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Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers

Creator:
Borglum, Solon Hannibal, 1868-1922  Search this
Names:
Borglum, Emma Vignal, 1864-1934  Search this
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Davies, A. Mervyn (Alfred Mervyn)  Search this
Davies, Monica Borglum, 1903-1997  Search this
Extent:
11.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketches
Date:
1864-2002
Summary:
The Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers date from 1864 to 2002 and measure 11.5 linear feet. The collection documents Solon Borglum's personal life and his career as a sculptor specializing in Western themes through biographical material, family and general correspondence, writings and notes, research for his biography, financial and business letters, printed material, photographs and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers date from 1864 to 2002 and measure 11.5 linear feet. The collection documents Solon Borglum's personal life and his career as a sculptor specializing in Western themes through biographical material, family and general correspondence, writings and notes, research for his biography, financial and business letters, printed material, photographs and artwork.

Biographical material contains documents providing information on the Borglum Family history as well as Solon's military service and memorial. Also found is a leather portfolio of ephemera kept by Emma Borglum. Family correspondence includes numerous letters between Solon and Emma and various members of their extended family. The letters discuss family events, everyday life, Solon's military service, and family history. General Correspondence pertains to Solon's career as an artist and includes his incoming and outgoing correspondence with galleries, foundries, patrons, fellow artists such as Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and others. Later correspondence from galleries, museums, foundries, historical societies, and other individuals and organizations, is addressed to his daughter Monica Borglum and concerns Solon's artwork and legacy after his death. Writings and notes include material written by Solon Borglum and material written by others. Solon's writings include project proposals as well as essays, lectures, and other notes on the topics of his own works of art, art and form, and his participation in World War I. Also found are Solon's diary, notebooks, and address books kept during the last five years of his life. Writings by others include writings by Emma and others about Solon Borglum, as well as guest books for the Silvermine Group of Artists.

Series five contains documents compiled by Monica Borglum Davies and her husband A. Mervyn Davies for a biography Solon Borglum. Included are their research files and notes as well as heavily edited drafts of book sections and draft manuscripts and notes. Financial and business records document Solon's professional career and legacy, including project contracts and financial proposals, account books, ledgers, receipts, and items regarding the Solon H. Borglum Sculpture and Education Fund. Printed material contains items about Solon Borglum's career and artwork compiled by his daughter, Monica Davies, and includes exhibition catalogs, exhibition announcements, brochures, programs, clippings, reports, and other publications. Also included is the textbook Sound Construction.

This collection also contains numerous photographs, including Solon's personal and family photographs, and photographs of his artwork. Family and personal photographs consist of photos of Solon taken throughout his career, including his time in military service, photos of his family and friends, various studios and residences including Rocky Ranch, and of him and and Emma at the Crow Creek Reservation. Artwork is comprised of sketches Solon made for his sculptural works and for Sound Construction. Also found are sketches by Emma and Gutzon Borglum, including a sketch of Solon, and artwork by others such as artist Robert Fulton Logan.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1866, 1895-1922, undated (Box 1, 13; 10 folders)

Series 2: Family Correspondence, 1885-1972, undated (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 3: General Correspondence, 1871-1989, undated (Box 1-2; 1.0 linear foot)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, 1871-1983, undated (Box 2-3; 1.0 linear foot)

Series 5: Solon Borglum Biography, 1870-1975, undated (Box 3-8; 5.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Financial and Business Records, 1898-1998, undated (Box 8, 13; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1879-2002, undated (Box 9, 13-14; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, 1864-1986 (Box 9-13, MGP 1, MGP 3, OV 15-16; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 9: Artwork, 1890-1921, undated (Box 12-13; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Solon Hannibal Borglum was born in Ogden, Utah in 1868. His father Jens (James) Borglum and wife Ida emigrated to America in 1864, as Mormon converts. James took a second wife Christina who was the mother of Solon and his older brother John Gutzon de la Mothe. Christina left the family after just a few years, when James left the Mormon Church. James and Ida raised the large family, which included Solon, Gutzon, Miller, Arnold, August, Anna, Harriet, Theodora and Frank. Solon spent most of his childhood in Fremont, Nebraska, and in 1893 he became a ranch hand in Southern California. At this time he also developed an interest in art which he shared with his brother Gutzon, who was studying painting in Los Angeles.

From 1885 to 1893 Solon ran a ranch on his father's land in central Nebraska, but also took painting lessons from artist J. Laurie Wallace. After spending a short time at his brother's studio in Sierra Madre, and living as an artist in Santa Ana, he studied at the Cincinnati Art Academy under Louis T. Rebisso from 1895 to 1897. Solon then went to Paris where he met sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens who persuaded him to study sculpture at the Academie Julian. He studied there under Denys Puech and won numerous awards for works exhibited both in France and the United States. In 1898 Solon married Emma Vignal in Paris. They spent four months at the Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota, an experience that greatly influenced his work. In 1901 Solon was elected to the National Sculpture Society, later becoming its vice president, and set up a studio in New York. Despite his success, such as winning the gold medal at the Art Palace at the 1904 World's Fair, confusions began between him and his brother Gutzon who decided to also become a sculptor. In 1906 he moved with his wife and children, Paul and Monica, to a farm in Connecticut called "Rocky Ranch." Artist Paul Manship became his student helper and lived with the family. Solon received commissions to do many monuments and memorials, but also continued to exhibit his work and participate in the local Silvermine Group of Artists.

From 1916 to 1917 Solon taught at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York and also developed ideas for an art textbook called Sound Construction, which he worked on with his student assistant Mildred Archer Nash. In 1918, he enlisted in the YMCA for overseas war work, attached to the Third and Fifth French Army. While there he was also the Director of Sculpture at the specially organized American Expeditionary Forces Art Training Center. When he returned home, he decided to establish the School of American Sculpture in New York City. He ran the school with great success, and gave many lectures on art and his experiences overseas until his sudden death after an appendectomy in January of 1922. His legacy was carried on by his wife Emma until her death in 1934, at which point his daughter Monica and her husband, A. Mervyn Davies, oversaw the exhibition of his artwork, and in 1974 published his biography Solon H. Borglum: "A Man Who Stands Alone".
Related Material:
The Archives also holds several collections related to the Borglum family, including the Gutzon Borglum collection, available on microfilm only, reel 3056. This collection includes correspondence, printed material, and photographs. Originals reside at the San Antonio Museum of Art. Also found are the Gutzon Borglum letters to John A. Stewart (available on microfilm reel D8, frames 359-362) and the Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum. The Library of Congress also holds papers of Solon Hannibal Borglum and is the primary repository of the papers of Gutzon Borglum.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels N69-98 and 1054) including a scrapbook of new clippings, other printed material, writings, and correspondence, much of which was included in subsequent donations. Loaned materials not donated at a later date are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
Most of the materials in the collection were originally loaned by the Borglum family between 1969-1975 and microfilmed. Much of the same material was later donated in several accretions between circa 1991-2004 by various family members David Borglum, Harriet M. Borglum, Alfred Davies, Harold Davies, Monica B. Davies, Linda Borglum Fry, and Gwynneth Kelly. In 1979 approximately 200 photographs were transferred from the Smithsonian American Art Museum Library to AAA, which had received them from Monica Borglum Davies.
Restrictions:
The bulk of the collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
Solon Borglum and the Borglum family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Sculpture, American -- United States  Search this
Sculptors -- Connecticut -- Wilton  Search this
Sculpture -- Study and teaching  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Citation:
Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers, 1864-2002. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.borgsolo
See more items in:
Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-borgsolo
Online Media:

Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum

Creator:
Allen, Harriet Collins  Search this
Names:
Borglum, Emma Vignal, 1864-1934  Search this
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1897-1925
Summary:
The papers of art patron Harriet Collins Allen measure 0.2 linear feet and date from 1897-1925. Found within the papers are letters primarily written by Solon Borglum and his wife, Emma, to Harriet Collins Allen. The letters were written from Omaha, London, Paris, and New York and provide a cursory overview of some of the events in Borglum's career and insights into his relationship with his older brother sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Borglum writes about meeting and working with other sculptors in Paris and New York and his wife writes about conflicts between the two brothers and exhibitions of Solon's work. Also found within the papers are clippings, a brochure for Borglum's book A Comparative Analysis of Natural Forms and Their Relation to the Human Figure, and photographs of Borglum in his studio and of his works.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of art patron Harriet Collins Allen measure 0.2 linear feet and date from 1897-1925. Found within the papers are letters primarily written by Solon Borglum and his wife, Emma to Harriet Collins Allen. The letters were written from Omaha, London, Paris, and New York and provide a cursory overview of some of the events in Borglum's career and insights into his relationship with his older brother sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Borglum writes about meeting and working with other sculptors in Paris and New York and his wife writes about conflicts between the two brothers and exhibitions of Solon's work. Also found within the papers are clippings, a brochure for Borglum's book A Comparative Analysis of Natural Forms and Their Relation to the Human Figure, and photographs of Borglum in his studio and of his works.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 3 chronological series:

Series 1: Letters, 1897-1925 (Box 1; 19 folders)

Series 2: Printed Material, 1898-1907, undated (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 3: Photographs, undated (Box 1; 3 folders)
Biographical Note:
Harriet Collins Allen and her husband, Dr. Samuel Allen, befriended sculptor Solon Borglum while he was studying at the Cincinnati Art Academy in the mid-1890s.

Solon Hannibal Borglum was born December 22, 1868 in Ogden, Utah. He was the younger brother of noted sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Both brothers spent their early lives on a ranch near Omaha, Nebraska. From 1883 to 1884, Solon and Gutzon traveled to California where Gutzon studied art and both earned a living at ranching. After spending a short time at his brother's studio in Sierra Madre, and living as an artist in Santa Ana, Solon enrolled at the Cincinnati Art Academy, where he studied from 1895 to 1897 as a student of Louis Rebisso.

Solon traveled to Paris and met sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens who persuaded him to study at the Académie Julian. There he studied under Denys Puech and began winning awards for work exhibited in both France and the United States. In 1898, Solon married Emma Vignal in Paris. They spent four years living at the Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota, an experience that influenced his art work. In 1901, Solon was elected to the National Sculpture Society, later becoming vice-president. He set up a studio in New York.

Borglum displayed several works at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Oregon, and at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. Among his most noted commissions was the "Rough Rider Monument" commemorating Captain William Owen "Buckey" O'Neill in Prescott, Arizona. In 1906, Borglum moved to Silvermine, Connecticut, where his studio became the center of a colony called the Silvermine Group of Artists. It was also during this time that Paul Manship was employed as one of Borglum's assistants and lived with the family.

From 1916 to 1917 Solon taught at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York and worked on an art textbook. During World War I, he served as the Director of Sculpture for the American Expeditionary Forces Art Training Center. Following the war, Borglum returned to New York City and established a School of American Sculpture in New York City.

Solon Hannibal Borglum died suddenly after an appendectomy in January 1922 in New York City.
Related Material:
The Archives holds several additional collections relating to Solon Borglum, including a loan of Gutzon Borglum papers microfilmed on reel 3056 (originals housed at the San Antonio Museum of Art) and the Solon H. Borglum and Borglum Family papers. The Library of Congress holds additional papers of Solon H. Borglum and is the primary repository of Gutzon Borglum's papers.
Provenance:
The Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum were donated in 1989 by Joan Parsons Wang, granddaughter of Harriet Collins Allen.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. research facility.
Rights:
The Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art patrons -- Ohio -- Cincinnati  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum, 1897-1925. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.alleharr
See more items in:
Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-alleharr

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