Copies of photographs depicting Little Powder, an Arapaho chief; High Backbone, a Cheyenne Indian, or Hump, a Sioux Indian married to a Cheyenne woman; Chief Joseph, October 1877; and Squaw Jim, a two-spirit Crow Indian, seated next to a Crow woman.
John Hale Fouch (1849-1933) served as the first post photographer at Fort Keogh, Montana Territory, opening his own studio as early as 1877. He photographed Chief Joseph after his surrender and imprisonment and may have been the first to photograph the battlefield at Little Big Horn. He established studios in Minnesota after leaving Montana in the late 1870s and continued his photographic work until about 1900, after which he moved to California and became a real estate agent.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R92-39
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Fouch photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 87-2P, and Photo Lot 90-1.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives also holds Fouch photographs in the Nelson Appleton Miles Photograph Collection.
Donated by Dr. James Brust, 1991.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
The photographs are made from originals owned by James Brust. His permission is required before the copy prints can be reproduced.
Subjects discussed include traders and trespassers in Indian Territory, together with monthly returns for Quartermaster stores of the 3rd Infantry Battalion 1865-70, and deeds, stock certificates, and army communications. Also concern problems with W. A. Rankin and William Chisholm with references to Buffalo Tail, a Cheyenne; to Santanta, the Kiowa leader; and to Osage raids. An inventory of property captured from Chisholm is attatched to one of the letters. The property returns, dated 1868-70, are copies retained by Williams as Adjutant of the Battalion; the series is incomplete.
Drawings in a small notebook of ruled paper, now disbound, covers retained. Drawings document an 1887 hunting excursion taken by Colonel Bliss of Fort Supply (in Indian Territory) and Major John Dunlop, a visitor to the fort from Washington D.C.. Included in the manuscript are a cyanotype picture featuring Colonel Bliss, end papers, and covers of the book as well as a typescript note pasted to the inside cover describing the drawings. The inscription reads as follows: "This pictorial history of various hunts made by Cheyenne Indians, and white men, was drawn and painted entirely by Squint Eye, a Cheyenne and Sergeant of the Scouts at Fort Supply, Indian Territory, April 1887. It will be observed that Sergt. Squint Eye, and Major Dunlop are the most important personages represented ; and it will also be observed that the Sergt. never forgets to put on his stripes, or chevrons. If any difference is noticed between the verbal report made by the major, of his encounter with the Catamount, and Squint eye's representation of it, it will please be ascribed to the native Scotch and Cheyenne modesty of the participants. Fort Supply, I.T., April 17, 1887, with compliments of Z.R. Bliss, on this his birthday." Many drawings are inscribed names identifying the figures, most of whom are Cheyenne men who were enlisted as Army scouts.
Biographical / Historical:
Tichkematse a.k.a. Squint Eyes, Quchkeimus (1857-1932) was one of the best known groups of Plains artists was among the men held prisoner at Fort Marion in Saint Augustine, Florida, from 1875-1878. Tichkematse, a Cheyenne, was one of these prisoner artists. While imprisoned, he learned to speak English and to read and write. Upon release he attended school at the Hampton Institute in Virginia for about a year before coming to the Smithsonian. There he was trained in the preparation of bird and mammal specimens for study and display. During his time at the Smithsonian, he also produced drawings illustrating his old life on the Plains, full of buffalo hunts and battles as well as everyday camp life. In 1880 he returned to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation in what is now Oklahoma, but he continued his affiliation with the Smithsonian. He was active in collecting bird and mammal specimens as well as craft items acquired from Cheyenne friends and relatives, which he shipped to the museum. For additional information on Tichkematse, see Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion by Karen Daniels Petersen (University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK 1971), "Squint Eyes: Artist and Indian Scout" by Bob Rea, (2002) www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/scout, and "Tichkematse: A Cheyenne at the Smithsonian" by Candace Greene, (2000) www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/squint_eyes/squint_eyes.htm. For further information on the Cheyenne scouts and their artwork, see "Artists in Blue: the Indian Scouts of Fort Reno and Fort Supply," by Candace S. Greene (American Indian Art Magazine, Winter 1992, pp.50-57) Major John Dunlop was a supply sergeant in San Antonio before the Civil War, then went to Mexico, and later to Washington. While in Washington he met Col. Bliss and the maintained a friendship over time, resulting in his visiting Bliss in Indian Territory and participating in the hunt depicted.
Fort Supply, established in 1868, was initially designated as a supply camp where U.S. Cavalry troops could restock and refresh themselves. It was from this post that Custer and the Seventh Cavalry marched to the Battle of Washita. Over the next twenty-five years, soldiers from Fort Supply performed duties that included peace-keeping and monitoring of the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation and the Cherokee Outlet as well as monitoring the Land Run of 1893. From 1869 to early 1870, the post served as the temporary location for the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Agency. For more information on Fort Supply see Fort Supply, Indian Territory: Frontier Outpost by Robert C. Carriker, 1990 Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; and "History of Fort Supply" at http://www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/mus-sites/fshistory.htm.
NAA ACC 91-13
NAA MS 7500
United States Indian Territory Fort Supply.
United States Oklahoma Fort Supply.
MS 7500 000
Manuscript 7500, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Bound notebook of ruled paper with 89 drawings, primarily scenes of warfare. The drawings are the work of several different artists and depict battles with several different tribes as well as with White civilians and Army troops. Slip case embossed with title "Outbreak of the Cheyenne Indians 1878. Sign Language Written by the Chief 'Little Skunk'." Three letters regarding history and identification of the book inserted. One insert, a note dated September 10, 1892, and signed by A. Wernher, states "this book was presented to me in 1879 by Hermann Hauser of the Q. Mr. Dept. at Fort Reno, Ind. Terr. Hauser was affiliated by marriage to the Cheyenne tribe of Indians and assured me that the book represented in sign language (i.e. drawings) the outbreak of the Cheyenne Indians at Fort Reno Ind Terry and their raid through Kansas to the North in 1878, written by the Cheyenne Indian "Little Skunk." Another insert is a letter dated February 2, 1897, written by Frank Hamilton Cushing returning the book to a Colonel Cushing and asking to see it again later. The third insert is a letter dated March 11, 1902, written by P. C. Knox to Colonel William C. Sanger with thanks for letting him see the book.
Biographical / Historical:
P.C. Knox (1853-1921), author of one letter, was appointed Attorney General of the United States under the McKinley Administration and continued to serve until 1904 when he was appointed to a vacancy in the Senate. Knox was reelected to this position in 1905, resigning in 1909 to join the Cabinet under Taft's administration. For more information about P.C. Knox see Archibald Dodds' The Public Services of Philander Chase Knox, 1950, PhD. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. Col. William C. Sanger, to whom the letter is addressed, was appointed as Assistant Secretary of War in 1901.
NAA MS 7463
OPPS SLIDE 22,227-22,297
Varying Form of Title:
Outbreak of the Cheyenne Indians, 1878 / sign language written by the Chief "Little Skunk"
The content of the images is not consistent with the accompanying identification that they depict the Northern Cheyenne outbreak of 1878. The names Little Skunk and Hermann Hauser do not appear in the index to the records of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency held at the Oklahoma Historical Society, but the latter's name appears as "Herman Hauser" in separate material at the Oklahoma Historical Society relating to Fort Reno.
Includes biographical data on Yellow Horse, Northern Oglala, and the murder of John Richard, Jr., Autograph document signed, 7 pages. "A Prayer of the Lakota" (poem), Typescript document 1 page. "Tepee Creek Legend, Carbon typescript, 1 page. Ten letters from Valentine T. McGillycuddy to William Garnett, one from Garnett to McGillycuddy, Carbon typescript, 17 pages. (published in mimeographed form in pamphlet entitled "Odds and Ends" by Fred Hackett, Chicago, Illinois, ca. 1950?). Photograph captioned "Yellow Horse, Northern Oglala."
Relates to the Northern Cheyenne Sun Dance, Lame Deer Montana, July 1962 and July 1964. There are 5 albums of 1962 photos and 3 albums of 1964 photos. List of captions by Father Powell also filed in albums.
NAA MS 4850
Filed: Original prints, Cheyenne.
National Anthropological Archives' prints cannot be recopied prior to July 15, 1978. Requests for copies are to be referred to Father Powell.
Contents: Sun Dances of 1958 and 1959; moving (1958) and opening (1959) of Sacred Buffalo Hat Bundle. Photographs and detailed captions by Margot Liberty.
NAA MS 4576
Filed: Original Prints, Cheyenne.
Restriction: Copies of these prints may not be made or distributed by the Bureau of American Ethnology before 1970 without express permission from Mrs Liberty; until that time most requests for prints should be referred directly to Mrs Liberty, who retains the negatives.
Prints from negatives by Thomas M. Galey, Independence, Kansas, including original stereoscopic views made 1921-1930, and copies by Galey from older commercial photographs.
Contents: Catalog Number 4460: Tribe: 1) Cheyenne Description: Wolf Chief and Spotted Elk, Miles' scouts. Lame Deer, Montana Photographer: T. M. Galey Date: 9/3/30. 2) Cheyenne Little Wolf and wife. War chief. Died March 8, 1927. Lame Deer, Montana T. M. Galey 8/17/2. 3) Cheyenne Black Horse and . Leg wound in famous Oklahoma retreat. Manufacture of travois. Lame Deer, Montana T. M. Galey 9/3/30. 4) Cheyenne Old Bull or Buffalo Hump (and wife), only surviving son of Dull Knife. Aged 82. [Lame Deer, Montana]. T. M. Galey 9/2/30. 5) [Cheyenne ?] Medicine Wheel on summit, ancient travois trail in foreground. Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming. [A. Anthrop. 24, 1922, Figure 26]. 8/10/21. 6) Cheyenne Medicine Wheel, Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, showing wall built by U. S. Forestry Service, 1929 T. M. Galey 9/8/30. 7) Tribe: [Osage] Description: Wild Cat, Custer scout, Washita campaign Photographer: G. W. Parsons, Pawhuska, Oklahoma (Galey, copy) No date See Bureau of American Ethnology Negative Number 55,009. 8) Osage "Gov. En tse tah wah ti an kah." --original caption. E-ut-est-a-wat-a-hanka, Osage Ex-Governor Black Dog and Big Chief bands.--Galey (Galey, copy) (1930) 55,008. 9) Osage Mon-e-kah-moie (Walks in the Mud), half brother of Big Hill Joe. On the council but not a chief G. W. Parsons, Pawhuska, Oklahoma (Galey, copy) No date 54,906-A. 10) Osage Saucey Chief and . Osage Agency, Indian Territory (Galey copy) (1875) 55,002. 11) Osage Toby Mongrain (pronounced "Mogeray"). Osage Custer's scout, Washita campaign (Galey, copy) No date 55,007. 12) Osage Isaac Gibson, Agent at time of removal, 1870; Sam Bevenue (left); Chetopah (right, wearing fur hat of otter) (Galey, copy) ca. 1870 13) Historical Description: Taylor, old-time deputy marshal, Pawhuska, and unidentified man Photographer: Sawyer, 112 E. Douglas Avenue, Wichita, Kansas (Galey copy) No date. 14) Historic Independence Rock, 10 miles s. w. of Casper, Wyoming, on old Oregon Trail T. M. Galey 8/15/30.
NAA MS 4460
Negatives lent to Bureau of American Ethnology May, 1931 by T. M. Galey.
Filed: Original Prints series, by tribe or other classification.
Truman Michelson's handwritten notes on Cheyenne linguistics and ethnology from his work with Mack Haag, a Southern Cheyenne, in Oklahoma. The notes are primarily linguistic in nature and include vocabulary with English translations and notes on phonetics. Ethnological notes are interspersed and cover topics such as joking relationships, the concept of sickness, puberty, marriageable age, and counting coup.
NAA MS 3336
Title changed from "Cheyenne Vocabulary and linguistic notes, with interspersed ethnological notes" 4/3/2014.
Two notebooks containing notes from Truman Michelson's research at the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in Montana. One notebook contains anthropometric measurements of approximately 115 Cheyennes, identified by name, age, and tribal lineage. The second notebook contains stories by Ruben Black Horse, Mrs. High Walker, and Mrs. Black Crane, handwritten in English. William Rowland served as Michelson's interpreter.
NAA MS 3219
Title changed from "Anthropometrical data on 105 Cheyennes, identified by name, age, and tribal lineage August 11, 1931" 5/27/2014.
Narrative of Coyote, a 72 year old Southern Cheyenne man, handwritten in English by Truman Michelson and Mack Haag, also a Southern Cheyenne. The text includes a recounting of the history of the Cheyenne and stories from Coyote's life. Topics include skirmishes with U.S. soldiers, the construction of tipis, hunting, relations between men and women, and his observations of a Sioux Sun Dance at a Brule camp. Although the Bureau of American Ethnology catalog card indicates that this text was collected at the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in Montana, it is likely incorrect. The notes are dated June, during which time Michelson was in Oklahoma working with the Southern Cheyenne (Explorations and field work of the Smithsonian Institution, 1932).
Three extracts, as follows: 3449-a. "Cheyenne History and Dictionary." "Ethnography, The Present Location of the Cheyennes," pages 1-35. "Names of Rivers and Localities known to the Cheyennes in the country they have lived, hunted, or raided in, as long as the present generation of this tribe have any definite knowledge," pages 35-56. No title; Cheyenne-English vocabulary, letter "O" only, pages 57-58. 3449-b. "Cheyenne History and Dictionary." Copy of letter of Ben Clark, "To the Publisher or Printer," dated Washington, D. C., March 1, 1887, page . Ethnography, pages [2-38], Philiology, pages [12-38]. Acquired November, 1906, through Miss C. F. Pierce, Librarian of Wellesley Library: Clark, Ben: Cheyenne history and dictionary. Typewritten copy consisting of: Errata 1 (unnumbered), verso (unnumbered), Ben Clark Manuscript, "Ethnography and Philology of the Cheyenne," 1887, in Southwest Museum Library, Los Angeles, according to citation in P. Powell, Sweet Medicine, 1969. [Direction] to publisher or printer, dated Washington, D. C., March 1, 1887, Ethnography pages 2-30, Philology pages 31-37, Cheyenne grammar pages 38-57, Dictionary pages 58-359. Typewritten pages 8" x 13" mounted on sheets 11 3/4" x 15 3/8", cover 12" x 15 3/4", bound in 3/4 goat. Presented to Wellesley College Library by Professor E. N. Horsford. 3449-c. "Cheyenne Names of Rivers and Localities in the Country they have occupied or roamed over and which are known to the present Generation." 13 typed pages numbered 251-263. This section includes only parts of the names given in pages 36-56 of 3449-b. The orthography and comments differ somewhat, and are presumably Mooney's, for page 251 is marked at the bottom in Mooney's hand, "115 local names--Clark / 49--J. M." 3449-D. "Cheyenne Band Names from the Clark Manuscript. Soldier Bands of the Southern Cheyennes." 1 page typed, with annotations by James Mooney. (Found in File Number 2213, miscellaneous Cheyenne notes of Mooney, and transferred July, 1960.)
NAA MS 3449-a-b-c-d
Cheyenne History and Dictionary
Ethnography, The Present Location of the Cheyennes
Names of Rivers and Localities known to the Cheyennes in the country they have lived, hunted or raided in, as long as the present generation of this tribe have any definite knowledge
Cheyenne Names of Rivers and Localities in the Country they have occupied or roamed over and which are known to the present Generation
Cheyenne Band Names from the Clark Manuscript Soldier Bands of the Southern Cheyenne
Tablet containing 16 drawings including pictures of tipi designs, camp scenes, games, and Sun Dance ceremony. Inscribed, "Cheyenne Indian Sketches, Tipis No. 2" and "Drawn by Nakoimens = Bear Wings, alias Charles Murphy. Cheyenne, Cantonment, Okla"
NAA MS 2531 Vol. 10
United States Oklahoma Territory Cantonment.
United States Oklahoma Canton.
MS 2531-10 000
Manuscript 2531, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Contents: Barry, J. Nelson. St Stephen's Parish, Baker City, Oregon. February 22, 1910. 2 pages. Refers to "Wesorts" of southern Maryland. Bowers, George M. United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C. September 20, 1899. 2 pages. Concerning the identity of a "stone-piling fish" in the headwaters of the Tennessee River. Clark, Ben. Fort Reno. Oklahoma. February 5, 1906. 2 pages. Concerning the Mormon massacre of 1857, with a newsclipping of the story. Clark, Ben. Fort Reno, Oklahoma. January 16, 1907. 2 pages. Concerning the movements of certain bands of Nez Perce and Cheyenne Indians. Cleveland, R. E. Anadarko, Oklahoma. January 15, 1904. Autograph letter signed with Manuscript notes for reply signed by Mooney. 1 page. Asking value of a Martin Van Buren peace medal. Devitt, E. I. Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. January 7, 1909. 1 page. Concerning the Wesorts of Charles County, Maryland. Grinnell, George Bird. New York, New York. September 7, 1894. 2 pages. Concerning the appearance of the Gros Ventre of the prairie in the northern country. Mention is also made of the Cree names for the Cheyenne. Jackson, R. C. Smithwood, Knox County, Tennessee. August 15, 1890. 3 pages. Concerning life and murder of Cherokee half-blood, Jack Walker. Date of murder given as between 1830 amd 1835.
Jones, Dr Alexander. American Journal of Science and Arts, Volume xxvi, pages 189-190, New Haven, 1834. Concerning "American Gypsies" residing on Biloxi Bay, Louisiana. Typed extract by Mooney from above source, 2 pages. Powell, Major John. Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. June 28, 1893. 3 pages. Concerning request made to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs that the Kiowa Indians be permitted to hold their Medicine Dance to enable the Bureau to study it. Scott, W. L. Fort Sill, Oklahoma. May 11, 1893. 4 pages. Concerning Kiowa tribes' concern over the delegation sent to Washington to represent the tribe. South Carolina Historical Society (Mabel L. Webber). Charleston, South Carolina. March 5, 1919. 3 pages. Concerning enclosed list of Cherokee villages and an account of the "Routes and Distances from Fort Prince to Fort Louden." ("The common route" and the "Route over the four and twenty mountains.") Tatum, Lawrie. Springfield. Iowa. April 7, 1896. 19 pages. Concerning Satanta and the story of the part he took in the raids into Texas in 1870. United States Geological Survey (David Day). Washington, D.C. October 7, 1903. 2 pages. Concerning results of analysis of clay particles submitted by James Mooney. Whatley, L. A., Superindendent of State Penitentiaries. Huntsville, Texas. March 3, 1896. 1 page. Concerning the imprisonment, parole, and suicide of Satanta, the Kiowa Chief.
Three stories in Cheyenne by Wolf Chief, with English translations by William Somers. The titles are "Plover Wings," "Buffalo Horns," and "Story about otter." These were collected by Truman Michelson at the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in Montana.
English texts of Cheyenne stories and historical accounts collected by Truman Michelson at the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana. The stories were provided by She-Bear, White Eagle, and White Bull and translated and written down in English by Albert Duster and William Somers. One of the texts is an account by White Eagle on George Custer and battles during the Great Sioux War. Also includes information about the storytellers and Somers and some ethnological notes.
Text and notes collected by Truman Michelson in Montana from Bull Thigh and William Somers on the sacred Medicine arrows of the Cheyenne. The texts are primarily in English and detail the origin of the arrows and describe the Medicine arrows ceremony. The prayers and songs are in Cheyenne. Also includes notes on Sun Dance.
The following is a list of the contents: (Folder 1) "The 4 arrows." Bull Thigh, Somers. pages 1-23. (Folder 2) "Further information on the 4 arrows." September 10, 1910. Somers. pages 1-24. (Folder 2) Notes on Sun Dance from Bull Thigh. September 10, 1910. pages 1-2. (Folder 3) "Somers fills in gaps of 4 arrows left out by the priest (tells own experiences)." September 9, 1910. Somers pages 1-43. (Folder 4) "3rd day before the ceremony proper." 7 pages. (Folder 5) "The 4 arrows; 4th day of the ceremonies."September 13, 1910. Somers. pages 1-10. (Folder 6) "Words of 1 arrow song; 4th song." September 7. Bull Thigh, Somers. 9 pages. "Arrow song with words," prayers, oaths, creed. September 13. Somers. 11 pages. (Folder 7) Diagrams illustrating parts of the ceremonies, Somers. 5 pages.
NAA MS 2799
Title changed from "Notes on Medicine arrows of the Cheyenne September 7-13, 1910" 4/8/2014.
Place and date supplied from Garrick Mallery, "A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians with Some Comparisons," Washington, 1880, page 13: "A list prepared in July, 1879, by Mr Frank H. Cushing, of the Smithsonian Institution, from continued interviews with Titchkematski (Cross Eyes), an intelligent Cheyenne, then employed at that Institution."
NAA MS 2371-a
Signed by George Suckley.
Marked, "By Cushing," but appear to be in another handwriting.
Cheyenne and Sutaio notes collected by Truman Michelson from Wolf Chief, Bull Thigh, and Wrapped Hair, with Milton Whiteman as interpreter. Subjects include: Sutaio-Cheyenne history, Cheyenne relationship terms, joking relationship, English-Cheyenne-Sutaio vocabulary, Cheyenne soldier societies (Red Hoof society, Dog Soldiers, Elk society, Fox soldiers), Sutaio tales (Everybody starving, Prairie chicken), Sutaio customs, Cheyenne customs, and berdaches. According to the BAE catalog card, these notes were collected in Clinton, Oklahoma, which is most likely incorrect. His 1913-1914 correspondence in the Records of the BAE and the 35th BAE Annual Report indicate that he conducted fieldwork on the Sutaio during this period at Tongue River Reservation in Montana.
NAA MS 2684-a
Title changed from "Notes on Cheyenne and Sutaio. August 11-15, 1913" 4/7/2014.