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Garfield & Company Records

Creator:
United States. War Production Board.  Search this
Garfield & Co.  Search this
Source:
Science, Medicine and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Former owner:
Science, Medicine and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (17 boxes, 11 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledgers (account books)
Correspondence
Sales records
Tax records
Date:
1909-1969
Summary:
The collection documents Garfield and Company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer in New Jersey during the twentieth century. Garfield and Company, founded by Isidor Z. Garfield (1863-1951), made Seidlitz Powder, a commonly known medication composed of tartaric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium sodium tartrate that was used as a mild cathartic by dissolving it in water and then drinking it. Materials include customer files, invoices, correspondence, advertising and packaging materials, calendars, posters, financial records, and an oral and video history with Julius Garfield, son of Isidor Z. Garfield.
Scope and Contents:
The Garfield Company Records are divided into seven series: Series 1, Historical Background; Series 2, Customer Materials; Series 3, Correspondence, 1937-1952; Series 4, Financial Records, 1918-1950; Series 5, Advertising and Packaging Materials, 1923-1968 and undated; Series 6, Drawings/Diagrams, 1958; and Series 7, Photographs, circa 1950s. The collection documents Garfield and Company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer in New Jersey during the twentieth century. Garfield and Company made Seidlitz Powder, a commonly known medication composed of a mixture of tartaric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium sodium tartrate that was used as a mild cathartic by dissolving it in water and then drinking it. The records include customer files, correspondence, advertising, packaging, audio visual materials, photographs, packaging, advertising and financial records. The collection provides good insight into the company during the World War II period and the hardship conditions under which they operated, such as delays in receiving raw materials and difficulty with labor.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1915-1969 and undated, consists of newspaper clippings and articles, corporate identity pieces (letterhead and envelopes), correspondence, and audio visual materials about Garfield and Company. The majority of the correspondence relates to machinery companies and their ability to provide equipment and expertise to manufacture powders and handle packaging issues. Other correspondence relates to advertising agencies and the State of New Jersey Division of Employment Security. The correspondence with Seil, Putt and Rusby, Inc., documents an analytical, consulting and research chemists firm that conducted testing for Garfield. The audio visual materials contain an oral history with Julius Garfield, son of Isidor Garfield on ½" VHS video footage (OV 820.1-2) and a demonstration of how Seidlitz powders are manufactured. The video footage, of which there are two copies, is approximately one hour in length and is divided into two segments. The first segment features the manufacturing equipment producing Seidlitz powders and the second segment features an informal interview with Julius Garfield discussing his father's background and his father's automation of the process of packaging Seidlitz powders. The audio cassettes (OTC 820.1-2) contain a more detailed oral history with Julius Garfield. He provides additional information about his father's background, his brother's (especially George's) background, and the history of the company. Curator Ray Kondratus, of the Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History, conducted the oral history interview, circa 1970s.

Series 2, Customer Materials, 1909-1952, includes materials about customers who had a business relationship with Garfield and Company. The materials are divided into two subseries, Subseries 1, Index Card Files, 1909-1939 and Subseries 2, Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952.

Subseries 1, Index Card Files, 1909-1939, contains customer names, addresses, and order history from 1909 to the 1920s. They are arranged geographically by city and alphabetically by customer name. They adhere to a color coding schema. Department stores are designated yellow; wholesalers pale blue; second jobbers buff; and chain drug stores are pink. The cards are annotated revealing information about the customer's personality, job information, and the specific salesman for that account.

Subseries 2, Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952, is arranged alphabetically by customer name. The files contain invoices/receipts for companies, department stores, drug stores, and other organizations that ordered Seidlitz powder from Garfield and Company. The receipts include the name and address of the company and the cost for each order. Also included are bills of lading documenting where the shipment was sent and who received it.

Series 3, Correspondence, 1937-1952, is arranged alphabetically and consists of letters to and from other companies, individuals, and the War Production Board. Some general subject files are also here. The War Production Board correspondence contains information about the use and salvage of raw materials in the factory; requests to purchase certain types of materials; and compliance with quarterly requests for inventory, purchases, and usage of certain foods and materials. Included in the general subject files is documentation about insurance and workers compensation claims for employees of Garfield and Company. The documentation includes primarily State of New York Department of Labor Workers Compensation forms and accident/injury reports. The reports provide detailed information on the nature of the accident/injury, hourly wage and demographic information about the employee.

Series 4, Advertising and Packaging Materials, 1923-1968 and undated, and is divided into four subseries, Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1923-1968 and undated; Subseries 2, Posters, 1940s and undated; Subseries 3, Radio Broadcasts, 1951-1964, and Subseries 4, Packaging Materials, 1953 and undated.

Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1923-1968 and undated, contains primarily proofs of advertisements for Garfield Seidlitz powders, merchandising reports, price lists, metal printing plates for two advertisements, and calendars. The advertising proofs are in color, black-and-white, and pencil on tracing paper and were prepared by firms such as F.M. Advertising Agency, Inc. There are some pin-up calendars advertising Clairol, Inc., products, 1943, and other pin-ups advertising Garfield and Company Seidlitz powders, 1950-1951.

Subseries 2, Posters, 1940s and undated, consists of posters for Garfield and Company Seidlitz powders and war posters created from woodcuts by Frances "Fran" O'Brien Garfield and Ernest Hamlin Baker. Garfield and Baker designed the posters for the Putnum County Defense Council of New York. Garfield and Company distributed the posters.

Subseries 3, Radio Broadcasts, 1951-1964, contains two 5" inch reel-to-reel audio tapes of radio broadcasts for Garfield and Company products and four audio discs (33 rpm and 87 rpm) of radio broadcasts.

Subseries 4, Packaging Materials, 1953 and undated, consists primarily of labels for Seidlitz powders and cardboard carton packages for transporting and displaying Seidlitz powders. The labels are paper and primarily two and one half by four inches. They feature standard language about the Seidlitz powders. They are imprinted with the name of a specific drug company, such as Hazeltine and Perkins Drug Company or Gill Brook Laboratories. There are some labels that have been imprinted on aluminum sheets. The cardboard cartons are for Seidlitz powders, cough syrups, laxatives, rhinitis tablets, diarrhea remedies, and toothpaste. Packaging specific to a company/manufacturer is arranged alphabetically under the name of the company.

Series 5, Financial Records, 1918-1950, is divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Invoices, 1918-1941; Subseries 2, Sales Books and Ledgers, 1939-1947 and undated; Subseries 3, Receipts, 1948-1952; and Subseries 4, Tax Materials, 1936-1950 and consists primarily of tax information for the company and specific employees, sales ledgers and invoices and receipts.

Subseries 1, Invoices, 1918-1941, contains invoices issued by Garfield and Company to companies, department stores, drug stores, and other organizations for purchases of Seidlitz Powders. Included are bills of lading. The subseries are arranged alphabetically. See also Series 2, Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952.

Subseries 2, Sales Books and Ledgers, 1939-1947 and undated, documents order information about the number of tins, carts, and packs of Seidlitz powder sold to specific companies.

Subseries 3, Receipts, 1948-1952, is arranged alphabetically by name of company and contains documentation on products and services that Garfield and Company purchased and used. For example, they purchased soda bicarbonate from the American Cyanamid Company and used the Bronx Haulage Company for rubbish removal.

Subseries 4, Tax Materials, 1936-1950, contains employee wage records, tax returns, employee withholding exemption certificates, and invoices for Samuel Markowitz, an accountant. Some of the records detail the name of the employee, time worked (days and hours), wages, deductions, and wage paid.

Series 6, Drawings/Diagrams, 1958, contains one line drawing for hot water at the Garfield Company, December, 1958, and pencil sketches and diagrams for wiring of the tins and cartons machinery, 1958.

Series 7, Photographs, circa 1950s, contains black-and-white photographs of Isidor Garfield, employees operating packaging machinery, an exterior view of the manufacturing facility, and a store display.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Historical Background, 1915-1969 and undated

Series 2: Customer Materials, 1909-1952

Subseries 2.1: Index Card Files, 1909-1939

Subseries 2.2: Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952

Series 3: Correspondence, 1937-1952

Series 4: Financial Records, 1918-1950

Subseries 4.1: Invoices, 1918-1941

Subseries 4.2: Sales Books and Ledgers, 1939-1947 and undated

Subseries 4.3: Receipts, 1948-1952

Subseries 4.4: Tax Materials, 1936-1950

Series 5: Advertising and Packaging Materials, 1923-1968 and undated

Subseries 5.1, Advertising Materials, 1923-1968 and undated

Subseries 5.2: Posters, 1940s and undated

Subseries 5.3: Radio Broadcasts, 1951-1964

Subseries 5.4: Packaging Materials, 1953 and undated

Series 6: Drawings/Diagrams, 1958

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1950s
Biographical / Historical:
Garfield and Company of Edison, New Jersey, was the largest manufactures of Seidlitz Powders in the United States. Garfield and Company was founded by Isidor Z. Garfield (1863-1951), a New York pharmacist, who began manufacturing powders in 1908. Garfield was born in Russia and graduated from the University of Moscow with a degree in chemistry. He came to the United States in 1888 with his wife Frances and their first-born son, Louis. Three other sons, George, Julius, and Henry, were born in the United States. Garfield developed an automated process to package reactive ingredients (US Patent 1,091,568) in March, 1914. The process separately packaged the powders in moisture-proof wrappers so druggists no longer had to mix the compounds. In 1916, Garfield patented a machine for measuring and compressing powders (US Patent 1,177,854). Both of Garfield's patents were assigned to Samuel Loewy of New York City. After Garfield died, his sons, Julius and George Garfield inherited the business. The New Jersey manufacturing plant closed in 1980.
Related Materials:
Packaging equipment used by Garfield and Company is located in the Division of Medicine and Science. See Accession #1979.1144.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Julius and George Garfield in 1979.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Stored off-site. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center staff two-weeks prior to a scheduled research visit. Reference copies of audio visual materials must be used.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Antacids  Search this
Packaging  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Correspondence -- 20th century
Sales records
Tax records
Citation:
Garfield and Company Records, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0820
See more items in:
Garfield & Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0820

Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives

Printer:
MacCormack, Forrest (intern)  Search this
Talman, Hugh (photographer)  Search this
Photographer:
Smillie, T. W. (Thomas William), 1843-1917  Search this
Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 1864-1952  Search this
Collector:
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Names:
World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago, Ill.) -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Contact prints
Place:
White House (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- 1890-1900
Chicago Ill. -- 1890-1900
Date:
1993 - 1993
circa 1888-1899, 1906
Summary:
Twenty glass plate negatives and reference copy prints of the images taken between the late 1880s and the early 1900s by Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie. The images depict the skyline of Washington D.C., views from the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition, blueprints for the Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building, and an unidentified orchestra.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of twenty glass plate negatives and associated reference copy prints depicting scenes from the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois as well as images of the Washington D.C. skyline dating from between 1888 and 1899. The glass plate negatives range in size from 17" x 20" to 20" x 24" while the silver gelatin, resin-coated paper prints are all 20" x 24". All the images are black and white.

Series 1, Glass Plate Negatives, 1893, 1906, circa 1888-1899, is arranged by a numbering system, possibly assigned by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services (OPPS). The numbers were etched or written on the negatives, for example 3107. The series begins with the numbered images from Washington DC (#3101-#3107), followed by images without identifying numbers. The numbered images from the 1893 Columbian Exposition (non-inclusive #11302-11359) come next, followed by the images without identifying numbers.

The images of Washington D.C., when arranged in the following sequence, form a panorama of the Washington D.C. city: #3103, #3107, #3104, #3101, #3106, #3105, #3102. The images were taken from the tower of the Smithsonian Castle facing north, beginning with a view of the United States Capitol Building in the east (#3102) and ending with a view of the incomplete Washington Monument in the west (#3103). An unnumbered image of the United States Capitol taken after 1899 from the tower of the Old Post Office and Clock Tower looking down Pennsylvania Avenue is included. Two unnumbered blueprints dated July 19, 1906 show the second and third floor layouts of the Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building.

The images of the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition show various buildings built for the event as well as a replica of the Battleship Illinois which was constructed to illustrate advances in naval technology. Exterior views of the Administration Building, Government Building, Palace of Fine Arts, Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building as well as an interior view of the World's Fair Post Office in the Government Building are found among the negatives. A number of the images appear to have been taken from atop some of the buildings looking down.

One unnumbered and unidentified picture of a musical orchestra sitting on stage is included at the end of the series.

Series 2, Copy prints, 1993, include duplicate or, in some instances triplicate, photographic copy prints of the images from the glass plate negatives. In the case of #11311 and #11359, no copy prints exist. The silver gelatin prints on resin-coated paper were created in the fall of 1993.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1: Glass Plate Negatives, 1893, 1906, circa 1888-1899

Series 2: Copy prints (reference copies), 1993
Biographical / Historical:
While the origin and provenance of some of the glass plate negatives is uncertain, it is likely that the images were created by Smithsonian photographer and curator Thomas W. Smillie and by Frances Benjamin Johnston, a prominent female photographer who was a protege of Smillie's.

Thomas W. Smillie was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1843 and emigrated to the United States when he was five years old. He attended Georgetown University, where he studied medicine and chemistry. Shortly thereafter he became a photographer for the Smithsonian and remained with the institution until his death in 1917. In 1896 he was named "custodian" of photography for the Institution, in essence becoming its first photography curator. He staged photographic exhibits and actively collected both images and equipment related to photography.

Frances Benjamin Johnston was an early pioneer for women in the field of photography and photojournalism. Born in 1864 in Grafton, West Virginia, Johnston studied art in Maryland and later at the Académie Julien in Paris. Her high-profile family connection with the Eastman family as well as her insatiable appetite for knowledge about photographic processes quickly propelled her to a formidable professional career. Her work appeared in publications such as The Ladies' Home Journal, Harper's Weekly, and Cosmopolitan, among others. As an apprentice to Thomas W. Smillie, Johnston was engaged to photograph the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition in Chicago. She made Washington D.C. her home and had the opportunity to photograph a large number of high profile individuals and government officials, including five United States presidents. Her photography often documented mundane and commonplace aspects of life rather than spectacular or prominent ones. Later in her career she focused her photography on colonial architecture, with images of houses, barns, and other buildings that intentionally showed everyday life in the United States South rather than high profile structures which had already been well-documented. She moved to New Orleans in 1940 and died in 1952.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Records, circa 1883-1984 (SIA RU000529)

Field Research Photographs, circa 1909-1924 (SIA Acc. 02-086)

Personnel Records, 1892-1952 (SIA Acc. 05-123)

Collected Registers, 1908-1912 and undated (SIA Acc. 06-138)

National Anthropological Archives

Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by Bureau of American Ethnology)
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Reference photograph copies should be used where possible. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special care is required when handling the glass plate negatives both because of their large size and because some of the negatives are broken.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1900
Contact prints -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives, 1888-1906, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0416
See more items in:
Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0416

Isolab, Neonatal Chemistry System (NCS)

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Computerworld Magazine.  Search this
Collection Source:
Computers, Information and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Container:
Box 47 (Series 11), Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by donor and/or heirs. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.] .
Collection Citation:
The Computer World Smithsonian Awards, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Computer World Smithsonian Awards
Computer World Smithsonian Awards / Series 11: Awards / 11.9: Science
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0425-ref2813

Recollections of Leonard Becker

Author:
Becker, Leonard, ?-1985  Search this
Collector:
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Names:
Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (Nitro (W. Va.))  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (1 box , 5 audiocassete tapes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Date:
1976
Summary:
Leonard Becker was a major participant in the development and marketing of Vinyl plastic.
Scope and Contents:
Tapes contain Leonard Becker's recollections regarding the origin and development of vinyl plastic, covering experiments undertaken in conjunction with Union Carbide & Carbon Co., Nitro, West Virginia. Tapes contain information on the various stages in production of men's plastic belts, including dipping, extrusion, fabrication, sealing, and cementing.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection consists of five cassette tapes recording the reminiscences of Leonard Becker, a major participant in the development and marketing of Vinyl plastic.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Leonard Becker, through J. Harry DuBois and the Plastics Institute of America, 1978.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Belts (Clothing) -- Plastic  Search this
Plastics  Search this
Vinyl polymers -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Citation:
Physical Science Oral History Collection, 1976, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0248
See more items in:
Recollections of Leonard Becker
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0248

Man in chemistry laboratory.

Collection Collector:
Freedman, Margaret A.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Item 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Washington Navy Yard Optical Shop Photoprints, ca. 1940s-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Washington Navy Yard Optical Shop Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0252-ref18

W. Heffer and Sons Ltd., Catalogue of Books and Journals Bearing on Mathematics, Physics, Engineering and Chemistry, Cambridge, England

Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Container:
Box 46, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1934
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
William J. Hammer Collection / Series 3: Reference Materials / 3.4: Incandescent Lighting Material / Pamphlets: E to H
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0069-ref2566

Barker, George F., "Radio-Activity and Chemistry", the School of Mines Quarterly, vol.24, no. 3 (three copies)

Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Container:
Box 64, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Apr. 1903
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
William J. Hammer Collection / Series 3: Reference Materials / 3.14: Radium / English Language, Bound Pamphlets / 1903:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0069-ref2832

Wilkinson, John Anderson, "Th Phosphorescence of Some Inorganic Salt,' reprinted from the Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 9

Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Container:
Box 64, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Dec. 1909
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
William J. Hammer Collection / Series 3: Reference Materials / 3.14: Radium / English Language, Bound Pamphlets / 1906-1909:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0069-ref2865

Notebook AH, Abstracts on surface chemistry

Collection Creator:
Cady, Walter Guyton, 1874-1973 (physicist)  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Container:
Box 22, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Walter Guyton Cady Papers, 1903-1974, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Walter Guyton Cady Papers
Walter Guyton Cady Papers / Series 1: Research Notebooks / 1.3: Record Books
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0046-ref772

Henry Wurtz Papers

Author:
Wurtz, Henry, 1828-1910  Search this
Collector:
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Names:
American Whig Society  Search this
Union Chemical Manufacturing Company  Search this
Wurtz, Henry, 1828-1910  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Catalogs
Photographs
Certificates
Notebooks
Correspondence
Date:
1861-1885
Summary:
Wurtz's scheme, presented in a report to the stockholders, was a new method for the dry distillation of non-caking coal to obtain liquid oils and paraffin. Included in this box are: the report to the stockholders of the Union Chemical Manufacturing Co., 1883; patent specifications, 1881; correspondence with the Patent Office, prospectus on coal distillation, 1885; a notebook of minutes from meetings of Union Chemical Manufacturing Co., 1881-1883.
Scope and Contents:
These papers include items concerning the Union Chemical Manufacturing Company, 1883-1885, on dry destructive distillation of coal to make liquid oils and paraffins, including: patent specifications, 1881; report to the stockholders of the Company, 1883; correspondence with the Patent Office; correspondence regarding the Company, 1883-1884; prospectus on coal distillation, 1885; and a notebook of minutes from meetings of the Company, 1881-1883.

Also included is material relating to Wurtz's interest in petroleum distillation, 1884-1885, consisting of newsclippings, contracts, proofs and gallerys of prospectus, and correspondence with perspective investors. Also, correspondence with A.R. Leeds and F.W. Clarke and other chemists regarding Wurtz's desire to find a new assistant; "The Book of Inventions, made by Henry Wurtz from about 1850, Compilation and Arrangement, from Scattered Notes, Commenced in September 1861, by H.W."; a copy of a letter to Joseph Henry from Wurtz relating to warlike inventions, November 9, 1861; photographs of Wurtz family; certificate of membership in the Whig Society at the College of New Jersey (later, Princeton), 1848; and scientific instruments catalogues, 1882-1884.
Arrangement:
Divided into six series: (1) Union Chemical Manufacturing Company, 1883-1885; (2) Petroleum Distillation and Miscellaneous Chemical Consulting, 1884-1885; (3) Book of Inventions, 1861; (4) Wurtz Biographical Material and Family Photographs; (5) Publications; (6) Whig Society Certificate, 1848.
Biographical / Historical:
Henry Wurtz (c. 1828-1910), chemist and editor, contributed to both the theory and practice of chemistry. He studied at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), where his interest in scientific pursuits was awakened by studies under Joseph Henry and John Torrey. Between 1854 and 1856 he was state chemist and geologist of the New Jersey Geological Survey. In 1858 he was appointed professor of chemistry and pharmacy at the National Medical College of Washington, D.C. (later George Washington University). During this connection he served as chemical examiner in the United States Patent Office. In 1861 in New York he opened a private laboratory for general consulting work. During the years 1877-1887 he was engaged in developing processes for increasing the yields of paraffin oils and other by products of the distillation of coal. He devoted the remaining years of his life to his private consulting practice and took out numerous patents relating to the distillation of paraffin hydrocarbons and other chemical products.

Opened a private laboratory in New York for general consulting work, 1861. During 1877-1887 developed processes for increasing yields of paraffin oils and other by-products of coal distillation. Devoted remaining years of his life to private consulting practice and received numerous patents relating to the distillation of paraffin hydrocarbons and other chemical products.
Separated Materials:
2 glass plate negatives removed from collection and held in OIPP library with negative numbers 83-1890 & 83-1891.
Provenance:
Gift of Richard Wurtz (Litchfield, Connecticut).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventions -- United States -- History -- 19th century  Search this
Chemical engineering -- Patents  Search this
Alkylation  Search this
Petroleum, Synthetic  Search this
Coal liquefaction  Search this
Distillation, Fractional  Search this
Genre/Form:
Catalogs -- 1820-1910
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th century
Certificates
Notebooks -- 1850-1900
Correspondence -- 19th century
Citation:
Henry Wurtz Papers, 1861-1885, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0006
See more items in:
Henry Wurtz Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0006

Union Chemical Manufacturing Company

Creator:
Wurtz, Henry, 1828-1910  Search this
Union Chemical Manufacturing Company  Search this
Names:
Union Chemical Manufacturing Company  Search this
Collection Author:
Wurtz, Henry, 1828-1910  Search this
Collection Collector:
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Minutes
Patents
Date:
1883 - 1885
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Alkylation  Search this
Petroleum, Synthetic  Search this
Fischer-Tropsch process  Search this
Coal liquefaction -- Patents  Search this
Coal  Search this
Chemistry -- 19th century  Search this
Chemical engineering -- Patents  Search this
Distillation, Fractional  Search this
Genre/Form:
Minutes
Patents
Collection Citation:
Henry Wurtz Papers, 1861-1885, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0006, Series 1
See more items in:
Henry Wurtz Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0006-ref11

DuPont Nylon Collection

Creator:
DuPont (E. I.) de Nemours & Company  Search this
Names:
DuPont, Eleuthere Irenee  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Memorandums
Photographs
Bulletins
Date:
1939-1977
Summary:
Promotional booklets and pamphlets, 1940-1963, regarding nylon; catalogues on the industrial use of nylon; 25th anniversary book on nylon; photographs, and a variety of other documents. Includes memo to DuPont employees concerning the company's wartime involvement in the development of the atomic bomb.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of promotional booklets and pamphlets, 1940-1963, regarding nylon; catalogues on the industrial use of nylon; a 25th anniversary book on nylon; World War II Christmas card of the Nylon Division of Dupont; pamphlets describing the wartime uses of nylon; technical reprints, a cartoon and a plant magazine about the Martinsville, Virginia nylon plant, 1941-1946; an employee handbook, Dupont Nylon Division, circa 1940; newsclippings and historical material for the Chattanooga plant, 1948; news clippings, initial production orders for nylon and typescript on uses and manufacture of nylon at Seaford plant, 1939-1947; publications concerning Delrin Acetal Resins; and photographs of machines for making nylon plastics of the Washington Works, 1947, with a letter from 1977 explaining this material.
Arrangement:
Collection materials are divided into three series.

Series 1: Nylon Production, 1939-1948

Subseries 1.1:Seaford, Delaware Plant, 1939-1940

Subseries 1.2: Martinsville, Virginia, 1941-1946

Subseries 1.3: Chattanooga, Tennessee Plant, 1948

Subseries 1.4: Nylon in War, circa 1942-1945

Subseries 1.5: Photographs, 1940-1977

Series 2: Publications, 1940-1963

Subseries 2.1: Dupont Public Relations Department, 1940-1963

Subseries 2.2:Technical Reprints, News clippings and Magazine Articles About Nylon, 1940-1945

Series 3: "Delrin" Acetal Resin, 1957-1962
Biographical / Historical:
The E.I. DuPont De Nemours and Company was founded on July 19, 1802, by Eleuthere Irenee DuPont on Brandywine Creek for the purpose of manufacturing gunpowder. In 1804 the first DuPont powder went on public sale. In 1902 a new corporation was formed by three great grandsons of the founder, to more effectively compete with the changing technical field and the expanding scale and complexity of business.

During the twentieth century the corporation moved into the research and manufacture of thousands of products and processes, and consequently developed and expanded within many markets. Synthetic fibers is one of a family of products of the Dupont Corporation. In 1930, Dr. Wallace H. Carothers, working with Dr. J.W. Hill in DuPont's Fundamental Research Laboratory at Wilmington, produced the first synthetic fiber forming "superpolymer." This was the forerunner of nylon.

In 1938, the development of nylon was announced. It's first use was in brush bristles. Hosiery filaments were developed in 1939, and offered commercially in 1940. In 1941, nylon was applied to the molding industry. From l942 to 1944, nylon production was allocated completely to war uses. The best known outgrowth of the company's resarch progress, nylon is one of the most important developments in Dupont's long history. It was the result of the chemical industry's first large scale fundamental research program. And it proved to be the first of a whole family of synthetics for consumer consumption. The product was bought into commercial production at a new plant in Seaford, Delaware.

No other major chemical development had the spontaneous reception accorded to nylon. It not only changed the hosiery market but was soon developed into a multiplicity of textile applications including: tooth brushes, hair brushes, household brushes, tennis racquet strings, catheters, surgical sutures, fishing leader material, musical strings, wire insulation, self lubricating bearings for machinery, umbrellas, undergarments, shower curtains, parachutes, and rope.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric insulators and insulation -- Nylon  Search this
Gunpowder  Search this
Nylon  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Economic & industrial aspects -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 20th century
Memorandums
Photographs -- 20th century
Bulletins
Citation:
DuPont Nylon Collection, 1939-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0007
See more items in:
DuPont Nylon Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0007
Online Media:

Booklet, "Nylon -- Versatile product of Dupont Chemistry," published by DuPont

Collection Creator:
DuPont (E. I.) de Nemours & Company  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1941
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
DuPont Nylon Collection, 1939-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
DuPont Nylon Collection
DuPont Nylon Collection / Series 2: Publications / 2.1: Dupont Public Relations Department
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0007-ref37

Reprint from Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. "Development of Nylon" by E.K. Bolton.

Collection Creator:
DuPont (E. I.) de Nemours & Company  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1942 January
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
DuPont Nylon Collection, 1939-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
DuPont Nylon Collection
DuPont Nylon Collection / Series 2: Publications / 2.2: Technical reprints, news clippings and magazine articles about nylon
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0007-ref44

Reprint from Industrial Engineering, Chemistry, "Nylon as a Textile Fiber" by G.P. Hoff.

Collection Creator:
DuPont (E. I.) de Nemours & Company  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940 December
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
DuPont Nylon Collection, 1939-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
DuPont Nylon Collection
DuPont Nylon Collection / Series 2: Publications / 2.2: Technical reprints, news clippings and magazine articles about nylon
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0007-ref50

Writings and Notes

Collection Creator:
Hess, Thomas B.  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Linear feet (Boxes 2-5, OV 12)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1940-1978
Scope and Contents:
This series consists mainly of manuscripts and drafts written by Hess for Art News, Le Monde, Vogue, New York magazine, and other publications. Other writings by Hess include his senior essay "Poussin and Classicism"; class notes on art history, architecture, and chemistry; notes on the artist Ingres; notecards on Italian artists; notes taken during his travels abroad; and two notebooks. The first notebook is from Hess' time at Yale and includes his notes on literature and plays along with doodles. The second notebook contains notes written in English and French on readings about art. A play titled "The Red Robins" by Kenneth Koch is also in this series.
Arrangement:
Hess' manuscripts and drafts are arranged chronologically beginning with undated material. Titlles, when known, are supplied in the folder notes.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Thomas Hess papers, 1939-1978. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hessthom, Series 3
See more items in:
Thomas Hess papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-hessthom-ref14

Print, Engraving on Paper

Artist:
Maurice Leloir  Search this
Medium:
Print, Engraving on Paper
Dimensions:
3-D (Paperboard): 24.8 × 17.5 × 0.3cm (9 3/4 × 6 7/8 × 1/8 in.)
Type:
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
France
Credit Line:
Gift of the Estate of Constance Morss Fiske in memory of Gardiner H. Fiske
Inventory Number:
A19930268000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv95c27190a-2786-4470-80b0-19b59c3f3b2a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19930268000
Online Media:

Vol a-tire d'ailes

Medium:
Print, Lithograph on Paper, Colored
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 26.7 x 17.8cm (10 1/2 in. x 7 in.)
Type:
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Inventory Number:
A19772698000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv97c33e736-329e-4ac6-8745-52487993dc15
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19772698000
Online Media:

Bettini

Artist:
Bettini  Search this
Medium:
Print, Lithograph on Paper
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 29.2 x 22.9cm (11 1/2 in. x 9 in.)
Type:
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
Italy
Credit Line:
Gift of Harry F. Guggenheim
Inventory Number:
A19680104000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9f542d485-cba0-405f-877b-896a4e0c37db
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19680104000
Online Media:

Ballon Aerostatique Voyageant

Medium:
Print, Engraving on Paper, Colored
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 33.7 x 26cm (13 1/4 x 10 1/4 in.)
12X8 1/2,21X17 1/8 FRAMED
Type:
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
France
Credit Line:
Gift of Harry F. Guggenheim
Inventory Number:
A19680105000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv94383f6ab-adfd-4b58-a1e8-c6212411bac0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19680105000
Online Media:

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