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William Abel Caudill papers

Creator:
Caudill, William A.  Search this
Extent:
24 Linear feet
Culture:
Japanese  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
East Asia
North America
Date:
circa 1950 - circa 1965
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of Japanese material, including: 1. general material on Japanese society and culture; 2. Japanese culture and personality studies; 3. Japanese medicine and psychiatry; 4. family and child rearing; 5. hospital studies; 6. autobiography of a mental patient, 7. nurses study and other material, including 8. biographical material; 9. Chippewa material; 10. study of a ward of a mental hospital; 11 drafts of writings; 12. reprints and papers; 13 miscellaneous printed and processed material.

The papers include both reference materials and original notes relating to many of the research activities with which Caudill was involved, and they also include general reference materials. There is, however, little or no material relating directly to Caudill's early studies of Japanese Americans nor notes or material relating to the administration of psychological tests relating to Japanese values or changing patterns of emotion. The material relating to research on Japanese child rearing appears to be significant but limited in quantity.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Biographical Note:
William Abel Caudill studied at the University of Chicago (Ph.D., 1950). His speciality was culture and personality, and he had a considerable amount of practical experience in human relations and in work with mental patients. In the latter, he was especially interested in culturally determined aspects of mental illness and treatment in Japan. His professional employment included an instructorship at Yale University (1950-1952), faculty positions with the Department of Social Relations at Harvard University (1952-1960), appointment as a research associate in the Department of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School, and chief of the Personality and Environment Section, Laboratory of Socioenvironmental Studies, United States National Institute of Mental Helath (1960-1962).

Caudill's earliest research were psychological studies carried out in 1946 with the Chippewa Indians of Lac du Flambeau. In 1947-1949, as one of a team of social scientisits, he carried on investigations of the social and personal adjustment of Japanese Americans who had moved to Chicago following release from internment during World War II. In 1950-1952, again as one of a team, he studied the social structure and interaction among patients of a ward of a mental hospital and the relationship between emotional disorder and social class.

Beginning in 1954, Caudill made a series of journeys to Japan in order to carry on research. In 1954-1955, he studied the relationship between American soldiers and Japanese communities. He also began a study of psychiatry as practiced in Japan. This work included visits to many Japanese hospitals and also a study of changing Japanese values. In 1958-1959, his studies focused on three small psychiatric hospitals with contrasting theoretical orientations and methods of treatment. He also carried out studies of psychoanalysis in Japan, Morita therapy, and other aspects of Japanese treatments; patterns of emotion; and a general study of nurses of two hospitals. In 1961, he began investigation of Japnaese child-rearing practices.
Restrictions:
Some materials may be restricted for privacy reasons.

Access to the William Abel Caudill papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Psychiatry  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Citation:
William Abel Caudill papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0306
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw321547022-33c3-4ca2-82e3-6e64ea2c4ec3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0306

Betty Bailey Lanham papers

Creator:
Lanham, Betty Bailey, 1922-  Search this
Extent:
15.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Japan
Guyana
Date:
1967
Scope and Contents:
Lanham's material consists of replies to a questionnaire related to a study of methods of enforcing behavior. Data were obtained from persons in the United States, Guyana, and Japan.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Restrictions:
The Betty Bailey Lanham papers are open for research.

Access to the Betty Bailey Lanham papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Child rearing  Search this
Citation:
Betty Bailey Lanham papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0317
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37105a8e1-ff8c-474e-ac55-2824fb3cce6b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0317

John L. Fischer and Ann K. Fischer papers

Creator:
Fischer, Ann K.  Search this
Fischer, John Lyle, 1923-1985  Search this
Extent:
31.71 Linear feet ((65 boxes, 1 manuscript folder, and 128 sound recordings) )
Note:
Original sound recordings are in cold storage.
Culture:
Caroline Islanders  Search this
Caroline Islands  Search this
Chuukese (Micronesian people)  Search this
New England -- Child rearing  Search this
Japan -- Child rearing  Search this
Ponape  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sound recordings
Date:
ca. 1942-1985
Summary:
This collection contains John and Ann Fischer's correspondence, field notes, manuscripts, microfilm, sound recordings, and photographs relating to their work in Micronesia, Japan, and New England. Most of the materials in this collection were produced or collected by John. Although some materials have been identified as Ann's work, not all folders containing her notes have been so identified. Since John and Ann often collaborated, some of their notes are also intermixed. Materials relating to Truk and Ponape make up the bulk of the series. They not only include John and Ann's field notes but also administrative materials relating to John's position as District Anthropologist and District Island Affairs Officer. Because they returned at various times to visit and update data, there are documents on Ponape from 1949 as well as from the 1970s and in between. The Fischers' work in Japan is also well-represented in the collection along with their research for John and Beatrice Whiting's Six Cultures Project. The collection also contains a number of psychological tests administered by John and Ann during their research in Ponape and Japan. The sound recordings are mostly related to Ponape, with additional recordings from Japan. Several of the photographs are from Micronesia, some of which were taken by Harry Clifford Fassett. There are also some photos from Japan as well as personal photographs. Additional items in the collection include John's correspondence and papers he wrote as a student.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains John and Ann Fischer's correspondence, field notes, manuscripts, microfilm, sound recordings, and photographs relating to their work in Micronesia, Japan, and New England. Most of the materials in this collection were produced or collected by John. Although some materials have been identified as Ann's work, not all folders containing her notes have been so identified. Since John and Ann often collaborated, some of their notes are also intermixed.

Materials relating to Truk and Ponape make up the bulk of the series. They not only include John and Ann's field notes but also administrative materials relating to John's position as District Anthropologist and District Island Affairs Officer. Because they returned at various times to visit and update data, there are documents on Ponape from 1949 as well as from the 1970s and in between. The Fischers' work in Japan is also well-represented in the collection along with their research for John and Beatrice Whiting's Six Cultures Project.

The sound recordings are also mostly related to Ponape, with additional recordings from Japan. Several of the photographs are from Micronesia, some of which were taken by Harry Clifford Fassett. There are also some photos from Japan as well as personal photographs. Additional items in the collection include John's correspondence and papers he wrote as a student. Psychological tests administered by John and Ann during their research in Ponape and Japan are also in the collection.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 9 series: (1) Records and correspondence, 1948-1985; (2) Truk, 1949-1984 [Bulk 1949-1953]; (3) Ponape, 1839-1984 [Bulk 1947-1984]; (4) New England, 1954-1968 [Bulk 1955-1968]; (5) Japan, 1940-1985 [Bulk 1961-1964]; (6) Academic Work, 1946-1974; (7) Photographs, 1899-1974 [Bulk 1942-1974]; (8) Microfilm, undated; (9) Sound Recordings, 1947-1976 [Bulk 1959-1976]
Biographical Note:
Ann Kindrick Fischer was born on May 22, 1919 in Kansas City. She completed her undergraduate work at the University of Kansas with a B.A. in Sociology in 1941. During World War II she lived in Washington, D.C. working as registrar at the School of Advanced International Studies. At the time she was briefly married to her first husband, James Meredith.

In 1946 Ann entered Radcliffe College's graduate program in the Department of Anthropology. As a student at Radcliffe, she met John Fischer, who was a student at Harvard. In 1949 she traveled to the Caroline Islands to study Trukese mother and child training and to marry John, who had obtained a position as District Anthropologist of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. During their time in Micronesia, the two lived a year in Truk and three years in Ponape. While in Ponape, Ann taught English in a middle school as part of her anthropological research. She completed her dissertation, "The Role of the Trukese Mother and Its Effect on Child Training," and was awarded her Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1957.

Her interest in childrearing continued when she returned to Massachusetts from Micronesia. From 1954 to 1957, she worked as a research assistant on the Ford Foundation Six Cultures Project under the direction of John and Beatrice Whiting. Ann and her husband collaborated in a study of children in a New England town, which resulted in their 1963 article "The New Englanders of Orchard Town, USA." In 1961 and 1962, Ann and John worked together again to study childrearing in Japan, focusing on psychology and family life. When they returned from Japan, they did a follow-up study of a Japanese community in San Mateo, California.

In 1959, Ann became the first anthropologist to hold a training fellowship in biostatistics and epidemiology at Tulane University's School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. She joined their faculty and also taught at the Tulane School of Social Work (1960-1966) and the Anthropology Department of Newcomb College (1968-1971). In addition, Ann served as consultant to the Peace Corps on Micronesia.

Although she continued to write extensively on families and children throughout her career, her interests also included medicine, the role of women, and minority rights. She particularly became interested in the Houma Indians, publishing her article "History and Current Status of the Houma Indians" in 1965. An active supporter of the Houma Indians, she played an integral role in eliminating segregation in the school system in their area.

On April 22, 1971 Ann died of cancer at the age of 51.

Selected Bibliography

Edmonson, Munro S. "Ann Kindrick Fischer." -- Women Anthropologists: Selected Biographies -- . Ed. Ute Gacs, -- et al. -- Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Halpern, Katherine Spencer. "Ann Fischer 1919-1971." -- American Anthropologist -- , New Series, Vol. 75, No. 1. (Feb., 1973), pp. 292-294.

Marshall, M. and M. Ward. "John (Jack) Fischer (1923-1985)." -- American Anthropologist -- , New Series, Vol.89, No.1 (Mar., 1987) 134-136.

John Lyle Fischer was born in Kewanee, Illinois on July 9, 1923. His undergraduate work began at Harvard in 1940 but was interrupted by his military service during World War II. During the war he studied Japanese and served as both an interpreter and translator in the Marines. Following the war he returned to Harvard to complete his B.A. in 1946. His undergraduate honors thesis was entitled "Japanese Linguistic Morphology in Relation to Basic Cultural Traits."

John continued on at Harvard for his graduate studies in the Department of Social Relations, earning his Masters degree in Anthropology in 1949. That same year he married Ann Kindrick Meredith on his birthday. The two were stationed in Micronesia where John served as District Anthropologist (1949-1951) for the Naval Administration and later as the District Island Affairs Officer (1951-1953) under the Interior Department Administration.

When he and his family moved back to Massachusetts, he returned to his academic studies at Harvard. Drawing upon his fieldwork in Micronesia, he completed his dissertation, "Language and Folktale in Truk and Ponape: A Study in Cultural Integration," in 1954 and received his PhD from Harvard the following year. Work on the dissertation led to a lifelong interest in folklore and lingistics as well as Truk and Ponape. He revisited Ponape several times in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

From 1954 to 1955 John collaborated with his wife to study comparative child-rearing in New England. In the early 1960s, they once again conducted fieldwork together, this time in Japan, studying the psychological dynamics of family life. They later did a follow-up study of a Japanese community in San Mateo, California. Just before his death, John was planning another research trip to Japan.

In 1958, John obtained a faculty position at Tulane University teaching social anthropology. He served as chair of the Department of Anthropology from 1969 to 1971 and taught at the university until his death. By 1979 Fischer had learned Russian and taught for a year at the University of Leningrad. Fischer was also a Visiting Professor at the University of Pittsburgh in 1975 to 1976. In addition, he was active in various professional societies and consulted with several national organizations. He was co-author of 8 books as well as author of many articles and book chapters.

Following Ann's death from cancer, Fischer married Simonne Cholin Sanzenbach, who was also a professor at Tulane, in 1973. They shared many interests and published an article together in Japanese, "The Nature of Speech According to French Proverbs," in 1983.

At the age of 61, John passed away on May 16, 1985.
Related Materials:
More materials relating to John and Ann Fischer can be found in other collections at the National Anthropological Archives. MS 7516 "Documents relating to scientific investigations in Micronesia" contains the Fischers' 1954 East Caroline Handbook. More of John's correspondence can be found in the Southern Anthropological Society Records and in Saul Herbert Riesenberg's Correspondence series under the Records of the Department of Anthropology. The American Indian Chicago Conference Records contains Ann's correspondence.

Harvard University's Tozzer Library and the Bishop Museum also hold some of John's original Ponapean field notes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Richard A. Marksbury in 2013.
Restrictions:
Access to psychological tests administered by John and Ann Fischer during their research in Ponape and Japan is restricted. Access to the John L. Fischer and Ann K. Fischer Papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Polynesian languages  Search this
Truk language  Search this
Japanese language  Search this
Child rearing -- New England  Search this
Folklore -- Caroline Islands  Search this
Music -- Caroline Islands  Search this
Nurses -- anthropological study  Search this
Child rearing -- Japan  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Citation:
The John L. Fischer and Ann K. Fischer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2013-16
See more items in:
John L. Fischer and Ann K. Fischer papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ae2421e6-9060-4bc6-a394-873bb76b667f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2013-16
Online Media:

Kikakuten warawa, ōwarawa : mukashi no kosodate, ima no kosodate

Title:
企画展童・大童 : 昔の子育て・今の子育て
Warawa, ōwarawa
童・大童
Author:
Rittō Rekishi Minzoku Hakubutsukan  Search this
JAC Project  Search this
Physical description:
31 p. : col. ill. ; 26 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
Japan
Shiga-ken
Date:
1991
[1991]
Topic:
Child rearing--History  Search this
Call number:
HQ792.J3 K4 1991
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_844572

Boshie hyakkei : yomigaeru Edo no kosodate : Kumon ukiyoe korekushon / kanshū Kobayashi Tadashi ; [shippitsusha Kobayashi Tadashi ... [et al.]]

Title:
母子絵百景 : よみがえる江戶の子育て : 公文浮世絵コレクション / 監修小林忠 ; [執筆者小林忠 ... [et al]]
Author:
Kobayashi, Tadashi 1941-  Search this
Physical description:
95 p. : col. ill. ; 30 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Place:
Japan
Date:
2007
Edo period, 1600-1868
Topic:
Mothers in art  Search this
Color prints, Japanese  Search this
Child rearing--History  Search this
Call number:
N7630 .B6 2007
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_843582

Japan's new middle class; the salary man and his family in a Tokyo suburb

Author:
Vogel, Ezra F  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 299 pages 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Japan
Date:
1963
Topic:
Middle class  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
HT690.J3 V87 1963
HT690.J3V87
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_13355

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