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Lang-Levy Pipette

Maker:
Pfeiffer Glass  Search this
Physical Description:
glass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 15 cm x 1.1 cm; 5 29/32 in x 7/16 in
overall: 7 1/2 in x 1/2 in; 19.05 cm x 1.27 cm
Object Name:
pipette, Lang-Levy
pipette
Place made:
United States: New York, Rochester
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
ID Number:
2004.0147.024
Accession number:
2004.0147
Catalog number:
2004.0147.024
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-59bd-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1405857

Lang-Levy Pipette

Maker:
Pfeiffer Glass  Search this
Physical Description:
glass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 19 cm x 1.3 cm; 7 15/32 in x 1/2 in
overall: 5 7/8 in x 7/16 in; 14.9225 cm x 1.11125 cm
Object Name:
pipette
Lang-Levy Pipette
Place made:
United States: New York, Rochester
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
ID Number:
2004.0147.025
Accession number:
2004.0147
Catalog number:
2004.0147.025
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-59be-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1405858

A novel approach to study composition of in situ produced root-derived dissolved organic matter

Author:
Martínez, Carmen E.  Search this
McCormack, M. L.  Search this
Rosenfeld, Carla E.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2014
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_121308

Ultracentrifuge Rotor

Physical Description:
stainless steel (overall material)
pine (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
rotor: 12.5 cm x 18.8 cm x 15.7 cm; 4 15/16 in x 7 3/8 in x 6 3/16 in
shipping case: 39 cm x 21 cm x 22 cm; 15 3/8 in x 8 1/4 in x 8 11/16 in
overall in case: 8 3/4 in x 15 1/4 in x 8 1/4 in; 22.225 cm x 38.735 cm x 20.955 cm
Object Name:
rotor
Used:
United States: Wisconsin, Madison
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1947
Subject:
biochemistry  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Nobel Prize  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of University of Wisconsin
ID Number:
CH.337002
Catalog number:
337002
Accession number:
1979.0188
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Science & Mathematics
Biotechnology and Genetics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-ee4d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_2977
Online Media:

Amino Acid Analyzer

Measurements:
overall: 2 m x 61 m x 91.5 m; 6 9/16 ft x 200 1/8 ft x 300 3/16 ft
Object Name:
amino acid analyzer
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Subject:
Nobel Prize  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
ID Number:
1996.0188.01
Catalog number:
1996.0188.01
1996.188.01.1
Accession number:
1996.0188
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Science & Mathematics
Biotechnology and Genetics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746af-821e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_333356
Online Media:

Florence flask

Maker:
Whitall Tatum Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 16 cm; 6 5/16 in
Object Name:
Florence Flask
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
after 1902
Subject:
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Barbara A. Keppel
ID Number:
1985.0311.027
Catalog number:
1985.0311.027
Accession number:
1985.0311
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Science & Mathematics
Science Under Glass
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-e97f-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1076

Soxhlet's extraction tube

Developer:
Soxhlet, Franz von  Search this
Maker:
Corning Incorporated  Search this
Physical Description:
pyrex (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 325 mm x 76 mm; 12 13/16 in x 3 in
overall: 11 7/8 in x 3 in x 2 1/8 in; 30.1625 cm x 7.62 cm x 5.3975 cm
Object Name:
extraction tube
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1931-1985
Subject:
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Barbara A. Keppel
ID Number:
1985.0311.133
Catalog number:
1985.0311.133
Accession number:
1985.0311
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Science & Mathematics
Science Under Glass
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-e837-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_940
Online Media:

Photoelectric Colorimeter

Maker:
Klett Manufacturing Company  Search this
Physical Description:
aluminum (overall material)
steel (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 22 cm x 46 cm x 17.8 cm; 8 21/32 in x 18 1/8 in x 7 in
overall: 8 3/4 in x 6 1/4 in x 17 1/4 in; 22.225 cm x 15.875 cm x 43.815 cm
Object Name:
colorimeter
Colorimeter
Place made:
United States: New York
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Subject:
Optics  Search this
Color  Search this
biochemistry  Search this
Credit Line:
National Institutes of Health
ID Number:
1980.0644.4
Catalog number:
1980.0644.4
Accession number:
1980.0644
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Measuring & Mapping
Saccharimeters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-e7b8-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_219
Online Media:

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics

Title:
ABB
Physical description:
v. ill. 23 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1951
Topic:
Biochemistry  Search this
Call number:
QP501 .A77X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_308260

Design Talk | Wyss Institute Selects

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-11-12T18:40:09.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Design  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_a2wKKAJTaXw

Dale-Patterson Family collection

Creator:
Dale, Dianne  Search this
P.H. Polk, 1898-1984  Search this
Names:
Barry, Marion, 1936-2014  Search this
Dale, Almore M., 1911-1984  Search this
Dale, Dianne  Search this
Dale, John Henry, Jr., 1888-1973  Search this
Dale, Lucille Emma Patterson, 1889-1973  Search this
Dale, Marie Howard, 1914-2011  Search this
Dale, Norman Edward, 1908-1991  Search this
Garner, Araminta Dale, 1913-1987  Search this
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Patterson, Wilhelmina Bessie, 1888-1962  Search this
Extent:
6 Linear feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Programs
Clippings
Correspondence
Ephemera
Postcards
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1866 - 1990.
Summary:
The Dale-Patterson family papers, which date from 1866 to 2010 and measure 6 linear feet, document the personal and professional lives of the Dale-Patterson family who came to live in Hillsdale, Anacostia, area of Washington, D.C., in 1892.
Scope and Contents note:
The Dale-Patterson family papers, which date from 1866 to 1990 and measure 6 linear feet, document the personal and professional lives of the Dale-Patterson family who came to live in Hillsdale, Anacostia, area of Washington, D.C., in 1892. The collection is comprised of correspondence, photographs, clippings, and ephemera.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged in four series:

Series 1: Dale-Patterson Family papers Series 2: Charles Qualls papers Series 3: Community Organizations Series 4: Subject Files
Biographical/Historical note:
The Dale family came to Washington, DC in 1886 when John Henry Dale, Sr., a gifted self-taught man, obtained a position as clerk in the newly contracted Pension Bureau building at 5th and G Streets, NW. First they lived near 13th Street and Florida Avenue, NW, then moved to Howard Road in Anacostia. Dale built a house at 2619 Nichols Avenue, now Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, drawing the plans and supervising the construction. The Dales and only one other family lived in this solidly built house for 100 years before it was sold to a church group and demolished.
General Note:
Finding Aid Note: This finding aid is associated with a MARC collection-level record.361883
Provenance:
The Dale-Patterson Family collection was donated to the Anacostia Community Museum on April 07, 2013.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Dale-Patterson Family collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American families  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Programs
Clippings
Correspondence
Ephemera
Postcards
Citation:
Dale-Patterson Family collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Dianne Dale.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-074
See more items in:
Dale-Patterson Family collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-074
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Online Media:

Galerie Chalette records

Creator:
Galerie Chalette  Search this
Names:
Arp, Jean, 1887-1966  Search this
Bill, Max, 1908-1994  Search this
Diller, Burgoyne, 1906-1965  Search this
Fangor, Wojciech, 1922-  Search this
Fuller, Sue, 1914-  Search this
Gonzalez, Roberta  Search this
González, Julio, 1876-1942  Search this
Lejwa, Arthur  Search this
Lejwa, Madeleine Chalette, 1914-1996  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, László, 1895-1946  Search this
Reimann, William  Search this
Rickey, George  Search this
Smith, Leon Polk, 1906-1996  Search this
Vasarely, Victor, 1906-1997  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Extent:
24.15 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sound recordings
Lectures
Notebooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1916-1999
bulk 1939-1994
Summary:
The records of the New York Galerie Chalette measure 24.15 linear feet and date from 1916-1999, with the bulk of the material dating from 1939-1994. The collection documents this contemporary art gallery's operations from its founding in 1954 through Madeleine Lejwa's later years as an independent dealer. Included are correspondence, artists' files, financial and legal records, printed materials, clippings, exhibition catalogs, audio and video recordings, and motion picture film; about half of the collection consists of photographs. Arthur Lejwa's profession as a biochemist prior to becoming a gallery owner is also documented in this collection. The collection also contains personal records of the Lejwas, including correspondence, legal papers, photographs, photo albums, and printed material.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the New York Galerie Chalette measure 24.15 linear feet and date from 1916-1999, with the bulk of the material dating from 1939-1994. The collection documents this contemporary art gallery's operations from its founding in 1954 through Madeleine Lejwa's later years as an independent dealer. Included are correspondence, artists' files, financial and legal records, printed materials, clippings, exhibition catalogs, audio and video recordings, and motion picture film; about half of the collection consists of photographs. Arthur Lejwa's profession as a biochemist prior to becoming a gallery owner is also documented in this collection. The collection also contains personal records of the Lejwas, including correspondence, legal papers, photographs, photo albums, and printed material.

Among the artists represented in the artists' files are Jean Arp, Max Bill, Burgoyne Diller, Wojciech Fangor, Sue Fuller, Julio Gonzalez, Roberta Gonzalez, Lazlo Moholy-Nagy, William Reimann, George Rickey, Leon Polk Smith, Victor Varsarely, Max Weber, and various Dada artists. Many artists are represented in the large collection of photographs as is the Lejwa's personal collection. Included in the business records are invoices, receipts for works sold, yearly sales and purchase ledgers, checks for artwork purchases, and index card files recording sales. Legal records include files related to litigation, primarily Lebenstein v. Lejwa. The collection includes film reels and audio recordings of lectures, broadcasts, and exhibits from the 1960s-1990s. It also includes two film reels from a French television program about Jean Arp.

Among the personal records are biographical information, correspondence, legal records mostly related to the settlement of Arthur Lejwa's estate, a significant quantity of snapshots, negatives and slides, and newspaper clippings chronicling Arthur Lejwa's work as a biochemist and the Robert Gould Research Foundation. Arthur Lejwa's scientific career is also represented in biographical information, publications, research notebooks, and photographs. Much of the personal correspondence is from 1939-1951 and is written in Polish, Yiddish and German. The Lejwa's philanthropic donations, especially in Israel, are documented in correspondence, papers, and photographs. Many of the photographs and photo albums record Madeleine Lejwa's travels in the 1970s-1990s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series. The series are generally arranged alphabetically by type of material or subject, and chronologically thereafter.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1920-1995 (Boxes 1-2; 1.4 linear foot)

Series 2: Artists' Files, 1916-1996 (Boxes 2-6, 25; 4.3 linear feet)

Series 3: General Business Files, 1950-1994 (Boxes 6-8; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Materials, 1931-1996 (Boxes 9-10, 25; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1920s-1994 (Boxes 10-16, 24-25; 7 linear feet)

Series 6: Legal Records, 1938, 1959-1988 (Box 17; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Personal Papers of Arthur and Madeleine Chalette Lejwa, 1925-1999 (Boxes 17-21, 25; 3.7 linear feet)

Series 8: Motion Picture Film, Audio, and Video Recordings, circa 1950s-1995 (Boxes 21-23, FC 29-42; 4.3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Art dealers and collectors Madeleine Chalette (1915-1996) and Arthur Lejwa (1895-1972) opened the Galerie Chalette in New York on 45 West 57th Street in February, 1954. The gallery originally specialized in contemporary French graphics and later shifted its focus to contemporary twentieth century European and American art, particularly the work of Jean Arp. Over the years, Galerie Chalette relocated twice. In 1957, the gallery moved to 1100 Madison Avenue and then to 9 East 88th Street in 1964.

Madeleine Chalette was born in 1915 in Paris and grew up in Poland. In 1940, after Madeleine's efforts to secure the release of her father, Leon Chalette, from Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin were successful, father and daughter traveled by boat to Shanghai. They stayed in Shanghai throughout World War II, arriving in the United States in 1946. Arthur Lejwa, a Polish-born biochemist, immigrated to the United States in 1939 and taught at Long Island University. In 1947, Madeleine and Arthur Lejwa were married in Cincinnati, Ohio, where Arthur was the Director of the Robert Gould Institute for Nutritional Research.

The gallery was very active in the 1950s and 1960s, as evidenced by the numerous exhibitions. Many of the exhibitions in the 1950s were thematic. Exhibitions in the 1960s were mostly organized around the work of a particular artist, such as Wojciech Fangor and Leon Polk Smith. In 1972, the Metropolitan Museum of Art showcased Jean Arp's work from the Lejwa's collection and a few works lent by Arp's widow, Marguerite Arp. The exhibition was expanded and traveled as "Arp 1877-1966," first exhibited at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and then shown in seven museums in the United States and six in Australia.

In the early 1970s, the Lejwas began supporting institutions in Jerusalem, including donating a 17th century Polish menorah to The Israel Museum and five sculptures to be displayed in public spaces: "The Threshold of Jerusalem" by Jean Arp, "The Loop" by Robert Engman, George Rickey's "Two Lines Oblique," "The Skedion Ekton" by Stephanie Scuris, and "Four Cubes Cut in Identical Halves" by Max Bill.

Following Arthur's death on October 27, 1972, Madeleine continued as an independent dealer and consultant and renamed the business Chalette International. In the 1980s, Madeleine Lejwa continued her philanthropic endeavors in Jerusalem, donating to a scholarship fund for Arab students. She was also a strong supporter of New York University's archeological site Aphrodisias, in southwestern Turkey. In the 1970s and 1980s, Lejwa traveled widely including Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Italy, Turkey, Japan, and China. Madeleine passed away at age 81 on June 9, 1996.
Related Material:
Addition papers related to Leon Chalette and Madeleine Chalette are located at Leo Baeck Institute, New York, N.Y.
Separated Material:
Papers related to Leon Chalette's imprisonment in Sachsenhausen concentration camp were transferred to the Leo Baeck Institute, New York, N.Y. in 2010.
Provenance:
The records were donated by Robert Warshaw, executor of the Madeleine Chalette Lejwa estate in two accessions in 1997 and 2005.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Biochemistry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Lectures
Notebooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Galerie Chalette records, 1916-1996, bulk 1939-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.galechal
See more items in:
Galerie Chalette records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-galechal
Online Media:

Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection

Extent:
2 videotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Somalia
Date:
1991
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, Curator of the Division of Medical Sciences of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the start of the project to sequence the smallpox virus genome at the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland. As the result of NINDS's extensive facilities for DNA sequencing, it was chosen as the site for the joint CDC-NIH project to sequence the Bangladesh 1975 strain of the virus. The session was videotaped in the instrument room, laboratory, library, and computer room of NINDS, November 21, 1991.

This collection consists of one interview session, totaling approximately 3:00 hours of video recordings and 44 pages of transcript.

For additional information on DNA Sequencing, see Record Unit 9549, DNA Sequencing, Smithsonian Videohistory Collection, in Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Historical Note:
In 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a program of world-wide eradication of smallpox through mass immunization and vigorous containment of outbreaks. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox was identified in Somalia in 1977. After two additional years of worldwide surveillance, on October 26, 1979, WHO announced the global eradication of smallpox.

The virus remained in storage at two authorized sites--the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and the Research Institute for Viral Preparations in Moscow, Russia. In an address to the World Health Assembly in May 1990, United States Health and Human Services Secretary Louis W. Sullivan stated that technological advances had made it possible to map the entire smallpox genome within three years. Scientists agreed that the preferred first step toward the destruction of the virus was to determine its complete DNA sequence and in that way retain the essential scientific information of what would become an extinct virus. At a meeting of the ad hoc WHO Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections held in Geneva, Switzerland, in December 1990, it was agreed that all remaining stocks of the Vaccinia virus would be destroyed by December 31, 1993.

Li-Ing Liu received a B.A. in nursing from the National Taiwan University in 1979, and an M.S. in nursing from the National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1983. In 1990, she was awarded a Ph.D. in physiology and biophysics from the University of Illinois, Chicago. In 1990, she joined the staff of the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a special volunteer on the sequencing project.

Brian Wilfred John Mahy received a B.S. from the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry at the University of Southampton, England, in 1959, and a Ph.D. there in 1963. In 1965, Mahy entered the Wolfson College of the University of Cambridge, where he received an M.A. in pathology in 1966 and a Doctor of Science in virology in 1982. From September 1973 to August 1974, Mahy conducted research on RNA tumor viruses at the University of California, San Francisco. From September 1980 to August 1981, he researched coronaviruses at the Universitat Wurzburg, Germany. In 1984, he was appointed Director of the Animal Virus Research Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, England, and in 1986, became head of the Pirbright Laboratory Institute for Animal Health. In 1989, he accepted the position of Director of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases at the National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.

J. Craig Venter received a B.A. in biochemistry from the University of California, San Diego in 1972, and a Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology in 1975. From 1976 to 1982, he served as a Professor of pharmacology and biochemistry at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo. From 1982 to 1985 he served as Associate Chief Cancer Research Scientist in the Department of Molecular Immunology at the Roswell Park Memorial Institute. In 1983 he was appointed Adjunct Professor of biochemical pharmacology at SUNY-Buffalo, and joined NIH in 1984 as Chief of the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section, NINDS. In 1987 he also became Co-director of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology at NINDS, and was appointed Director of the NINDS DNA facility.

Teresa Utterback, a medical technologist working as a sequencing technician on the smallpox project, demonstrated DNA sequencing processes; Nicolay Selivanov, an Associate Professor at the Soviet Institute of Virology working on advanced cloning and subcloning of viral genes, demonstrated his template making of the pox virus, and Anthony Kerlavage demonstrated the data processing associated with the project.
Topic:
Technology -- History  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Smallpox  Search this
Virology  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genomics  Search this
Medicine -- History  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Immunization  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9564, Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9564
See more items in:
Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9564

Was recorded at the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, NINDS, NIH. Venter, Mahy, Kerlavage, Liu, Utterback, and Selivanov discussed the history of the smallpox sequencing projec...

Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9564, Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection
See more items in:
Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection
Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9564-refidd1e286

Nydia Meyers (Mrs. Allen H.)

Collection Creator:
Douglas, Deborah G.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials, NASM.1995.0062, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
United States Women in Aviation 1940-1985 Research Materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1995-0062-ref525
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The History of the Cell Sorter Videohistory Collection

Extent:
7 videotapes (Reference copies). 12 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1991
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the history, development, commercialization and applications of fluorescence activated cell sorting instrumentation. Sessions were recorded January 30, 1991 at San Jose, California; February 1, 1991 at Palo Alto, California; April 19, 1991 at Washington, D.C.; and June 28, 1991 at Providence, Rhode Island.

Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. They include Bach, Christiaanse, Fulwyler, Leonard Herzenberg, Leonore Herzenberg, Kudravcev, Mhatre, Recktenwald, Rotman, Shoor, and Van Dilla. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are available through the Division of Medical Sciences, National Museum of American History. Inventing the Cell Sorter, an edited program on the history of the machine, accompanies the collection as supplemental material. This tape, Inventing the Cell Sorter, may not be copied without the permission of Ramunas Kondratas.

This collection consists of four interview sessions, totalling approximately 10:20 hours of recordings and 203 pages of transcript.

Audiotapes: Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape session, and are available through the Division of Medical Sciences, National Museum of American History.
Historical Note:
The cell sorter, an instrument with sophisticated optics, lasers and electronic processors, automated the task of identifying and quantitatively analyzing individual cells, and of separating and rapidly sorting closely related cell populations. By measuring the physical and chemical properties of cells, such as fluorescence, then by physically separating cells while still alive, the cell sorter became an important tool for biomedical research and clinical medicine.

The first prototype sorter was built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1965 by physicist Mack J. Fulwyler by joining a Coulter volume sensor with the newly-invented ink jet printer. The first biologist who clearly saw uses for the Los Alamos instrument, especially for the study of immunological properties of cells, was Leonard Herzenberg of Stanford University. With Fulwyler's plans, Herzenberg obtained the cooperation of engineers in the Genetics Department's Instrumentation Research Laboratory at Stanford to build an instrument to sort live cells using fluorescence. Two successful prototypes were built -- a 1969 instrument that employed a mercury arc lamp as light source and a 1972 version which used an argon ion laser to detect cells tagged with fluorescent markers. Funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) allowed Herzenberg and the Stanford engineers to interest the medical products company Becton Dickinson (BD) to convert their prototypes into the first commercial instruments, the FACS (Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter) in 1975.

Interviewees included scientists, engineers, managers, and physicians from Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS), Stanford University, Brown University, and LANL. Bruce Allen Bach received his B.S. in biology and his M.A. in molecular biology from Stanford University in 1973 and 1974, respectively. He was awarded his Ph.D. in immunology from Harvard Medical School in 1979 and a M.D. from the Washington University School of Medicine in 1981. After completing his residency at the University of California Affiliated Hospitals, Bach accepted the position of Associate Scientific Member of the Howard Hughes Medical Research Institute in 1984. From 1985 to 1987 he served as a physician at two San Francisco area hospitals. In 1989, he was appointed Corporate Medical Director of BDIS, and held that position concurrently with his 1991 appointment as director of BD's worldwide clinical trials group.

Mack Jett Fulwyler received his B.S. in physics from Idaho State College in 1961 and his Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Colorado in 1969. From 1961 to 1967, Fulwyler worked at LANL where he developed particle separators and sorters. In 1971, he accepted the position of President of Particle Technology, Inc. In 1977, after completing a two year fellowship at the Max Planck Institute in Germany, Fulwyler returned to the U.S. to serve as Technical Director for BD FACS System Division. He retired from that position in 1982 and accepted a professorship at the University of California, San Francisco. Since 1990, Fulwyler served as Director of Technical Development for the Trancel Corporation.

After receiving his B.A. in biology and chemistry from Brooklyn College in 1952 and his Ph.D. in biochemistry and immunology from the California Institute of Technology in 1955, Leonard A. Herzenberg accepted a postdoctoral fellowship from the American Cancer Society to conduct research at the Pasteur Institute in France. Herzenberg returned to the U.S. in 1957 to serve as an officer for the Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health. In 1959, he accepted the position of Assistant Professor in the Department of Genetics at Stanford University and was eventually appointed Professor of Genetics.

Leonore A. Herzenberg attended classes at Pomona College and the California Institute of Technology during the mid-1950s. In 1981, she was awarded the degree of Docteur des Sciences Naturelles from the Sorbonne University in Paris. During the 1950s, she served as a research assistant at the California Institute of Technology, the Pasteur Institute, and the National Institutes of Health. In 1959, she accepted the position of Research Assistant in the Department of Genetics and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Stanford University. Subsequently, she was appointed Senior Research Assistant in those departments in 1963 and Research Associate in 1967. From 1973 to 1989, she worked as a Research Associate and Senior Research Associate solely in the Department of Genetics. In 1989, she was appointed professor in the Genetics Department.

Mark A. Krasnow received his B.S. in biology and chemistry from the University of Illinois in 1978. He was awarded his Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1983, and his M.D. in 1985, from the University of Chicago. In 1988, he was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the Stanford University School of Medicine. His research interests include the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and cell to cell interactions in the development of Drosophila.

Nagesh S. Mhatre, president of BDIS, was awarded a B.S. from Bombay University, an M.S. from Oregon State University, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry-microbiology from Rutgers University. Before being appointed president in 1983, Mhatre held a variety of positions with Becton Dickinson & Company. Previously, he was with Miles Laboratory for seventeen years.

After receiving his B.S. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1986, Monty Montano conducted research at the University of California, San Francisco on the use of recombinant DNA applied to clinical genetics. Montano began a doctoral program in genetics at Stanford University in 1988.

Wayne A. Moore received his B.S. in mathematics and science from Stanford University in 1976. From 1972, he worked as a lab assistant and programmer at the Stanford Department of Genetics and was later appointed Senior Scientific Programmer of that department.

From 1970 to 1974, Thomas Nozaki, Jr., served as an electronics engineer at the Stanford Computation Center. After receiving his B.S. in electrical engineering from California State University in 1974, Nozaki joined the Stanford Department of Genetics as a research and development electronics engineer.

Richard E. Owen, Director of Instrument Operations for BDIS, joined the company in 1988 as Manufacturing Engineering Manager. Prior to joining BDIS, he was Director of Thorn EMI Datatech Ltd. in England. He holds a Higher National Certificate in Applied Physics from Southeast London Technical College, a B.A. in Management from St. Marys College in Moraga, California, and is a graduate of the Institute of Electronic and Radio Engineers.

David R. Parks received his B.S. from Grinnell College in 1967, and his Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University in 1973. From 1973 to 1974 he worked as a Field Assistant and Project Manager in environmental studies at the Missouri Botanical Garden. In 1975, he returned to Stanford University as a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Genetics. In 1981, he accepted the position of Research Associate in that department and held that position concurrently with his appointment as director of the Shared Cell Sorter Facility in 1983.

In 1981 Diether J. Recktenwald joined BDIS as a Senior Research Scientist; he was appointed research group leader and later associate scientific director. Prior to BDIS, he was a visiting scientist at Stanford University and a senior research associate at the Max Planck Institute. He received a Ph.D. in biochemistry and biophysics from Ruhruniversitat Bochum in Germany, and an M.S. and B.S. from Universitat des Saarlandes Saarbrucken, also in Germany.

Marcos Boris Rotman received his M.S. in chemical engineering from the University F. Santa Maria in Chile in 1948, and his Ph.D. in microbiology, organic chemistry, and biochemistry from the University of Illinois in 1952. After completing his degree, he served a year as a research associate at the University of Illinois, and then moved to the University of Wisconsin to work in the laboratory of Joshua Lederberg from 1953 to 1956. In 1959, Rotman became Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the Albany Medical School, and in 1961 moved to the Department of Genetics at Stanford as a Research Associate. From 1961 to 1966, he served as head of the biochemistry section of the Syntex Institute for Molecular Biology, located at Stanford. In 1966, Rotman left Stanford to become professor of Medical Science at Brown University. In 1990, he was awarded the title of Professor Emeritus.

Bernie Shoor completed his B.A. in physics from New York University in 1946. After receiving his degree, he worked for the Army Signal Corps and subsequently the Sperry Gyroscope Company. In 1966, Shoor began working for Endevco Corporation, a small scientific instrument company which was eventually bought by BD. In 1970, Shoor became manager of BD's Mountain View, California, laboratory. In 1977, he accepted the position of Corporate Vice-President of Research and Design at BD's headquarters in New Jersey. In 1981, he returned to California to establish the BD Monoclonal Center. Shoor retired from BD in 1984 but has continued to serve as a consultant for the company.

After receiving his B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1965, and his M.S. in theoretical and applied mechanics in 1967 from Cornell University, Richard T. Stovel worked as a Research Engineer at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company analyzing the structural dynamics of missile systems. In 1972, he joined the Stanford University Department of Genetics as a Physical Science and Engineering Technician working on the operation and development of the prototype cell sorting machine. In 1976, he was appointed Research and Development Engineer of the Genetics Department where he continued his research in fluid jet behavior.

Richard G. Sweet received his B.S. in electrical engineering in 1947. From 1947 to 1951, he worked as a design engineer on telephone systems at the Southern California Edison Company. In 1951, he accepted the position of Senior Design Engineer at Gilfillan Bros. Inc., developing electronics equipment for radar systems. Sweet joined Stanford University Electronics Labs in 1956 as a research associate where he developed, most notably, high speed ink jet recording systems. After a decade at Stanford, Sweet accepted the position of Senior Engineer at Varian Associates in 1966 and worked on developing instrumentation for classifying and sorting small particles. In 1971, he travelled as a visiting scientist to the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center to conduct research on non-impact printing systems. Since 1986, Sweet has served as a consultant to both the Herzenberg Laboratory and to BDIS.

After receiving his B.S. from City College of New York in 1939 and his Ph.D. in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951, Marvin A. Van Dilla worked in the radiobiology laboratory at the University of Utah. In 1957, he joined the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory as the biophysics group leader. Van Dilla left Los Alamos in 1972 to become the cytophysics Section Leader of the Biomedical Sciences Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. In 1983, he was appointed Leader of the Gene Library Project at Livermore.

Nicholas Veizades was awarded his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1958, and his M.S. in engineering sciences from Stanford University in 1961. He joined the Stanford Department of Genetics in 1962 and worked in the Instrumentation Research Laboratory on biomedical instrumentation.
Rights:
Restricted. "Inventing the Cell Sorter" film cannot be reproduced. Contact SIHistory@si.edu for more details.
Topic:
Fluorescence activated cell sorter  Search this
AIDS (Disease)  Search this
Biology  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Separation (Technology)  Search this
Flow cytometry  Search this
Cell separation  Search this
Cytometry  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9554, The History of the Cell Sorter Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9554
See more items in:
The History of the Cell Sorter Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9554

DNA Sequencing Videohistory Collection

Extent:
5 videotapes (Reference copies). 22 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1989-1990
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), was interested in documenting the history, development, and applications of the DNA Sequencer. He also explored the commercialization of the instrument, including its testing and marketing, and addressed current and future uses of the ABI 370A model sequencer in medical research. Sessions were recorded at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, on October 19, 1988, at Applied Biosystems, Inc., in Foster City, California, on October 21, 1988, and at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Washington, D.C., on March 27, 1990.

Interviewees included scientists and technicians at Cal Tech, ABI, and NIH. Jeannine Gocayne received a M.A. in molecular biology from the State University of New York-Buffalo in 1985 and was appointed a biologist and sequencing supervisor with the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), NIH in 1986.

Several others provided additional information about the sequencer for the three video sessions. These people included: Kurt Becker, DNA Sequencing Product Manager; Kip Connell, research scientist; Marilee Shaffer, products specialist for DNA sequencing, ABI; and Anthony R. Kerlavage and W. Richard McCombie of the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, NINDS, NIH.

Session one took place at the California Institute of Technology with Hood, Sanders, and Kaiser. Interviews focused on the history, design, and development of the sequencer prototype and its operation.

Session Two took place at Applied Biosystems, Inc., with Hunkapiller, Becker, Connell, and Shaffer and dealt with the commercial design, fabrication, and marketing of the sequencer and other related instrumentation. Tours of the assembly and manufacturing areas were included in the session, as well as a demonstration of how the DNA sequencing data is represented graphically on a computer.

Session Three took place at the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, NINDS, NIH, where Venter explained and demonstrated the automated DNA sequencing processes during a tour of the lab. Kerlavage and McCombie assisted during the tour. Finally, Gocayne described the application of new DNA sequencing technology to work in the lab.

This collection consists of three interview sessions, totaling approximately 8:40 hours of recordings and 176 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
DNA is composed of the four individual nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). To decipher a particular piece of DNA, it is necessary to determine the exact sequence of these nucleotides. The sequence of the nucleotides determines the genetic information encoded in a DNA strand. A partial nucleotide sequence for a human gene might look like: GGCACTGACTCTCTC. In 1977, biochemist Fred Sanger developed the enzymatic chain termination procedure that allowed for sequencing of individual strands of DNA. This made mapping and sequencing of genetic material possible.

In 1986, Leroy E. Hood's Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) announced its development of a semiautomated machine for sequencing DNA. The machine automated the enzymatic chain termination procedure for DNA sequence analysis developed by Sanger and became a key instrument in mapping and sequencing genetic material. That same year, Applied Biosystems, Inc. (ABI) produced the first commercial instruments for clinical use. Constant improvements in the technology resulted in faster sequencing capacity, which was significant for advanced scientific research in projects such as mapping the human genome.

Leroy E. Hood received his M.D. from The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1964, and a Ph.D. in immunology from Cal Tech in 1968. From 1968 until 1970 he held a postdoctoral fellowship at the National Institutes of Health. In 1970 he was appointed professor of biology at Cal Tech and eventually became chairman of the Division of Biology and the director of its cancer center.

Michael Hunkapiller received a Ph.D. in chemistry from Cal Tech in 1974. He joined ABI as its vice president for research and development in 1983.

Robert J. Kaiser received his Ph.D in chemistry from Cal Tech in 1983, and subsequently joined the Cal Tech staff as a research fellow in biology. Jane Z. Sanders joined the Cal Tech staff in 1984 as an associate biologist and was appointed senior biologist a year later. She took graduate courses in biochemistry in 1971-1972 at the Stanford University Medical School.

Lloyd M. Smith received a Ph.D. in biophysics from Stanford University in 1981, and was a senior research fellow in biology at Cal Tech from 1982 until 1987, when he was appointed assistant professor in the Analytical Division of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

J. Craig Venter received his Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology from the University of California, San Diego in 1975. In 1983 he was appointed adjunct professor of biochemical pharmacology at the State University of New York-Buffalo and joined NIH in 1984 as chief of the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section, NINDS. In 1987 he also became co-director of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, NINDS, NIH and was appointed director of the NINDS DNA facility at NIH.
Rights:
Restricted. The permission of Ramunas Kondratas must be obtained before the public broadcast or public viewing of the tapes. Contact SIHistory@si.edu for more details.
Topic:
Sequence alignment (Bioinformatics)  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Nucleic acids -- Analysis  Search this
Nucleotides -- Analysis  Search this
Nucleotide sequence  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
DNA -- Analysis  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9549, DNA Sequencing Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9549
See more items in:
DNA Sequencing Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9549

Was recorded at The Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, NINDS, NIH, Rockville, Maryland. Venter, Kerlavage, McCombie, and Gocayne discuss the role of the prototype DNA sequencer ...

Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted. The permission of Ramunas Kondratas must be obtained before the public broadcast or public viewing of the tapes. Contact SIHistory@si.edu for more details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9549, DNA Sequencing Videohistory Collection
See more items in:
DNA Sequencing Videohistory Collection
DNA Sequencing Videohistory Collection / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9549-refidd1e434

Conservation of Endangered Species Videohistory Collection

Extent:
13 videotapes (Reference copies). 39 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Barro Colorado Island (Panama)
Panama
Date:
1990
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Pamela M. Henson, Historian for the Smithsonian Institution Archives, conducted videotaped interviews with scientists and researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama and the National Zoological Park (NZP) at its Washington, D.C. park, and Conservation and Research Center (CRC) in Front Royal, Virginia, to document two of the Institution's endangered species programs.

This collection consists of thirteen interview sessions, separated into two collection divisions, totaling approximately 13:10 hours of recordings and 225 pages of transcript. There is also a supplementary set of interview sessions, comprised of 4:00 hours of recordings. There is no transcription for these supplemental sessions.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Participants from STRI included researchers who employed a variety of approaches to the study and preservation of tropical biosystems. John H. Christy received his B.S. in biology from Lewis and Clark College in 1970, and his Ph.D. in population ecology and animal behavior from Cornell University in 1980. From 1978 to 1983 he served both as a research assistant and assistant professor at the University of South Carolina. He came to STRI in 1983 as a visiting research scholar and remained as a researcher until 1987, when he assumed the position of biologist. In 1988, he was appointed assistant director for marine research. At STRI, he focused his research on the reproductive behavior of crabs.

After receiving his B.S. in biochemistry and zoology in 1972 from the James Cook University of North Queensland (JCUNQ), Australia, Norman C. Duke worked as a technical officer for the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Branch. From 1974 to 1989 he worked with the Australian Institute of Marine Science, first as a technical officer and later as an experimental scientist, overseeing the design and implementation of studies about mangrove plants. During this time he completed his M.S. and Ph.D. in botany at JCUNQ, in 1984 and 1988 respectively. In 1989, he accepted the position of mangrove ecologist for STRI's Oil Spill Project to study the effects of recent oil spills on Panamanian mangrove forests.

Robin Foster became a biologist with STRI in 1978, and also held concurrent positions as senior ecologist at Conservation International and research associate in the Department of Botany at the Field Museum of Natural History. He was awarded his B.A. in biology from Dartmouth College in 1966, and his Ph.D. in botany from Duke University in 1974. From 1972-1980 he served as an Assistant Professor of biology at University of Chicago. In 1980, with Stephen Hubbell, Foster embarked on a long term study of forest dynamics on a fifty-hectare plot on BCI.

After receiving a B.S. in biochemistry from Michigan State University in 1970 and a Ph.D. in ecology from The Johns Hopkins University in 1976, Brian D. Keller served as a Research Oceanographer for the Scripps Institute of Oceanography from 1976 to 1979. From 1980 to 1984 he was a Postdoctoral Associate in the Department of Biology at Yale University. In 1984 he accepted the position of acting head of the Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, and served as Assistant Head from 1985 to 1986. In 1987, Keller joined STRI as project manager for the Oil Spill Project.

Gilberto Ocana joined STRI in 1980 as Superintendent of the Barro Colorado Nature Monument. He was awarded his B.S. from the Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture in Alger, Algeria, in 1955, and a Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of California, Riverside, in 1967. Prior to his STRI appointment, he was a Professor of plant pathology in the Department of Agronomy at the University of Panama. At STRI, he began an experimental farm to develop alternatives to cattle ranching and slash and burn agriculture.

A. Stanley Rand received his B.A. from De Pauw University in 1955 and his Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University in 1961. He served as Assistant Herpetologist at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard from 1961 to 1962, and as zoologist for the Secretary of Agriculture, Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1962 to 1964. Rand came to STRI in 1964 as a herpetologist. From 1974 to 1979 he served as STRI assistant director, and was appointed senior biologist in 1979. His interest in the behavior and ecology of reptiles and amphibians led to pioneering studies of frog communications.

After receiving a B.S. from Queens College in 1959, and a M.A. and Ph.D. in biology from Harvard in 1961 and 1963, respectively, in 1965 Ira Rubinoff served as Assistant to the Curator of ichthyology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. Rubinoff arrived at STRI in 1965 to assume the positions of Biologist and Assistant Director for marine biology. He was appointed Director of STRI in 1973. His research interests include sea snakes, the biological implications of interoceanic canal construction, zoogeography of the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and preservation of tropical forests.

Alan P. Smith was awarded his B.A. from Earlham College in 1967, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Duke University in 1970 and 1974, respectively. He joined STRI in 1974 as a staff scientist. Concurrently, from 1974 to 1981, he served as an Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1981 to 1988 he served in the same position at the University of Miami. In 1988, while continuing to serve as an adjunct professor of biology at the University of Miami, he assumed the position of Assistant Director for terrestrial research at STRI. Interested in the dynamics of tropical forests, Smith introduced the use of crane towers to study the forest canopy.

Nicholas D. Smythe joined STRI in 1970 as a biologist to study tropical mammals. He received his B.A. from University of British Columbia in 1963 and his Ph.D. from University of Maryland in 1970. His research at STRI focused on the paca and peccary, animals that are widely distributed in Latin America. In 1983, with a grant from the W. Alton Jones Foundation, Smythe began investigating the behavior and physiology of pacas in captivity with a view toward domesticating them to provide an alternative to cattle grazing.

In 1975, after receiving his Ph.D. in neurobiology and animal behavior from Cornell University in 1972, Donald M. Windsor joined STRI as a computer programmer and data analyst for the Environmental Monitoring Program. In 1990, he was appointed research biologist and coordinator of the Environmental Sciences Program. He has conducted extensive research on the ecological and genetic factors influencing the reproductive success of the wasp.

Rolando Perez, Dilia Santamaria, and Eduardo Sierra, students from the University of Panama, Hamilton W. Beltran Santiago and Ernesto Yallico, students from Peru, Zenith O. Batista, coordinator of the Tropical Forest Dynamics Project, Kaoru Kitajima Okada, STRI predoctoral fellow, Kevin P. Hogan, STRI visiting scientist, and Mirna Samaniego, a graduate in forestry from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, demonstrated scientific techniques used to study tropical plants. Todd Underwood, a student, demonstrated procedures for crab behavioral studies. Elias Gonzales, a Panamanian farmer participating in the experimental farm program, Arturo Cerezo, a faculty member from the School of Agriculture at the University of Panama, and Juvencio Trujillo, an agricultural assistant, showed how the Las Pavas experimental program actually operated.

National Zoological Park and Conservation and Research Center

Interviews conducted at both the NZP and CRC included staff members who participated in various programs to ensure species survival. Larry R. Collins received his B.A. in biology from Columbia Union College in 1965 and his M.S. in zoology from University of Maryland in 1973. He began his tenure with the NZP in 1967 as an animal keeper in the Scientific Research Division, and was appointed Supervisory Zoologist in that division in 1969. In 1972 he became Assistant Curator of the Department of Living Vertebrates at NZP, and from 1973 to 1975 he served as the Associate Curator for the Office of Animal Management. In 1975, Collins was appointed Mammal Curator at CRC.

Scott R. Derrickson completed his B.A. in biology in 1970 from Gettysburg College and his M.S. and Ph.D. in ecology and behavioral biology from University of Minnesota in 1975 and 1977, respectively. In 1977, he began work as a Research Behaviorist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and continued there until he was appointed Assistant Curator of ornithology at CRC in 1984. Later that same year, he was appointed Curator of ornithology. Since 1987, he has held that position concurrently with the position of Deputy Associate Director for Conservation and Captive Breeding.

Theodore H. Reed received his doctorate in veterinary medicine from Kansas State College in 1945. He taught veterinary pathology there before working as Assistant State Veterinarian for Oregon from 1946 to 1948. Between 1948 and 1955 Reed maintained a private veterinary practice in Idaho and Oregon. While practicing with the Rose City Veterinary Hospital in Portland, Reed was called upon to work with the Portland Zoo's animal collection which led to his career in exotic animal studies and zoo administration. Reed was appointed as a veterinarian for NZP in 1955. He became acting director of the NZP in 1956 and director in 1958. Reed retired from the directorship position in 1983.

Linwood R. Williamson received his B.S. in wildlife management from Virginia Polytechnic and State University in 1972. He came to CRC in 1978 and began working with birds, small mammals and hoofstock, as the Biotechnician in charge of the Ungulate Research Facilities.

For additional information on Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, National Zoological Park and Conservation Research Center, see the records of each bureau and oral history interviews of STRI researchers, administrators, game wardens, and neighbors, and of NZP administrators, located at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Historical Note:
Scientific efforts to preserve endangered species have focused on either maintenance of a controlled population that ensures genetic diversity or protection of habitat that ensures viability of a population in the wild. The Smithsonian Institution has sponsored programs using both methods in the study and exhibition of the plant and animal kingdoms.

In 1923, the Institute for Research in Tropical America established a research laboratory on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal Zone to investigate the flora and fauna of tropical America. In 1946, the laboratory was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution and was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 1966. Under Smithsonian aegis, STRI developed an extensive program of terrestrial and marine research on the tropical environment and special projects to find alternatives to tropical rainforest destruction and to study the effects of oil spills on the environment. In 1979, STRI assumed responsibility for the Barro Colorado Nature Monument, an extensive nature preserve which includes BCI and several surrounding peninsulas. STRI also built research facilities in Panama City and on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

The National Zoological Park was founded in 1889 in Washington, D.C., "for the advancement of science and the instruction and recreation of the people." Under the administration of Director Theodore H. Reed, a major renovation of the park was begun in 1963. Also during the 1960s, in response to rising concerns over endangered species, the NZP established a research department to study exotic animal physiology and behavior. In 1975, a separate facility for research, and animal breeding and rearing was established at Front Royal, Virginia, allowing the NZP to become an important part of the international Species Survival Program.
Topic:
Tropical biology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Ecology  Search this
Zoos  Search this
Mammalogy  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Invertebrate zoology  Search this
Herpetology  Search this
Conservation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9553, Conservation of Endangered Species Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9553
See more items in:
Conservation of Endangered Species Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9553

Computers

Type:
Archival materials
Note:
In Sessions Five through Eight, Paul Ceruzzi, Robert Anderson, and Willis Ware interviewed thirteen participants to discuss RAND's role in the post-1945 development of computers. Along with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California, RAND pioneered computer engineering and programming on the West Coast. The Air Force initially funded this work as a means of accelerating systems analysis and missile and nuclear weapon development, but became somewhat more reluctant to underwrite RAND's research when staff there began to develop more interactive applications for computers in the 1960s. Sessions were shot at RAND Corporation headquarters in Santa Monica, California. Besides the listed participants for each session, other session participants often contributed as members of an audience.

Participants for this first session contributed to the development of computer hardware between 1945 and 1965. Paul Armer joined Project RAND in 1947 as a mathematician and desk calculator operator. Five years later he became head of the Computer Sciences Department. In 1968 Armer left RAND to direct the Stanford University Computation Center, and since then has also headed the Charles Babbage Institute for the History of Information Processing in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and presided over the American Federation of Information Processing Societies.

William F. Gunning started working for Douglas Aircraft in their Flight Test laboratory in 1941. In 1947 he transferred to Project RAND where he worked as an electronic engineer on the development of the Random Number Generator, the modification of the REAC (Reeves Electronic Analog Computer), the Williams memory of the SWAC (Standard Western Analog computer), and the JOHNNIAC.

William P. Myers began working at RAND as Tabulating Department shift leader in 1948. With the arrival of the IBM 604 programmed calculator in 1951, he headed the Operations Group of the Numerical Analysis Department before moving to the Systems Development Department. In 1958 Myers returned to the Numerical Analysis Department in various managerial capacities; he switched to the Computer Science Department in the 1970s and retired in 1984.

Robert T. Nash worked at RAND from 1948 to 1957. He rose from IBM Cards Processor to Administrative Assistant of the Numerical Analysis Department by 1955. Nash then filled the same position for the Programming Department of the Systems Development Division, where he arranged for the settlement of SDD staff at air bases of the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) defense system. In 1956 he became manager of Field Services for the SDD and kept the position in 1957 when RAND spun off the Division into an autonomous corporation.

Keith W. Uncapher also arrived at RAND in 1950 and focused on computer engineering. He began with designing components for the REAC, and was responsible for development of the Selectron memory store of the JOHNNIAC. In the late 1950s he oversaw the RAND contract with Telemeter Magnetics for the first 4,096-word, 40-bit, magnetic core store; in the 1960s he managed the development of JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System), the RAND tablet, the GRAIL system, the acquisition by RAND of larger computers, and the development of a hardened communications system for the Air Force. Uncapher left RAND in 1972.

Willis H. Ware received his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in 1941 and his S.M. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology one year later. After spending World War II at Hazeltine Electronics Corporation, he joined John von Neumann's Electronic Computer Project at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He completed his Ph.D. at Princeton in 1951 and immediately joined RAND, where he helped lead the engineering on the JOHNNIAC, particularly its Selectron and magnetic core memories. Between 1964 and 1971 Ware headed the Computer Science Division, during which time he initiated debate on computer security as a technical subject. Ware joined the Corporate Research Staff in 1973 and advised various agencies on the applications of large computer systems. Throughout his career, Ware also helped found and support professional groups associated with computing.

Participants for Session Six contributed to the development of computer software between 1945 and 1965. Morton I. Bernstein joined RAND in 1954 as an assistant mathematician. For three years he wrote programs for the IBM 701 computer, the Linear Programming group, the Logistics Department, and consulted on various war games. In 1957 Bernstein assumed responsibility for the JOHNNIAC, concentrating on programming language design and implementation. Between 1961 and 1963, when he left RAND, Bernstein worked with the engineering staff on the RAND tablet.

Irwin Greenwald worked for RAND from 1950 to 1960 and from 1964 to 1969. During the 1950s he was responsible for programming JOHNNIAC's first assignment, the computations on UNIVAC I for the first H-bomb test, RAND's system and utility programming of the IBM 701 and 704 computers, PACT-II (Project Advanced Coding Technique), and the formation of the first users' group, SHARE (Society to Help Avoid Redundant Effort). In the 1960s Greenwald masterminded the major components of the JOSS-II system and the initial software for the RAND Videographic System.

J. Clifford Shaw spent twenty-three years at RAND, beginning in 1950. He specialized in systems software, beginning with the IBM Card-Programmed Calculator, the IBM 701, and the JOHNNIAC; and in artificial intelligence, where he worked with Allen Newell and Herbert Simon on various AI programs and IPL's (Information Processing Languages) I-VI. In the early 1960s he developed JOSS and its language and the system and demonstration software for the RAND tablet. Shaw died in March 1991.

Paul Armer and Willis Ware also appeared in this session.

Participants in Session Seven contributed to the development of computer graphics hardware between 1960 and 1965. Raymond W. Clewett began working in 1937 as a machinist, model builder, and laboratory foreman for Douglas Aircraft Company. After World War II he joined Lear Incorporated as machine shop foreman and design engineer for six years, returning to Santa Monica as shop manager and design engineer for RAND in 1951. His contributions there included design and construction of JOHNNIAC, other computer hardware, nuclear reactor test equipment, the RAND tablet, and closed circuit television reading devices for the visually impaired. After 1977, Clewett was an independent design consultant and owner of HY-TECH Engineering and Development Lab.

Thomas Ellis joined RAND in 1953 after graduate research on computer engineering at UCLA, and worked on most of the projects discussed in these sessions before he left in 1972. He was responsible for the JOHNNIAC's input/output machinery, design of the JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System) terminals, the RAND tablet, GRAIL (Graphic Input Language), and the RAND/IBM Videographic system.

Paul Armer, Morton Bernstein, and Willis Ware also appeared this session.

Participants in Session Eight contributed to the development of computer graphics software between 1965 and 1975. Robert Anderson received degrees in physics, philosophy, and applied mathematics between 1962 and 1968 at the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University. He joined RAND in 1973 as head of its Information Sciences Department while holding teaching and research appointments at the University of Southern California. In 1981 Anderson founded his own computer systems consulting firm. After 1986 he was director of RAND's Institute for Research on Interactive Systems (IRIS) and resident consultant.

Barry W. Boehm received his degrees in mathematics from Harvard University and UCLA between 1959 and 1964. Concurrently with his graduate work at UCLA, Boehm headed RAND's new Information Sciences Department. From 1973 to 1989 he was Chief Scientist of TRW's Defense Systems Group, after which he became Director of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's Information Science and Technology Office. Boehm has written three books on software engineering.

Edward C. DeLand started working at RAND after finishing his Ph.D. in mathematics at UCLA in 1956. He spent the next six years managing the analog computers, REAC and TRAC, and then began developing mathematical models for blood biochemistry. After switching to physiological research in 1963, DeLand helped construct the BIOMOD program. DeLand left RAND in 1972 for UCLA's Department of Surgery where he continues to develop applications for computers in medical instruction and diagnosis.

Gabriel F. Groner was finishing a Ph.D. in electrical engineering at Stanford University when he joined RAND in 1964. His interests in character recognition, interactive systems, computer graphics and medical applications of computers were manifested in his contributions to the GRAIL program; the BIOMOD simulation system; the study of computer applications to industrial automation; and the CLINFO data system for medical research. Groner left RAND in 1978.

Thomas Ellis also appeared in this session.

The discussions detailed the development at RAND of computer hardware and software in the post-war era. Sessions provide visual documentation of early computer components.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9536, The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9536, Series 3
See more items in:
The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9536-refidd1e590

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