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Philadelphia Typewriter Company Records

Author:
Philadelphia Typewriter Company  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Collector:
Mechanisms, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Mechanisms, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Names:
Moto-Cycle Manufacturing Company  Search this
Alder, Cyrus  Search this
Brooks, Byron A.  Search this
Edwards, John C.  Search this
Smith, Edward F.  Search this
Travis, William H.  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Correspondence
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1886-1902
Scope and Contents:
The records contain correspondence chiefly of John Elfreth Watkins, a key organizer and officer of the company. Watkins was also a curator of Transportation at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and later "accepted a salaried position…building up the technological collections pertaining to the transportation industry." The correspondence also concerns the organization and operation of the Philadelphia Typewriter Company.
Biographical / Historical:
The Philadelphia Typewriter Company was organized July 25, 1886, to manufacture typewriters designed by Byron A. Brooks. A year later, he sold his shares to the Philadelphia Typewriter Company (then under the management of John Elfreth Watkins, president, and John C. Edwards, both of Washington, D.C.; William H. Travis, secretary; and Edward F. Smith, treasurer, both of Philadelphia, Pa., and Cyrus Adler of Baltimore, Md.). They organized and operated the Philadelphia Typewriter Manufacturing Company, which was briefly called the "Moto-Cycle Manufacturing Company."

Sources

According to C.P. Keane and J. Emmerick, eds., "Marvyn Scudder Manual of Extinct or Obsolete Companies" (Vol. I, p. 968), the Philadelphia Typewriter Company went out of existence in 1900 when its stock lost its value.

Watkins was later a curator of Transportation at the Smithsonian Institution; he "accepted a salaried position...building up the technological collections pertaining to the transportation industry." (Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XIX, 1936, p. 539.)
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Typewriters -- 1880-1910  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1880-1910
Correspondence -- 1880-1910
Citation:
Philadelphia Typewriter Company Records, 1886-1902, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0123
See more items in:
Philadelphia Typewriter Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0123

William E. Woodard Patents

Author:
Woodard, William E., 1873-1942 (inventor)  Search this
Names:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1909 - 1949
Summary:
The collection consists of United States, Canadian, Mexican and other foreign patents issued to William E. Woodard from 1909 to 1949. The patents are for Woodard's developments in steam and electric locomotive design.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes United States, Canadian, Mexican, and other foreign patents issued to William E. Woodard for developments in steam and electric locomotive design.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into four series.

Series 1, United States Patents, 1909-1945

Series 2, Canadian Patents, 1909-1946

Series 3, Mexican Patents, 1922-1925

Series 4, Patents From Other Foreign Countries, 1926-1941
Biographical / Historical:
William E. Woodard (1873-1942) was directly responsible for many developments in steam locomotive design. As an inventor of locomotive equipment, he held patents on various mechanical features of steam locomotive and electric locomotive design. He worked for the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Cramp's Shipyard, the Dickson Locomotive Works, the Schenectady Locomotive Works, the American Locomotive Works (1900-1916), and, finally, the Lima Locomotive Works (1916-1942); during the same period he worked as a consultant to the Franklin Railway Supply Company. At the Lima Locomotive Works, he was vice president in charge of design until his death in 1942.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by George H. Woodard, on July 21, 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Patents  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Citation:
William E. Woodard Patents, 1909-1949, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0125
See more items in:
William E. Woodard Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0125

New York World's Fair Collection

Topic:
World of Tomorrow
Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940)  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Articles
Postcards
Brochures
Schedules
Place:
Queens (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
1939
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper articles, fair schedules and maps, exhibit brochures,and pictures of the Fair grounds.
Newspaper articles, fair schedules and maps, exhibit brochures,and pictures of the Fair grounds.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series by subject or type of document.
Biographical / Historical:
The theme of this fair was "The World of Tomorrow," symbolized by the Trylon & Perisphere sculptures. It commemorated the 150th anniversary of the innauguration of George Washington as President in New York City.

The Fair was held on 1216 acres in Flushing Meadows, Queens, N.Y., divided into 7 geographic and thematic zones: Amusement, Communications & Business Systems, Community Interests, Food, Government, Medicine & Public Health, Production & Distribution, Science & Education, and Transportation.

In expanding on the theme, the Fair tried to show that what was being built then would be the World of Tomorrow. 62 foreign nations built exhibit halls. World War II began Sept. 1, 1939, as the Nazis overran countries represented at the Fair, such as France, Denmark, and Belgium.

World War II started September 1, 1939 putting a damper on the 1940 season as the Nazis overran countries which were represented at the Fair such as France, Denmark & Belgium.
Provenance:
Immediate source of aquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Amusements  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Recreation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps -- 1880-1940
Articles
Postcards -- 1930-1940
Brochures -- 1930-1940
Schedules
Citation:
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0134
See more items in:
New York World's Fair Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0134
Online Media:

Brad J. Bogart Collection

Creator:
Bogart, Brad J.  Search this
Lark, Frank E.  Search this
Defendant:
Chavez, Andrew  Search this
Dalgish, Rex  Search this
Leobo, Manuel  Search this
Wilson, R.W.  Search this
Names:
Gilbert, W. C.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Place:
Arizona -- 1910-1930
Mississippi River -- 1910-1920
Ohio River -- 1910-1920
Tennessee River -- 1910-1920
Date:
1911-1927
Summary:
Yuma County, Arizona court proceedings relating to the remains of W.C. Gilbert and other court charges against Rex Dalgish, Manuel Leobo, R. W. Wilson, and Andrew Chavez. There is also a scrapbook of Frank E. Lark documenting a trip along the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection has two series with the content not being related.

Series 1, Court Proceedings, 1911-1927, consists of three pages (1911, 1912, 1927) of court record proceedings from the territory of Arizona, Justice's Court of Swansea, Yuma County. One page concerns an inquest over the remains of W. C. Gilbert, found dead on the Colorado River Indian Reservation, 15 miles from Parker, Arizona. The other court proceedings have detailed information about a felony charge against Rex Dalgish and misdemeanor charges against Manuel Leobo, R. W. Wilson, and Andrew Chavez. The court proceedings are hand written in ink.

Series 2, Frank E. Lark Scrapbook, 1914, consists of a 1913 Crane Company desk diary containing 61 photographs by Frank E. Lark documenting a trip on the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, June 1914. The snapshots include people traveling with Bogart, scenes of the rivers, workers along boats and docks, and several have captions with names and locations within cities. The scrapbook photographs varies in sizes that range from 2.5 by 4.5 inches to 3.5 by 5.5 inches.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into two series.

Series 1, Court Proceedings, 1911-1927

Series 2, Frank E. Lark scrapbook, 1914
Biographical / Historical:
Brad Bogart accquired the items in this collection with intentions to create a novel and erect a monument from the snapshots in the scrapbook. Brad Bogart a writer from Michigan was inspired by the scrapbook to write a novel and pursue the possibility of his work becoming a movie. He was also intrigued by the scenes of stevedores working along the docks in different cities along the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers. Bogart researched and planned to build a monument dedicated to these workers in St. Louis, but there is no further evidence of his plans.

Frank E. Lark created the scrapobook by placing 60 photgraphs inside of a 1913 Crane and Company desk diary with his name written on the front. Bogart reported that Frank E. Lark died in the 1960s and is buried in Sturgis, Michigan along with his wife Bertha Lark.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Brad J. Bogart on November 12, 1984. Bogart acquired the scrapbook at a flea market in Montague, Michigan and the owner purchased it in Sturgis, Michigan. The immediate source of the court proceedings is unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproducution, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Colorado River Indian Reservation (Ariz. and Calif.) -- 1910-1930  Search this
Coronors -- 1910-1930  Search this
Court records -- 1910-1930  Search this
Death -- Causes -- 1910-1930  Search this
Travel photography -- 1900-1950  Search this
Travel -- 1910-1920  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1910-1930
Scrapbooks -- 1900-1950
Diaries -- 20th century
Citation:
Title and date of title, Brad J. Bogart Collection, 1911-1927, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0128
See more items in:
Brad J. Bogart Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0128

W. C. Handy Collection

Creator:
Shurr, Robert L.  Search this
Handy, W. C. (William Christopher), 1873-1958  Search this
Names:
Pace, Harry (song writer)  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sheet music
Letters (correspondence)
Correspondence
Photographs
Personal papers
Date:
1928
1948 - 1948
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of a photograph, several letters written by Handy, and several pieces of music which he published.

Handy remains among the most influential of American Blues songwriters. Handy is credited with giving Blues, its contemporary form. While Handy was not the first to publish music in the blues form, he took the blues from a regional music style with a limited audience to one of the dominant national forces in American music.

Handy was an educated musician who used folk material in his compositions. He was scrupulous in documenting the sources of his works, which frequently combined stylistic influences from several performers.
Arrangement:
Divided into 4 series: (1) Correspondence, 1928; (2) Photographs, 1948; (3) Sheet music, 1948; and (4) Robert L. Shurr papers.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Christopher Handy, a composer and music publisher, was born in Florence, Alabama on November 16, 1873. He is known as the "father of the blues" because he was the first person to collect and write the songs down which had been played by workers, illiterates, and share croppers. These original blues songs had a three line verse, a definite musical pattern which usually expressed a lament of some kind, and often ended in "ironical self -ridicule, fatalistic resignation, or absurd incongruous laughter" He also had a minstrel show band.

Among the more than sixty songs he wrote were "Memphis Blues, St. Louis Blues, Beale Street Blues, Mississippi Blues, and Joe Turner Blues." Handy wrote other secular songs, made arrangements of spirituals, and did orchestral work as a composer and conductor.

To get his music published. Handy, with Harry Pace, a songwriter, founded a music publishing house in Memphis in 1907 which was moved to New York in 1918. Among the songs his company published was "A Good Man is Hard to Find" which Sophie Tucker, a white singer, sang on Broadway and helped to make it a hit.

Handy died on March 29, 1958 in New York City. Later that year a movie based on his life was issued. It was titled "St. Louis Blues" and Nat "King" Cole played the role of Handy.
Related Archival Materials:
Received with George Washington Carver Collection, same donor.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Robert L. Shurr.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Popular music -- Publishing and writing  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Blues (Music)  Search this
African American music -- 20th century  Search this
African American composers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music
Letters (correspondence) -- 1900-1950
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Personal papers
Citation:
W. C. Handy Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0132
See more items in:
W. C. Handy Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0132

Charles Sumner Tainter Papers

Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Mechanisms, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Tainter, Charles Sumner, 1854-1940  Search this
Hartsook Studio (San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Names:
American Graphaphone Company  Search this
Clark, Alvin and Sons Company  Search this
Edison Phonograph Works  Search this
International Graphophone Company  Search this
Volta Graphophone Gompany  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Bell, Chichester  Search this
Berliner, Emile, 1851-1929  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Mechanisms, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Laboratory notebooks
Date:
1878-1937
Summary:
Charles Sumner Tainter has been recognized as the father of the talking machine, and much of the material in this collection represents his experimental work on the graphophone. Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, and Tainter established the Volta Laboratory Association in 1881. This collection presents a comprehensive picture of the early development of the phonograph and Tainter's substantial contributions to the project.
Scope and Contents:
Charles Sumner Tainter has been recognized as the father of the talking machine, and much of the material in this collection represents his experimental work on the graphophone.

Alexander Graham Bell, in partnership with his cousin Chichester Bell, and Tainter, established the Volta Laboratory Association in 1881, which stayed in operation until 1885. During this time Tainter recorded his experiments on the graphophone in thirteen note books or "Home Notes" and in two large volumes of technical drawings and notes. One of these volumes contains very exact drawings for a multiple record duplicator (1897-1908); the other contains rough sketches of his experiments with various apparatuses (1883-1884).

Tainter also wrote an unpublished, undated manuscript on The Talking Machine and Some Little Known Facts in Connection with Its Early Development. Another document consists of a binder with the printed patent specifications of Tainter, Alexander Graham Bell, and Chichester Bell (1880-1903). All of these documents are contained within this collection, except Volumes 9, 10, and 13 of Tainter's "Home Notes" which were destroyed in a fire in Tainter's Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in September 1897. The other ten volumes were needed in a law suit and were in possession of his attorney at the time of the fire. Records of Court testimony in suits involving the phonograph (1894-1896) are also included in this collection.

Tainter's memoirs, Early History of Charles Sumner Tainter provide a personal account of his childhood and youth, and of his later role as a member of the U. S. Government Expedition to observe the transit of Venus in 1874. Certificates, photographs, clippings, some correspondence, handwritten notes, and articles on the history of the phonograph complete the collection of his papers.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series:

Series 1, Papers, 1878-1937

Series 2, Laboratory Notes, 1881-1908

Series 3, Artifacts, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Sumner Tainter, son of George and Abigail Sanger Tainter, was born on April 25, 1854, in Watertown, Massachusetts, near Boston. His father was an inventor with several patents to his name. In his memoirs Tainter describes his father as "a man of much force of character and inventive ability" and his mother as, "a woman of high character and beloved by all." His school years left him with a terror of public speaking that followed him all his life. He completed public school without much enthusiasm and then became essentially self-educated, studying only subjects that interested him. He obtained scientific and technical books from the public library, and was an avid reader of Scientific American. In his memoirs he recalls: "I believe that this journal had a great influence in molding my thoughts in mechanical and scientific directions as I grew up with it and used to read it regularly."

In 1870 Tainter started to work for Charles Williams, Jr., a manufacturer of telegraphs and electrical apparatus in Boston, for five dollars a week. Two years later he became associated with Johnson and Whittlemore, manufacturers of electrical instruments in Boston. He stayed with them until the business folded in 1873, and then joined Alvan Clark and Sons, a well-known manufacturing company of large telescopes and optical instruments in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts. As a technician at the Alvan Clark and Sons Company, Tainter assisted with the building of the Equatorial Telescope mounted in the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. He also constructed much of the equipment that was used during the U.S. government expedition to observe the transit of Venus in the South Pacific on December 8, 1874. The Secretary of the Navy appointed Tainter a member of this expedition, and Tainter vividly reveals his role in the event in his memoirs: "Early History of Charles Sumner Tainter." See Series 1, Box 1. [Note: Henry Draper, (1837 1882), a scientist whose collection of papers are also stored in the Archives Center, Series 3, Box 6, was superintendent of the government commission for the observation of the transit of Venus.] After he returned from the expedition in 1875, Tainter rejoined Alvan Clark and Sons Company and stayed there for three years.

Tainter started his own business in 1878 in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, constructing scientific instruments. It was in Cambridgeport, that he met Alexander Graham Bell. A year later Tainter accepted Bell's proposal to join him in Washington, D.C. to establish a small laboratory. After a series of experiments they developed the radiophone, an instrument for transmitting sound to distant points through the agency of light, using sensitive selenium cells. The radiophone was shown at an electrical exhibition in Paris in 1881, where Tainter was awarded a gold medal and diploma for his part in the invention. Between 1879 and 1880, Tainter and Bell also experimented with and tried to improve on Edison's talking machine.

The Academie des Sciences of Paris awarded Bell the Volta prize in 1880 for his development of the telephone. The prize included $10,000 that Bell used a year later to establish the Volta Laboratory Association, a small research laboratory in Washington, D.C. He asked his cousin, Chichester A. Bell, a chemist from London, and Tainter to join him in this venture. Although they devoted much of their attention to electrical and acoustical research, most of their efforts went into the improvement of Edison's talking machine. Edison had used tinfoil as the recording medium for his first phonograph in 1877, but then abandoned the project and turned his attention to the electric light and power distribution system. Meanwhile, Chichester Bell and Tainter saw the fragile tinfoil as a major obstacle in any further development of the instrument, and after much experimenting came upon the idea of replacing the tinfoil with a wax compound onto which they could engrave the sound waves directly. This invention was patented in May 1886 under the name Graphophone. It was an important step in the development of the phonograph since for the first time it was possible to manufacture the device commercially. Tainter recorded his experiments on the graphophone in thirteen notebooks ("Home Notes") and two large volumes of technical drawings and sketches. See: Series 2, Boxes 1, 2, and 3.

Bell and Tainter recognized Edison as the inventor of the talking machine, and they wanted to work with him and carry the costs for all further experiments in exchange for half the share of the profits, but Edison rejected this proposal. He felt that they wanted to steal his invention. In 1885 the partnership between Bell, his cousin, and Tainter was dissolved, and the graphophone rights were given to a group of Washington court stenographers who felt that the graphophone could best be utilized as a dictaphone. The group subsequently formed the Volta graphophone Company where Tainter continued to work for several years. The Volta Graphophone Company was reorganized two years after its formation as the American Graphophone Company. Eventually Edison sued the Volta Graphophone Company (1894), and the American Graphophone Company (1895-96).

In June 1886 Tainter married Lila R. Munro, daughter of William J. Munro of Newport, Rhode Island. Two years later he suffered a severe case of pneumonia, which was to incapacitate him intermittently for the rest of his life.

The Volta Graphophone Company sold the foreign rights for the graphophone in the spring of 1889 to form the International Graphophone Company. Tainter became associated with this new company and went to Europe to look after its interests there. In the same year the graphophone was exhibited at the Paris Exposition and Tainter was awarded the Decoration of "Officier de L Instruction Publique" from the French government for his invention of the graphophone. Upon his return from Europe Tainter established a factory for the International Graphophone Company in Hartford, Connecticut in 1889. When he left the company in 1890, he launched his own laboratory in Washington, D.C., where he continued to improve on the phonograph and a number of new inventions were patented.

At the Chicago Exposition in 1893 Tainter was asked to manage the exhibition of more than a hundred machines for the American Graphophone Company. In 1897 a fire destroyed Tainter's Washington laboratory and much valuable material was lost, including three volumes of his "Home Notes", which contained some of the findings of his experiments on the graphophone. Three years later the city of Philadelphia awarded the John Scott medal to Chichester Bell and Tainter for their work in connection with the graphophone.

Tainter's chronic illness forced him to suspend his work frequently and seek treatment and relief in various sanatoria and spas both in Europe and in the United States. He and his wife eventually moved to California. They settled in San Diego in June of 1903 to enjoy the better climate there. Again Tainter established a laboratory and continued to work whenever his health allowed. In 1915 he was awarded a gold medal and diploma for his work with the graphophone at the San Francisco Exposition. Tainter's wife died in 1924. Four years later he married Laura Fontaine Onderdonk, widow of Charles G. Onderdonk.

At the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Pittsburgh in December 1934, Tainter was made an Emeritus Life Member, having been a fellow for 55 years. His obituary also mentions that in 1915 Tainter was awarded a gold medal at the Panama Pacific Exposition for his work on the graphophone.

Tainter died on April 20, 1940. He was considered an inventor, a physicist, and a manufacturer of electrical apparatus, but most of all he was known as the father of the talking machine.
Separated Materials:
Materials Located at the National Museum of American History

Medal award given to Charles Sumner Tainter, Exposition Internationale d'Electricite, Paris, 1881. See Accession #: ME*313452.02

Gold medal award given to Charles Sumner Tainter. Panama - Pacific Exposition, 1915. See Accession #: ME*313452.01
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Laura F. Tainter, Charles Sumner Tainter's widow, in 1947 and 1950.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Physicists  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Light machinery  Search this
Mechanical engineering  Search this
Dictating machine  Search this
Sound recording and reproduction  Search this
Talking machine  Search this
Phonograph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Laboratory notebooks
Citation:
Charles Sumner Tainter Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0124
See more items in:
Charles Sumner Tainter Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0124
Online Media:

Andre Piette Collection

Collector:
Ceramics and Glass, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Ceramics and Glass, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Donor:
Magdoff, Sam  Search this
Magdoff, Sam  Search this
Creator:
Piette, Andre, 1934-1984 (ceramic designer, artist)  Search this
Names:
Johnson, Lady Bird, 1912-  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (8 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Design drawings
Christmas cards
Designs
Clippings
Tracings
Wrapping materials
Date:
1954-1979
Summary:
Collection documents Andre Piette's career as an illustrator and designer. The materials include sketches, drawings, tracings, photographs (color transparencies, slides, and prints), and samples of wallpaper, designs for gift wrap, and a few textiles.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of a wide range of materials documenting Andre Piette's career as an illustrator and designer. The materials include sketches, drawings, tracings, photographs (color transparencies, slides, and prints), and samples of wallpaper, designs for gift wrap, and a few textiles. The materials are the product of the Piette's early years in the United States (1960s) as a landscape artist in New England and as an associate of Norman Rockwell and of his later work for Tiffany & Company as a freelance designer. As an employee of Tiffany, Piette designed the White House china set for Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson. Materials documenting this effort—White House China—are the largest series in the collection. Other design work includes cards, silver, parquet flooring, and china. There also are drawings and tracings not associated with specific functional products.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: White House China, 1967-1970, undated

Series 2: Other Designs, undated

Series 3: Andre Piette Scrapbook, undated

Series 4: Oversize, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Piette, artist and designer, spent his early years studying at the Academie Royale De Beaux-Arts in Liege, Belgium. He is noted for his designs of Christmas cards, wrapping paper, and wallpaper. In 1968 he was commissioned by Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson to design a set of White House state china, consisting of 2,500 pieces.
Provenance:
Donated by Sam Magdoff, Dean of Continuing Education, Parsons School of Design, July 29, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ceramics  Search this
Porcelain -- 20th century  Search this
Ceramics -- Design  Search this
Design -- United States  Search this
Wallpaper -- Design  Search this
Designers  Search this
White House china  Search this
Christmas card design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1940-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Drawings -- 1950-1990
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Christmas cards
Designs
Clippings -- 1950-2000
Tracings
Wrapping materials -- Design
Citation:
Andre Piette Collection, 1954-1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0129
See more items in:
Andre Piette Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0129
Online Media:

Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for the Motion Picture "George Washington Carver"

Creator:
Parker, Ben (scriptwriter)  Search this
Shurr, Robert L. (scriptwriter)  Search this
Names:
RKO Pictures.  Search this
Tuskegee Institute  Search this
Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film stills
Clippings
Press releases
Screenplays
Scrapbooks
Date:
1939-1940, 1968
Summary:
The film, George Washington Carver, starring Carver himself, was filmed in 1939 and released in 1940. Ben Parker was the director and Robert L. Shurr wrote the screenplay.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a copy of the original script for the motion picture George Washington Carver and a scrapbook detailing the motion picture's press. The bulk of the material dates to the production and release of the film, 1939-1940. There is additional correspondence from Shurr concerning the film dated 1968. The scrapbook contains photographs from the film. There are reference copies for the script and scrapbook.
Biographical / Historical:
The film, George Washington Carver, was an independent production of Bryant Productions, directed by Ben Parker and written by Robert L. Shurr. An article on Dr. George Washington Carver in Life magazine reportedly inspired the original idea for Parker. After a personal visit by Parker, Carver consented not only to approve the film but to appear in it. Parker engaged Robert L. Shurr to write the screenplay, originally titled Devil Cotton or the Story of Dr. Carver. The screenplay combined both a documentary and fictional narrative style. The screenplay detailed Carver's early life including a fictitious romantic relationship. The cast included: Ralph Edwards, Raye Gilbert, John J. Marvin, and Milton Sprague.

Raising funds for the project and making the film were both difficult. Parker eventually raised $2,000 from Allen McDowell who is listed as one of the film's producers. The film, which reportedly cost $14,000, was shot in Alabama with a small crew and very basic equipment. The film crew and those helping with the filming experienced violence from the white community which reportedly stoned McDowell and two of the film's local white participants. The film was released independently and played in a few RKO owned theatres but apparently never recouped its cost. In 1940, $10,000 was taken in at the film's premiere at Tuskegee Institute. Most likely, this was the film's largest audience.

We have no further information about the production or producer, our initial research has been unable to locate any further details concerning this film. A print of the film in its entirety is not known to exist, but portions of it are seen in a thirty minute video from Schlesinger Video Productions entitled Black Americans of Achievement: George Washington Carver.

Carver, a world famous agrichemist, was born near Diamond Grove, Missouri, circa 1864 to a woman named Mary. In 1896, he went to Tuskegee Institute as the head of the Agricultural Department and stayed there until his death on January 5, 1943.

Carver found many uses for the peanut, sweet potato, pecan, soybean, and cotton stalk. His important contributions to the Southern economy were: to diversify, utilize the land more efficiently, and in an ecologically friendly way, build up the soil, cope with plant diseases, and utilize research results in farm activities.

Among the many honors he received were: fellow, British Royal Society of Arts, 1916; Spingarn Medal from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1923; and the Theodore Roosevelt Medal, 1939. He was widely admired and Henry Ford included a replica of his birthplace at Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan.

In his personal life Carver was never married and current scholarship indicates that he may have been homosexual. The historian, Horace L. Griffin, in his 2006 book Their Own Receive Them Not: African American Lesbians & Gays in Black Churches, details the clandestine homosexual life of Carver and others. Pertaining to Carver's habit of giving peanut oil massages to his male friends, Linda O. McMurry in her 1982 biography of Carver, George Washington Carver, Scientist and Symbol, relates, "Most of his male friends received at least one massage from the professor," but evidence that it ever went beyond massage is not detailed. Beginning in 1935, Carver's constant companion was Austin W. Curtis, Jr. a graduate of Cornell who taught at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College before coming to Tuskegee and joining Carver as his assistant.

Rackham Holt, Carver's biographer, describes the relationship between the two men in his 1943 biography, George Washington Carver: an American Biography, "At last someone had been welcomed not merely into Dr. Carver's laboratory, but also into his heart. He believed that there was something providential in the coming of this young man, so intensely serious about his work and extremely competent at it, who was at the same time a genial companion; he was proud of him and loved and depended on him as his own son . . . . And the affection was returned in full measure. Mr. Curtis accompanied him everywhere, seeing to his comfort, shielding him from intrusion, and acting as his official mouthpiece." Carver had a standing invitation to visit Henry Ford at his plantation in Ways, Georgia, where guest rooms were kept prepared for both Carver and Curtis. Carver died in Tuskegee, Alabama on January 5, 1943 and was buried in the churchyard of the college chapel. The National Park Service owns and maintains 210 acres of the farm where Carver was born as the George Washington Carver National Monument.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Robert L. Shurr in October 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motion pictures -- 1930-1940  Search this
Cotton stalks  Search this
Plant diseases  Search this
Pecan  Search this
Peanuts  Search this
Sweet potatoes  Search this
Agricultural chemists  Search this
Agriculture -- Research  Search this
African American scientists  Search this
Agricultural chemistry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Film stills
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Press releases -- 1930-1940
Screenplays -- 1930-1940
Scrapbooks -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for the Motion Picture "George Washington Carver", 1939-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0133
See more items in:
Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for the Motion Picture "George Washington Carver"
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0133

George W. Sims Papers

Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
National Anthropological Archives  Search this
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
National Anthropological Archives  Search this
Author:
Sims, George W.  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Manuscripts
Audiotapes
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Carmel (Calif.)
Panama Canal (Panama)
California
Date:
1896-1981.
Summary:
Collection documents Sims's activities as a traveler and his interest in historic restoration. It includes forty-one notebooks, 6,000 color slides, a smaller number of photographic prints, forty-one stereo view cards, and three boxes of personal papers and ephemera. While some images are personal, the majority form a documentary record of various subjects and places and provide biographical information on Sims.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document Sims's activities as a traveler and his interest in historic restoration. They consist of forty-one notebooks, Series 1-4; and three boxes, Series 5-9, of personal papers and ephemera. Series 5-7 are particularly valuable for biographical information. Series 10 includes 6,000 color slides, a smaller number of photographic prints, and forty-one stereo view cards. The total volume of the collection is approximately eleven linear feet.

The notebooks cover the years 1896, 1908-1913, 1918, and 1934-1976. The notebooks are written in a documentary styles that is enhanced by literary touches and perceptive details. The subjects include visits to several national parks, the Boronda adobe, and travel on most continents.

The 6,000 35mm slides that Sims took between 1944 and 1976 portray the use of the automobile in travel, national and international touring, and family travel. They are organized by either trip or location. They document his collecting, research, and restoration interests, and complement his written and artistic work. In technique, Sims's photographs are at least a cut above amateur photography. The slides remain in the order in which the Archives Center received them. In some cases they are organized, captioned, and numbered as a slide program. In other cases, while they are captioned they are not part of a specific slide program that Sims organized. Usually the identification in the Detailed Container List represents Sims' s own captions, which have been copied from the slide sleeves.

While some images are personal, the majority form a documentary record of various subjects and places. All the slides are dated and labeled or captioned, either on box inserts or on the slides themselves. The slides are generally organized by trip. Of particular interest is the documentation of Sims's restoration of the Boronda adobe. These slides are well captioned and show the step by step process.

The slides include many early Kodachromes from the 1940s in excellent condition. These represent the few examples of this type in the Museum. Although these slides are not extraordinarily rare, they are a very early example of the color process.

There are also black and white prints and a few color prints. Some of these document an automobile trip along the California coast in the 1930s. All the black-and-white prints portray the photographer for Sims's concern to document his travels adequately and in a meaningful way.

The three document boxes of supplemental material includes articles, correspondence (for example, a letter to Sims from the Henry Ford Museum thanking him for donating an oral history of a motoring trip he had taken), business cards, certificates of achievement, hotel ephemera, news clippings (Series 12), published travel accounts, printed travel brochures, and audio tapes (Series 11), in which Sims recounts many of his trips over the years. This material is valuable because it provides biographical information on Sims. It also may be useful for exhibits and research. Much of the material—the hotel ephemera and the printed travel brochures and accounts—is similar to ephemera in the Warshaw Collection.

Sims's photographs are similar in content to two other collections in the Archives Center. The Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photographic Album portrays family automobile trips across the United States between 1935 and 1940. The Donald Sultner Welles Collection of travel slides documents locations throughout the United States and around the world.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 12 series.

Series 1:Notebooks, 1896-1975

Series 2: Political Notes, 1964-1976

Series 3: Comments on Vietnam, 1954-1975

Series 4: Moon Landings, 1969-1976

Series 5: Scrapbooks, 1896-1981, undated

Series 6: Correspondence, 1920-1987

Series 7: Biography, 1911-1938

Series 8: Published Material, 1927-1966

Series 9: Artifacts, 1913-1937

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1936-1962

Series 11: Audio Materials

Series 12: Newsclippings, undated
Historical:
Boronda Adobe

In 1946 George W. Sims purchased the old Boronda adobe in the Carmel Valley of California, and over the next ten years he restored it.

The Boronda adobe was built above the Carmel River in 1832 by José Manuel Boronda on his 7,000 acre Rancho de Los Laureles land grant. José was the son of Don Manuel Boronda, the first schoolteacher in California. José was married to Juana Cota of Santa Barbara. The sixty-four foot long house has adobe walls twenty-seven inches thick and hand-hewn redwood beams. Senor and Senora Boronda lived there with their fifteen children. It was in this house that Senora Boronda reputedly made a new cheese much liked by her neighbors and today known as Monterey Jack cheese. She eventually produced enough to sell to the surrounding community.

The Boronda family sold the ranch and adobe to Nathan W. Spaulding in the late 1860s or early 1870s. He was a mayor of Oakland, California. The next owner was the Pacific Improvement Company in the early 1880s, the forerunner of Del Monte Properties Company. A small cheese factory was built to commercialize the product under the name "Monterey Jack." Nevertheless, the adobe eventually became abandoned as a house. Before Sims purchased it the adobe was used as a shelter for dairy cows.

Sims plastered the outside walls to protect the soft adobe bricks and whitewashed the interior walls. The original dirt floor was covered with a floor of two-inch clear, heart redwood, random planks. It slopes downhill as does the roof of the house. The entire house follows the topography of the site. Sims left several cables stretching across the crudely raftered ceiling to support the walls.

Sims reroofed the house with one hundred year old roof tiles from the old Vasquez adobe in Monterey, California. He also constructed a workshop on the cement foundation of the old cheese factory and milk barn, added a carport, and built a fence protected patio of the Mexican type, adjacent to a Spanish garden with gravel paths. The patio walls were made of adobe created from Carmel Valley soil.

The first floor of the adobe consists of a long living room, a kitchen, a bedroom, and a bath. An inside staircase was added and leads to the second floor living room, two bedrooms, and a bath. All of the rooms on the main floor are on a different level. The kitchen at one end of the house is thought to date to the 1790s when the land belonged to the Carmel Mission.
Biographical / Historical:
George W. Sims (1896-1986) was a tax lawyer, certified public accountant, world traveler, and collector of pre-Columbian objects. He spent his childhood in Fairfax County, Virginia. At age seventeen he began the study of law at the Washington College of Law (now American University), and worked at night as a telephone company traffic manager. He was employed as a clerk in the Panama Canal Zone by the Panama Railroad Company, Commissary Branch, from 1915-1916. Sims left Washington, DC, because he needed money for school and received a better salary in Latin America. "The pay was 25% higher there [Panama] than in the U.S.A., because the risks of Yellow Fever were great, and work and living conditions less satisfactory than at home." (Box 8, folder 6) This was the first of his many trips to other countries. He then returned to Washington and graduated from law school.

Between 1918-1919 he served as sergeant first class in the aviation section of the Signal Corps. He was stationed for a time at the Vichy (France) Hospital Center, a part of the United States Base Army Hospital, No. 115. After the war Sims did graduate work in accounting at Benjamin Franklin University in the District of Columbia, studying at night. During the day he worked in the Navy Department's communications section.

In 1919 Sims and a few friends traveled west on one of the early automobile trips across the United States. In July he visited Fresno, California. He returned that same year to Washington, DC, and "made plans for making the West (and Fresno) his permanent home." In January, 1924, Sims returned with his wife to fulfill those plans and thus began his long time love affair with the West and California." (Scrapbooks: Vol. 38, Box 8, folder 2)

After his first wife Katherine died in 1946, Sims spent much time on world cruises. His destinations included North, South, and Central America, Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Between 1946 and 1956 he also purchased and restored the 1832 Boronda adobe in Carmel, California.

Sims married Emma Marenchin Sims on her birthday November 2, 1971 in Santa Barbara, California. Prior to her marriage Mrs. Sims (1914-? ) worked in the public health field after graduating from Western Reserve University in Cleveland. She remarked, "My world opened up when I married George." Sims died in 1986.
Provenance:
Collection donated by George W. Sims, January 10, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Travel photography  Search this
Adobe houses  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Vichy France  Search this
Audio tapes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Manuscripts
Audiotapes
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Phototransparencies -- 20th century
Citation:
George W. Sims Papers, 1896-1981, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0127
See more items in:
George W. Sims Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0127
Online Media:

Winton-Anderson Scrapbook Collection

Topic:
Gordon Bennett Race
Bullet No. 2 (automobile)
Collector:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Kitteredge, Blanche Anderson  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Donor:
Nyland, Gretchen  Search this
Nyland, Gretchen  Search this
Names:
Gordon Bennett Company  Search this
Winton Motor Carriage Company  Search this
Anderson, Harold B.  Search this
Kitteredge, Lewis Harris  Search this
Winton, Alexander  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Ireland -- 1900-1910
Cleveland (Ohio) -- 1890-1930
Date:
1890s-1920s
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a photograph album and two scrapbooks compiled by Blanch Anderson Kitteredge, wife of Harold B. Anderson, and Lewis Harris Kitteredge. The photographs depict Alexander Winton; employees of the Winton Co. and their families; the Winton touring car; the Winton Bullet No. 2 (including being shipped in 1903 to Ireland for fourth Gordon Bennett Race, views of the car in Ireland, and during the race); other racing cars; family travels; steam yachts; homes; friends and relatives; and leisure activities. The scrapbooks contain programs, ribbons, news clippings, and other ephemera related to leisure activities and life of the Winton and Anderson families in Cleveland from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Winton was a builder and driver of early racing cars. His third racing car, called the "Bullet No. 2", was one of the first automobiles to use an 8-cylinder, in-line engine. Winton and Harold B. Anderson, chief engineer of Winton Motor Carriage Company, built this automobile for the fourth Gordon Bennett road race, held in Ireland in 1903. The car was forced out of the race due to mechanical problems. A good account of the automobile, which is in the Smithsonian's transportation collections, can be seen in Donald H. Berkebile and Smith Hempstone Oliver's book, The Smithsonian Collection of Automobiles and Motorcycles, City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Gretchen Nyland, 1984, October 12, 1984 November 6.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. The leather photograph album is in poor and fragile condition. The leather is deteriorated and some of the black paper pages are loose.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobile engineers -- 1890-1930  Search this
Automobile racing drivers -- 1890-1930  Search this
Automobiles, Racing -- 1900-1910  Search this
Leisure -- 1890-1930  Search this
Yachts and yachting -- 1890-1930  Search this
Travel -- 1890-1930  Search this
Family -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Scrapbooks -- 1890-1930
Citation:
Winton-Anderson Scrapbook Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0122
See more items in:
Winton-Anderson Scrapbook Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0122

Famous Amos Collection

Donor:
Amos, Christine  Search this
Amos, Wally  Search this
Creator:
Famous Amos Cookie Company  Search this
Names:
Famous Amos Chocolate Chip Cookie Company.  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Place:
Hawaii
Date:
1975-1996
Summary:
The Famous Amos Collection consists primarily of business records, photographs, and newspaper clippings documenting the career and life of Wally Famous Amos and the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie company he created.
Scope and Contents:
The Famous Amos Collection consists primarily of business records, photographs, and newspaper clippings documenting the career of Wally Famous Amos and the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie. The bulk of the collection consists of newspaper clippings.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1970-1994 and undated, documents the professional life of Wally Amos. This series includes background information about the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie, awards, newspaper clippings describing Amos receiving his high school diploma, and drafts and published versions of Amos's writings the The Famous Amos Story and The Power in You.

Series 2, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1975-1994 and undated consists of materials relating to the marketing and advertising of Famous Amos cookies. This series contains his marketing plan, promotional materials, press releases, posters, advertising mock-ups, and packaging samples.

Series 3, Photographs, 1975-1980 and undated, includes a variety of photographic prints, most of which are 5" x 7" or smaller. The series contains professional and publicity photographs of Wally Amos and Famous Amos products as well as personal photographs of Amos' family and friends. Film negatives and color slides of people are also included in this series.

Series 4, Press Materials, 1975-1996 and undated, is comprised of three subseries: Subseries 1, Clippings, 1975-1995 and undated; Subseries 2, Articles, 1976-1996; and Subseries 3, Scrapbooks and Wall Art, 1977-1981 and undated. The publicity materials in this series are primarily about Wally Amos, Famous Amos cookies, and his literacy efforts. The scrapbooks were assembled by Amos and contain additional clippings. Included in this subseries is a mounted 32" x 15" hand embroidered and appliquéd corduroy fabric panel that reads "Have a very brown day!"

Series 5, Correspondence, 1975-1985, includes postcards, business and personal letters, and drawings from young fans of Famous Amos cookies. This series also contains three guest registers in which visitors to the Famous Amos stores wrote comments.

Series 6, Literacy Activities, 1978-1984, includes promotional materials, articles, clippings, and a scrapbook related to Amos' literacy campaign.

Series 7, Community Service, 1978-1981, includes a scrapbook and correspondence from members of the Chocolate Chip Cookie Club and the Aliis Pintos Little League team of California.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1970-1994 and undated

Series 2, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1975-1994 and undated

Series 3, Photographs, 1975-1980 and undated

Series 4, Press Materials, 1975-1996 and undated

Subseries 1, Clippings, 1975-1995 and undated

Subseries 2, Articles, 1975-1996

Subseries 3, Scrapbooks and Wall Art, 1977-1981 and undated

Series 5, Correspondence, 1975-1985

Series 6, Literacy Activities, 1978-1984

Series 7, Community Service, 1978-1981
Biographical / Historical:
Wallace "Wally" Amos, Jr. (born July 1, 1936) is the founder of the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie brand. Amos grew up in Tallahassee, Florida before moving to New York City at age twelve. He initially attended the Food Trades Vocational High School, but dropped out to serve in the United States Air Force from 1953-1957. After serving in the military and being honorably discharged, he moved back to New York and began working at the William Morris Agency, where he became the company's first African American talent agent.

In March of 1975, upon the suggestion of a friend, he opened up his first cookie shop in Los Angeles, California. The Famous Amos company was financed with the help of philanthropist celebrities, including Marvin Gaye and Helen Reddy. The cookies became nationally renowned and were sold throughout the United States. As Famous Amos cookies grew in popularity, so did Amos' significance as a celebrity figure. He appeared at book signings alongside entertainers and authors such as Bill Cosby, and he appeared as himself in a 1981 cameo on the television series Taxi.

In 1979, Amos began focusing his attention on advocating for child and adult literacy. He worked with the Literacy Volunteers of America and libraries, and he hosted a television series, Learn to Read, that encouraged literacy and taught children to read. Amos wrote a number of self-help and autobiographical books, includingThe Power in You, 1988 andThe Famous Amos Story, 1983. During this time he also worked as a motivational speaker.

Facing financial difficulties, Amos sold both the Famous Amos Company and the trademarked "Famous Amos" name in 1985. In 1994, Amos started a new muffin business, initially called Uncle Noname Gourmet Muffins, which has since been renamed Uncle Wally's Muffin Company. Wally Amos currently lives in Hawaii.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts (Panama hat, an Indian gauze shirt, a tin cookie container, and two paper cookie bags) related to this collection. See accession #:1980.0886.

Materials in Other Organizations

Chicago Public Library, Woodson Regional Library, Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature. Wally Papers Amos Papers, 1978-1996 (Accession #1979/01). The collection consists of correspondence, draft copies of manuscripts, memorabilia, awards and books.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Wally and Christine Amos in November, 1980.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cookies  Search this
Hats  Search this
advertising -- Food -- 1970-1990  Search this
African American entrepreneurs  Search this
Shirts, Men's  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Famous Amos Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0112
See more items in:
Famous Amos Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0112
Online Media:

Mexican Border Veterans, Inc., and Auxiliary Scrapbooks

Topic:
Bugler, The (newsletter)
Creator:
Hubbard, Howard  Search this
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Closson, Clairice A.G.  Search this
Villa, Pancho  Search this
Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924  Search this
Extent:
1.3 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Annual reports
Photographs
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Minutes
Correspondence
Date:
1916 - 1982
Summary:
The collection consists of five scrapbooks of materials relating to the Mexican Border Veterans, Inc. and Auxiliary's activities.
Scope and Contents:
The scrapbooks contain Mexican Border Veterans annual reports; convention minutes; samples of the Mexican Border Veterans newsletter, The Bugler; photographs of various officers and members of the association and their spouses; brochures of the association's conventions; brief historical sketches of the association; some biographical sketches of the founders of the association; newspaper clippings from unidentified newspapers; limited correspondence among national, state or regional Mexican Border Veterans officials and other miscellaneous correspondence.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc. (MBV) was a civilian association founded by Clairice A. G. Closson of Independence, Missouri in 1929. Closson was one of the participants in the Mexican border initiative of mid 1916. The association consisted of men who patrolled the Mexican-American border between May 9, 1916 and April 1917. Their presence on the border came about as a response to President Woodrow Wilson's call on the National Guard and the Army in mid 1916 to guard the border which had been repeatedly invaded by Francisco (Pancho) Villa, a Mexican revolutionary leader who carried out his incursions against residents of southern Texas. The MBV was formed by ex-Mexican-American border veterans to seek recognition and veteran benefits to which they were entitled as U.S. government ex-servicemen of a foreign war.
Related Materials:
Materials in the National Museum of American History

The Division of Home and Community Life holds related materials. See accessions 1984.0781 and 1985.0781.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Museum in 1986, through Howard Hubbard and Fabian E. Johnson.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mexican-American Border Region  Search this
Mexico -- Boundaries -- United States -- 1910-1920  Search this
Veterans -- 1910-1920 -- United States  Search this
Military pensions  Search this
United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
United States. Army -- History -- Punitive Expedition into Mexico, 1916  Search this
Genre/Form:
Annual reports
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Minutes
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc. and Auxiliary Scrapbooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0119
See more items in:
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc., and Auxiliary Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0119

Crawford W. Long Collection

Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Names:
Edward VII, King  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1897
Summary:
The collection documents Crawford W. Long's use of sulphuric ether on a patient. The materials include glass plate negatives, correspondence, printed documents, and photprints.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes five publications: a biographical sketch; personal recollections of a contemporary pharmacist, together with correspondence and documentation of Long's priority in the use of ether; a paper read before the Johns Hopkins Historical Society; the proceedings in Statuary Hall when Crawford Long's statue was unveiled; and a memorial to Dr. Long published by the University of Pennsylvania.

Also included are an original letter (dated December 3, 1911) from Dudley W. Buxton to Mrs. Taylor, Dr. Long's daughter, regarding a paper he had read before the Royal Academy of Medicine, and glass plate photonegatives and one film negative, with corresponding photographic prints, of a number of letters attesting to Dr. Long's use of sulphuric ether as an anaesthetic on approximate or specific dates.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Crawford Williamson Long was born November 1, 1815, in Danielsville, Georgia, the son of James and Elizabeth Ware. He was a studious boy who entered Franklin College (now the University of Georgia) at fourteen and graduated in 1835, second in his class. After teaching one year he began to read medicine, first under a preceptor, later at Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky, and finally at the University of Pennsylvania, where he received a degree in 1839.

Following eighteen months in New York, where he gained a reputation as a skillful surgeon, he began to practice in Jefferson, a village in Jackson County, Georgia. In August 1842, Dr. Long married Caroline Swain, the niece of Governor David Lowry Swain of North Carolina.

During the early 1840's laughing gas was the subject of much discussion and a number of demonstrations of its effects on volunteers. In January, 1842 several of Long's friends induced him to let them have a nitrous oxide frolic. No nitrous oxide was available but Long offered sulphuric ether as a substitute, explaining to his friends that it was equally exhilirating and as safe as nitrous oxide. After observing that the young men who had inhaled the sulphuric ether did not experience pain, Dr. Long decided to test its ability to produce insensitivity in his practice.

On March 30, 1842, Dr. Long administered sulphuric ether to James Venable and removed a small tumor from his neck. This was the first recorded surgical procedure using inhalation anaesthesia. On June 6 he removed another tumor from Venable's neck and on July 3 amputated a boy's toe. By September Long had performed eight operations using ether as the anaesthetic. This experience with ether was not published until December, 1849 as a result of the controversy over W. T. G. Morton's claim to priority in its discovery. At that time Dr. Long described his first five operations using ether in a paper in the Southern Medical and Surgical Journal under the title "An Account of the First Use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in Surgical Operations."

In 1850 Crawford Long moved to Athens, Georgia, where he immediately acquired a large surgical practice. He died there on June 16, 1878. In 1910 an obelisk was erected to his memory in Athens and in 1926 Georgia placed his statue in Statuary Hall in the Capitol in Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
The collections was donated by Mrs. Frances Long Taylor in 1921.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Physicians  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Anesthesia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0120
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0120

The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection

Topic:
Pepsi-Cola World
Pepsi-Cola (soft drink)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
7.7 Cubic feet (32 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews
Oral history
Videotapes
Date:
1938-1986
Summary:
The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of an oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Scope and Contents:
At the core of the "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documention Collection are oral history interviews with individuals involved with Pepsi-Cola and its advertising campaigns. In addition to the oral histories there are research files which include an almost complete run of Pepsi-Cola World, interview abstracts, print advertising, and television commercials from Pepsi's best-known advertising campaigns.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1985

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1984-1985

Series 3: Oral History Interviews, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.1: Reference Copies, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.2: Master Tapes,1984-1985

Subseries 3.3: Original Tapes, 1984-1985

Series 4: Pepsi-Cola Video, 1946-1988

Subseries 4.1: Reference videos

Subseries 4.2: Master Copies

Series 5: Pepsi Cola Audio, circa 1970, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1983, as part of the 20th anniversary of the "Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi-Cola donated to the Archives Center approximately 200 advertising and promotional items (see collection AC0092). The Archives Center accepted these items and proposed an oral history project to document the "Pepsi Generation" story.

The Archives Center embarked upon this project in the spring of 1983. A professional oral historian, Dr. Scott Ellsworth, conducted twenty-nine interviews during 1984 and 1985 with twenty-six people involved in Pepsi advertising, including bottlers, advertising executives, producers, directors, a songwriter, a performer, a publisher, the president of Pepsi, the chairman of the board, and two former Pepsi presidents.

The interviews focus primarily on the "Come Alive, You're In The Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi's adoption of youth-oriented advertising, campaign execution, television commercial production, background of the idea for the "Think Young" campaign, and the company's response to the "Pepsi Generation"campaign.

The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of this oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Beverages

N.W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Pepsi-Cola Advertising Collection
Provenance:
Collection donated by Pepsi-Cola Company through Rebecca Madiera in 1983. Interviews made for the Smithsonian Institution in 1984 and 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
Ambiguity in advertising  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Music in advertising  Search this
Prize contests in advertising  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Beverages -- 1930-1990  Search this
Advertising writing  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Youth-oriented advertising  Search this
Slogans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Videotapes
Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0111
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0111
Online Media:

M*A*S*H Television Show Collection

Topic:
M*A*S*H (Television program)
Author:
Levine, Ken, 1950- (scriptwriter)  Search this
Alda, Alan (actor, scriptwriter)  Search this
Bull, Sheldon (scriptwriter)  Search this
Bloodworth, Linda (scriptwriter)  Search this
Davis, Elias (scriptwriter)  Search this
Greenbaum, Everett (scriptwriter)  Search this
Gelbart, Larry, 1928-2009 (television scriptwriter)  Search this
Hall, Karen (scriptwriter)  Search this
Isaacs, David (scriptwriter)  Search this
Klane, Robert (scriptwriter)  Search this
Koenig, Dennis (scriptwriter)  Search this
Marks, Laurance (scriptwriter)  Search this
Mumford, Thad (scriptwriter)  Search this
Place, Mary Kay (scriptwriter)  Search this
Rappaport, John (scriptwriter)  Search this
Reynolds, Gene (scriptwriter)  Search this
Wilcox, Dan (scriptwriter)  Search this
Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Science, Medicine and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Science, Medicine and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Producer:
Twentieth Century-Fox  Search this
Extent:
8.4 Cubic feet (25 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Television scripts
Transcripts
Music cue sheets
Interviews
Date:
undated
1950 - 1982
Summary:
The television show M*A*S*H was initially broadcast from September 17, 1972 to February 28, 1983. It told the story of doctors and nurses assigned to a fictitious medical unit, the 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital, based in Uijeongbu, Korea during the 1950-1953 war.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes the scripts from the television shows starting with the pilot episode and continuing through the eleven season run of two hundred and fifty one episodes. Also included are transcripts of over fifty50 interviews conducted by the writers and producers with former doctors and nurses that served in Mash units in Korea and Vietnam and soldiers who were patients in those units. These transcripts reveal the source of many of the story lines. There are a number of letters from viewers, mostly concerning their regret over the death of one of the characters, Lieutenant Colonel Henry Blake. Notes on Korean customs and the history of an actual Mash unit are included in the collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Scripts, Storylines and Music Cue Sheets 1971-1982

Subseries 1.1, Scripts, 1971-1982

Subseries 1.2, Storylines and Music Cue Sheets, 1971-1982

Subseries 1.3, Script Notes 1973-1974

Series 2, Interviews of Mobile Army Surgical Hospital Personnel and Patients, 1973-1977

Series 3, Other Materials, 1970-1975, undated

Series 4, Photographic Materials, 1950-1970, undated
Biographical / Historical:
M*A*S*H was an award winning television show based on the bestselling novel and Oscar winning motion picture film of the same title. It portrayed the lives of doctors and nurses assigned to a fictitious medical unit, the 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital, based in Uijeongbu, Korea. While the goal of producers was for the program to be a comedy series, it often portrayed very different sentiments of war and in this case the Korean War. The program was initially broadcasted from September 17, 1972 to February 28, 1983 and achieved a very successful run.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Thomas Garvin Korean War Scrapbook (AC0756)
Provenance:
Collection donated to the National Museum of American History Museum by Twentieth Century Fox, through Suzy Kalter on July 23, 1984.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television programs  Search this
Television music  Search this
Nurses  Search this
Entertainment  Search this
Physicians -- 1950-2000  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Genre/Form:
Television scripts
Transcripts
Music cue sheets
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Citation:
M*A*S*H Television Show Collection, 1950-1984, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0117
See more items in:
M*A*S*H Television Show Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0117
Online Media:

Draper Family Collection

Creator:
Draper, John Christopher, (chemist), 1835-1885  Search this
Draper, Henry, 1837-1882  Search this
Draper, John William, 1811-1882  Search this
Mora, José Maria, ca. 1846-1926  Search this
New York Meteorological Observatory.  Search this
University of the City of New York.  Search this
Nye, Dorothy Catherine Draper  Search this
Draper, Daniel, (meteorologist), 1841-1931  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Wills
Certificates
Photomicrographs
Reprints
Photographs
Lectures
Diplomas
Date:
circa 1826-1936
Summary:
Miscellaneous documents and photographs related to the scientific careers of members of the Draper family. Includes publications of the University of the City of New York, with which the Drapers were associated, reprints of papers by John William Draper, F. Melloni, John C. Draper, and Henry Draper, publications of the New York Meteorological Observatory, photographs of the observatory, rare scientific photographs, including photomicrographs (paper prints) by the Drapers, correspondence addressed to Daniel Draper, certificates, diplomas, and other documents.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains materials that revolve around the scientific interests, research, and professional activities of John W. Draper and his three sons. The materials are as diverse in subject as were these four men, with meteorology, solar observation, astronomy, chemistry, and optical science all represented. The collection contains a large number of separate journal issues and articles on these subjects as well as publications of the University of the City of New York, with which the Drapers were associated, mainly covering the periods of 1835, 1838, 1852, and publications of the New York Meteorological Observatory (NYMO), 1876. Included among the NYMO materials are correspondence addressed to Daniel Draper, some acknowledging receipt of publications from NYMO, circa 1892-1908, and photographs of NYMO. The collection also contains reprints of John William Draper, circa 1844-1877; M. Melloni, "A Radiation of Incandescence and Elementary Colors," 1848; John C. Draper, 1856; and reprints of Henry Draper, 1873, 1882.

Also included in the collection are some of the Draper's notebooks, lecture notes, experiment literature and notebooks, and experimental photographs concerning the Draper's professional endeavors in meteorology, chemistry, and astronomy in the late 19th century. There are also a number of materials relating to biographical information on the Draper family, including a substantial number of certificates and diplomas received by the Drapers. In addition, there is personal correspondence, articles on the members of the family, and a copy of Dorothy Catherine Draper Nye's will. While most of the documents are originals, the collection also contains many photocopied or reproduced documents.

A photograph by Mora in the collection, marked "J.W. Draper," does not appear to depict the same man as in Neg. No. 52,757.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Draper Family, 1829-1936

Series 2: John W. Draper, 1811-1936

Series 3: Henry Draper, 1837-1882

Series 4: Daniel Draper, 1841-1931

Series 5: John Christopher Draper, 1835-1885
Biographical / Historical:
The Draper family made a number of important contributions to American science, particularly in the fields of meteorology, astronomy, and chemistry during the 19th and early 20th centuries. John William Draper (1811-1882), primarily a chemist, did pioneer work in photography, and on the chemical effects of radiant energy. He took the first photograph of the moon in 1839-1840 and the first photograph of the diffraction spectrum.

Draper's three sons also did notable work. John C. Draper (1835-1885) was a noted Physician and chemist. Henry Draper (1837-1882) was an early astronomical photographer and also did work on stellar spectra and spectrum analysis. Daniel Draper (1841-1931) was a meteorologist and established the New York Meteorological Observatory in Central Park in 1868. He served as its first director until 1911.
Provenance:
Deeded to the Smithsonian Institution by John William Christopher Draper and James Christopher Draper on January 2, 1972.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Spectrum analysis  Search this
Scientists  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astronomers  Search this
Astronomical photography  Search this
Physical sciences  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Meteorology  Search this
Chemists  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Wills
Certificates
Photomicrographs
Reprints
Photographs -- 19th century
Photographs -- 1840-1850
Lectures
Diplomas
Citation:
Draper Family Collection, 1835-1908, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0121
See more items in:
Draper Family Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0121
Online Media:

Morton Family Collection

Creator:
Morton, William Thomas Green, 1819-? (dentist)  Search this
Morton, William J.  Search this
Extent:
2.3 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1849-1911
Summary:
The collection documents through correspondence, reprints of general articles, reports of Congressional committees, and materials relating to a U.S. patent and testimonials Morton's claims to priority in the discovery of the anesthetic properties of ether in medical and surgical procedures.
Scope and Contents:
The material in the collection was gathered by Morton's son, W. J. Morton, in defense of his father's character and work, and presented to the Smithsonian Institution by him on April 2, 1918. It includes correspondence, reprints of articles from medical and surgical journals, other publications, reports of congressional committees, materials relating to securing a U.S. patent, and testimonials on behalf of Morton's claim. Many of the articles and other publications relate to the controversy concerning priority in discovery of the anesthetic properties of ether in connection with medical and surgical procedures. A number are the work of contemporaries. Much of the material now in the collection is in reasonably good condition, particularly the books and many of the reprints. Many handwritten documents however show evidence of extensive water damage and some are illegible.

A report of a Smithsonian committee on condemnation on November 1, 1927 recommended destruction of' three trunks in which the Morton materials were shipped. These trunks had been stored in a damp cellar before coming to the Museum and many of the documents were so damaged as to be illegible. Such papers were destroyed with the trunks. Another committee on condemnation was appointed in April, 1955 to report on the disposal of duplicate printed materials in the Division of Medicine and Public Health no longer needed for either exhibit or study purposes. On April 20, 1955 this committee recommended transfer of such material from the Morton collection to the Armed Forces Medical Library for distribution to medical libraries throughout the country through their exchange services.

The material has been organized into two series: (1) letters and documents arranged alphabetically by subject and (2) publications arranged alphabetically by author if known or by subject if no author is designated. A bound volume of many of the pamphlets available as single publications is part of the collection. The numbers found at the end immediately following the # are the numbers stamped on the publications when they were received by the Archives Center.

Several of the documents which are listed as part of the collection are on exhibit in "Pain and Its Relief," an exhibition at the National Museum of American History. Several others, listed in the accession file or a descriptive list were not among the materials received by the Archives Center, and have been listed as missing. Where descriptive cards prepared by an intern were sent to the Archives Center, they have been filed with the pertinent document.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1: Letters and Documents, 1849-1866

Series 2: Publications, 1849-1911
Biographical / Historical:
William Thomas Green Morton was born on August 9, 1819 in Charlton, a village in Worcester Co., Massachusetts. He was the son of James Morton, a farmer of Charlton, and his wife Rebecca, a daughter of William Needham of Charlton.

Young William had a New England common school education at Northfield and Leicester Academies. In 1836 at the age of seventeen he went to work as a clerk and salesman in various business houses in Boston. Finding such employment of little interest, however, he enrolled in the College of Dental Surgery in Baltimore, Maryland in 1840. In the winter of 1842-1843, William Morton and Horace Wells, who had begun to practice dentistry in Hartford, Connecticut in 1836, practiced together in Boston. This partnership turned out to be unprofitable and was dissolved in the fall of 1843. Wells returned to Hartford; Morton stayed in Boston.

In March 1844 William Morton began studying medicine with Dr. Charles T. Jackson and later continued his studies at the Harvard Medical School. He also married in 1844. He did not complete Harvard's degree requirements but in 1852 was awarded an M.D. degree "honoris causa" by the Washington University of Medicine, later the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore.

During 1844 while the dentist and aspiring physician was studying with Dr. Jackson, Jackson demonstrated before his chemistry classes that inhalation of sulfuric ether causes loss of consciousness. William Morton who had continued his practice during his medical studies for financial reasons, was especially interested in the manufacture of artificial teeth and was, therefore, concerned with lessening the pain of extraction of roots. He had tried various methods such as intoxicants, opium and mesmerism but none was effective. Morton tried inhalation of sulfuric ether on himself and during the summer of 1846 he anaesthetized goldfish, a hen and his pet spaniel. They all recovered and the dentist was ready to use ether on patients. The painless extraction of an ulcerated tooth on September 30, 1846 was written up in the Boston Daily Journal of October 1, 1846. Following the newspaper accounts, Henry J. Bigelow, a Boston surgeon affiliated with Massachusetts General Hospital and John Collins Warren, the surgical chief at Massachusetts General invited Morton to demonstrate his discovery there. The removal of a tumor by Dr. Warren from the neck of a patient successfully anaesthetized by Dr. Morton on October 16, 1846 was followed the next day by a second successful anesthesia and surgery by Dr. George Hayward. After several weeks of further trials, H. J. Bigelow announced Morton's discovery in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal on November 18, 1846.

On October 27, 1846, shortly after the first demonstration, Morton and Jackson applied for a patent which was issued November 12, 1846. They did not reveal that the anesthetic agent was sulfuric ether although it soon became apparent. On the application for patent it was labeled "Letheon". Patent No. 4848 was issued on November 12, 1846.

In 1847 a memorial to the Congress of the U.S. by the physicians and surgeons of Boston requested compensation to the discoverer of the anesthetic uses of ether, William T. G. Morton. Since this petition resulted in no action, Morton himself petitioned the Congress for financial reward. Two bills appropriating $200,000 for the discovery of practical anesthesia were introduced into three sessions of Congress but none passed. Supporters of Charles T. Jackson, Horace Wells and Crawford W. Long, each of whom had participated to some extent in the discovery of inhalation anesthesia, started a controversy which continued for years. Congressional committee and subcommittee concern dragged on for nearly two decades without fruition. Dr. Morton's last twenty years were spent in controversy and litigation although several of the plans for compensating him resulted in honor if not in funds. He died of apoplexy at forty-nine, on July 15, 1869.

Among early honors awarded to Dr. Morton was the Montyon Prize of 5,000 French francs awarded jointly to him and Dr. Jackson by the French Academy of Sciences. Morton refused the award saying the discovery for which it was granted was his and his alone. A testimonial of $1,000 from the trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital was accepted. He received the Order of Wasa of Sweden and Norway and the Order of St. Vladimir of Russia for his contribution to science. There were testimonials by the medical profession in several cities. His name is inscribed among those of illustrious sons of Massachusetts in the Dome of the Hall of Representatives in the State House in Boston and among those on the facade of the Boston Public Library.

Crawford Long, Horace Wells and Charles T. Jackson all played a part in the discovery of surgical anesthesia but William T. G. Morton became the best known of the contenders for priority of discovery. The controversy among them continued for years and was never clearly resolved.

Dr. William H. Welch, Johns Hopkins University Medical School, gave a definitive address at the Massachusetts General Hospital on the introduction of surgical anesthesia on the 62nd anniversary of Ether Day (October 16, 1908). According to Dr. Welch, Dr. Crawford Long of Jefferson, Jackson Co. Georgia in March 1842 removed a small tumor from the neck of a patient anaesthetized with ether, and performed eight more minor operations under ether in the next Lcour years. He delayed publication however until several years after the universal acceptance of surgical anesthesia and published details are sketchy. Until Long's work became known, Horace Wells was generally credited with first using inhalation anesthesia--nitrous oxide. The failure of an important experiment resulted in Wells abandoning his experiments and withdrawing from the practice of dentistry. He later took his own life. Dr. Welch considered Wells' work "...a direct and important link in the chain of discovery which led ... to the universal adoption of surgical anesthesia."1 After careful review of the evidence and the opinions of Morton's medical contemporaries, Dr. Welch gave major honors for the discovery to Morton. 2

1. Welch, William H., M..D., A Consideration of the Introduction of Surgical Anesthesia, The Barta Press, Boston, undated, p. 11

2. Ibid.
Provenance:
Donated by William J. Morton, son of William T. G. Morton in 1921.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dentists  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Anesthesia  Search this
Ether  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Citation:
Morton Family Collection, 1849-1911, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0118
See more items in:
Morton Family Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0118
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
5.11 Cubic feet (consisting of 11 boxes, 1 folder, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, 1 flat box (partial.))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Business ephemera
Manuscripts for publication
Steel plate engravings
Technical reports
Letterheads
Business cards
Advertising mail
Advertising fliers
Sales letters
Printed ephemera
Sales records
Advertising cards
Advertisements
Trade cards
Periodicals
Commercial catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Manuals
Legal documents
Receipts
Invoices
Print advertising
Advertising
Ephemera
Business letters
Sales catalogs
Printed materials
Illustrations
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Catalogues
Commercial correspondence
Business records
Printed material
Correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Reports
Technical manuals
Date:
1819-1985
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Steel largely represents business records and advertisements created by steel manufacturers and distributors of steel-based goods or services. Additional materials include biographical writings about Andrew Carnegie, documentation about the effect of the steel industry on society, and educational material about the steel industry.

No complete set of business records are represented within the collection, however the United States Steel Corporation has notable representation within the business records.

Technical documentation about the production of steel-based products as well as background information about the United States Steel Industry and Andrew Carnegie are strong research strengths of this subject category.
Arrangement:
Steel is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material



Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Steel is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel founding  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1930-2000  Search this
Stainless steel tableware  Search this
Steel alloys  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Iron and steel industry  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Iron and steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Steel, Stainless -- 20th century  Search this
Structural steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Manufacturing processes  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications -- Business
Business ephemera
Manuscripts for publication
Steel plate engravings
Technical reports
Letterheads
Business cards
Advertising mail
Advertising fliers
Sales letters
Printed ephemera
Sales records
Advertising cards
Advertisements
Trade cards
Periodicals
Commercial catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Manuals
Legal documents
Receipts
Invoices
Print advertising
Advertising
Ephemera
Business letters
Sales catalogs
Printed materials
Illustrations
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Catalogues
Commercial correspondence
Business records
Printed material
Correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Reports
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Steel
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-steel

Andrew Carnegie Biographies and Writings

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1894-1935
Scope and Contents:
Contains biographical summaries of the life of Andrew Carnegie and his innovation within the steel industry. The publication Steel Manufacture in the United States by Carnegie as well as transcripts of additional addresses are also within the materials.

Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish immigrant who became an industrialist and philanthropist in the United States in the mid and late 19th century. He was the founder of the Carnegie Steel Company that later became the United States Steel Corporation.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel / Subject
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-steel-ref50

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Masons

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.17 Cubic feet (consisting of 2.5 boxes, 2 oversize folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
circa 1775-1945
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Masons forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This is a collection of materials relating to Freemasonry, a fraternal organization that traces its origins to the stonemason's guilds of Europe. This material provides information about the location of many lodges, particularly in the northeast United States. Many are represented by a single item; others by numerous cards, fliers, letters and the like. Some have lists of their officers which may be of interest to genealogical researchers. Correspondence may give insight into lodge activities—or other activities of the writer. The great variety of ritual and costuming is seen in the catalogues of manufacturers and a number of publications give insight into the practices and aims of the order. A number of mutual benefit associations are represented as well as material about Masonic homes for elderly brethren and orphans. A small number of medals, coins, and ribbons as well as numerous images of symbolic devices is indicative of the rich visual content of Freemasonry. The order's enthusiasm for parties and other social occasions is represented by invitations to and announcements of these events.

Lodges, Commanderies, and Temples material is organized alphabetically by state and city and consists of miscellaneous printed materials and correspondence. Freemasonry in the U.S. consists of York Rite and Scottish Rite Lodges. Members of a York Rite lodge may ascend through the ranks of the Royal Arch and Royal and Select Councils to the highest rank of Knights Templar. Templar lodges are called "commanderies." The member of a Scottish Rite lodge may ascend through many degrees, culminating in the 33rd degree. Freemasons of either rite may join the Shriners; their lodges are known as "temples." Grand Lodges have jurisdiction over all the lodges in their state. Examples of material from many of these ranks and lodges are present as well as a few items relating to the women's auxiliary, Eastern Star.

Manufacturers of Masonic regalia and supplies provide the variety of costumes and implements required for the elaborate rituals of Freemasonry. The day-to-day functioning of lodges also required a variety of forms specially printed for their use.

Publications include examples of Masonic periodicals, booklets, and articles. Two of these are in support of the Anti-Masonic viewpoint and date from around 1830. Also included are cipher books used in Masonic rituals and an English catalogue of books on Freemasonry.

General subjects covers Masonic associations, homes, images, stock certificates, applications, social gatherings, badges, coins, and ribbons.
Biographical / Historical:
This is a collection of materials relating to Freemasonry, a fraternal organization that traces its origins to the stonemason's guilds of Europe. While lodges existed in Scotland and England in the 1600s, the founding of the first Grand Lodge in London in 1717 is considered the origin of organized Freemasonry.

The order quickly spread to the American colonies and by 1730 was established in New England. Benjamin Franklin became a Mason in 1731 and during the 18th century a great many prominent colonial citizens, including George Washington and Paul Revere joined as well. Nine of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence were Masons as well as numerous officers of the Continental Army. The construction of many public buildings, including the U.S. Capitol, began with a laying of the cornerstone in a Masonic ritual.

In the first quarter of the 19th century Freemasonry prospered. By 1830, however, suspicions regarding its secret rituals (including the unfounded charges that the rituals included non-Christian worship); as well as a belief that its members were hatching anti-democratic plots, engendered virulent attacks on the order. An Anti-Masonic political party was formed and the number of lodges fell dramatically.

Freemasonry regained its prominence during the next few decades by promoting its dedication to the ideals of self-improvement, personal morality, and the public good. A proliferation of new rituals requiring dramatic theatricality and elaborate costuming attracted new members. Social and business contacts were made at meetings and events that contributed to one's success and the opportunity to perform charitable works appealed to many.

In 1870 the order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine was founded as an adjunct to the Freemasons and dedicated to the pursuit of fun, recreation and general hilarity. The Shriners are well-known today for the numerous children's hospitals they have founded and supported.

Freemasonry continued to thrive well into the 20th century, building many impressive edifices and attracting the most influential citizens in most communities. As social attitudes changed in the 1960s, membership declined. Yet, grand Masonic lodges and temples still grace many American cities and towns to bear witness to the order's former glories and Freemasons continue to practice the rituals and enjoy the fellowship of their order.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Masons is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Masons (Secret order)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Masons, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Masons
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Masons
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-masons

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