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United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Extent:
78 Prints (circa, albumen)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Comanche Indians  Search this
Hidatsa Indians  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Paiute Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Hawaiians  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Aleuts  Search this
Piegan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Ponca Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
circa 1884-1885
Scope and Contents note:
Army Medical Museum photographs prepared under the supervision of John Shaw Billings and Washington Matthews, and created by superimosing images of several skulls for comparative purposes. Each image has a caption that includes tribal or racial identification, number of skulls photographed, photograph number, negative number, and data on photographic technique.

The collection includes representations of Aleuts, Apache, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Dakota, Eskimo, Hidatsa, Navajo, Oglala, Ojibwa, Paiute, Piegan, Ponca, Wichita, African Americans, Hawaiians, and people of San Miguel and San Nicholas Islands (California).

Additional photographs by the Army Medical Museum included in the papers of Ales Hrdlicka, photographic lot 33, filed "Washington Matthews," and photographic lot 78-42.
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased American Indians. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 6A
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 73-26C, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
The National Anthropological Archives holds microfilm of the papers of Washington Matthews, circa 1864-1905, and records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution from the Army Medical Museum.
See others in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, circa 1884-1885
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.6A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-6a

United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Collector:
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Hayden, F. V. (Ferdinand Vandeveer), 1829-1887  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Palmer, Edward, 1829-1911  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Rolleston, George, 1829-1881  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F.  Search this
Depicted:
Guiteau, Charles J. (Charles Julius), 1841-1882  Search this
Extent:
100 Negatives (circa, glass)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Ute Indians -- depicted  Search this
Chinook Indians -- depicted  Search this
Choptank Indians -- depicted  Search this
Dakota Indians -- depicted  Search this
Eskimos -- depicted  Search this
Tonkawa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Africans -- United States -- depicted  Search this
Potawatomi Indians -- depicted  Search this
Taiwan aborigines -- depicted  Search this
Pomo Indians -- depicted  Search this
Taiwanese -- depicted  Search this
Pueblo Indians -- depicted  Search this
Nisqually Indians -- depicted  Search this
Hawaiians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
probably 1870s-1880s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of skulls in the United States Army Medical Museum collection, which appear to have been collected for physical anthropological purposes. Included are archeological remains and remains of historical American Indian tribes and some other ethnic groups. Other than tribe or location, data for the specimens include Army Medical Museum specimen number, AMM negative number, and sex; for some, there is also collection data and information on physical or medical conditions. There are also notes identifying donors who included army officers, physicians, scientists, and explorers such as Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden, Edward Palmer, Frederic Ward Putnam, George Rolleston, Paul Schumacher, and many others. Some of the photographs may have been made as part of the Army Medical Museumʹs program of distributing images of its specimens.

Represented are Africans, Chinook, Choptank, Dakota, Eskimo of Greenland, Taiwanese peoples, Hawaiians, Hidatsa, Nisqually, Philippine peoples, Ponca, Potowatomi, Pueblo, Tonkawa, and Ute. Archeological specimens are from the Aleutian Islands, California, the Dakotas, England (Roman period), Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, New Mexico, Peru, Vancouver Island, and Vermont. For some, there is also information about the status or physical condition of the individual or observations of medical conditions shown in the specimens. Some additional photographs appear to show specimens at the American Museum of Natural History.
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased American Indians. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73-26C, NAA Photo Lot 73-26D
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs previously filed in Photo Lot 73-26D have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 73-26C. These are also Army Medical Museum negatives of skulls and form part of this collection.
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6A, Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 73-26C, United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73-26C
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73-26c

The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature

Author:
Adler, Cyrus 1863-1940  Search this
Subject:
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Goode, G. Brown (George Brown) 1851-1896  Search this
Henry, Joseph 1797-1878  Search this
Langley, S. P (Samuel Pierpont) 1834-1906  Search this
Newcomb, Simon 1835-1909  Search this
Royal Society of London  Search this
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature  Search this
British Association for the Advancement of Science  Search this
Physical description:
Number of pages : 18; Page numbers : 184-201
Date:
August 6, 1897
Topic:
Science  Search this
Science--International cooperation  Search this
International cooperation  Search this
Societies  Search this
Science publishing  Search this
Communication in science  Search this
Learned institutions and societies  Search this
Science--Societies, etc  Search this
Exchanges, Literary and scientific  Search this
Catalogs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_11768

Folder 1 Billings, John Shaw (1838-1913). Includes a death announcement; biographical memoirs; and a publication of a memorial meeting at the New York Public Library, 1913-1917.

Collection Creator::
National Museum of Natural History. Division of Mammals  Search this
Container:
Box 2 of 17
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7320, National Museum of Natural History. Division of Mammals, Biographical File
See more items in:
Biographical File
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7320-refidd1e1181

National Academy of Sciences Meeting, Smithsonian Institution Building

Author:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Henry, Joseph 1797-1878  Search this
Henry, Mary Anna 1834-1903  Search this
Clark, Frank Wigglesworth  Search this
Dalton, John Call 1825-1889  Search this
Bessels, Emil 1847-1888  Search this
Gould, Benjamin Apthorp  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Rhees, William Jones 1830-1907  Search this
Dutton, Clarence E (Clarence Edward) 1841-1912  Search this
Guyot, A (Arnold) 1807-1884  Search this
Parker, Peter  Search this
Mayer, Alfred M  Search this
Silliman, Benjamin 1816-1885  Search this
Loomis, Elias  Search this
Schott, Charles A (Charles Anthony) 1826-1901  Search this
Newcomb, Simon 1835-1909  Search this
Morgan, Lewis Henry 1818-1881  Search this
Newberry, John Strong  Search this
Hilgard, J. E  Search this
Woodward, J.J  Search this
Ferrel, William  Search this
Coffin, J. H. C  Search this
Engelmann, George  Search this
Pierce, Benjamin  Search this
Michelson, A. A  Search this
Mitchell, S. Wier  Search this
Endlich, F. M  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Group; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Group
Date:
April 1874
Topic:
Secretaries  Search this
Secretariats  Search this
Women  Search this
Women--History  Search this
Scientists  Search this
Meetings  Search this
Associations, institutions, etc  Search this
Professional associations  Search this
Learned institutions and societies  Search this
Standard number:
19072 and AI-19072
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_9622

National Academy of Sciences Meeting, Smithsonian Institution Building

Author:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Henry, Joseph 1797-1878  Search this
Henry, Mary Anna 1834-1903  Search this
Clark, Frank Wigglesworth  Search this
Dalton, John Call 1825-1889  Search this
Bessels, Emil 1847-1888  Search this
Gould, Benjamin Apthorp  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Rhees, William Jones 1830-1907  Search this
Dutton, Clarence E (Clarence Edward) 1841-1912  Search this
Guyot, A (Arnold) 1807-1884  Search this
Parker, Peter  Search this
Mayer, Alfred M  Search this
Silliman, Benjamin 1816-1885  Search this
Loomis, Elias  Search this
Schott, Charles A (Charles Anthony) 1826-1901  Search this
Newcomb, Simon 1835-1909  Search this
Morgan, Lewis Henry 1818-1881  Search this
Newberry, John Strong  Search this
Hilgard, J. E  Search this
Woodward, J.J  Search this
Ferrel, William  Search this
Coffin, J. H. C  Search this
Engelmann, George  Search this
Pierce, Benjamin  Search this
Michelson, A. A  Search this
Mitchell, S. Wier  Search this
Endlich, F. M  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Group; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Group
Date:
April 1874
Topic:
Secretaries  Search this
Secretariats  Search this
Women  Search this
Women--History  Search this
Scientists  Search this
Meetings  Search this
Smithsonian Institution--Employees  Search this
Standard number:
MAH10844
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_9834

Seven adult male Esquimaux skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Numbers 1189, 1190, 1206, 1182, 1191, 1195

Creator:
United States Department of War United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Eskimo skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712100
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86579

Seven adult male Esquimaux skulls (superimposed; frontal view)

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 005 3/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Eskimo skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712200
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86590

Seven adult male Sandwich Islanders skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Number 425, 444, 442, 445, 446, 438, 286

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Hawaiians skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712300
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86591

Seven adult male Sandwich Islanders skulls (superimposed; lateral view); Numbers 425, 444, 442, 445, 446, 438, 286

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 005 3/4 in x 006 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Hawaiians skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712400
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86592

Seven adult male Sandwich Islanders skulls (superimposed; base view); Numbers 425, 444, 442, 445, 446, 438, 286

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Hawaiians skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712500
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86593

Seven adult male Sioux Indian skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Numbers 483, 793, 792, 1119, 665, 330, 816

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Dakota skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712600
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86594

Seven adult male Sioux Indian skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Numbers 483, 793, 792, 1119, 665, 330, 816

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 in x 006 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Dakota skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712700
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86595

Seven adult male Sioux Indian skulls (superimposed; lateral view); Numbers 483, 793, 1119, 665, 330, 816

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Dakota skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712800
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86596

Seven adult male Sioux Indian skulls (superimposed; base view); Numbers 483, 793, 792, 1119, 665, 330, 816

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
Dakota skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09712900
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86598

Seven adult male "Negro" skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Numbers 980, 411, 955, 949, 953, 979, 954

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09713000
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86599

Seven male adult "Negro" skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Numbers 980, 411, 955, 949, 953, 979, 954

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09713100
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86600

Seven adult male "Negro" skulls (superimposed; lateral view); Numbers 980, 411, 955, 949, 953, 979, 954

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09713200
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86601

Seven adult male "Negro" skulls (superimposed; lateral view)

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 in x 006 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09713300
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86602

Seven adult male "Negro" skulls (superimposed; lateral view)

Creator:
United States Department of War United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
1 photoprint 006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Physical anthropology--anthropometry  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 09713400
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls circa 1884-1885
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_86603

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