tony Curtis also became a frequent visitor and friend, introduced by Richard Feigen in 1964. The early 1960s was also the first time Cornell put out an advertisement for assistants in the "Long Island Star-Journal," employing a number of young men and women who helped organize clippings and run errands. Cornell also met Joyce Hunter, a young runaway waitress at a city coffee shop, who would occupy his thoughts and diary notes for the next several years. When she was murdered at the end of 1964, Cornell paid for her funeral. He went on to make several "Penny Arcade" collages in memoriam to her, including, "Penny Arcade (re-autumnal)" (1964).

In 1964, Cornell began friendships with several women including artist Carolee Schneeman, who was his first assistant in the early 1960s. He also met artist Yayoi Kusama through art dealer Gertrude Stein. After becoming friends, she visited him often and they exchanged letters and notes. As he did with other artist friends, Cornell supported her by purchasing several of her early watercolor paintings, and they stayed connected until his death in 1972.

Cornell's life greatly changed in 1965 with the death of his brother, Robert. By this time, his mother lived with his sister in Long Island, and Cornell was alone in the Utopia Parkway house for the first time. He exchanged frequent letters and phone calls with his mother and devoted much time to thinking about Robert and Joyce, often aligning them in his diary notations. Cornell also created a series of collages dedicated to his brother's memory, incorporating photostats of Robert's hundreds of drawings into Cornell's work, as with the later collage, "The Heart on the Sleeve" (1972). Cornell's "Time Transfixed" series of collages were also dedications to Robert's memory, referencing Magritte and Robert's love of trains. He mounted an exhibition, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" (January 4-29, 1966), at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, where he showed Robert's artwork alongside his newly created collage dedications.

After Robert's death, Cornell relied more heavily on assistants, going through many part-time "helpers." In October 1966, Cornell's mother died, adding her to his constant thoughts and diaries. Though he was still grieving, he was given two major retrospectives in 1967. The first was at the Pasadena Art Museum, put on by James Demetrion and Walter Hopps, "An Exhibiton of Works by Joseph Cornell" (January 9-February 11, 1967). The second retrospective was at the Guggenheim Museum just three months later, "Joseph Cornell" (May 4-June 35, 1967), organized by Diane Waldman. After these shows, he was highlighted in the December 15, 1967 issue of "Life" in the article, "The Enigmatic Bachelor of Utopia Parkway."

In 1968, Cornell was given an "award of merit," which included a medal and $1,000, by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also given a medal and $1,000 by the Brandeis University Creative Arts Awards in the painting category, along with an exhibition. Days later, "The New York Times" announced Cornell the winner, along with Donald Judd, of India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art. The Brandeis exhibition, "Boxes and Collages by Joseph Cornell" (May 20-June 23, 1968), was organized by William Seitz and concentrated on Cornell's more recent 1960s collages. Cornell was also included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's hundredth anniversary show, "New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940 to 1970" (October 18, 1969-February 1, 1970), where twenty-two of Cornell's boxes were shown in their own gallery. At the end of 1970, Cornell was given a solo show at the Metropolitan, "Collages by Joseph Cornell" (December 10, 1970-January 24, 1971), which included forty-five of his newest collages.

Now preferring to stay closer to his home in Flushing, Cornell was more interested in sharing his art with young adults and children, than an adult audience. He hosted a group of high school students, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art's education department, at his home in conjunction with his collage show (1970-1971). He also showed his work in the art department of Queens College of the City University of New York. Cornell still hosted visitors on occasion, having Yoko Ono and John Lennon at his home at least once. Leila Hadley, Betsy von Furstenberg, and Anne Jackson also made frequent visits. With his deteriorating health, Cornell worried about what would happen to his work after his death and hired lawyer Harry Torczyner to help him plan his estate and get his affairs in order.

In 1972, Cornell had a show at the Cooper Union, a college in New York, specifically for children. He displayed his boxes and collages at child-height and had cherry soda and brownies at the opening reception on February 10. He then held a show at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, also for children: "Children's Preview of the Exhibition of Joseph Cornell – Collages and Boxes (April 18-June 17, 1972). In the winter of 1972, at the request of the Phoenix House drug treatment and prevention program, Cornell contributed to a charity project compiling limited-edition lithographic prints for a portfolio, which included artists like David Hockney, James Rosenquist, and Ellsworth Kelly.

On December 29, 1972, a week after turning sixty-nine, Cornell died of heart failure at his home. He was cremated and interred near the graves of his mother, father, and brother, overlooking the Hudson River in Nyack, New York.

Works Cited:

1. Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination." New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press, 2007. Exhibition Catalog.

2. McShine, Kynaston. "Joseph Cornell." New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.

3. San Francisco Cinematheque and The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Joseph Cornell: Films." 2007. Exhibition Program. (Presented in conjunction with SFMOMA's exhibition of "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination").

4. Schaffner, Ingrid and Lisa Jacobs. "Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery." Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1998.

5. Solomon, Deborah. "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell." New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
Separated Materials:
The Smithsonian Archives of American Art houses the Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972.
Provenance:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection was donated to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by Joseph Cornell's sister and brother-in-law, Elizabeth Cornell Benton and John A. Benton, in 1978, which prompted the creation of the Joseph Cornell Study Center. Additional materials were donated in installments by the artist's estate, the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation, from 1985 to 1997. Elizabeth and John A. Benton originally donated 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books to the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, which were subsequently transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Joseph Cornell Study Center in 1994 and 1995.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection requires an advanced appointment. Contact collection staff at least two weeks prior to preferred date, at AmericanArtCornellStudy@si.edu.

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, Series 13: Personal Library and Book Collection, and Series 14: Record Album Collection, are still undergoing processing and preservation and may not be available for research use. Record albums are unavailable for playback. Contact collection staff for full lists of publications and record albums.
Rights:
Unpublished materials are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.
Occupation:
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1860-1870 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Cartes-de-visite
Photographs -- Daguerreotypes -- 1840-1860
Citation:
Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Identifier:
SAAM.JCSC.1
See more items in:
Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Research and Scholars Center
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ih7d97fc249-474d-41bf-953d-5305df1e4c06
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-saam-jcsc-1

Arthur Jafa, Steve Coleman, and surprise performance by Kokayi- Hirshhorn Museum

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-01-31T22:28:31.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_F5o8gcrrCxM

Charles B. Lang photographs

Creator:
Lang, Charles B.  Search this
Extent:
11 Glass plate negatives
1 Photographic print (gelatin silver.)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographic prints
Photographs
Gelatin silver prints
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Bluff (Utah)
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.)
Monument Valley (Ariz. and Utah)
Date:
1903
Summary:
This collection contains 11 glass plate negatives and 1 gelatin silver print taken by Charles B. Lang in 1903. The images depict views of Chinle Canyon, Canyon de Chelly, Monument Valley in Arizona and a Navajo silversmith in Bluff, Utah.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 11 glass plate negatives and 1 gelatin silver print that were shot by Charles B. Lang in 1903. The images depict landscapes in Utah and Chinle Valley and Monument Valley in Arizona. The photographs also depict explorers in these environs. Two photographs depict a Diné (Navajo) silversmith working.
Arrangement note:
Glass plate negatives: organized in boxes; arranged by image number.

Duplicate negatives: organized in individual sleeves; arranged by image number.

Print: organized in folder.
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles B. Lang (1871-1935?) was a photographer who worked in the American Southwest. Originally from Pittsburgh, Lang worked with rancher and amateur archaeologist Richard Wetherill and later with Frederick Starr in Mexico. After 1910, he was employed as a technician in a film lab in Los Angeles. Lang is the father of renowned cinematographer Charles B. Lang Jr.
Provenance:
Museum purchase from R. Stenzel with funds from Harmon Hendricks, 1920.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Gelatin silver prints
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Charles B. Lang photographs, image #, NMAI.AC.048; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.048
See more items in:
Charles B. Lang photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45c37438a-6269-4a01-a680-cf0807560cca
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-048
Online Media:

James Wong Howe

Artist:
George Hurrell, 1 Jun 1904 - 17 May 1992  Search this
Sitter:
James Wong Howe, 28 Aug 1899 - 12 Jul 1976  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet/Mount: 33 × 25.5 cm (13 × 10 1/16")
Mat: 71.1 × 55.9 cm (28 × 22")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1942
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Lighting Devices\Spot Light  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
James Wong Howe: Male  Search this
James Wong Howe: Performing Arts\Performing arts director\Film director  Search this
James Wong Howe: Performing Arts\Cinematographer  Search this
James Wong Howe: Oscar  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.89.191
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
Star Power: Photographs from Hollywood’s Golden Age by George Hurrell
On View:
NPG, South Gallery 120
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46ed722aa-51d0-4ead-83a7-47c45ffd7122
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.89.191

Semana de cine documental y de cortometraje mexicano (Week of Mexican Documentary Cinema and Short Film)

Designer:
Paul René Azcuy Cárdenas, Cuban, b. 1939  Search this
Client:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Publisher:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Medium:
Screenprint on wove paper
Dimensions:
75.9 x 50.2 cm (29 7/8 x 19 3/4 in.)
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Cuba
Date:
1976
Credit Line:
Museum purchase from Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program Fund and through gift of Anonymous Donors
Accession Number:
1994-65-1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq492643fb3-73a3-4a52-8333-f558bd8d6c24
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-65-1
Online Media:

Russian Film

Designer:
Antonio Fernández Reboiro, Cuban, b. 1935  Search this
Client:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Publisher:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Medium:
Screenprint on wove paper
Dimensions:
76.2 x 51.1 cm (30 in. x 20 1/8 in.)
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Cuba
Date:
1973
Credit Line:
Museum purchase from Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program Fund and through gift of Anonymous Donors
Accession Number:
1994-65-10
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4f557b119-06d2-47fa-9b00-9295c773396d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-65-10
Online Media:

Puerto Rico

Client:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Designer:
Silvio, Cuban  Search this
Publisher:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Medium:
Silkscreen on wove paper
Dimensions:
Sheet: 76.5 x 51.1 cm (30 1/8 x 20 1/8 in.)
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Cuba
Date:
1975
Credit Line:
Museum purchase from Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program Fund and through gift of Anonymous Donors
Accession Number:
1994-65-11
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4d4f43bf0-16ea-4b36-a7be-5d7ec2905daa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-65-11
Online Media:

La última cena (The Last Supper)

Artist:
Paul René Azcuy Cárdenas, Cuban, b. 1939  Search this
Client:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Publisher:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Medium:
Screenprint on wove paper
Dimensions:
76.2 x 50.5 cm (30 in. x 19 7/8 in.)
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Cuba
Date:
1977
Credit Line:
Museum purchase from Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program Fund and through gift of Anonymous Donors
Accession Number:
1994-65-2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq461f14a46-2ecf-4692-9d26-9c4309533c64
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-65-2
Online Media:

El reo necesario (The Necessary Offender)

Designer:
Eduardo Muñoz Bachs, Spanish, 1937 - 2001  Search this
Client:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Publisher:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Medium:
Screenprint on wove paper
Dimensions:
76.5 x 50.8 cm (30 1/8 in. x 20 in.)
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Cuba
Date:
1973
Credit Line:
Museum purchase from Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program Fund and through gift of Anonymous Donors
Accession Number:
1994-65-3
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq497a018a8-5989-4405-8e77-c140eaf37159
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-65-3
Online Media:

No hay regreso para Johnny (There is No Return for Johnny)

Designer:
Eduardo Muñoz Bachs, Spanish, 1937 - 2001  Search this
Client:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Publisher:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Medium:
Screenprint on wove paper
Dimensions:
76.2 x 50.8 cm (30 x 20 in.)
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Havana, Cuba
Date:
1971
Credit Line:
Museum purchase from Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program Fund and through gift of Anonymous Donors
Accession Number:
1994-65-4
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq452b024d6-7c5b-43dc-a138-db3c570fdd7b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-65-4
Online Media:

Retrospectiva de la Cinematografia (Cinematography Retrospective)

Client:
The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC), Cuba  Search this
Designer:
Julio Eloy Mesa Pérez, Cuban, b.1943  Search this
Medium:
Silkscreen on wove paper
Dimensions:
Other: 75.2 x 50.8 cm (29 5/8 x 20 in.)
Mat: 91.6 x 71.8 cm (36 1/16 x 28 1/4 in.)
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Cuba
Date:
1979
Credit Line:
Museum purchase from Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program Fund and through gift of Anonymous Donors
Accession Number:
1994-65-5
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq439647182-1fd5-4eb4-924f-91e38fdd2fc0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-65-5
Online Media:

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