The papers of Neil Merton Judd, archeologist and curator in the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum, were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives at various times during the 1960's and 1970's. Much of Judd's own material was produced as part of his official duties and lie within the public domain. The collection occupies fourteen linear feet of shelf space.
Scope and Contents note:
These papers reflect the professional life of Neil Merton Judd (1887-1976), archeologist and curator in the former United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Included are diaries of expeditions, correspondence, field notes, notes, financial records, copies of historical documents, maps, drawings, photographs, and other documents that cover the period from the 1870s to the 1970s. Most of the material, however, is dated between 1907 and 1965.
Of primary concern is Judd's archeological work in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, especially at Pueblo Bonito and other sites in the area of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, which he carried out for the National Geographic Society between 1920 and 1927. Appreciable material concerns the so-called Beam expeditions of 1923, 1928, and 1929 to locate study of tree-rings. Other documents relate to Judd's work in San Juan country, Utah; at Paragonah and other sites in southern Utah; and on the Walhalla Plateau in Arizona. Some correspondences, which Judd carried on with William B. Marye between 1932 and 1949, concern Indian bridges in Maryland and nearby states.
Several other expeditions of which Judd was a member are documented among the papers solely or primarily through photographs. There is little material that reflects Judd's personal life, daily curatorial duties at the United States National Museum, work at Rito de los Frijoles with Edgar L. Hewett in 1910, expedition to Guatemala in 1914, or aerial surveys of old canals in Arizona during the 1929-30.
Among correspondents whose letters are included among the papers are Glover M. Allen, Monroe Amsden, Bryant Bannister, James F. Breazeale, Harold S. Colton, Kenneth J. Conant, Fredrick V. Coville, Richard E. Dodge, Harold S. Gladwin, Gilbert Grosvernor, Edgar L. Hewett, Frederick Webb Hodge, William H. Jackson, Jean A. Jeancon, John O. La Gorce, Frank McNitt, Sylvanus G. Morley, Earl H. Morris, Nels C. Nelson, Jesse L. Nusbaum, Deric O'Bryan, George H. Pepper, Frederick Wilson Popenoe, Frank H. H. Roberts, Karl Ruppert, Carl S. Scofield, Hugh L. Scott, Harry L. Shapiro, Anna O. Shepard, Alfred M. Tozzer, and Clark Wissler. In addition to his own material, Judd also acquired some material from members of his expeditions, especially from Frans Blom, Karl Ruppert, and Oscar B. Walsh. He also collected historical documents and photographs. Among these are copies of documents relating to southwestern archeological explorations of the naturalist Edward Palmer. He also acquired photographs by Walter Hough made in Arizona between 1904 and 1920., photographs taken on the Hyde Exploring Expedition to Chaco Canyon, and miscellaneous photographs made on expeditions of William H. Jackson, Edgar A. Mearns, and others.
To a degree, the arrangement of the collection is Judd's own. The series titles in quotation marks are Judd's own.
"Pueblo Bonito File"
Chaco Canyon Notes, Notebooks, and Note Cards
Material Relating to Judd's Bureau of American Ethnology Expeditions between 1915 and 1920
Material Concerning Edward Palmer
Correspondence with William B. Marye
Manuscripts of Writings
Artwork and Photographic Enlargements
Note: Biographical data and a bibliography of Judd's writings are in the series of miscellany among his papers. For an obituary, see Waldo R. Wedel, "Neil Merton Judd, 1887-1976." American Antiquity, volume 43, number 3 (July 1978), pages 399-404, and J. O. Brew, "Neil Merton Judd, 1887-1976." American Anthropologist, volume 80, number 2 (June 1978), pages 352-54. An obituary prepared by Judd is among the papers.
October 27, 1887 -- Born in Cedar Rapids, Nebraska
1907-08 -- Public school teacher in Utah
1907 -- Student archeologist on Byron Cummings' reconnaissance of White Canyon, Utah
1908 -- Student archeologist on Cummings' reconnaissance of Montezuma Canyon, Utah, and Segi Valley, Arizona.
1909 -- Student archeologist on Cummings' reconnaissance of Segi Valley, Arizona, and the Cummings- Douglass expedition to Rainbow Natural Bridge.
1910 -- Student assistant to Edgar L. Hewett on the Archeological Institute of America's expedition to El Rito del los Frijoles, New Mexico
1911 -- Bachelor of Arts, University of Utah
1911-1917 -- Aid, Division of Ethnology, United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution
1913 -- Master of Arts, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
1914 -- Member, Archeological Institute's Fourth Quirigua Expedition to Guatemala; supervised the fabrication of a reproduction model of ruins for the Pacific-California International Exposition, San Diego
1915 -- Archeological reconnaissance of Indian mounds in and near Willard, Beaver City, Paragonah, St. George, Kanab, and Cottonwood Canyon, Utah, and "Spanish Diggings" flint quarries in Wyoming for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1916 -- Reconnaissance and excavations of Indian mounds near Paragonah and in Willard County, Utah, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1916-18 -- Treasurer, American Anthropological Association
1917 -- Director, project for partial restoration of Betatakin ruin, Arizona, for the United States Department of the Interior, and the excavations at Paragonah, Utah, for the Smithsonian and University of Utah
1918 -- Archeological reconnaissance of the Walhalla Plateau, Arizona, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1918-19 -- Assistant Curator, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum
1919 -- Archeological investigations in Cottonwood Canyon, Utah, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1919-30 -- Curator, American Archeology, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum
1920 -- Archeological investigations at Toroweap Valley, Mt. Trumbull, Pariah Plateau, House Rock Valley, Bright Angel Creak, Cottonwood Canyon, and Kanab Creek in Utah and Arizona for the Bureau of American Ethnology and reconnaissance of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, for the National Geographic Society
1920-23 -- Vice President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1921-27 -- Investigations of Pueblo Bonito and nearby ruins in New Mexico for the National Geographic Society
1923 -- Led first Beam expedition to sites in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado, and carried out explorations in San Juan County, Utah, for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society
1925-27 -- Member, Board of Managers, Washington Academy of Science, and President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1925-28 -- Member, Division of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council
1926 -- Archeological Observations North of the Rio Colorado, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 82, 1926
1927-36 -- Trustee, Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, New Mexico
1928 -- Investigations of Indian burials in rock shelter, Wolf Creek, Russell County, Kentucky, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1929 -- Led Third Beam Expedition to sites in Arizona for the National Geographic Society and reconnaissance of the prehistoric canals in the Gila River and Salt River valleys for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1930 -- Aerial surveys of ancient canals in the Gila River and Salt River valleys for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States Department of War
1930-49 -- Curator, Archeology, United States National Museum
1931 -- Investigations on the Natanes Plateau, Arizona, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1931-32 -- Member, Division of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council (second time)
1935 -- Smithsonian Institution's delegate to the second assembly, Pan-American Institute of Geography and History
1936-48 -- Advisory Board, Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, New Mexico
1937-39 -- Member, Division of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council (third time)
1938 -- Married Anne Sarah MacKay
1938-40 -- Member, Board of Managers, Washington Academy of Science
1939 -- President, Society for American Archaeology, and Vice President and Chairman, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1945 -- President, American Anthropological Association
December 31, 1949 -- Retired from the staff of the United States National Museum
January 1, 1950 -- Honorary Associate in Anthropology of the Smithsonian Institution
1953 -- Awarded the Franklin L. Burr Award of the National Geographic Society
1954 -- The Material Culture of Pueblo Bonito, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 125
1958 -- Awarded Certificate of Award of the Smithsonian Institution
1959 -- Pueblo Del Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 138, number 1
1962 -- Awarded the Franklin L. Burr Award of the National Geographic Society (second time)
1964 -- The Architecture of Pueblo Bonito, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 147, number 1
1965 -- Awarded the Alfred Vincent Kidder Award of the American Anthropological Association
1966 -- Awarded Special Award of the United States Department of the Interior
1967 -- The Bureau of American Ethnology: A Partial History, University of Oklahoma Press
1968 -- Men met along the Trail: Adventures in Archeology, University of Oklahoma Press
December 19, 1976 -- Died
Related Archival Materials note:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives that relates to Judd can be found among the correspondence files of the Bureau of American Ethnology; files of the Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum, especially those of the Division of Archeology; papers of Frank H.H. Roberts; papers of William B. Marye; American Antiquities permits records of the Anthropological Society of Washington; papers of John P. Harrington; papers of Frank M. Setzler; papers of Henry B. Collins; and records of the American Anthropological Association. Additional photographs that relate to the expeditions of which Judd was a member are in the cataloged and the uncataloged photographs. For example, negatives and other photographic material of the aerial surveys of ancient canals in the Gila River and Salt River valleys in Arizona are NAA photographic lot 3.
Includes autograph document 41 pages; typescript document 28 pages; Ink sketches, 5 pages; Drawings of ground plans and sections on tracing cloth, 7 sheets 12" x 22" and under; Pottery type distribution charts on tracing cloth, 6 sheets 23" x 18" and under; Oversize drawings and charts (filed in Map Case): "Turkey House, a small ruin 9 miles from Pueblo Bonito,"; "Slab house cluster near proto-kiva. September, 1926."; "Ruin 13"; "Ruin 3"; "A small pueblo 9 miles east of Pueblo Bonito"; "Mesa Verde House, 9 1/2 miles east of Pueblo Bonito. September, 1926"; "Proto-kiva. September, 1926.";Pottery distribution charts: "Hachure C. B, A"; "Solid and Chaco San Juan"; "Polished Black Interior, Indian Red, and Transitional Red"; "Corrugated Ware and Banded-Neck Ware";
"Degenerate Ware and Transitional Ware"; "Undecorated Culinary Vessels and Painted Wares."
NAA MS 4853
Manuscript 4853, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Thomas Dale Stewart was a physical and forensic anthropologist and worked at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History from 1931 until his death in 1997. He worked under Ales Hrdlicka until 1943, became the head curator in 1960, director of the museum in 1962, and retired in 1971. Stewart's research interests included physical and forensic anthropology and archaeology, mostly in North and South America. He also worked with the F.B.I. frequently to aid in homicide investigations, and worked extensively with the U.S. Army to identify skeletal remains from the Korean War in Operation Glory. The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers primarily deal with his life and career at the Smithsonian, particularly his research projects and publications between 1931 and 1991. Materials consist mainly of correspondence, photographic material, dossiers based on writings and research projects, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers document his research and professional activities from 1931 to 1991 and primarily deal with his anthropological and archaeological research in North and South America. There is also significant material related to ancient human skeletal remains found in Egypt and the Middle East, Stewart's work identifying skeletal remains for the U.S. Army (Operation Glory), and the history of physical and forensic anthropology. Material documenting Stewart's work with Ales Hrdlicka and other colleagues are also represented in this collection. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and research files, project data, skeletal data punch cards, photographic and illustration materials, and administrative and financial papers.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
This collection is arranged in 9 series: Series 1. Biographical and Background, 1937-1983; Series 2. Correspondence, 1931-1990; Series 3. Writings and Research, 1875, 1902-1990; Series 4. Operation Glory, 1954-1957; Series 5. Professional Organizations, 1930-1990; Series 6. Trip Files, 1945-1985; Series 7. Teaching and Lectures, 1950-1970; Series 8. Exhibit Material, 1961-1969; Series 9. Photographs, 1928-1979.
Thomas Dale Stewart was a curator of physical anthropology at the Smithsonian specializing in anthropometry, early man, and forensic anthropology. He worked in the Department of Anthropology for over seventy years. Born in Delta, Pennsylvania in 1901, Stewart moved to Washington, D.C. to pursue a degree at George Washington University. While attending school, he also began working at the Smithsonian in 1924 as a temporary substitute for John Baer, a family friend from Delta. After Baer died during conducting research in Panama, Stewart was invited to stay on as assistant to Ales Hrdlicka, curator of physical anthropology. Hrdlicka was impressed by Stewart's abilities and quickly took him on as a student. Promised that he would succeed Hrdlicka one day if he obtained an M.D., Stewart enrolled at The Johns Hopkins University and graduated in 1931. After graduating, Stewart was rehired by the Smithsonian as an assistant curator.
Stewart rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology quickly, being promoted to associate curator in 1939 and curator in 1943 after the death of his mentor Hrdlicka. Stewart was appointed head curator of the department in 1960 and director of the Natural History Museum in 1962. He continued to work at the Smithsonian well after he retired in 1971, conducting research and producing a stream of publications well into his 90s. He died in 1997 at the age of 96.
Many of Stewart's early research interests matched those of his mentor: a focus on dental caries, separate neural arch and spondylolisthesis, ossuary excavation, cranial deformations, and other examinations of archaeological remains throughout North America. While Hrdlicka was alive, Stewart provided support for many of his research projects and publications. After Hrdlicka died, Stewart expanded his interests to include forensic topics and analysis of other archaeological remains.
Anthropometry was prominent in a great deal of his work. He was the first to describe Tepexpan Man from Mexico and Midland Man from Texas. He also studied the remains of Neanderthal specimens that Ralph S. Solecki, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, had uncovered at Shanidar Cave in Iraq. In forensic work, as Hrdlicka's heir, Stewart assumed work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement officials. Moreover, Stewart devised new methods and published books and articles concerning forensic analysis, including his Essentials of Forensic Anthropology. In closely related work during 1954-1955, the United States Army engaged Stewart to go to Japan to examine skeletal remains repatriated after the Korean War in a project called "Operation Glory."
In terms of his areal specialization, Stewart was essentially an Americanist. In North America, he worked in Alaska with Henry B. Collins in 1927, and in subsequent years he excavated several ossuaries and other sites in the Washington, D.C., vicinity. These included a site on Potomac Creek in Virginia, Piscataway sites in Maryland, and the Townsend site in Delaware. He also carried out laboratory studies and prepared reports on skeletal remains uncovered by Smithsonian colleagues. In the 1940s and 1950s, Stewart conducted field work at archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru.
He was awarded the Viking Medal in Physical Anthropology in 1953, the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1967, and an award from the physical anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1981.
Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Thomas Dale Stewart, A Biographer Memoir," National Academy of Sciences, 2006.
Pace, Eric. "T. Dale Stewart Dies at 96; Anthropologist at Smithsonian," The New York Times, 1997.
1901 -- Born in Delta, Pennsylvania.
1922-1927 -- Moved to Washington, D.C. and attended George Washington University.
1924 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.
1927 -- Sent by Ales Hrdlicka to Alaska to collect skeletal remains with Henry Collins.
1931 -- Graduated from The Johns Hopkins University with an M.D.
1931 -- Appointed assistant curator at the Smithsonian under Hrdlicka.
1939 -- Promoted to associate curator.
1939 -- Field work in Mexico.
1941 -- Field work in Peru.
1943 -- Taught at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
1943 -- Promoted to curator after Hrdlicka dies.
1943 -- Began working on forensic cases for the F.B.I.
1945 -- Field work in Mexico.
1949 -- Field work in Peru.
1947, 1949 -- Field work in Guatemala.
1954-1955 -- Traveled to Japan to assist in the identification of skeletal remains from the Korean War (Operation Glory).
1957-1967 -- Taught at the George Washington University School of Medicine.
1960-1962 -- Served as head curator of the Department of Anthropology.
1962-1965 -- Served as the director of the National Museum of Natural History.
1964 -- Assisted in the production of Smithsonian exhibits on physical anthropology.
1966 -- Retired from administrative duties and appointed senior scientist.
1971 -- Retired from the Smithsonian.
1997 -- Died in Bethesda, Maryland.
The following manuscripts related to Stewart and his work can be found at the NAA:
NAA MS 1615- Excavations in Mancos Canyon, Colorado September 1943.
NAA MS 4669- The Townsend Site Near Lewes, Delaware 1962 by Henri Omwake.
NAA MS 4843- Report by T. Dale Stewart on Human Skeletal Material Excavated by W.M. Walker at Cedar Grove Cave, Arkansas and Natchitoches, Louisiana.
NAA MS 7025- A Tentative Closing Report on the Willin Site, Eldorado, Maryland September 1, 1952.
NAA MS 7121- "Memories from Half a Century at the Smithsonian January 11, 1978" recording.
NAA MS 7223- The Townsend Site January 1950.
NAA MS 7264- Documents Concerning Preserved Paleolithic Human Remains Found in the Vicinity of Cueva, Spain 1969-1972.
NAA MS 7357- Material Relating to Dermatoglyphics of Mayan Groups ca. 1947-1949.
NAA MS 7358- Personal Identification in Mass Disasters December 9-11 1968.
NAA MS 7359- T. Dale Stewart on the Identification of Human Remains April 6, 1970.
NAA MS 7474- Sketches of Burials at Ossuary 2, Juhle Site ca. 1971-1972.
Additional material T. Dale Stewart created while assisting Ales Hrdlicka is located at the National Anthropological Archives, The Papers of Ales Hrdlicka, ca. 1887-1943.
Many objects and artifact materials collected by T. Dale Stewart throughout his career are also held by the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology. These include skeletal remains and other materials from the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, forensic anthropological material including bone casts from Operation Glory, archaelogical materials from excavations in Maryland and Virginia including the Nanjemoy and Potomac Creek sites, and skeletal remains and other related materials from Stewart's 1927 expedition to Alaska with Henry Collins. Contact Anthropological Collections for more information.
Materials were transferred from T. Dale Stewart to the National Anthropological Archives in multiple accretions between 1975 and 2000 under accessions 1981-52, 1981-59, 1986-04, 1988-15, 1988-33, 1995-04, 1998-61, and 2000-46.The bulk of materials in this collection were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 1994 (1995-04).
The Thomas Dale Stewart papers are open for research.