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Anodontites patagonica

Collector:
Dr G. W.  Search this
Carnegie Museum of Natural History  Search this
Preparation:
Dry
Place:
Rio de la Plate, 20 KM N. of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Collection Date:
Jun 1917
Common name:
Freshwater Bivalves
Published Name:
Anodontites patagonica (Lamarck, 1819)
Other Numbers:
collector number : M-7452
USNM Number:
1468972
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Mollusca
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d4b5b99d-aa30-45cb-982b-5b61d918a7a7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_13855562

Stemming the Tide Symposium: Museums and Collections

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-03-31T18:10:52.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_lTy76peLfLQ

James B. Richardson photographs and correspondence relating to River Basin Surveys work on the Lower Brule Reservation

Creator:
Richardson, James B. (James Bushnell), 1936-  Search this
Names:
River Basin Surveys  Search this
Extent:
18 letters and postcards
252 Color slides
3 Prints (silver gelatin)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color slides
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Lower Brule Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Date:
1957
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to archeological excavations at sites on the Lower Brule Sioux Reservation, including Warren Caldwell's work at the Black Partizan site and Hubert Smith's work at another historic site. The collection includes images of the excavations and their surroundings; artifacts and remains in situ and after excavation; a rodeo in Pierre, South Dakota; and cities in South Dakota and Nebraska. The collection also includes correspondence from James B. Richardson to his parents, describing the excavations and camp life.
Biographical/Historical note:
James Bushnell Richardson (b. 1936) was a crew member on the excavations of sites on the Lower Brule Sioux Reservation in South Dakota in 1957. He received a BA from Saint Lawrence University (1960), MA from Syracuse University (1963), and PhD fro the University of Illinois (1969). After his appointment as Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh in 1967, he was promoted to Professor of Anthropology and eventually Chair of the Anthropology Department. In 1980, Richardson became Chief Curator for the Section of Anthropology at the university's Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2013-09
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Surveys and reports by James B. Richardson held in the National Anthropological Archives include "Ohio River Environmental Assessment," "A Cultural Resource Survey of the Erie National Wildlife Refuge," and Analysis of Archaeological, Geological and Historical Artifacts and Documents, Pertaining to the Midden Excavation at 'Woodville.'"
The National Anthropological Archives holds the River Basin Surveys records.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2013-09, James B. Richardson photographs and correspondence relating to River Basin Surveys work on the Lower Brule Reservation, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2013-09
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2013-09

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art museums -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1995

Collection Creator::
National Museum of Natural History. Office of the Director  Search this
Container:
Box 12 of 14
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted for 15 years, until Jan-01-2035; Transferring office; 1/15/2014 memorandum, Yowell to File; Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 19-202, National Museum of Natural History. Office of the Director, Subject Files
See more items in:
Subject Files
Subject Files / Box 12
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa19-202-refidd1e5893

Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Business Ventures. Product Development and Licensing  Search this
Container:
Box 4 of 42
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted for 15 years. Any requests to access these records during the restriction period, including requests from the staff of Smithsonian Business Ventures, must first receive permission, in writing, from the Director of Product Development and Licensing, until Jan-01-2021; Transferring office; 08/16/1994 memorandum, Johnstone to Watson; Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 07-001, Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Business Ventures, Product Development and Licensing, Product and Contract Records
See more items in:
Product and Contract Records
Product and Contract Records / Box 4
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa07-001-refidd1e1945

Robert M. West: Exchange of Museum Personnel between Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, and National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi, MR June 1984

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of International Relations  Search this
Container:
Box 11 of 14
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 01-015, Smithsonian Institution, Office of International Relations, Grant Records
See more items in:
Grant Records
Grant Records / Box 11
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa01-015-refidd1e5309

Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. International Exchange Service  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 99-038, Smithsonian Institution, International Exchange Service, Records
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Records
Records / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa99-038-refidd1e729

Registration Packet, Program, and Abstracts for the 1988 Annual Meeting, May 30-June 3; Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Collection Creator::
Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 99-077, Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa99-077-refidd1e180

Packet of miscellany from J. Golden including: Photocopy of button, with informal logo - pre-1991-1992 when official logo was adopted; Design and vote for stationery, 1992; Registration/Preliminary Program for 1994 Annual Meeting, held jointly with Ass...

Collection Creator::
Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 99-077, Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa99-077-refidd1e269

Records

Creator::
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  Search this
Extent:
11 cu. ft. (11 record storage boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Clippings
Field notes
Picture postcards
Floor plans
Illustrations
Plates (illustrations)
Sketches
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Color photographs
Color transparencies
Artifacts
Date:
1910-2011
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the papers of Donald Baird (1926-2011), paleontologist, anthropologist, geologist, and seventeenth and eighteenth century firearms authority. He became a member of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in 1949 (Vice President, 1983-1984; President, 1984-1985; Honorary Life Member, 1991; J. T. Gregory Award, 1996). During his career in vertebrate paleontology, Baird's employers included the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, the University of Colorado Museum, Harvard University, the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, Princeton University, and the Museum of Natural History at Princeton University. Materials include correspondence and postcards; field notebooks; clippings and articles; illustrations, floor plans, exhibit drawings, and sketches; photographs, slides, and transparencies; and a few latex casts.
Rights:
Restricted for 15 years, until Jan-01-2027; Transferring office; 4/1/1988 Agreement of Transfer; Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Ichnology  Search this
Paleoanthropology  Search this
Geology  Search this
Professional associations  Search this
Vertebrate paleontology  Search this
Vertebrates  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Clippings
Field notes
Picture postcards
Floor plans
Illustrations
Plates (illustrations)
Sketches
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Color photographs
Color transparencies
Artifacts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 12-107, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Records
Identifier:
Accession 12-107
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa12-107

Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1976

Collection Creator::
National Museum of Natural History. Department of Paleobiology  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 01-201, National Museum of Natural History. Department of Paleobiology, Curatorial Correspondence and Memoranda
See more items in:
Curatorial Correspondence and Memoranda
Curatorial Correspondence and Memoranda / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa01-201-refidd1e389

104493, J. Gardner and S. Williams, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, FY 1981

Collection Creator::
National Museum Act Program  Search this
Container:
Box 36 of 53
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 574, National Museum Act Program, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 36
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0574-refidd1e10297

407952, Stephen L. Williams, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, FY 1984

Collection Creator::
National Museum Act Program  Search this
Container:
Box 47 of 53
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 574, National Museum Act Program, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 47
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0574-refidd1e12877

FC-806832, Walter S. Dunn, Jr., Northeast Museum Conference/Carnegie Museum of Natural History, FY 1978

Collection Creator::
National Museum Act Program  Search this
Container:
Box 26 of 53
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 574, National Museum Act Program, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 26
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0574-refidd1e8141

Davidson, Robert L., Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Collection Creator::
National Museum of Natural History. Department of Entomology  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 11-081, National Museum of Natural History. Department of Entomology, Curatorial Records
See more items in:
Curatorial Records
Curatorial Records / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa11-081-refidd1e712

Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Collection Creator::
Hoogstraal, Harry, 1917-1986  Search this
Container:
Box 9 of 121
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7454, Harry Hoogstraal Papers
See more items in:
Harry Hoogstraal Papers
Harry Hoogstraal Papers / Box 9
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7454-refidd1e11725

Carnegie Museum of Natural History Library Exchanges

Collection Creator::
Association of Systematics Collections  Search this
Container:
Box 4 of 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 98-007, Association of Systematics Collections, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 4
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa98-007-refidd1e1842

Steatomys caurinus

Collector:
L. W. Robbins  Search this
Microhabitat Description:
Guinea savanna  Search this
Weight - Specimen:
42 g
Length - Total:
156 mm
Length - Tail:
47 mm
Length - Hind Tarsus:
18 mm
Length - Ear Notch:
17 mm
Preparation:
Skin
Skull
Sex:
Male
Stage:
Adult
Type Citation:
Swanepoel, P. & Schlitter, D. A. 7 Nov 1978 ["1978 Nov 07"]. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 6: 73.
Type Status:
Type
Place:
Yama, Cote d'Ivoire, Africa
Collection Date:
22 Mar 1969
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Mammalia, Eutheria, Rodentia, Myomorpha, Nesomyidae, Dendromurinae
Published Name:
Steatomys caurinus
Steatomys caurinus roseveari Swanepoel & Schlitter, 1978
Accession Number:
279834
Other Numbers:
Mammals Field Number : 1106
USNM Number:
467496
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Mammals
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Mammals Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/331ceb56b-e721-48e5-9f70-259ca7e6c4c5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_7348241

Inter-regional ties in Costa Rican prehistory : papers presented at a symposium at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, April 27, 1983 / edited by Esther Skirboll and Winifred Creamer

Author:
Skirboll, Esther  Search this
Creamer, Winifred  Search this
Hartman, Carl Vilhelm 1862-1941  Search this
Carnegie Museum of Natural History Section of Anthropology  Search this
Subject:
Hartman, Carl Vilhelm 1862-1941  Search this
Physical description:
v, 276 p. : ill. ; 30 cm
Type:
Congresses
Place:
Costa Rica
Date:
1984
Topic:
Indians of Central America--Antiquities  Search this
Indians Of Central America--Commerce  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
F1545.I53 1984X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_291906

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