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Black women: achievements against the odds exhibition records

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Traveling Exhibition Service  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Extent:
7.92 Linear feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Brochures
Correspondence
Exhibit scripts
Exhibition records
Photographic prints
Date:
1976-02 - 1976-12
Summary:
An exhibition on two-hundred years of achievements by black women. The show was created and circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. It was exhibited at the Anacostia Museum from February 1976 to December 1976. These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of the exhibition. Materials include correspondence, research files, exhibit scripts, administrative records, brochures, press coverage, education packets, loan agreements, and floor plans.
Related Archival Materials note:
Catherine Burt vertical file on black women in the Anacostia Community Museum Archives.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American women -- History  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Traveling exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Brochures
Correspondence
Exhibit scripts
Exhibition records -- 1967-1989
Photographic prints
Citation:
Black women: achievements against the odds exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-028
See more items in:
Black women: achievements against the odds exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7218a5ae1-d862-4b0f-b24b-3b223c356eee
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-03-028
Online Media:

José de Creeft papers

Creator:
De Creeft, José, 1884-1982  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.) -- Faculty  Search this
Black Mountain College (Black Mountain, N.C.) -- Faculty  Search this
New School for Social Research (New York, N.Y.) -- Faculty  Search this
Norton Gallery and School of Art  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture -- Faculty  Search this
Albers, Josef -- Photographs  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
Campos, Jules  Search this
De Creeft, William  Search this
De Diego, Julio, 1900- -- Photographs  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter, 1891-1978  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt, 1884-1953  Search this
Dodd, Lamar  Search this
Escuder, Joseph  Search this
Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969 -- Photographs  Search this
Gross, Chaim, 1904-1991 -- Photographs  Search this
Gómez Gil, Alfredo, 1936-  Search this
Lawrence, Gertrude -- Photographs  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973 -- Photographs  Search this
Neumann, J. B. (Jsrael Ber) -- Photographs  Search this
Nivola, Costantino, 1911-1988  Search this
Rattner, Abraham -- Photographs  Search this
Roszak, Theodore, 1907-1981 -- Photographs  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987 -- Photographs  Search this
Sweeney, James Johnson, 1900-  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966 -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
28.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Diaries
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Date:
1871-2004, bulk 1910s-1980s
bulk 1910-1990
Summary:
The papers of Spanish-born sculptor and educator José de Creeft measure 28.1 linear feet and date from 1871 to 2004 with the bulk of the material dating from the 1910s to the 1980s. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, fifty diaries, writings, subject files, personal business records, printed materials, twenty-seven photo albums and other photographs, scrapbooks, and scattered sketches.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Spanish-born sculptor and educator José de Creeft measure 28.1 linear feet and date from 1871 to 2004 with the bulk of the material dating from the 1910s to the 1980s. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, fifty diaries, writings, subject files, personal business records, printed materials, twenty-seven photo albums and other photographs, scrapbooks, and scattered sketches.

Biographical materials include address books, awards, recorded interviews with and about de Creeft, membership materials, naturalization records, resumes, and travel documents.

Correspondence is primarily professional in nature and concerns exhibitions, de Creeft's involvement in arts organizations, and awards. There are also scattered personal letters from family and friends. Correspondents include Alexander Calder, Nina, Alice, Barbara and William de Creeft, Hunt Diederich, Joseph Escudar, and Gil Gomez, Jacques Lipchitz, Edwin Dickinson, James Johnson Sweeney, Costantino Nivola, Abraham Rattner, and Lamar Dodd, among others.

De Creeft's fifty diaries are nearly complete for the period dating from 1926 to 1981. Some are bound volumes and others are loose pages. The bulk of the diaries are in Spanish and many include sketches. Additional writings, called "escritos varios" by José de Creeft, are mostly in Spanish and consist of typed manuscripts and essays, including "Roosty Was My Friend, 1957, notebooks, an artist's statement, and writings by others, including drafts for The Sculpture of de Creeft by Jules Campos, and a video recording entitled José de Creeft by Bob Hanson. There is one sound recording of Lorrie Goulet reading poetry.

Subject files are varied and include files on de Creeft's teaching positions at the New School for Social Research, Black Mountain College, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, and the Art Students League. There are files for some of his sculpture projects, inlcuding Alice in Wonderland, Poet, and a proposed model for the Stone Mountain Confederate Memorial in Georgia, as well as compiled information about various art related topics of interest.

De Creeft's business records include appraisals, contracts, leases, price lists, and scattered receipts. Also found are art inventories in the form of three sets of index cards, some of which include photographs.

Printed materials include books, clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, exhibition labels, postcards, and posters.

There are loose photographs and twenty-seven photograph albums depicting de Creeft, his family, friends, and works of art. There are photos of Alexander Calder; de Creeft and Goulet with Raphael Soyer, posing with Soyer's portrait of them; Gertrude Lawrence; art juries, which also include images of Chaim Gross, Jacques Lipchitz, Theodore Roszak, and William Zorach; students, friends, and faculties of Black Mountain College, the Art Students League, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, and the Norton School of Art, which also includes images of Joseph Albers, Alexander Calder, Julio De Diego, Walter Gropius, J. B. Neumann, and Abraham Rattner.

Seven mixed media scrapbooks document de Creeft's career from 1929 to 1982. Also found are scattered pen and pencil sketches and one sketchbook dating from the 1920s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1914-1979 (Boxes 1, 27; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1910s-1980s (Boxes 1-6; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries, 1926-1981 (Boxes 6-11; 5.4 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, 1871-1977 (Boxes 11-13, 28; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 5: Subject Files, 1924-1980 (Boxes 13-16, 27; 2.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1909-1980s (Boxes 16-17, 27; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1921-1980s (Boxes 17-21, 27, 33; 4.7 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, 1900-2004 (Boxes 21-25, 29, 31; 5.1 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1929-1982 (Box 26, 30, 32; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 10: Artwork, 1920s-1930s (Box 26; 2 folders)
Biographical / Historical:
José de Creeft (1908-1982) was a Spanish-born sculptor active in New York City, New York.

José de Creeft was born in Guadalajara, Spain and raised in Barcelona. In 1900, he apprenticed to sculptor Don Augustine Querol and studied drawing with Idalgo de Caviedas. De Creeft moved to Paris in 1905 and began formal art training at the Académie Julianand. He also took a studio in the Batteau Lavoir in Montmartre, where he interacted with Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris, Manolo, and Pablo Gargallo, all of whom also had studios there. During this period, de Creeft became friends with the artist Mateo Hernandez.

In 1915, de Creeft rejected the traditional technique of reproducing sculpture in stone from clay and plaster models and turned to direct carving in wood and stone. He was also one of the first sculptors who practiced assemblage and incorporated found objects into his work. His notable assemblage sculpture El Picador, a large figure on horseback, received worldwide press coverage and was exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Independents in 1926. Between 1919 and 1928, his work was exhibited in various Paris salons. In the late 1920s, he created 200 stone carvings for Roberto Ramonje's Forteleza (fortress) in Mallorca. It was around this time frame when de Creeft met Alexander Calder, who became his student in direct carving. De Creeft encouraged Calder to display his mechanical toys and Calder put his Circus together for the first time in de Creeft's studio.

De Creeft emigrated to the United States in 1929, right after marrying fellow sculptor Alice Robertson Carr. They divorced nine years later.

While in New York, de Creeft began sculpting with lead sheets beaten into three-dimensional forms and established a studio at 1 Washington Square. His first solo exhibition was at the Ferargil Galleries in New York City and included The Portrait of Cesar Vallejo in chased lead and The Silver Fox of found materials.

In 1932, de Creeft accepted a teaching position in sculpture at the New School for Social Research. He also taught courses at Black Mountain College, where he met his second wife, sculptor Lorrie Goulet, the Art Students League, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, and the Norton Gallery and School of Art. In 1946, de Creeft and Goulet purchased a hundred-acre farm in Hoosick Falls, NY where they established a studio and part-time residence.

Perhaps De Creeft's most well-known monumental scuplture is Alice in Wonderland in Central Park, New York City. The 12' x 16' bronze was dedicated during a public event in 1959 and gave de Creeft worldwide recognition. In 1995 a short film about the making of the sculpture was produced by J. D'Alba and narrated by Lorrie Goulet.

De Creeft was as founding member of the American Artist's Congress, the Sculptors Guild, and the Artist's Equity Association. De Creeft was represented by the Georgette Passedoit Gallery from 1936 to 1949. Later, he joined The Contemporaries (gallery) and exhibited there until 1966. Kennedy Galleries represented de Creeft from 1970 until his death in 1982.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds an interview of José De Creeft conducted October 1-8, 1968 by Forrest Selvig and the papers of de Creeft's wife Lorrie Goulet.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels D150 and 375-378). While most of the items were included in subsequent gifts, material not donated to the Archives remain with the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The José de Creeft papers were first lent for microfilming by the artist in 1963 and 1972. Lorrie Goulet, José de Creeft's widow, donated most of this material along with additional items in 1985 and 2009.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Stone Mountain Memorial (Ga.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Diaries
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Citation:
José de Creeft papers, 1871-2004, bulk 1910s-1980s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.decrjose
See more items in:
José de Creeft papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9bbb83529-c881-4ef2-b3f3-7919c41b1404
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-decrjose

The Renaissance: Black arts of the Twenties exhibition records

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Extent:
10.55 Linear feet (16 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Exhibition records
Catalogs
Exhibit scripts
Correspondence
Place:
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
1985-09 - 1986-12
Summary:
An exhibition on the history and art of the Harlem Renaissance. The exhibition, held at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, ran from September 1985-December 1986. These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of the exhibition. Materials include correspondence, research files, exhibit scripts, administrative records, brochures, press coverage, education packets, loan agreements, floor plans, and catalogues.
Related Archival Materials note:
Audiovisual materials related to this exhibition located in Anacostia Community Museum Archives.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Harlem Renaissance  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Exhibition records -- 1967-1989
Catalogs
Exhibit scripts
Correspondence
Citation:
The Renaissance: Black arts of the Twenties exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-024
See more items in:
The Renaissance: Black arts of the Twenties exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7cec4e4c6-749d-420c-86a3-25fd0b74ec03
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-03-024

The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection

Creator:
Moore, Harry T., 1905-1951  Search this
Moore, Harriette V., 1902-1952  Search this
Names:
Bethune-Cookman College (Daytona Beach, Fla.)  Search this
Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Search this
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Progressive Voters League  Search this
Baker, Ella, 1903-1986  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Caldwell, Millard Fillmore, 1897-1984  Search this
Current, Gloster B. (Gloster Bryant), 1913-1997  Search this
Gilbert, John  Search this
Hendricks, Joseph Edward, 1903-  Search this
Holland, Spessard L. (Spessard Lindsey), 1892-1971  Search this
Houston, Charles Hamilton, Dr., 1895-1950  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert  Search this
Kennedy, Stetson  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Mathews, John E., 1892 - 1955  Search this
Moore, J. Evangeline, 1930-2015  Search this
Warren, Fuller, 1905-1973  Search this
Watson, J. Thomas, 1885 - 1954  Search this
White, Walter, 1893-1955 (President, N.A.A.C.P)  Search this
Williams, Franklin Hall, 1917 - 1990  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Cocoa
United States of America -- Florida -- Lake County -- Groveland
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Mims
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Titusville
United States of America -- Florida -- Seminole County -- Sanford
Date:
bulk 1945-1949
Summary:
Harry T. Moore was a pioneering civil rights activist, educator, and civic leader. The collection was originally housed in a formerly "lost" briefcase that was found in 2006 by FBI investigators. The materials in this collection focus on his activities as a civil rights activist and community leader who sought to advocate for pay equity, voting rights, and justice reform for African American communities in Florida. Harry Moore and his wife Harriette were murdered for their work and they have been immortalized as the Civil Rights Movement's first martyrs.
Scope and Contents:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection chronicles Harry Moore's career in civil rights and education that ultimately led to his and his wife's murder. The materials in this collection were originally located in Harry T. Moore's briefcase and are dated from 1942 to 1949. The collection contains correspondence, memoranda, business records, ephemera, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of the material reflects Moore's work as a community leader working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Progressive Voters League (PVL). The materials include original typed correspondence to and from Harry T. Moore as well as mimeographed letters that were saved for recordkeeping purposes.

The briefcase and Moore's wallet (part of the NMAAHC Collection) were found by Harriette Moore's brother, George Simms, after the firebombing of the Moore's home on Christmas night in 1951. Both were given to the local authorities for the investigation. The briefcase was lost during the initial 1951-1952 investigations. It was found in 2006 by FBI Investigators in a barn close to the Moore's former home. The investigation was closed the same year and the briefcase and its contents were returned to the family. J. Evangeline Moore served as the steward of the collection, lending out materials to various organizations, journalists, writers, and filmmakers over the years to educate the masses about her father's work and her parents' legacy. This work continued until her death in 2015. This collection and related Moore family heirlooms were donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture in 2013 and 2018, respectively.
Arrangement:
This archival collection does not include all the materials originally located in the briefcase. Materials from this collection were used during investigations as well as historical displays, documentaries, and various educational presentations. Research revealed that various materials were misplaced or lost. The FBI investigators originally located the briefcase in 2006 and they organized and rehoused the materials for better preservation. According to the 2006 investigation report, the investigators organized the documents in alphabetical order but arranged them as they were discovered within Harry T. Moore's filing system. His filing system was based on keeping documents together in envelopes that pertain to the same subject.

The NMAAHC Archives Team kept the subject and proximal context of the materials together. To further preserve this original arrangement and sustain the collection, materials were separated by format and then by subject, keeping those with similar dates and subjects together.
Biographical / Historical:
Harry Tyson Moore was born on November 18, 1905 to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosalea "Rosa" Tyson Moore in Houston, Florida. After his father's death in 1914, Moore was sent to live with his maternal aunts in Daytona Beach, Florida. He attended Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute, at the time a high school and junior college, where he graduated with a teaching degree in 1924. He immediately began his first teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

Harriette Vyda Sims was born on June 19, 1902 in West Palm Beach, Florida to David and Annie Simms. Harriette was an insurance agent at Atlanta Life Insurance Company, a prominent Black-owned company, working out of Cocoa, Florida when she met Harry. Harry was also working at Atlanta Life to supplement his meager salary from teaching. Harry and Harriette married on Christmas Day in 1926. To establish themselves, the newlyweds moved in with Harriette's family in Mims, Florida. They had two daughters, Annie, born 1928, and Juanita (Evangeline), born 1930.

The couple enrolled together at the Daytona Normal Industrial Institute, later renamed the Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) after a merger of local African American schools. Harriette earned associate and bachelor's degrees in education in 1941 and 1950 respectively. Harry earned a bachelor's degree in education in 1936. Both Evangeline and Annie attended BCC as well. Annie served as an assistant to Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune.

From 1927-1936, Harry served as a teacher and eventual principal of Titusville Colored Junior High School. Harriette was a teacher and lunch lady at various elementary schools in the area. Troubled by the inequities and lack of educational resources available to African Americans, Harry started the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1934. He established the organization with the help of the all-black Florida State Teacher's Association and the support of civil rights lawyer Thurgood Marshall.

In 1937, Moore was involved in a lawsuit regarding teacher pay equality. In Florida, White teachers received a monthly salary of $50 while African American teachers had a base salary of $20. This was the first civil rights case of its kind in the South. Moore's good friend John Gilbert, the principal of the junior high school, served as the plaintiff. The case, Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County, was lost as many African American teachers were afraid to publicly endorse the case, fearing repercussions. This proved correct as Gilbert and Moore were both fired because of their activism. The Florida Supreme Court dismissed the petition stating that Brevard County was not legally required to change salary schedules based on pay because schools used individual contracts with the teachers. This case laid the foundation for several successful pay equality cases including McDaniel v. Board of Public Instruction in 1941 and County Teachers Association v. the Board of Public Instruction for the County of Marion and Broward in 1942.

Fighting for pay equity for teachers and educational civil rights took Harry and Harriette around the state, organizing and mobilizing community members. In 1936, the Moores took on new positions at the segregated Mims Elementary School and continued their involvement in organizing civil rights cases throughout Florida. In 1941, Harry was appointed the president of the Florida State Conference for the NAACP and later became the executive secretary for the Florida branch. In 1944, Smith v. Allwright ruled that it was unconstitutional for the Democratic Party to limit its membership to White people. This gave Harry the impetus to establish the Progressive Voters League (PVL), a partisan political action group in 1946. Harry believed that African Americans should have the power to vote for whomever is best for their community. Harry kept his work with the PVL separate from his work with the NAACP, despite his leadership role in both. Within a few years of PVL's establishment, there were 100,000 registered eligible African American voters in the state. For the first time in Florida's history, African American citizens were organized and poised to change the outcome of elections. In 1946, this work cost Harry and Harriette their positions at Mims Elementary School. Fortunately, the NAACP, grateful for all of Harry's years of voluntary service, named him the NAACP's first full-time paid executive secretary. Both daughters assisted in creating NAACP Youth Council for the chapter as well.

Harry fought against the gruesome lynching and rampant police brutality taking place in Florida. In 1937, he started investigating cases himself and took an active role in pursuing justice in several unsolved lynching cases around Florida. He regularly sent correspondence about voting rights and lynching to state legislators, the governor, congressmen and even the president. In 1949, Moore became very involved in the national case, State of Florida v. Samuel Shepherd, Walter L. Irvin, Charles Greenlee, and Ernest E. Thomas, commonly known as the Groveland Rape case. Four young African American men were accused of raping a white woman, Norma Padgett. The sheriff of the area, Willis V. McCall rallied a mob of 1,000 local men to locate the accused. Ernest Thomas was killed during pursuit after being shot 400 times by the mob. Shepherd, Irvin, and Greenlee were beaten and coerced into confessing to the crime, only Irvin refused. The trio were immediately convicted by an all-white jury. Shephard and Irvin were sentenced to death while Greenlee, a minor, was sentenced to life in prison. In 1951, Harry and the NAACP legal team appealed the case before the United States Supreme Court. The Court ruled the men were not given a fair trial and sent the case back for retrial at the lower court. In November of 1951, while transporting Shepherd and Irvin back to the county prison for the retrial, Sheriff McCall shot the handcuffed men, killing Shepherd and seriously injuring Irvin. Moore launched an aggressive campaign to have McCall removed from his position and indicted for his involvement in the deaths. He wrote letters to President Truman, the governor, congressmen and several state and county legislators about McCall and the case. Many historians believe Moore's involvement in this case led to his murder only six weeks later. In 2019, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis issued the Groveland Four a posthumous pardon.

On December 25, 1951, both Christmas and the Moore's 25th wedding anniversary, a bomb exploded under their home, directly below the Moore's bedroom. Harry died on the way to the hospital. His funeral took place on January 2, 1952 to a crowd of 3,500, according to Ebony magazine. The following day, January 3, Harriette died from the injuries she sustained in the bombing. Her funeral took place on January 8, where NAACP leader Roy Wilkins spoke eloquently about the Moores and how their work will not be forgotten. The Moores are often called the first martyrs of the 1950s Civil Rights Movement.

The world quickly took note of Harry and Harriet's murders. Newspapers around the world criticized the U.S. for its treatment of African American citizens. The murders were discussed on the floor of the United Nations and the halls of Congress. There were many investigations at the time of the bombing, but the perpetrators were not found. The case was reopened in 1978, but again no charges were filed. In 2004-2006, the investigation was again reopened and led to the conclusion that the murders were conducted by the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. The men believed responsible were Earl J. Brooklyn, Tillman H. Belvin, Joseph N. Cox, and Edward L. Spivey. However, all the men had died by this time, therefore no one was ever charged for the Moores' murder.

Evangeline was extremely involved in the investigation and worked directly with the attorney general. By the mid-1990s, Evangeline began to take a public role in preserving the memory of her family's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. In 1995, she helped organize the Harry T. Moore and Harriette V. Moore Homesite Development Committee, a non-profit organization that raised money for an educational site dedicated to celebrating the life and work of the Moores. In 2004, Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park opened, featuring a museum, the original Moore homesite, and a 12-acre park. There are annual celebrations held in the second week of December in Mims, honoring the Moore family's sacrifices for human rights. In 2015, the Florida State Senate adopted resolution SR1638, "Remembering the outstanding contributions of pioneer leaders and martyrs Harriette Vyda Simms Moore and Harry T. Moore in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Voting Rights Act, etc." In October 2015, Evangeline passed away in New Carrolton, Maryland.

Historical Timeline

1902 -- Harriette V. Simms was born in West Palm Beach, Florida to David I. Simms and Annie Warren Simms.

1905 -- Harry Tyson Moore was born in Houston, Florida to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosa Tyson Moore.

1914-1916 -- Johnny Moore died. Rosa Moore sent Harry to Daytona Beach, Florida to stay with family because of financial difficulties. Harry and his maternal aunts moved to Jacksonville, Florida for better educational opportunities.

1919 -- Moore returned to Houston, Florida and began the high school program at Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute. He graduated with a teaching degree in 1924.

1925 -- Harry earned his teaching certificate and immediately began teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

1926 -- Harry and Harriette wed on Christmas.

1927 -- The Moore newlyweds moved in with Harriette's parents. Harry began teaching at the Titusville Colored Junior High School in Titusville, Florida.

1928 -- Annie Rosa Moore was born. In the fall, Harriette began working as a teacher at Mims Colored Elementary School in Mims, Florida.

1930 -- [Juanita] Evangeline Moore was born. Harry began taking correspondence courses at the University of Florida.

1931 -- Harry and his family move into their own home in Mims, Florida.

1934 -- Harry founded the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

1936 -- Harry graduated from Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) with a normal degree in education. In the fall, Harry became a teacher and the principal of Mims Colored Elementary School.

1938 -- In March, Attorney S.D. McGill filed a lawsuit for pay equality with Cocoa Junior School principal John Gilbert as the plaintiff. The case was dismissed in June.

1939 -- The appeal case of Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County was dismissed. The case was represented by NAACP Legal Counsel, Thurgood Marshall.

1941 -- Harry organized and served as president of the Florida State Conference of the NAACP. Harriette graduated from Bethune-Cookman College with a teaching degree.

1944 -- Harry founded the Progressive Voters League as a political partisan action group in opposition to the NAACP non-partisan stance.

1946 -- As a result of his civil rights work and activism, Harry and Harriette lost their teaching positions at Mims Elementary School.

1947 -- Evangeline enrolled in BCC. Harry became the NAACP's first fully paid executive secretary of the Brevard County chapter.

1948 -- Harriette began teaching at the Lake Park Colored School in Palm Beach County, Florida.

1950 -- Harriette graduated from BCC with a B.S. in science.

1951 -- Harry graduated with a B.A. from BCC in August. December 25: The Moore's home is firebombed. Harry passed away right before midnight.

1952 -- January 1: Funeral of Harry T. Moore. Jannuary 3: Harriette died from injuries sustained in bombing. January 8: Funeral of Harriette V. Moore. The NAACP awarded the Spingarn medal to Harry T. Moore; his mother Rosa accepted it on his behalf. Evangeline married Drapher Pagan, Sr. Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. is born the following year.

1955 -- The FBI officially closed the Moore homicide investigation case.

1972 -- Annie R. Moore Hampton died suddenly and was buried in Ocala, Florida.

1978 -- The Moore case was reopened but no charges were filed.

1985 -- Creation of the Harry T. Moore Social Service Center in Titusville, Florida.

1991 -- Florida's Governor Lawton Chiles ordered the reopening of the Moores' homicide case; no charges were filed.

1993-1998 -- The Brevard County Board of County Commissioners purchased the Moore homesite to be used as a memorial to the slain couple and created The Harry T. Moore Homesite Development Committee. The Florida State Legislature awarded $700,000 for development of the 10-acre Harry T. Moore Memorial Homesite in Mims, Florida.

1999 -- Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Homesite Historical Marker is unveiled.

2002 -- Brevard County Court Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Justice Center opened.

2003-2004 -- An archeological survey of Moore family home led to an investigation. The Florida State Attorney General Charlie Crist reopened the Moore homicide investigation. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Cultural Complex is completed.

2006 -- Attorney General Crist concluded that the perpetrators were four men from the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. They had all died by this time, so no charges were filed.

2012-2013 -- The post office in Cocoa, Florida was renamed was named in honor of Harry T. and Harriette Moore by an Act of Congress: Public Law 112-243. Harry and Harriette were inducted in the Florida Civil Rights Hall of Fame.

2015 -- Evangeline Moore died in New Carrolton, Maryland.

2019 -- The Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park and Museum was added to U.S. Civil Rights Trail.

2021 -- Brevard County School Board passed a resolution acknowledging the Moore's unjust firings.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in memory of Juanita Evangeline Moore.

The Museum acquired two personal watches, a locket, and 26 textual documents pertaining to Harry and Harriette Moore (2013.157) from Juanita Evangeline Moore in 2013. These materials are viewable via Smithsonian Collections Search. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection was acquired through a donation from the Moores' grandson, Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in 2018.
Restrictions:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use.
Topic:
Education  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Activism  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Groveland Four Trial, Groveland, Fla., 1949-1952  Search this
American South  Search this
Blacks -- Press coverage  Search this
Justice  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social justice  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Violence  Search this
United States -- History -- 1945-1953  Search this
Suffrage  Search this
Politics  Search this
Families  Search this
Law  Search this
Associations, institutions, etc.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Harry T. And Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection, 1942-1949. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.12
See more items in:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io39fe77a2e-3542-4a8b-add7-006d9625fb9e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-12

Barnett-Aden Collection Exhibition records

Creator:
Barnett-Aden Gallery  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Barnett-Aden Collection  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Extent:
1.17 Linear feet (3 boxes; 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Exhibit scripts
Exhibition records
Black-and-white transparencies
Catalogs
Black-and-white photographs
Contact sheets
Date:
1974
Summary:
An exhibition on selected works from the Barnett-Aden Gallery, which closed in 1969. The show was organized by the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum and exhibited there from January 20 through May 6, 1974. Afterwards, the show went on display at the Corcoran Gallery of Art from January 10 to February 9, 1975. These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of the exhibition. Materials include correspondence, research files, exhibit scripts, administrative records, brochures, press coverage, education packets, loan agreements, floor plans, and catalogues.
Scope and Contents note:
These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of the exhibition. Materials include correspondence, research files, exhibit script, administrative records, brochures, press coverage, education packets, loan agreements, floor plans, and catalogues.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American art -- Exhibitions  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Art -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Exhibit scripts
Exhibition records -- 1967-1989
Black-and-white transparencies
Catalogs
Black-and-white photographs
Contact sheets
Citation:
Barnett-Aden Collection Exhibition Records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-010
See more items in:
Barnett-Aden Collection Exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa74766566b-1ffd-477d-8966-594e944285b8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-03-010
Online Media:

Black Mosaic: Community, Race, and Ethnicity among Black Immigrants in Washington, D. C. Exhibition Records

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
21.6 Cubic feet (consisting of 17 cartons, 2 oversized boxes.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Color slides
Exhibition records
Exhibit scripts
Contact sheets
Photographic prints
Correspondence
Place:
Washington Metropolitan Area
Date:
1942-1998
Summary:
These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of an exhibition exploring the immigration of people of African descent from Central and South America and the Caribbean to the Washington Metropolitan Area. The show was organized and hosted by the Anacostia Museum from August 21, 1994 through August 7, 1995. Materials include correspondence, research files, exhibit script, administrative records, brochures, press coverage, education packets, loan agreements, floor plans, and catalogues.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Black Mosaic exhibition presented by the Anacostia Community Museum measure 21.6 cubic feet and date from 1942 to 1998, with the bulk of material dating from 1990 to 1995. The records include administrative records, publications, research files, floor plans, exhibit text drafts, oral history transcripts, and project files for programs coordinated for or tangentially with the Black Mosaic Exhibit.

Administrative records include advisory board member lists, meeting minutes, agendas, grant proposals, project reports and assessments, correspondence, training material for museum volunteers and docents, and assorted notes. Publications within the series directly relate to the Black Mosaic Exhibit and the Anacostia Community Museum. Correspondence includes both internal correspondence and those with local community members.

Writings and notes were previously scattered throughout the collection have been collocated within the Administrative Records series, and a majority are undated. The notes cover topics ranging from administrative activities to exhibit and research planning. Included are printed documents, scrap paper, and spiral-bound notebooks.

The research files contain background information about numerous immigrant communities within Washington D.C. The community research files were originally organized by country, continent, or region of origin, and then later by subjects that coordinated with the exhibit's designated themes. This organization method has largely been maintained. Research files include scholarly articles, news clippings, event programs, compiled bibliographies, and material related to the study of museology.

The exhibit files include floor plan layouts, photocopies of images, interview transcripts, exhibit literature, and extensive exhibit text drafts. Drafts of the exhibit's text include notes throughout multiple editing stages. Additionally, copies of flip books for different thematic sections of the Black Mosaic exhibit are included and are organized alphabetically by title. Other exhibit literature present is primarily in English with one French copy present.

The project files include training material for collecting oral histories and documenting community folklife, conference records, event records, and records pertaining to related projects at the Anacostia Community Museum. Concurrent projects supporting the exhibit include the Black Mosaic community newsletter and an educational curriculum project. Additional project records that thematically overlap with the Black Mosaic exhibit but extend beyond the timeframe of the formal exhibit are present also.
Arrangement:
Black Mosaic: Community, Race, and Ethnicity among Black Immigrants in Washington, D.C. exhibition records are arranged in four series:

Series 1: Administrative Records

Series 2: Research Files

Series 3: Exhibit Files

Series 4: Project Files
Historical Note:
The exhibit Black Mosaic: Community, Race, and Ethnicity among Black Immigrants in Washington, D.C. was curated by the Anacostia Community Museum's supervisory curator Portia James, and was open at the Anacostia Community Museum from August 1994 to August 1995. The exhibition explored the immigration of people of African descent from South America, Central America, and the Caribbean to the Washington Metropolitan Area.

Topics addressed in the exhibition include migration, situations faced by Black immigrants, the maintenance of relationships with places of origin, community events and cultural performances, public and private expressions of culture, commodification of culture for economic support, and the expression of multiple identities. Some intentions of the exhibit were to provide forums for discussing culture and identity, provide resources for people learning about communities in the Washington Metro area, and to be a model to other museums and cultural institutions for understanding and interpreting similar immigration and settlement patterns.

The exhibit was designed to be experienced with broader cultural concepts being introduced towards the external part of the exhibit, while personal stories could be experienced further in. Over 100 oral history interviews featured prominently in the exhibit where interviewed individuals explained their immigration experience and how they've adapted to life in the area. The exhibit also included mounted photographs, artifacts, music, and conversations. Artifacts included passport photos, tickets, family photographs, and letters. The exhibit's text displayed in three languages: English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. There were additional exhibition guides provided in Brazilian Portuguese, French, and the Ghanaian languages of Ga, Twi, Akan, and Ewe.

Coupled with the exhibit, the museum coordinated an extensive series of programs to engage various communities in the exploration of issues and traditions. These programs included creating newsletters and a photograph exhibit to keep the community up to date about the progression of the exhibit, working with performance groups, creating multi-institutional partnerships in order to develop more effective methods of collecting oral histories, and collaborating and modeling for the CFPCS African Immigrant Communities project.
Provenance:
Records of Black Mosaic: Community, Race, and Ethnicity Among Black Immigrants in Washington, D.C. Exhibition were created by the Anacostia Community Museum.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Immigrants -- United States -- Exhibitions  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Color slides
Exhibition records -- 1990-2004
Exhibit scripts
Contact sheets
Photographic prints
Correspondence
Citation:
Black Mosaic: Community, Race, and Ethnicity among Black Immigrants in Washington, D. C. Exhibition Records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-027
See more items in:
Black Mosaic: Community, Race, and Ethnicity among Black Immigrants in Washington, D. C. Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa769b48dcf-5b93-4db2-b89e-3e4819fb8f55
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-03-027
Online Media:

NATO 50th Anniversary Summit, Notes about Press Coverage of Events

Distributor:
North Atlantic Treaty Organization  Search this
Physical Description:
multi-color (document color)
yellow (document color)
hot pink (document color)
gold (document color)
green (document cover sheet color)
black; white (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 11 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
Documents
packet
Date made:
1999
Related event:
NATO 50th Anniversary Summit  Search this
ID Number:
2003.0106.01
Accession number:
2003.0106
Catalog number:
2003.0106.01
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-6971-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1195396

Through the wire : black British people and the riot / Eddie Chambers

Author:
Chambers, Eddie  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
England
Date:
2015
Topic:
Race riots--Press coverage  Search this
Police--Press coverage  Search this
Black people--Press coverage  Search this
Call number:
NX1 .N737
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1050424

Harry Belafonte Jr. seated with Coretta Scott King and her children

Photograph by:
Horace C. Henry, American, born 1948  Search this
Subject of:
Coretta Scott King, American, 1927 - 2006  Search this
Harry Belafonte Jr., American, born 1927  Search this
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Bernice Albertine King, American, born 1963  Search this
Unidentified Man or Men  Search this
Unidentified Woman or Women  Search this
Ebenezer Baptist Church, American, founded 1886  Search this
Printed by:
Unidentified  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 11 x 14 in. (27.9 x 35.6 cm)
Type:
inkjet prints
Place captured:
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
January 15, 1969; printed 2011
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Photography  Search this
Religion  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Horace C. Henry
Object number:
2011.94.15
Restrictions & Rights:
© Horace Henry
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
One Day in January: A Collection of Images Taken at Dr. King’s First Memorial Service
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5fd7c7699-6bfd-478f-b833-17b434cdcd77
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.94.15
Online Media:

Press Coverage of First Birthday Celebration of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Photograph by:
Horace C. Henry, American, born 1948  Search this
Subject of:
Coretta Scott King, American, 1927 - 2006  Search this
Harry Belafonte Jr., American, born 1927  Search this
Unidentified Man or Men  Search this
Unidentified Woman or Women  Search this
Bernice Albertine King, American, born 1963  Search this
Alberta King, American, 1904 - 1974  Search this
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Ebenezer Baptist Church, American, founded 1886  Search this
Printed by:
Unidentified  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 11 x 14 in. (27.9 x 35.6 cm)
Type:
inkjet prints
Place captured:
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
January 15, 1969; printed 2011
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Photography  Search this
Religion  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Horace C. Henry
Object number:
2011.94.23
Restrictions & Rights:
© Horace Henry
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
One Day in January: A Collection of Images Taken at Dr. King’s First Memorial Service
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b8d1d38f-aa37-47dd-8238-db5c27b3eac7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.94.23
Online Media:

Press Coverage of First Birthday Celebration of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Photograph by:
Horace C. Henry, American, born 1948  Search this
Subject of:
Coretta Scott King, American, 1927 - 2006  Search this
Harry Belafonte Jr., American, born 1927  Search this
Unidentified Man or Men  Search this
Unidentified Woman or Women  Search this
Rev. Martin Luther King Sr, American, 1899 - 1984  Search this
Alberta King, American, 1904 - 1974  Search this
Ebenezer Baptist Church, American, founded 1886  Search this
Printed by:
Unidentified  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 11 x 14 in. (27.9 x 35.6 cm)
Type:
inkjet prints
Place captured:
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
January 15, 1969; printed 2011
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Photography  Search this
Religion  Search this
Singers (Musicians)  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Horace C. Henry
Object number:
2011.94.27
Restrictions & Rights:
© Horace Henry
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
One Day in January: A Collection of Images Taken at Dr. King’s First Memorial Service
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e9175c2f-6efe-4b51-afcf-7a6465b6e823
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.94.27
Online Media:

Renee V. Cox papers

Creator:
Cox, Renée, 1960-  Search this
Extent:
5.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1945-2016
bulk 1990s
Summary:
The papers of African American photographer Renee V. Cox measure 5.7 linear feet and date from 1973 to 2018, with individual materials from 1945 and 1955. The bulk of the materials date from the 1990s. The collection contains biographical material, correspondence, writings, exhibition files, materials related to Cox's photographic projects and other professional activities, personal business records, printed material, and photographic material.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of African American photographer Renee V. Cox measure 5.7 linear feet and date from 1973 to 2018, with individual materials from 1945 and 1955. The bulk of the materials date from the 1990s. The collection contains biographical material including resumes, calendars and appointment books, education records, and family records; personal and professional correspondence; writings including notes, notebooks/sketchbooks, artist statements, and writings by others; and exhibition files, including plans, photographs, and loan forms. Also included are materials related to Cox's photographic projects and other professional activities, including proposals, plans, teaching files, and professional travel itineraries, as well as material related to the Yo Mama's Last Supper controversy; personal business records, including invoices, sales records, contracts, and agreements; printed material, including clippings, exhibition materials, magazines, and newspapers; and photographic material including slides, contact sheets, prints and copies of Cox's work, family photographs, travel photographs, and photograph portfolios/scrapbooks.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as eight series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1945, 1955, 1973-2011 (Box 1; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1975-1977, 1990-2008 (Box 1; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1975, circa 1990s-2008 (Boxes 1-2; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, circa 1990s-2010 (Box 2; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 5: Projects and Professional Activities, circa 1987-2009 (Box 2, Box 7; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1992-2015 (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1974-2018 (Boxes 3-7; 3.4 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographic Material, circa 1980s-2000s, undated (Boxes 6-7; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Renee V. Cox (1960- ) is a Jamaican-born African American photographer in New York, NY. She is known for using her work to celebrate Black womanhood and for confronting racism and sexism in her reimagined depictions of religious or cultural figures. Cox began her photographic career as a fashion photographer, working with major fashion houses, supermodels, and agencies to create images that were published in Essence, Seventeen, Mademoiselle, Ebony Man, Sportswear International, and many others.

In 1992, she earned her Master of Fine Arts from the School of Visual Arts in New York, NY and went on to attend the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program. Renee Cox was the first woman to attend the program while pregnant and she created works in her Yo Mama series during this time, including a statue of her nude, pregnant form.

In 2001, Cox's work Yo Mama's Last Supper was included in the Committed to the Image exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum. The image is a reimagining of Leonardo Da Vinci's The Last Supper with Cox as Jesus surrounded by Black disciples and a white Judas. New York mayor Rudolph Giuliani called for a commission to set decency standards for any New York museum receiving public funds. In addition to the press coverage, Cox received hate mail and threats from people about the piece.

Cox continues to create work engaged in dialogues about the intersection of race, gender, class, and power. Her work has been exhibited internationally and is held in many private and public collections.
Provenance:
The papers were donated in 2019 by Renee V. Cox as part of the Archives' African American Collecting Initiative funded by the Henry Luce Foundation.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women photographers  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
Citation:
Renee V. Cox papers, 1945-2018. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.coxrenee
See more items in:
Renee V. Cox papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f2b57303-7d38-462d-b639-1e6660ef8d7f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-coxrenee
Online Media:

Records of Wedge Innovations

Interviewer:
Shayt, David H.  Search this
Creator:
Wedge Innovations  Search this
Extent:
13 Cubic feet (28 boxes, 5 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Notebooks
Oral histories (document genres)
Audiotapes
Financial records
Financial statements
Interviews
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Advertisements
Date:
1985-1996
Summary:
The records of Wedge Innovations document the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder's level; also included are company management and policies.
Scope and Contents:
The SmartLevel story gives excellent insight into the life cycle of a small Silicon valley start-up in the 1980s. SmartLevel's creator, Wedge Innovations, established a market for a new product, achieved national distribution, off-shore manufacturing, and product licensing, before going out of business due to pressure from profit-hungry venture capitalists.

The records of Wedge Innovations is a "tool biography" that documents the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder's level first conceived in 1985 by Andrew Butler. The SmartLevel Collection is divided into seven series: Corporate Records, Engineering Records, Financial Records, Marketing Records, Operations Records, Product Development Records, and Corporate Culture, reflecting both the organizational structure of Wedge Innovations and the company's working environment.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993, address the overall management of Wedge Innovations and document its policies, especially through the company's annual business plans, 1986-1992, and the monthly reports prepared for the Board of Directors' meetings, 1989-1992. This series also details the workings of each department through weekly departmental reports. The staff meetings files, July-November 1989, February 1990-November 1992, are particularly useful for understanding the day-to-day operation of the company.

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993, document the design and development of the SmartLevel from its conception in 1985 as the WedgeLevel, through its production as the SmartLevel in 1989, and through its refinement into the Pro SmartLevel and the Series 200 SmartLevel in 1991. The design process is particularly well documented through Andrew Butler's and Kevin Reeder's design notebooks and through the detailed technical drawings done by Butler, Reeder, and Ronald Wisnia. Also well documented are the efforts made to solve the many problems associated with the development and quality control of the electronic sensor module that was the heart of the SmartLevel.

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992, include Wedge's summary financial statements from 1985 to 1992.

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992, document customer and dealer relations through marketing department correspondence, operational records, and advertising campaigns. This series is particularly rich in promotional material (1988-1992), such as advertisements, advertising copy, photographs, product promotion plans, and videotapes that demonstrate the varied features and uses of the products.

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993, document the manufacturing process and the Company's offshore operations.

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993, document the company's intended development of an entire "Smart Tools" line.

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996, contains employee photographs and oral history interviews with key Wedge personnel conducted in 1995 and 1996 by David Shayt, Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History. The interviews discuss the background of the participants, the company's origins and history, product development, the Silicon Valley context, and the efforts of Wedge Innovations successor firm, SmartTool Technologies.
Arrangement:
The collection organized into seven series.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Andrew G. Butler (b. 1955), the founder of Wedge Innovations exhibited an interest in building construction and an entrepreneurial spirit early in life. From age 12 to 17 he built a boat that he then sailed alone from California to Tahiti, where he spent several years as an independent carpenter and building contractor. After returning to the United States, he earned a B.S. degree in electromechanical engineering from Stanford University (1983) and became a software specialist for Bechtel Construction. In 1985, he conceived of an idea for an electronic carpenter's level that could read a range of angles. Butler formed Wedge Innovations in 1986. He worked in the basement of his home in order to develop and market this level, selling his boat to finance the venture. He hired Marilyn Crowell as his secretary and Robert Nagle and Dan Kellogg as engineers. This company developed the sensor technology and software necessary to build the company's first product, the WedgeLevel. The heart of this tool was an electronic sensor circuit connected to a microprocessor capable of measuring the tool's orientation. This sensor module fit into an ergonomically-designed teak rail with anodized aluminum edges jointly developed by Butler, engineering design consultant Kevin Reeder, and engineer Ronald Wisnia.

In 1987, Wedge moved to Santa Clara to begin manufacturing the WedgeLevel. The transition from a research and development concern to a manufacturing company proved difficult, due to manufacturing and financial difficulties. It was difficult to obtain a reliable yet inexpensive source of teak for the rails, designs for a plastic composite and aluminum rail were developed, while offshore manufacturing of the sensor components was established. Overarching all concerns was the persistent difficulty of obtaining sufficient investment capital. While managing his growing company, Butler also began planning for a line of hand tools that combined microelectronics and user-oriented, ergonomic design. In 1988, the company changed the name of its product to SmartLevel in order to emphasize the company's proposed line of Smart Tools. That same year, the company adopted a new corporate logo, a stylized W with a red wedge, signaling its growing maturity. Promotion of the product also began through demonstrations of the prototype done by consultant building contractor, Rick Feffer.

In January 1989, the SmartLevel prototype was launched at the National Association of Home Builders Show in Atlanta, Georgia. The favorable publicity generated by this launch and by the company's media campaign generated many orders. To supply these orders, Wedge moved to larger quarters in Sunnyvale on April 1, 1989. In June 1989, Wedge gained further publicity by donating several SmartLevels to a Habitat for Humanity project in Milwaukee, where former president Jimmy Carter used one. Although Wedge expected to ship the first SmartLevels in July 1989, there were considerable delays in manufacturing. In particular, there were stability and performance problems with the sensor, which engineer Ken Gunderson was brought in to remedy. The sensor module was re-engineered to be more rugged and the level was redesigned with a plastic composite and aluminum rail. The new level, known as the Pro SmartLevel, was intended for the professional construction market. The first SmartLevels were shipped on September 5, 1989.

In 1990, patents were granted to Andrew Butler, Donald G. Green, and Robert E. Nagle for an inclinometer sensor circuit and to Butler and Ronald Wisnia for a carpenter's level design. That same year, Brian Bayley joined Wedge as Vice-president for Engineering, and Edwin "Win" Seipp joined as Project Manager - DIY SmartLevel. Seipp's responsibility was to develop a low-cost, "do-it-yourself" version of the SmartLevel, which was eventually called the Series 200 SmartLevel. This level had an all-aluminum rail and a non-removable sensor.

In September 1990, the company moved to San Jose and by 1991 had over 60 employees. Although sales continued to grow and name recognition of the product was quite strong, Wedge had difficulty meeting the expectations of its investors. Butler entered into financial negotiations with the Macklanburg-Duncan Corporation, a large-scale manufacturer of hand tools, to seek investment in his company. These negotiations led in November 1992 to the acquisition of Wedge by Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolved all but Wedge's engineering section. Macklanburg-Duncan today manufactures a "SmartTool" level, while Butler co-owns D2M (Design To Market), a company that develops new product ideas for the market.

SmartLevel Chronology

1992 -- Butler negotiates with Macklanburg-Duncan for a merger to save Wedge. In the midst of the negotiations, Butler is fired by his Board of Directors. Butler regains control of Wedge three months later, fires the replacement president, and sells Wedge outright to Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolves all but the engineering functions of Wedge.

1991 -- Wedge sponsors a "New Product Development Conference," where numerous designs for new hand tools are worked on. SmartLevel sales and name recognition grows but not quickly enough to meet overhead expenses of new facility or investors' demands.

1990 -- Yet more redesign work, both in-house and with Kevin Reeder, who also develops idea for "SmartTube" carrying case (not built). Patents granted to Andy Butler et al. for inclinometer sensor circuit and carpenter's level design. Wedge hires Brian Bayley as vice-president for engineering to develop a low-cost model of the SmartLevel. The all-aluminum Series 200 SmartLevel is born. Wedge moves to larger facilities in San Jose.

1989 -- SmartLevel launched at National Association of Home Builders show in January. Good press coverage, but cannot meet orders. More publicity from Habitat for Humanity project when former President Jimmy Carter uses a SmartLevel. But stability and performance problems plague sensor. More redesign work results in more rugged Pro SmartLevel. The first SmartLevels shipped on September 5, 1989.

1987-1988 -- Wedge moves to Santa Clara; intends to begin manufacturing and todevelop an entire line of "Smart Tools" but encounters financial and engineering difficulties; Wedge consults with independent design engineer, Kevin Reeder, on level design. Intensive redesign effort develops the SmartLevel, made of plastic and aluminum rail.

1986 -- Wedge Innovations founded in the basement of Butler's house; basic sensor design worked out; teak & aluminum WedgeLevel developed.

1985 -- Idea for electronic carpenter's level formulated by Andy Butler.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History contains artifacts related to the SmartLevel Collection. These include five SmartLevels (Accession #1991.0823; 1996.0284; 1996.0285; 1996.0288; and 1996.0289). They are an original teak WedgeLevel, a Pro SmartLevel, a Series 200 SmartLevel, a Bosch version of the SmartLevel, and a Macklanburg-Duncan SmartTool level. There are also four sensor modules (torpedo levels), two sensors, two carrying cases, one cap, one tee shirt, and one wooden puzzle with the inscription "The World Isn't Just Level and Plumb."
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Andrew Butler, SmartLevel inventor and company founder, Brian Bayley, Vice-President for engineering at Wedge Innovations from 1989-1992, and Kevin Reeder, an independent industrial designer, 1995-1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Product demonstrations -- 1980-2000  Search this
Technological innovations -- Hand tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Electronics -- Tools and implements -- 1980-2000  Search this
Industrial design -- 1980-2000  Search this
Leveling -- 1980-2000  Search this
Teak -- Use of -- 1980-2000  Search this
Level indicators -- 1980-2000  Search this
Venture capital -- 1980-2000 -- United States  Search this
Silicon Valley -- 1980-2000  Search this
Tools -- 1980-2000 -- United States  Search this
Small business -- Management -- 1980-2000  Search this
Investors -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 1980-2000  Search this
Engineers -- 1980-2000  Search this
Industrial designers -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- Tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Carpenters -- 1980-2000  Search this
Carpentry -- Tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Merchandise displays  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Notebooks -- 1980-2000
Oral histories (document genres) -- 1990-2000
Audiotapes
Financial records -- 1980-2000
Financial statements -- 1980-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Correspondence -- 1970-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Drawings -- 1980-2000
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
The Records of Wedge Innovations, 1985-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0534
See more items in:
Records of Wedge Innovations
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep895b7b396-3a34-4459-9d3f-83d3003a1cf8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0534
Online Media:

Voices of the Civil Rights Movement, audio cassette, OTC 408.5.24

Collection Collector:
Maltsby, Portia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Program in African American Culture  Search this
Container:
Box 114, Cassette 27
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Saturday, February 2, 1980, Colloquium. Session I: Telling the Story, copy one of three

Side A

BERNICE JOHNSON REAGON opens session and makes announcements. JULIAN BOND, facilitator; former director of communications, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); Georgia State Senator, 39th District; Atlanta, Georgia. Introduces speakers Bob Flether, Marc Crawford, and Moses Moon (ALAN RIBBACK).

MARC CRAWFORD, journalist, Time Capsule, Incorporated, New York, New York. Speaks of the Black press in the late 1950s and early 1960s; the role of the Black press; the start of mainstream press coverage of Black news stories; and the influence of the Civil Rights' Movement on other countries.

Side B MARC CRAWFORD (continued)

MOSES MOON talks about his introduction to audio documentation and his experience as a white Civil Rights' Movement participant. Plays a selection of audio recordings from mass meetings, including "Go Tell It On the Mountain," sung by Fannie Lou Hammer "Freedom Now," "Oh Freedom," sung by WILLIE PEACOCK, "I'm Walking For My Freedom," "Ain't Scared A Your Jail," sung by Sam Block.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access and use of audiovisual materials available in the Archives Center reading room or by requesting copies of audiovisual materials at RightsReproductions@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions exist. Collection items available for reproduction Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Program in African American Culture Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Program in African American Culture Collection
Program in African American Culture Collection / Series 1: Program Files
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f1358c5a-6adc-4ba2-a9a0-7e52630e6ff1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0408-ref1853

Voices of the Civil Rights Movement, conference tape number 26, OVU 408.5.26

Collection Collector:
Maltsby, Portia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Program in African American Culture  Search this
Extent:
1 Videocassettes (U-matic)
Container:
Box 206, Video 3, Item AC0408-OV0026
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Videocassettes (u-matic)
Date:
1980-02-01
Scope and Contents:
Friday, February 1, 1980, "We'll Never Turn Back" Exhibit Opening

"We Shall Overcome."

Saturday, February 2, 1980, Colloquium, Session I: Telling the Story

Bernice Johnson Reagon opens session and makes announcements.

Julian Bond, facilitator; former director of communications, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); Georgia State Senator, 39th District; Atlanta, Georgia. Introduces speakers Bob Fletcher, Marc Crawford, and Moses Moon (Alan Ribback).

Marc Crawford, journalist, Time Capsule, Incorporated, New York, New York. Speaks of the Black press in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the role of the Black press, the start of mainstream press coverage of Black news stories, and the influence of the Civil Rights' Movement on other countries.

Moses Moon talks about his introduction to audio documentation.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access and use of audiovisual materials available in the Archives Center reading room or by requesting copies of audiovisual materials at RightsReproductions@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions exist. Collection items available for reproduction Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Program in African American Culture Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Program in African American Culture Collection
Program in African American Culture Collection / Series 1: Program Files
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84628acd3-09eb-4c7d-b0c0-e53aa1886afd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0408-ref3140

Clippings and Press

Collection Creator:
Zarina  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970-1999
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of electronic records requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Zarina Hashmi papers, 1950-2015. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Zarina Hashmi papers
Zarina Hashmi papers / Series 5: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9e927291f-99dd-404f-97bd-88056991af47
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-zarina-ref27
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Pleasure in the news African American readership and sexuality in the Black press Kim Gallon

Author:
Gallon, Kim T  Search this
Physical description:
x, 200 pages illustrations 23 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
États-Unis
Date:
2020
20th century
20e siècle
Topic:
African American newspapers--History  Search this
Sex--Press coverage--History  Search this
Sex role--Press coverage--History  Search this
Press and politics--History  Search this
Journaux noirs américains--Histoire  Search this
Sexualité--Couverture de presse--Histoire  Search this
Rôle selon le sexe--Couverture de presse--Histoire  Search this
African American newspapers  Search this
Press and politics  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156520

Playbill for Hair

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Samuel J. Friedman Theatre, American, founded 1925  Search this
Subject of:
Donnie Burks, American, 1939 - 2008  Search this
Steve Curry  Search this
Ronnie Dyson, American, 1950 - 1990  Search this
Sally Eaton, American, born 1946  Search this
Diane Keaton, American, born 1946  Search this
Barry McGuire, American, born 1935  Search this
Richard Kim Milford, American, 1951 - 1988  Search this
Melba Moore, American, born 1945  Search this
Shelley Plimpton, American, born 1947  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 x 6 in. (22.9 x 15.2 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1967
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Rock and roll (Music)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.39
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5447e77b3-a651-4bc3-ac73-efc99ac2fe49
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.39
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Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 9/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Houston, Harris County, Texas, United States, North and Central America
San Francisco, California, United States, North and Central America
Oakland, Alameda County, California, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1984
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Dance  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
Hollywood (Film)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Olympics  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Sports  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.18
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a99826b2-563a-492a-9d22-e03c2c02f99c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.18
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Climbing Jacob's Ladder: the Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American cities, 1740 - 1877 Exhibition Records

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Smith, Edward D.  Search this
Extent:
27.63 Linear feet (63 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Catalogs
Exhibit scripts
Correspondence
Exhibition records
Brochures
Date:
1987 October - 1988 October
Summary:
An exhibition on the growth of African American churches in the eastern United States. The exhibit was organized by the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum and held there from October 1987 to October 1988. These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of the exhibition. Materials include correspondence, research files, exhibit scripts, administrative records, brochures, press coverage, education packets, loan agreements, floor plans, and catalogues.
Related Archival Materials note:
Audiovisual materials related to this exhibition located in Anacostia Community Museum Archives.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Museum exhibits  Search this
African American churches  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Catalogs
Exhibit scripts
Correspondence
Exhibition records -- 1967-1989
Brochures
Citation:
Climbing Jacob's Ladder: the rise of Black churches in Eastern American cities, 1740 - 1877 exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-036
See more items in:
Climbing Jacob's Ladder: the Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American cities, 1740 - 1877 Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa783ca79e6-867f-43d9-88e1-e9a20d8dfe81
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-03-036
Online Media:

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