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Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, evolution, and eugenics) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. From the 1920s to the 1940s Hrdlicka was a member of the American Eugenics Society and prepared exhibits for various eugenics congresses. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

The University of Alaska Anchorage holds diaries relating to Hrdlička's Expeditions to Alaska in 1936, 1937, and 1938 in the Alan G. May papers. The finding aid for this collection is avialable online at https://archives.consortiumlibrary.org/collections/specialcollections/hmc-0690/ and a trascription of May's diaries from the expeditions is available online at https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/11850
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Apes-Brazil

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 192
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 35: Bibliographic Index
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4118

Journey to South America, 1910

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1910-1912
Scope and Contents:
This series includes correspondence, notes, and photographs associated with Hrdlička's trip to South America. This trip was prompted by Florentino Ameghino's claim to have found evidence of early hominids in Argentina in the early 1900s. Hrdlička was eager to investigate these claims and, since he was attending the XVIIth International Congress of Americanists held that year in Argentina and Mexico, he took the opportunity to investigate the subject of early man in all of South America. Hrdlička examined the Argentine remains and, assisted by Bailey Willis of the U.S. Geological Survey, conducted a survey of several Argentine sites. Hrdlička had visited Brazil before going to Argentina, and upon finishing his work in Argentina visited Peru (where he collected almost 3400 crania). He then went to Mexico for that section of the Congress.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31, Series 12
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref2332

Brazil

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 139
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes thumb-nail sketches of anthropologists. These may have been prepared for the U.S. government during World War II.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 21: Miscellaneous Research Notes
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref2996

"The Needs of Brazil in Anthropology"

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 148
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 22: Manuscripts of Writings / Undated:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3647

International Congress of Americanists

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 35
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1913-1939
Scope and Contents:
Includes a handwritten and edited manuscript of "Resolution on the Organization and Promotion of Anthropological Activities in Brazil," 1922, that may be by Hrdlička.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref753

Kraushaar Galleries records

Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Ernest Brown and Co.  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Britain Institute. Art Museum  Search this
Toledo Museum of Art  Search this
University of Nebraska--Lincoln. Department of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Wichita Art Museum  Search this
Albrizio, Humbert, 1901-1970  Search this
Allard, J.  Search this
Arnest, Bernard, 1917-  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bignou, Etienne  Search this
Bouché, Louis, 1896-1969  Search this
Brueming, Karen  Search this
Cantene, David  Search this
Cowles, Russell, 1887-1979  Search this
DeLonga, Leonard  Search this
Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935  Search this
Evett, Kenneth Warnock, 1913-  Search this
Fausett, Dean, 1913-  Search this
Flannery, Vaughn  Search this
Glackens, Edith  Search this
Glackens, William J., 1870-1938  Search this
Guillaume, Paul, 1891-1934  Search this
Halberstadt, Ernst, 1910-1987  Search this
Hardy, Thomas, 1921-  Search this
Harrison, Preston  Search this
Hartell, John  Search this
Heliker, John, 1909-2000  Search this
Juley, Peter A., 1862-1937  Search this
Kirsch, Frederick D. (Frederick Dwight), b. 1899  Search this
Kraushaar, Antoinette M., 1902-1992  Search this
Kraushaar, John F., 1871-1946  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston, 1882-1935  Search this
Lasker, Joe  Search this
Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970  Search this
Lechay, James  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin, 1867-1933  Search this
Miller, Harriette  Search this
Morris, Carl, 1911-1993  Search this
Murdock, Roland P. -- Art collections  Search this
Navas, Elizabeth S., 1885-1979  Search this
Penney, James, 1910-1982  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Prendergast, Charles, 1863-1948  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924  Search this
Robinson, Boardman, 1876-1952  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée, 1905-2006  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest), 1892-1970  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Smalley, David, 1940-  Search this
Smith, Vernon, 1894-1969  Search this
Stanley, Alix W.  Search this
Williams, Esther, 1907-1969  Search this
Wilson, Ralph L.  Search this
Extent:
91.9 Linear feet
0.181 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Date:
1877-2006
Summary:
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 91.9 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 91.9 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.

The collection reflects all activities conducted in the day-to-day administration of the business and relates to the acquisition, consignment, loan, sale, and exhibition of art by twentieth-century American artists and European artists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The records document specific arrangements for loans and exhibitions, artist-dealer relations, relationships with public and private collectors, interaction with the art dealer community, and routine requests for information.

Much of the artist correspondence relates to practical arrangements for exhibitions of artwork, but in many cases also documents the development of individual artists and the effect of their relationship with the galleries on their ability to produce marketable work. Many of the artists represented in the collection also wrote lengthy letters, particularly to Antoinette Kraushaar, describing their attitudes to their work and providing insight into how that work was shaped by events in their personal lives.

The bulk of the correspondence with museums and institutions concerns practical arrangements for loans of artwork and provides detailed information about market prices and insurance values. It offers insight into the general climate of opinion toward particular artists and styles at any given time. Correspondence with other galleries and dealers also concerns loans and sales of artwork but, due to the typically cordial and cooperative nature of relations between the Kraushaars and their contemporaries, may also provide a more extensive and personal view of relationships and trends in the art dealer community. Similarly, while a portion of the correspondence with private collectors concerns routine requests for information and loans of art on approval, there is also substantive correspondence documenting the development of the artistic vision of collectors such as Preston Harrison, Elizabeth S. Navas, and Duncan Phillips.

From 1917 to the mid-1930s correspondence was handled mainly by John Kraushaar, and the bulk of that relating to European galleries and European art can be found during these years. Although there are only a handful of materials before 1926, records from the 1920s and 1930s document Kraushaar Galleries' growing commitment to American artists and the climate of the market for their work. The financial hardships of the Depression are vividly depicted in the numerous letters written during the 1930s seeking payment on accounts receivable and requesting extensions on accounts payable.

From the mid-1930s to 1968 correspondence was conducted primarily by Antoinette Kraushaar and, to some degree, by her assistants in later years. As the galleries' focus on American art increased, so did the volume of correspondence with artists, and the collection is particularly rich during the 1940s and early 1960s. In later years to 2006, most of the correspondence was conducted by Carol Pesner and gallery assistants.

The exhibition catalogs included in the collection do not represent a complete set. Those found are working copies used by the galleries in preparation for exhibitions and are often annotated with prices or insurance values. Additional exhibition catalogs can be found on the microfilm described in the Administrative Information section of this finding aid.

The majority of Kraushaar Galleries' insurance records can be found in files relating to the company Wm. E. Goodridge & Son, later known as Wm. E. Goodridge, Inc. Shipping and transportation records are generally filed under the names of the companies used for such transactions and can primarily be found under Davies, Turner & Co., Hudson Forwarding & Shipping Co., Railway Express Agency, Inc., and W. S. Budworth & Son, and to a lesser degree under American Railway Express Company, Arthur Lenars & Cie., C. B. Richard & Co., De La Rancheraye & Co., Hayes Storage, Packing & Removal Service, Inc., and Willis, Faber & Co. Ltd.

The 2008-2009 accretion includes additional correspondence similar in content and with correspondents as described above, as well as some artists' Christmas cards. However, the bulk of the additional correspondence dates from 1965-2006, with a handful of miscellaneous correspondence from 1877 to the mid-twentieth century. Also found are financial and business records including records from the closing of the John F. Kraushaar estate; over 40 ledgers providing nearly complete documentation of the gallery's sales and transactions from its establishment to 1946; incoming consignment records, including account statements and correspondence with artists, from the 1940s to 2006; and outgoing consignment and loan records from 1899-2006. The gallery's representation of its stable of artists is documented through artists' files containing printed and digital materials, exhibition catalogs and announcements, price lists, and biographical information, as well as containers of photographs and negatives of artwork. Also found is a 1933 sketchbook by James Penney, drawings and sketchbooks by Louis Bouché, and two scrapbooks.

See Appendix for a list of Kraushaar Galleries exhibitions
Arrangement:
Kraushaar Galleries generally filed all types of records together with correspondence in a combination of alphabetical and chronological files. Thus financial records, insurance records, receipts, photographs, and exhibition catalogs can be found interfiled with general correspondence in Series 1-3. A group of photographs of artwork maintained separately by Kraushaar Galleries constitutes Series 4. Series 6 was minimally processed separately from Series 1-5, and the arrangement reflects the original order of the addition for the most part.

Records in Series 1-3 were originally filed alphabetically by name of correspondent and then by month, by a span of several months, or by year. The alphabetical arrangement has been retained, but to facilitate access the collection was rearranged so that correspondence was collated by year. From 1901 to 1944 outgoing letters and incoming letters are filed separately; in 1945 some outgoing letters are filed separately, with the bulk of the material filed together as correspondence; from 1946 to 1968 incoming and outgoing letters are filed together as correspondence.

For Series 1-3 organizations or individuals represented by at least 15 letters are filed in separate file folders. All other correspondents are arranged in general files by letters of the alphabet, with selected correspondents and subjects noted in parentheses after the folder title.

Series 2 and several boxes in Series 3 contain a variety of notes and receipts received and created by Kraushaar Galleries that were originally unfoldered. The notes can be found in folders adjacent to the receipts and include handwritten notes of customer names and addresses, financial notes and calculations, catalogs of exhibitions, invitations and announcements to exhibitions frequently used as note paper, and other miscellany. Although most of the miscellaneous notes are undated, they are filed, with the receipts, at the end of the year to which they appear to relate. For the years 1929 and 1930 Kraushaar Galleries created separate alphabetical files for some of the billing statements received from other businesses. These have been filed adjacent to "Miscellaneous Notes" and "Receipts" in the appropriate years.

Kraushaar Galleries tended to file correspondence with businesses alphabetically according to the letter of the last name: for example, Wm. E. Goodridge & Son would be filed under G rather than W.

Series 1: Outgoing Letters, 1920-1945 (boxes 1-9; 9 linear ft.)

Series 2: Incoming Letters (boxes 10-26; 16.25 linear ft.)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1945-1968 (boxes 26-53; 27.75 linear ft.)

Series 4: Photographs, undated (box 54; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 5: Artwork, [1926, 1938] (box 53; 2 items)

Series 6: Addition to the Kraushaar Galleries Records, 1877-2006 (boxes 55-99, BV100; 38.4 linear feet, ER01-ER02; 0.181 GB)
Historical Note:
Charles W. Kraushaar established Kraushaar Galleries in 1885 as a small store on Broadway near Thirty-first Street in New York City. Initially the store sold artist materials, photogravures, and reproductions. Drawing on his previous experience working with William Schause, a leading dealer in European paintings, Kraushaar soon progressed to selling original watercolors, paintings, and engravings by European artists, primarily landscapes of the Barbizon School.

In 1901 Kraushaar moved the business to 260 Fifth Avenue and with the assistance of his brother, John F. Kraushaar, began adding more modern French and American painters to the inventory. Of particular interest to John Kraushaar was the group of American realists known as "The Eight," who had held a self-selected, self-organized exhibition at the Macbeth Gallery in 1908. The Eight were Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan. Luks, whom John Kraushaar met around 1902, was probably the first major American artist represented at Kraushaar Galleries. In 1917 John Sloan was invited to hold his first one-person show at the galleries despite accusations that his exhibition at the Whitney Studio the previous year had represented a brutal depiction of life that lacked subtlety and sensitivity.

When Charles Kraushaar died suddenly in 1917, John assumed control of the galleries and soon enlisted the assistance of his daughter, Antoinette Kraushaar. Antoinette had suffered a bout of pneumonia during the influenza epidemic of 1918 that cut short her education; grooming her for a career in the galleries was a logical step. Following the end of the First World War, Kraushaar resumed his buying trips to Europe, often accompanied by Antoinette, and exhibited works by European artists such as André Derain, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Vincent Van Gogh. However, it was the increasing commitment to contemporary American artists for which the galleries would become best known. In addition to The Eight, the Kraushaars developed their inventory of American paintings and etchings with exhibitions of work by artists such as Gifford Beal, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Gaston Lachaise, Jerome Myers, Charles Prendergast, and Henry Schnakenberg.

Returning from a buying trip to Europe in 1929, John Kraushaar wrote to California collector Preston Harrision on July 26 that "the prices over there, especially for modern pictures are astounding." Nevertheless, Kraushaar believed that investing in modern art would yield benefits within the next five years, and he refused to be influenced by museums and critics outside of New York who were reluctant to agree. He exhibited a healthy disrespect for museum directors in general, whom he referred to in his letters to Harrision as "dead heads" who ought to be sent to different art centers of the world in order to "get in touch with what is going on there" (March 11, 1929).

Like most of its contemporaries, Kraushaar Galleries suffered considerably during the Depression of the 1930s and struggled to collect and, in turn, pay accounts due. On October 5, 1931, John Kraushaar confessed to H. S. Southam, "Business is very bad with us, and I know that you will treat it confidentially when I tell you that I have had to sacrifice a good part of my personal holdings to provide cash for my own business." By 1934 the rent on the galleries' current location at 680 Fifth Avenue, where Kraushaar had moved in 1919, was out of all proportion to the amount of business that was being generated. In 1936, a timely move to 730 Fifth Avenue allowed the family to effect substantial economies without a disproportionate loss of business.

During the 1930s, John Kraushaar's health began to fail, and he was frequently absent from the galleries. Consequently, Antoinette Kraushaar took on greater responsibility for the operation of the business with the assistance of her brother Charles. Although Antoinette was one of few women to hold such a prominent position in the art business at that time, there is no evidence in the records to suggest that artists or customers who had been accustomed to dealing with John Kraushaar had any difficulty accepting the transition in management from father to daughter.

Nevertheless, collecting accounts remained difficult, and although business had improved by 1938 it was now stymied by the threat of war in Europe. The warmth of relations between the Kraushaars and the artists they handled, and their colleagues, was crucial to Antoinette during these years. She repeatedly expressed her gratitude for their understanding and assistance in her letters as she struggled to meet financial obligations and operate the business in her father's absence, experimenting with different strategies as she evolved an approach that would sustain the business. In a letter to Gifford Beal dated August 6, 1941, she spoke of "hellish times" and stressed, "I have learned a great many things during the past few years and hope that we are groping our way towards a working solution of our own affairs at least."

While there is no question that Antoinette Kraushaar shared her father's genuine interest in contemporary American artists, the growing commitment to these artists that was forged during these years was driven in large part by necessity. By increasing her stock of American art and adding "younger painters of promise," she was able to sell work in a much broader price range. Consequently she could reach a wider audience and increase the likelihood that the business would remain solvent. This method of business also suited her personality far more than having a very specialized inventory of highly priced work, an approach that she confessed to J. Lionberger Davis on December 3, 1940, "requires a particular kind of temperament, and frankly I neither like it nor believe in it."

Throughout her career Antoinette imbued the business with her personal style. She understood that elitism alienated art buyers of moderate income, who constituted her bread and butter, and believed strongly that the gallery environment should not be intimidating to potential customers. She corresponded at length with old and new clients alike, patiently offering advice when asked and maintaining liberal policies for those who wished to borrow artwork on approval. She also participated in events that promoted efforts to make art available to a wider audience, such as a 1951 exhibition and seminar at the Florida Gulf Coast Art Center that addressed problems of buying and selling art. She was a two-time board member of the Art Dealers Association of America and considered the organization to be an important source of support for the gallery community.

In her dealings with other commercial galleries and art institutions, Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited a strong spirit of cooperation and enthusiasm, consistently lending art to small, locally owned businesses and community organizations as well as to more established galleries and world-class museums. She also developed long and mutually beneficial associations with the art departments of many educational institutions across the country, which proved to be fertile ground for young and upcoming artists.

Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited the same honesty and fairness in dealing with artists as her father had, expressing her opinions of their work in a forthright manner and maintaining a policy of always looking at the work of any artist who came to her. She understood the inherent difficulties of dealing with living artists but relished the excitement of encouraging their work and watching them develop. On November 14, 1947, in reply to a letter from the artist Bernard Arnest, in which Arnest apologized for burdening her with his worries, she reminded him, "One of the functions of a dealer is to act as a safety valve. Didn't you know?"

Although she would not retain artists indefinitely if she felt their work had deteriorated in quality, Antoinette often stressed that she was prepared to accept little or no initial financial return on the work of artists who showed promise or whose work held a particular appeal for her. In a letter of December 30, 1940, she reassured Walt Dehner that the lack of sales from his recent exhibition would not lead her to withdraw his work from the galleries. In typically unassuming style she advised Dehner to "go on painting whatever interests you. We have found that there is no recipe for success, either artistic or material."

In the early 1940s Antoinette Kraushaar implemented two changes to her inventory. Sensing that interest in sculpture was growing, she rearranged the space to give that medium more room and attention. The market for etchings had been declining since the late 1930s, and as she reduced this part of her inventory she also acted on her personal passion for drawings by opening a small gallery devoted to contemporary American drawings that were priced well within the range of most customers.

By the time Kraushaar Galleries moved to 32 East Fifty-seventh Street, late in 1944, American art had become the main focus of the business. While the long-standing interest in The Eight and other artists of that period continued, the galleries also handled contemporaries such as Louis Bouché, Samuel Brecher, John Heliker, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag. When John Kraushaar died in December 1946, Antoinette and Charles legally assumed control of the business. This partnership continued until 1950, when Antoinette assumed sole ownership of the gallery.

In 1955 the galleries moved uptown to smaller quarters at 1055 Madison Avenue, and Antoinette Kraushaar gave up the greater part of her print business. She was inundated with requests from artists to be allowed a chance to show her their work, and the galleries' exhibition schedule was always full. Contemporary artists she now represented included Bernard Arnest, Peggy Bacon, Russell Cowles, Kenneth Evett, William Dean Fausett, William Kienbusch, Joe Lasker, and George Rickey, and she continued to exhibit artwork by Charles Demuth, William Glackens, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Boardman Robinson, and John Sloan.

By the late 1950s the artists of the generation that her father had promoted in the early part of the century had died, but Antoinette Kraushaar had the pleasure of seeing his faith in them come to fruition. In a letter to Ralph Wilson dated October 20, 1958, she stated with satisfaction, "The Boston Museum is taking (at long last) a deep interest in (Maurice) Prendergast, and they will probably do an important show within the next year." Her correspondence with William Glackens's son Ira in the 1960s reveals the extent to which Glackens's popularity had grown since his death in 1938, and the market for John Sloan's work had been increasing steadily since the late 1920s. In 1962 James Penney summed up Kraushaar Galleries' success in the foreword of a catalog for an exhibition of paintings and sculpture the galleries had organized with the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute at Hamilton College:

1854 -- Charles W. Kraushaar born

1871 -- John F. Kraushaar born

1885 -- Kraushaar Galleries established on Broadway near Thirty-first Street

1901 -- Galleries moved to 260 Fifth Avenue

1902 -- Antoinette Kraushaar born

1917 -- Charles W. Kraushaar died; John Kraushaar assumed control of the business, increasing inventory of modern American and European artists; first John Sloan exhibition

1919 -- Galleries moved to 680 Fifth Avenue

[1920] -- Antoinette Kraushaar began assisting with the business

1924 -- Maurice Prendergast died

1936 -- Galleries moved to the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue

1938 -- William J. Glackens died

1944 -- Galleries moved to the Rolls Royce Building at 32 East Fifty-seventh Street; American art now the main focus of the business

1946 -- John Kraushaar died; Antoinette and Charles Kraushaar assumed control of the business

1948 -- Charles Prendergast died

1950 -- Antoinette Kraushaar assumed sole ownership of Kraushaar Galleries

1951 -- John Sloan died

1955 -- Galleries moved to 1055 Madison Avenue

1959 -- Carole Pesner joined Kraushaar Galleries

1964 -- Galleries extended into adjacent building

1981 -- Galleries moved to 724 Fifth Avenue

1986 -- Katherine Kaplan joined Kraushaar Galleries

1988 -- Antoinette Kraushaar retired from day-to-day management of the business

1992 -- Antoinette Kraushaar died
Appendix: List of Kraushaar Galleries Exhibitions:
The Archives of American Art does not hold a complete collection of catalogs from exhibitions held at Kraushaar Galleries; therefore the dates and titles of exhibitions provided in this appendix are inferred from a variety of sources including correspondence, notes, artists' files, and requests for advertising. Italics indicate that the exact title of an exhibition is known.

Jan., 1912 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet and Henri Fantin-Latour

Apr., 1912 -- Paintings by Frank Brangwyn and Henri Le Sidaner

Jan., 1913 -- Paintings by Ignacio Zuloaga

May, 1913 -- Etchings by Seymour Haden

June, 1913 -- Paintings and Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Oct., 1913 -- Etchings by Frank Brangwyn

Jan., 1914 -- Ignacio Zuloaga

Mar., 1914 -- Paintings by Alphonse Legros

Apr., 1914 -- George Luks

May, 1914 -- Seven Modern Masterpieces including Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Matthew Maris, and James McNeill Whistler

undated, 1915 -- Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1917 -- James McNeill Whistler's White Girl

Feb.-Mar., 1917 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar.-Apr., 1917 -- Paintings and Etchings by John Sloan

Summer, 1917 -- Works by French artists including A. L. Bouche, Josef Israels, Gaston La Touche, and Alphonse Legros

Oct., 1917 -- Monoprints by Salvatore Antonio Guarino

Nov., 1917 -- Etchings and Mezzotints by Albany E. Howarth

Jan., 1918 -- Recent Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1918 -- Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb.-Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1918 -- Paintings by A. L. Bouche

May, 1918 -- War Paintings by J. Mortimer Block, Charles S. Chapman, Guy Pène Du Bois, H. B. Fuller, George Luks, W. Ritschell, John Sloan, and Augustus Vincent Tack

Oct., 1918 -- Oil Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Nov., 1918 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Edouard Manet, Antoine Vollon, James McNeill Whistler, and Ignacio Zuloaga, and bronzes by Antoine Louis Bayre, Emile Antoine Bourdelle, and Mahonri Young

Apr., 1919 -- Paintings and Monoprints by Salvatore Anthonio Guarino

Jan.-Feb., 1919 -- Decorative Panels and Other Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1919 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Sloan

May, 1919 -- Paintings by George Luks, Monticelli, and A. P. Ryder

Sept., 1919 -- Work by Jean Louis Forain

Oct., 1919 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Jan., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by John Sloan

Feb., 1920 -- Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Mar., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings by Henri Le Sidaner

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jean Louis Forain

Apr.-May, 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jerome Myers

May, 1920 -- Paintings by Henrietta M. Shore

Jan., 1921 -- Paintings by French and American Artists

Jan.-Feb., 1921 -- Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1921 -- New Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1921 -- John Sloan Retrospective

Summer, 1921 -- French and American Artists

Oct., 1921 -- Paintings of Mountford Coolidge

Oct., 1921 -- Works by Henri Fantin-Latour and Henri Le Sidaner

Nov., 1921 -- Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

Dec., 1921 -- Paintings and Bronzes by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Jan., 1922 -- Exhibition of Recent Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb., 1922 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1922 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1922 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1922 -- Paintings by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Oct., 1922 -- Recent Paintings of the Maine Coast by George Luks

Jan., 1923 -- Exhibition of Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1923 -- Paintings and Decorative Panels by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1923 -- Landscapes by Will Shuster

Mar., 1923 -- Paintings by Samuel Halpert

Apr., 1923 -- Marine Figures and Landscapes by Gifford Beal

Apr.-May, 1923 -- Paintings by John Sloan

May, 1923 -- Paintings by Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

June, 1923 -- Etchings by Marius A. J. Bauer

Oct., 1923 -- American Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and William Zorach

Dec., 1923 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Dec., 1923 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Pastels by Charles Adolphe Bischoff

Jan., 1924 -- Paintings by Celebrated American Artists

Mar., 1924 -- Paintings and Drawings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Apr., 1924 -- New Paintings by George Luks

May, 1924 -- Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Summer, 1924 -- French and American Modern Artists

Oct., 1924 -- Painting, Watercolors, and Sculpture by William Zorach

Nov., 1924 -- Watercolors by Seven Americans

Dec., 1924 -- French Paintings

Jan., 1925 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1925 -- Maurice Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Mar., 1925 -- Plans and Photographs of Work in Landscape Architecture by Charles Downing Lay

Apr., 1925 -- Paintings by William J. Glackens

Dec., 1925 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Richard Lahey Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, and William Zorach

undated, 1926 -- Lower Broadway by W. Walcot

Feb., 1926 -- Paintings by Paul Burlin

Feb., 1926 -- Portraits of Duncan Phillips, Esq. Charles B. Rogers, Esq. & The Hon. Elihu Root Painted by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1926 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1926 -- John Sloan

Sept.-Oct., 1926 -- Exhibition of Etchings by C. R. W. Nevinson

Oct., 1926 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Nineteenth-Century French Artists

Oct., 1926 -- Paintings and Drawings by Mathieu Verdilhan

Dec., 1926 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Samuel Halpert, Henry Keller, Louis Kronberg, Richard Lahey, Charles Lay, Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry

Dec., 1926 -- Schnakenberg, A. Walkowitz, Martha Walters, William Zorach

Jan., 1927 -- French Drawings and Prints

Feb., 1927 -- Paintings, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan

Mar., 1927 -- Gifford Beal

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Decorative Panels and Watercolors by Margarett Sargent

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Lithographs of New York by Adriaan Lubbers

Apr., 1927 -- Paintings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Leopold Survage

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Etchings and Woodcuts by D. Galanis

May, 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Georges Braque, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, André Derain, Henri Fantin-Latour, Jean Louis Forain, Constantin Guys, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Edouard Manet, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Morissot, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Odilon Redon, Segonzac, and Georges Seurat

Oct.-Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Etchings in Color by Bernard Boutet de Monvel

Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings, Lithographs, and Watercolors by Ernest Fiene

Dec., 1927 -- Watercolors by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Henry G. Keller, Richard Lahey, Charles Downing Lay, Howard Ashman Patterson, [Maurice] Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, Frank Nelson Wilcox, and [William] Zorach

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings, Sculpture, and Decorative Media by George Biddle

Jan.-Feb., 1928 -- Paintings by S. J. Peploe

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1928 -- Pastels and Drawings by Margarett Sargent

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings for Balzac's Les Contes Drolatiques by Ralph Barton

Feb.-Mar., 1928 -- Sculpture by William Zorach

Mar., 1928 -- Recent Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Mar.-Apr., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings by William Glackens

Apr., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Lithographs by R. H. Sauter of London, England

Oct., 1928 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1928 -- Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Richard Lahey

Nov., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by J. D. Fergusson

Nov.-Dec., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Dec., 1928 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Abraham Walkowitz

Jan., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Margarett Sargent

Jan., 1929 -- Watercolors by Rodin

Jan.-Feb., 1929 -- Exhibition of Sculpture by Arnold Geissbuhler

Feb., 1929 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Guy Pène Du Bois

Feb.-Mar., 1929 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Adriaan Lubbers

Mar.-Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Etchings by Gifford Beal, Frank W. Benson, Childe Hassam, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and John Sloan

Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Arnold Friedman

Apr., 1929 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

May, 1929 -- Paintings by Howard Ashman Patterson

May, 1929 -- Paintings by William Meyerowitz

Oct., 1929 -- Exhibition of Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Nov., 1929 -- Modern French and American Paintings, Watercolors, Prints, and Sculpture (at Gage Galleries in Cleveland)

Jan., 1930 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Feb., 1930 -- Watercolors by Auguste Rodin

Feb.-Mar., 1930 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1930 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct., 1930 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Maurice Prendergast

Nov., 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Jonas

Nov., 1930 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Jan., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Richard Lahey

Jan.-Feb., 1931 -- Paintings by Erle Loran Johnson

Feb.-Mar., 1931 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Walter Pach

Mar.-Apr., 1931 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings by Rudolf H. Sauter

May, 1931 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by John La Farge, Gifford Beal, H. E. Schnakenberg, Maurice Prendergast, Guy Pène Du Bois, Richard Lahey

Fall, 1931 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Dec., 1931 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Watercolors by D. Y. Cameron, Joseph Gray, Henry Rushbury, Muirhead Bone, Edmund Blampied, Gwen John

Dec., 1931 -- Lithographs and Posters by H. de Toulouse-Lautrec

Jan., 1932 -- Watercolors by Pierre Brissaud

Feb., 1932 -- Paintings and Drawings by A. S. Baylinson

Mar., 1932 -- Watercolors and Pastels by French and American Artists

Apr., 1932 -- Paintings by Nan Watson

May, 1932 -- Sculpture by Behn, Bourdelle, Geissbuhler, Lachaise, Maillol, Miller, Nadelman, Renoir, Young, Zorach; Decorative Panels by Max Kuehne, and Charles Prendergast

June-Aug., 1932 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Various Artists

Jan., 1933 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Jan.-Feb., 1933 -- Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1933 -- Etchings of Dogs by Bert Cobb

Feb.-Mar., 1933 -- Paintings by American Artists

Feb.-Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1933 -- Exhibition of French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Drawings by Emily W. Miles

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov., 1933 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1933 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Jan., 1934 -- Exhibition of Drawings by Denys Wortman for "Metropolitan Movies"

Summer, 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Isabel Bishop, Ann Brockman, Preston Dickinson, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, and John Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1934 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov.-Dec., 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1935 -- Complete Collection of Etchings by Mahonri Young

July-Aug., 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Ann Brockman, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Max Kuehne, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette G. Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, John Sloan, and Abraham Walkowitz

Oct.-Nov., 1935 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Nov., 1935 -- Exhibition of Paintings by H. E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1936 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Apr., 1936 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1936 -- Loan Collection of French Paintings

Dec., 1936 -- Monotypes in Color by Maurice Prendergast

Jan., 1937 -- Recent Watercolors by H. E. Schnakenberg

Jan., 1937 -- Paintings of Flowers by William J. Glackens

Feb., 1937 -- Etchings by John Sloan

Feb., 1937 -- A Group of American Paintings

Sept., 1937 -- A Group of Paintings by Gifford Beal, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Theodore Robinson, John Sloan, J. Alden Weir

Oct.-Nov., 1937 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Dec., 1937 -- American Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1938 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1938 -- Drawings by William Glackens, Guy Pène Du Bois, John Sloan, Denys Wortman

Apr., 1938 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

May, 1938 -- Paintings and Pastels by Randall Davey

Oct., 1938 -- Selected Paintings by Modern French and American Artists

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois from 1908 to 1938

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Dec., 1938 -- Watercolors by Prendergast, Keller, Demuth, Wilcox and Others

Jan., 1939 -- Paintings by H. H. Newton

Oct., 1939 -- French and American Paintings

Oct.-Nov., 1939 -- Drawings by William Glackens of Spanish-American War Scenes

Nov., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1940 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1940 -- Paintings by Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1940 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Apr.-May, 1940 -- Watercolors by Charles Kaeselau

May-June, 1940 -- A Group of Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal, Russell Cowles, John Koch, Henry Schnakenberg, Esther Williams, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, Harriette G. Miller, John Sloan, Edmund Yaghjian

Oct., 1940 -- Drawings by American Artists

Nov., 1940 -- Walt Dehner

Mar., 1941 -- John Koch

May-June, 1941 -- Watercolors and Small Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Nov.-Dec., 1941 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1941 -- Charles Prendergast

Jan., 1942 -- Paintings by Samuel Brecher

Jan.-Feb., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Illustrations by Boardman Robinson Commissioned by the Limited Editions Club for Edgar Lee Masters' "Spoon River Anthology"

Dec., 1942 -- Paintings from the Period of the Last War

Feb., 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by William Dean Fausett

Mar., 1943 -- Paintings by John Hartell

May-July, 1943 -- Watercolors by Contemporary American Artists

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Samuel Brecher

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Paintings, Gouaches, and Drawings by Andrée Ruellan

Mar., 1944 -- Vaughn Flannery

Mar.-Apr., 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

May-June, 1944 -- Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Henry G. Keller

Oct., 1944 -- Esther Williams

Nov.-Dec., 1944 -- Paintings and Watercolors of France by Maurice Prendergast

Dec., 1944 -- William J. Glackens Sixth Memorial Exhibition

Dec., 1944 -- Kraushaar Galleries Sixtieth Anniversary Exhibition of Paintings by William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1945 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1945 -- Paintings by Andrée Ruellan

Apr.-May, 1945 -- Charles Locke

May-June, 1945 -- William Dean Fausett

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Marion Monks Chase

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Gouaches by Cecil Bell

Dec., 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Ann Brockman

undated, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1946 -- Richard Lahey

Feb., 1946 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1946 -- Paintings by Ernst Halberstadt

Mar., 1946 -- Paintings of Mexico and Guatemala by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1946 -- Iver Rose

Apr., 1946 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

May-June, 1946 -- Paintings by Bernard Arnest, Charles Harsanyi, Irving Katzenstein, Anna Licht, James Penney, Etienne Ret, and Vernon Smith

Sept., 1946 -- Retrospective Exhibition of the Work of Boardman Robinson

Nov., 1946 -- Guy Pène Du Bois

Nov.-Dec., 1946 -- William J. Glackens Eighth Memorial Exhibition

Jan., 1947 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Sculpture by Robert Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Paintings by Iver Rose

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Recent Paintings by Vernon Smith

Apr., 1947 -- Charles Prendergast

Apr., 1947 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1947 -- Esther Williams

Oct.-Nov., 1947 -- Anna Licht

Nov., 1947 -- William J. Glackens Ninth Memorial Exhibition, with Works by Lenna Glackens

Mar., 1948 -- Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1948 -- Bernard Arnest

Aug.-Sept., 1948 -- New York Paintings and Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1948 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov.-Dec., 1948 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Harriette G. Miller

Jan.-Feb., 1949 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary American Watercolors and Gouaches

Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary Paintings

Jan., 1950 -- Maurice Prendergast Retrospective of Oils and Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1950 -- James Penney

Feb.-Mar., 1950 -- Paintings by Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1950 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1951 -- William Sommer

Feb., 1951 -- Prints and Drawings by Various Artists

Feb., 1951 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar., 1951 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1951 -- Paintings by Gallery Artists

May-July, 1951 -- Contemporary American Watercolors

July-Aug., 1951 -- Paintings on the Summer Theme

Sept.-Oct., 1951 -- Vaughn Flannery

Oct.-Nov., 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Gallery Artists

Nov., 1951 -- Paintings by John Koch

Nov.-Dec., 1951 -- Joe Lasker

Dec., 1951 -- Small Prints and Drawings

Jan., 1952 -- Recent Gouaches by William Kienbusch

Jan., 1952 -- John Sloan: Recent Etchings from 1944-1951, and Etchings and Drawings Selected from All Periods of His Career

Feb.-Mar., 1952 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1952 -- Bernard Arnest

Apr.-May, 1952 -- Recent Sculpture by Robert Laurent

May, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May-June, 1952 -- Watercolors by Joseph Barber, Edward Christiana, Walt Dehner, Sidney Eaton, Wray Manning, and Woldemar Neufeld

July-Aug., 1952 -- Color Prints (Woodcuts, Etchings, and Lithographs) by Eleanor Coen, Caroline Durieux, Max Kahn, Tom Lias, Woldemar Neufeld, James Penney, George Remaily, Ann Ryan, and Karl Schrag

Nov., 1952 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1952-Jan. 1953 -- Eight Oregon Artists

Jan., 1953 -- Charles Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Jan.-Feb., 1953 -- John Hartell

May, 1953 -- John Heliker

June, 1953 -- Humbert Alberizio, Vaughn Flannery, William Kienbusch, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag

Sept., 1953 -- Works by Gifford Beal, Kenneth Evett, Tom Hardy, John Koch, and James Lechay

Sept.-Oct., 1953 -- Paintings by Glackens, Lawson, Prendergast, Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Paintings by E. Powis Jones

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Recent Works by John Koch

Nov., 1953 -- Kenneth Evett: Drawings from Greek Mythology

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Metal Sculptures by Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Pastels, Drawings and Prints by Peggy Bacon

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Feb.-Mar., 1954 -- Russell Cowles

Mar.-Apr., 1954 -- James Penney

Nov.-Dec., 1954 -- Tom Hardy: Metal Sculptures

Jan., 1955 -- Mobiles, Machines, and Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1955 -- James Lechay

Feb., 1955 -- Mobiles by George Rickey

Feb.-Mar., 1955 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan (with a selection of prints by artists whose work influenced him in his early years: Rembrandt, Hogarth, Goya, Rops, Daumier, Rowlandson and others, to mark the publication of John Sloan: A Painter's Life by Van Wyck Brooks)

Mar.-Apr., 1955 -- Jane Wasey

Apr., 1955 -- Recent Work by Joe Lasker

May-June, 1955 -- Sculpture and Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

Jan., 1956 -- Carl Morris

Jan.-Feb., 1956 -- John Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1956 -- William Kienbusch

Mar., 1956 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1956 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1956 -- John Heliker

May, 1956 -- Monotypes by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1956 -- The Eight

Jan.-Feb., 1957 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Apr., 1957 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1957 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1957 -- Fourteen Painter-Printmakers (American Federation of Arts exhibition)

June-July, 1957 -- 20th Century American Artists

Nov., 1957 -- William Glackens and His Friends (based on the book by Ira Glackens)

Nov., 1957 -- Marguerite Zorach

Jan., 1958 -- Gouches, Drawings and Small Glyphs by Ulfert Wilke

Jan.-Feb., 1958 -- Tom Hardy

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Still Life Exhibition with Works by William J. Glackens and Maurice Prendergast

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Cecil Bell

Mar., 1958 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1958 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1958 -- Louis Bouché

Apr., 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Walter Feldman

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Sculpture by Henry Mitchell

May-June, 1958 -- Works in Casein and Gouache by Bernard Arnest, William Kienbusch, Carl Morris, and Karl Schrag

July, 1958 -- Still Life Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1958 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov., 1958 -- Elsie Manville

Nov.-Dec., 1958 -- John Laurent

Jan., 1959 -- Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1959 -- Bernard Arnest

Mar., 1959 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1959 -- Paintings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1959 -- Henry Mitchell

Sept.-Oct., 1959 -- Robert Searle

Oct.-Nov., 1959 -- Russell Cowles

Nov., 1959 -- Caseins and Paintings by William Kienbusch

Dec., 1959 -- Paintings by Vaughn Flannery

Feb., 1960 -- James Lechay

Apr., 1960 -- Landscapes by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1960 -- John Guerin

May-June, 1960 -- Drawings and Small Sculpture by Gallery Artists

Oct., 1960 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1960 -- Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1960 -- Ulfert Wilke

Jan., 1961 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan., 1961 -- Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1961 -- Walter Feldman

Feb.-Mar., 1961 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Early Twentieth-Century American Artists

Mar., 1961 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Mar.-Apr., 1961 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1961 -- John Koch

June, 1961 -- Works by Humbert Albrizio, Bernard Arnest, Cecil Bell, Louis Bouché, Ralph Dubin, Kenneth Evett, Walter Feldman, John Hartell, John Heliker, William Kienbusch, John Koch, Robert Laurent, James Lechay, Elsie Manville, Henry Mitchell, James Penney, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Karl Schrag, Jane Wasey, and Marguerite Zorach

Sept., 1961 -- Works by Contemporary Americans

Oct., 1961 -- George Rickey: Kinetic Sculpture

Oct.-Nov., 1961 -- Carl Morris

Nov.-Dec., 1961 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1961 -- Selected Works by Twentieth-Century Americans

Jan., 1962 -- Polymer Resin and Sumi Ink Paintings by Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1962 -- Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1962 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1962 -- Marguerite Zorach

Apr., 1962 -- John Laurent

Apr.-May, 1962 -- Sculpture by Tom Hardy

May-June, 1962 -- Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

July-Aug., 1962 -- Group Exhibitions - Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture by 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb., 1963 -- William Kienbusch

Feb.-Mar., 1963 -- John Guerin

Mar., 1963 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1963 -- Andrée Ruellan

Oct.-Nov., 1963 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov., 1963 -- Walter Feldman

Dec., 1963 -- Drawings by John Koch

Dec., 1963 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Jan., 1964 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan.-Feb., 1964 -- Joe Lasker

Feb.-Mar., 1964 -- Leon Goldin

Mar., 1964 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Apr., 1964 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1964 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Heliker

Oct.-Nov., 1964 -- Louis Bouché

Nov.-Dec., 1964 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1964 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb., 1965 -- Russell Cowles

Feb.-Mar., 1965 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1965 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1965 -- Gifford Beal

Feb., 1966 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1966 -- Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1966 -- John Hartell

Apr., 1966 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1966 -- Contrasts - Early and Late Works by Selected Contemporaries

Oct.-Nov., 1966 -- Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1966 -- Francis Chapin

Dec., 1966-Jan., 1967 -- Karl Schrag: Etchings and Lithographs

Jan.-Feb., 1967 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb.-Mar., 1967 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1967 -- Ainslie Burke

Apr.-May, 1967 -- John Heliker: Paintings, Drawings, and Watercolors

May-June, 1967 -- William Glackens

Oct., 1967 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1967 -- John Laurent

Jan.-Feb., 1968 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1968 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1968 -- John Guerin

Apr.-May, 1968 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1968 -- Contemporary Sculpture and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1968 -- Karl Schrag

Nov.-Dec., 1968 -- James Lechay: Portraits and Landscapes

Dec., 1968-Jan., 1969 -- Group Exhibition

Jan., 1969 -- Elsie Manville

Mar., 1969 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1969 -- James Penney

Sept.-Oct., 1969 -- New Works by Contemporary Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1969 -- John Hartell: Exhibition

Nov., 1969 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1969 -- Selected Examples by American Artists 1900-1930

Jan., 1970 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1970 -- Joe Lasker

Mar., 1970 -- Group Exhibition

Mar.-Apr., 1970 -- Dennis Leon

Apr.-May, 1970 -- Jerome Myers

Oct.-Nov., 1970 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1971 -- Jane Wasey

Mar.-Apr., 1971 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1971 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1971 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1972 -- John Koch

Mar.-Apr., 1972 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr.-May, 1972 -- Leon Goldin

May-June, 1972 -- Selected Works by 20th Century Americans

Sept.-Oct., 1972 -- Gallery Collection: American Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1972 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1972 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1972 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan., 1973 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1973 -- Carl Morris

Mar., 1973 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1973 -- Russell Cowles: Landscape Paintings

Apr.-May, 1973 -- Jerome Witkin

May-June, 1973 -- Kenneth Evett: Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1973 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1974 -- Joe Lasker

Jan.-Feb., 1974 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb.-Mar., 1974 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct., 1974 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1974 -- James Penney

Jan., 1975 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1975 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1975 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1975 -- William Kienbusch

Apr., 1975 -- Elsie Manville

Apr.-May, 1975 -- Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1975 -- John Hartell

Nov., 1975 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Mar., 1976 -- Jerome Witkin

May, 1976 -- Linda Sokolowski

Sept.-Oct., 1976 -- Joe Lasker, Illustrations from Merry Ever After

Oct., 1976 -- Leonard DeLonga

Nov.-Dec., 1976 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1977 -- James Lechay

Mar., 1977 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1977 -- David Cantine

Oct.-Nov., 1977 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1977 -- Ainslie Burke

Feb., 1978 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1978 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1978 -- Tom Hardy

Oct.-Nov., 1978 -- Jerome Witkin

Jan.-Feb., 1979 -- Joe Lasker

Feb., 1979 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb.-Mar., 1979 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1979 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1979 -- Linda Sokolowski

Oct.-Nov., 1979 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Feb.-Mar., 1980 -- Kenneth Callahan

Mar., 1980 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct., 1980 -- John Hartell

Jan., 1981 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1981 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1981 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1981 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1981 -- Ben Frank Moss

Jan.-Feb., 1982 -- Jerome Witkin

Feb.-Mar., 1982 -- Elsie Manville

Mar.-Apr., 1982 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1982 -- Linda Sokolowski

May-June, 1982 -- David Cantine

Sept.-Oct., 1982 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1982 -- Joe Lasker

Nov.-Dec., 1982 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Jan.-Feb., 1983 -- William Kienbusch: Memorial Exhibition

Feb.-Mar., 1983 -- Jerry Atkins

Mar.-Apr., 1983 -- John Hartell

Apr.-May, 1983 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1983 -- Kenneth Evett

Oct., 1983 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct.-Nov., 1983 -- Ben Frank Moss

Nov.-Dec., 1983 -- Russell Cowles

Dec., 1983-Jan., 1984 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan.-Feb., 1984 -- Marguerite Zorach: Paintings at Home and Abroad

Feb.-Mar., 1984 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar., 1984 -- David Smalley

Apr., 1984 -- Carl Morris

May, 1984 -- Karl Schrag

July, 1984 -- Drawings by 20th Century Americans

July-Aug., 1984 -- Collages and Drawings by Joseph Heil

Aug.-Sept., 1984 -- Drawings and Prints by Tom Hardy

Sept.-Oct., 1984 -- James Penney: Memorial Exhibition

Oct.-Nov., 1984 -- Paintings and Drawings by Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1984 -- Isabelle Siegel

Dec., 1984-Jan., 1985 -- Group Exhibition: Contemporary American Paintings and Sculpture

Jan.-Feb., 1985 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1985 -- Ainslie Burke

Mar., 1985 -- Karen Breunig

Apr., 1985 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1985 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1985 -- William Glackens

Jan.-Feb., 1986 -- Linda Sokolowski

Feb.-Mar., 1986 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1986 -- Jane Wasey

Oct.-Nov., 1986 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1986 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1987 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1987 -- Ben Frank Moss

May-June, 1987 -- David Smalley

Oct.-Nov., 1987 -- Isabelle Siegel

Feb.-Mar., 1988 -- Karen Breunig

Mar.-Apr., 1988 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1988 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1988 -- James Lechay

Jan.-Feb., 1989 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1989 -- Linda Sokolowski

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Kenneth Callahan: Works of the Fifties

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Gifford Beal: Watercolors

Mar., 1990 -- Robert La Hotan: Recent Paintings

Mar.-Apr., 1990 -- Sonia Gechtoff: New Paintings

May-June, 1990 -- David Smalley: Recent Sculpture

May-June, 1990 -- Andrée Ruellan: Sixty Years of Drawing...

Oct., 1990 -- Isabelle Siegel

Nov., 1990 -- Leon Goldin

Jan.-Feb., 1991 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1991 -- Joe Lasker

Apr., 1991 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1991 -- Linda Sokolowski: Oils, Collages, Monotypes

Dec., 1991-Jan., 1992 -- Elsie Manville: Small Works on Paper

Mar., 1992 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 1992 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Oct.-Nov., 1992 -- James Lechay

Nov.-Dec., 1992 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1993 -- Leon Goldin: Works on Paper

Apr.-May, 1993 -- Robert La Hotan

Oct., 1993 -- David Smalley: Sculpture Inside and Out

Oct., 1993 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper 1920-1980

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Kenneth Evett: Travels: Themes and Variations (Watercolors of Italy, Greece, Arizona, Maine and California)

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1994 -- Linda Sokolowski

Nov.-Dec., 1994 -- Karl Schrag

Jan.-Feb., 1995 -- Langdon Quin

Mar.-Apr., 1995 -- Robert La Hotan

Sept.-Oct., 1995 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Jan.-Feb., 1996 -- Elsie Manville: Paintings and Works on Paper

Oct.-Nov., 1996 -- Karl Schrag: A Self Portrait Retrospective, 1940-1995

Jan.-Feb., 1997 -- Joe Lasker: Paintings and Watercolors

Mar.-Apr., 1997 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1997 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1998 -- Linda Sokolowski: Canyon Suite: Works from the Southwest

Mar.-Apr., 1998 -- Leon Goldin: Paintings on Paper

Sept.-Oct., 1998 -- Sonia Gechtoff: Mysteries in the Sphere

Oct.-Nov., 1998 -- Langdon Quin: Recent Paintings

Nov.-Dec., 1998 -- John Gill

Jan.-Feb., 1999 -- Robert La Hotan

Feb.-Mar., 1999 -- Ann Sperry: Where Is Your Heart

Nov.-Dec., 1999 -- Kathryn Wall

Jan.-Feb., 2000 -- Elsie Manville

Sept.-Oct., 2000 -- Joe Lasker

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- James Lechay

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 2001 -- Kenneth Callahan: Drawings

Dec., 2001-Jan., 2002 -- Sur La Table: A Selection of Paintings and Works on Paper

Jan.-Feb., 2002 -- Karl Schrag: Theme and Variations II: The Meadow

undated, 2003 -- Ann Sperry

Jan.-Feb., 2003 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper from the 1920s and 1930s

Oct.-Nov., 2003 -- Joe Lasker: Muses and Amusements

Nov.-Dec., 2003 -- Tabitha Vevers

Mar.-Apr., 2004 -- Leon Goldin: Five Decades of Works on Paper

May-July, 2004 -- Anne Frank: A Private Photo Album

Jan.-Feb., 2005 -- John Gill: Ceramics

Sept.-Oct., 2005 -- Karl Schrag: The Painter of Bright Nights
Related Material:
An untranscribed oral history interview with Antoinette Kraushaar was conducted for the Archives of American Art by Avis Berman in 1982, and is available on five audio cassettes at the Archives' Washington D.C. research facility.
Separated Material:
In addition to the records described in this finding aid, the following materials were lent to the Archives for filming in 1956 and are available on microfilm reels NKR1-NKR3 and for interlibrary loan: a book of clippings from 1907 to 1930, primarily of exhibition reviews; loose clippings and catalogs of exhibitions from 1930 to 1946; and a group of photographs and clippings relating to George Luks and other artists. These materials were returned to Kraushaar Galleries after microfilming.
Provenance:
53.5 linear feet of records were donated to the Archives of American Art by Kraushaar Galleries in three separate accessions in 1959, 1994, and 1996. Katherine Kaplan of Kraushaar Galleries donated an additional 38.4 linear feet in 2008-2009.
Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is closed to researchers.
Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kraugall
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kraugall

Field Work in Big Qua Town, Calabar, Eastern Region (Nigeria): Wedding Ceremony among the Qua Clan, the Bride Surrounded by Women Relatives

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Names:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic negative , b&w, 35mm.)
Culture:
Ejagham (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Nigeria, Eastern
Calabar (Nigeria)
Nigeria -- Cross River State -- Calabar
Date:
1951
Scope and Contents:
Additional information from Alcione M. Amos reads, "In 1951, Lorenzo Dow Turner was able to achieve his dream of visiting Africa after he received a Fulbright award. His visit to West Africa was a major adventure of interacting with the local people, presenting lectures, and again recording songs, folktales, and proverbs. Turner was initially located at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where he lectured to appreciative audiences on topics such as Africans in the New World and the English language in America. Soon after his arrival he was extending his reach and traveling all over the country. During these excursions he often played the recordings he had made in Brazil with Yoruba speakers. His audiences in Africa were fascinated. He was further connecting the worlds of the African Diaspora through language." [Lorenzo Dow Turner: Connecting Communities through Language. Alcione M. Amos. The Black Scholar: Volume 41, No.1, Journal of Black Studies and Research (Spring 2011), pp. 4-15. Published by: the Black World Foundation and Paradigm Publishers, Boulder, Colorado]
General:
Title is provided by ACMA Archives staff based on researcher's notes.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
This photograph was taken by Lorenzo Dow Turner while conducting field research in Nigeria, on a Fulbright Research Award from March 1951 through December 1951.
File Restrictions:
Fragile: Physical access restricted.
Topic:
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Hairstyles -- Africa  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Women -- Africa  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA LDT-N-R22-716
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.1: Research: Africa / 35mm negatives / Nigeria, Eastern
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1501

Field Work in Ibadan, Western Region (Nigeria): Musicians with Traditional Instruments about to Participate to a Wire Recording Session

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Names:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic negative , b&w, 35mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Nigeria, Western
Ibadan (Nigeria)
Nigeria -- Oyo State -- Ibadan
Date:
1951
Scope and Contents:
Additional information from Alcione M. Amos reads, "In 1951, Lorenzo Dow Turner was able to achieve his dream of visiting Africa after he received a Fulbright award. His visit to West Africa was a major adventure of interacting with the local people, presenting lectures, and again recording songs, folktales, and proverbs. Turner was initially located at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where he lectured to appreciative audiences on topics such as Africans in the New World and the English language in America. Soon after his arrival he was extending his reach and traveling all over the country. During these excursions he often played the recordings he had made in Brazil with Yoruba speakers. His audiences in Africa were fascinated. He was further connecting the worlds of the African Diaspora through language." [Lorenzo Dow Turner: Connecting Communities through Language. Alcione M. Amos. The Black Scholar: Volume 41, No.1, Journal of Black Studies and Research (Spring 2011), pp. 4-15. Published by: the Black World Foundation and Paradigm Publishers, Boulder, Colorado]
General:
Title is provided by ACMA Archives staff based on researcher's notes.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
This photograph was taken by Lorenzo Dow Turner while conducting field research in Nigeria, on a Fulbright Research Award from March 1951 through December 1951.
File Restrictions:
Fragile: Physical access restricted.
Topic:
Music  Search this
Musical instruments  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA LDT-N-R03-074
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.1: Research: Africa / 35mm negatives / Nigeria, Western
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1730

Field Work in Aba, Eastern Region (Nigeria): Man working on Palm Tree Leaves

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Names:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic negative , b&w, 35mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Nigeria, Eastern
Nigeria -- Abia State -- Aba
Date:
1951
Scope and Contents:
Additional information from Alcione M. Amos reads, "In 1951, Lorenzo Dow Turner was able to achieve his dream of visiting Africa after he received a Fulbright award. His visit to West Africa was a major adventure of interacting with the local people, presenting lectures, and again recording songs, folktales, and proverbs. Turner was initially located at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where he lectured to appreciative audiences on topics such as Africans in the New World and the English language in America. Soon after his arrival he was extending his reach and traveling all over the country. During these excursions he often played the recordings he had made in Brazil with Yoruba speakers. His audiences in Africa were fascinated. He was further connecting the worlds of the African Diaspora through language." [Lorenzo Dow Turner: Connecting Communities through Language. Alcione M. Amos. The Black Scholar: Volume 41, No.1, Journal of Black Studies and Research (Spring 2011), pp. 4-15. Published by: the Black World Foundation and Paradigm Publishers, Boulder, Colorado]
General:
Title is provided by ACMA Archives staff based on researcher's notes.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
This photograph was taken by Lorenzo Dow Turner while conducting field research in Nigeria, on a Fulbright Research Award from March 1951 through December 1951.
File Restrictions:
Fragile: Physical access restricted.
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA LDT-N-R39-1290
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.1: Research: Africa / 35mm negatives / Nigeria, Eastern
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1910

Field Work on the Benue Plateau, Northern Region (Nigeria): Village Made of Traditional Round Houses with Thatched Roofs

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Names:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic negative , b&w, 35mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Nigeria, Northern
Nigeria -- Benue State
Date:
1951
Scope and Contents:
Additional information from Alcione M. Amos reads, "In 1951, Lorenzo Dow Turner was able to achieve his dream of visiting Africa after he received a Fulbright award. His visit to West Africa was a major adventure of interacting with the local people, presenting lectures, and again recording songs, folktales, and proverbs. Turner was initially located at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where he lectured to appreciative audiences on topics such as Africans in the New World and the English language in America. Soon after his arrival he was extending his reach and traveling all over the country. During these excursions he often played the recordings he had made in Brazil with Yoruba speakers. His audiences in Africa were fascinated. He was further connecting the worlds of the African Diaspora through language." [Lorenzo Dow Turner: Connecting Communities through Language. Alcione M. Amos. The Black Scholar: Volume 41, No.1, Journal of Black Studies and Research (Spring 2011), pp. 4-15. Published by: the Black World Foundation and Paradigm Publishers, Boulder, Colorado]
General:
Title is provided by ACMA Archives staff based on researcher's notes.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
This photograph was taken by Lorenzo Dow Turner while conducting field research in Nigeria, on a Fulbright Research Award from March 1951 through December 1951.
File Restrictions:
Fragile: Physical access restricted.
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Vernacular architecture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA LDT-N-R23-737
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.1: Research: Africa / 35mm negatives / Nigeria, Northern
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1977

Lorenzo Dow Turner appointment book

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Names:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (appointment book (36 p.), 5 inches)
Type:
Archival materials
Appointment books
Place:
South Carolina
Date:
1932
Biographical / Historical:
Lorenzo Dow Turner was born in Elizabeth City, N.C. in 1895. He earned his B.A. in 1914 from Howard University; in 1917, he received an M.A. in English from Harvard University. He received his doctorate in English from the University of Chicago in 1926 while simultaneously serving as chairman and professor of the Department of English at Howard from 1917 to 1928. He held the same positions at Fisk University in Nashville from 1929 to 1946. In 1946 he accepted a professorship in the English department at Roosevelt University in Chicago, where he remained as professor of English and lecturer in African Cultures until his retirement in 1970. Turner was professor emeritus at Roosevelt until his death at age 77 in 1972. Turner's professional and academic interests encompassed both English and linguistics. A noted scholar of African languages and linguistics, he learned numerous West African languages, mastering five of them. He was a noted authority on Gullah, a Creole language spoken in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Dr. Turner used this notebook to schedule appointments for interviews with Gullah informants in Wadmalaw, Johns, Edisto and St. Helena Islands in South Carolina.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Appointment books
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA 06-017.4
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 4: Research / 4.3: Miscellaneous
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref2970
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  • View Lorenzo Dow Turner appointment book digital asset number 1

Brazil: An example of racial harmony

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 3: Writings / 3.1: Writings by Lorenzo Dow Turner
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref414

Review of Eduardo's The Negro in Northern Brazil

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 3: Writings / 3.1: Writings by Lorenzo Dow Turner
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref428

The Negro in Brazil

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 28
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 3: Writings / 3.1: Writings by Lorenzo Dow Turner
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref438

The Yoruba's of Brazil

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 35
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 3: Writings / 3.1: Writings by Lorenzo Dow Turner
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref445

Brazil

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Subseries 4.2
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 4: Research
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref581

Correspondence, circa 1900–1921

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 19, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 4: Research / 4.2: Brazil
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref582

Correspondence, 4 September 1956

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 19, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 4: Research / 4.2: Brazil
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref583

Correspondence, Miscellaneous

Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 19, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 4: Research / 4.2: Brazil
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref584

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