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Exhibitions at China Basin Landings, Cathy Baum & Associates

Collection Creator:
Braunstein/Quay Gallery  Search this
Container:
Box 33, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1994-1998
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Braunstein/Quay Gallery records, 1956-2011. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Braunstein/Quay Gallery records
Braunstein/Quay Gallery records / Series 3: Exhibition and Event Files / Exhibitions and Events Held Elsewhere
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f5c3def6-15ee-4746-809e-470ab412be95
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-braugall-ref617

Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials

Donor:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Manufacturer:
Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Extent:
23 Cubic feet (99 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Window displays
Date:
1885-1940s
Summary:
The collection documents the building, operation and daily life of coal mining communities in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Ohio between 1911 and 1946. The collection is a valuable for the study of mining technology and the social conditions of the time period and regions.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists mostly of photographs depicting Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company mines and mining towns in Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Subjects include worker housing, schools for miners' children, gardens, churches, recreational facilities, health services, company stores, safety, mining machinery, construction of mines and related structures, and the interiors of mines.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1904-1933

Series 2: Photographs, 1885-1940s

Subseries 2.1: Photograph Albums, 1885-1932

Subseries 2.2: West Virginia Division, 19091-1917

Subseries 2.3: Glass Plate and Film Negatives, 1911-1940s

Subseries 2.4: Numbered Photographs, 1911-1930

Subseries 2.5: Miscellaneous, 1913, 1916
Historical Note:
The Consolidation Coal Company was started in 1864 to mine bituminous coal deposits in Maryland's Cumberland region. it expanded by acquiring other mine companies as well as rail and other transportation companies. It went into receivership in 1932. The Pittsburgh Coal Company, founded in 1900, took over the firm in 1945 and formed the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Consolidation Coal Company (Maryland)

The Consolidation Coal Company was incorporated in Maryland on March 8, 1860, for the purpose of effecting a merger of a number of coal operators mining the Georges Creek basin in Allegany County, Maryland. Because of the Civil War, during which Confederate armies frequently blocked the region's only outlet to market, the company was not actually organized until April 19, 1864. Starting life as the dominant operator in this small but significant coal field, "Consol" rose to become the nation's top producer of bituminous coal.

The Georges Creek or Cumberland Coal Field, occupying part of the triangle of western Maryland, contained a high-quality, low-volatile bituminous steam coal which was also, thanks to the Potomac River, the coal of this type most accessible to Eastern markets. Coal had been mined in the region beginning in the 1700s, and the first coal company, the Maryland Mining Company, had been incorporated in 1828. However, large-scale development could not occur until the mid-1840s, after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Cumberland and provided reliable transportation. This also coincided with the development of ocean steam navigation and a rapid growth in the number of railroad locomotives and stationary steam engines. Cumberland coal was ideal for ship bunkering, and much of the output was shipped to New York Harbor. Naturally, New York capitalists and manufacturers played a leading role in developing the field. Lewis Howell's Maryland and New York Iron and Coal Company rolled the first solid U.S. railroad rail at its Mount Savage mill in 1844. The Consolidation Coal merger was put together by New Yorkers such as William H. Aspinwall, Erastus Corning, the Delanos and Roosevelts, and the Boston financier John Murray Forbes, who already had substantial investments in the region.

Upon its formation, the Consolidation Coal Company acquired the properties of the Ocean Steam Coal Company, the Frostburg Coal Company, and the Mount Savage Iron Company totaling about 11,000 acres. The last named company brought with it control of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad, which connected the mines to the Baltimore & Ohio and later the Pennsylvania and Western Maryland railroads. In 1870, Consol absorbed the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company of 1840, the next largest operator in the field, and gained an additional 7,000 acres. Further purchases from the Delano interests gave it over 80 percent of the entire Cumberland Field.

Soon after its hated rival, the Pennsylvania Railroad, gained access to the Cumberland Coal Field, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began purchasing large blocks of Consolidation Coal stock to protect its traffic base in 1875, eventually gaining a 52 percent interest. A B&O slate of directors was elected in February 1877, with Charles F. Mayer of Baltimore as president, and the company offices were moved from New York to Baltimore.

Until the turn of the century, Consolidation Coal's mining operations were confined to the small soft coal region of western Maryland. The company purchased the 12,000 acre Millholland coal tract near Morgantown, W.Va. in 1902 and acquired controlling interests in the Fairmont Coal Company of West Virginia and the Somerset Coal Company of Pennsylvania the following year. These acquisitions boosted Consolidation's annual production more than six-fold in only three years. The company purchased the 25,000 acre Stony Creek tract in Somerset County, Pa., in 1904. The Fairmont Coal Company purchase included a joint interest in the North Western Fuel Company, which owned and operated docks and coal distribution facilities in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

In 1906, the Interstate Commerce Commission held a formal investigation of rail ownership of coal companies, which resulted in the passage of the Hepburn Act and its "Commodities Clause," which prohibited railroads from dealing in the commodities they hauled. In anticipation of the new regulations, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad sold its entire holdings of Consolidation stock to a Baltimore syndicate headed by Consol president Clarence W. Watson, J. H. Wheelwright and H. Crawford on April 26, 1906. At the time of the B&O's divestiture, the aggregate annual output of Consolidation's mines totaled more than 10 million tons and the company controlled more than 200,000 acres. The John D. Rockefeller interests began purchasing Consol securities in 1915, eventually securing a controlling interest. The company's offices were returned to New York City in May 1921.

After the B&O divestiture, Consol began expanding into the Southern Appalachian coal fields, which were just being opened by railroads on a large scale. The mines in this region yielded a low volatile coal that provided an ideal fuel source for stationary steam engines, ships, and locomotives. Of equal importance, operators in the remote mountains had been able to resist unionization and thus achieve lower operating costs, while all of Consol's previous holdings had been in the so-called "Central Competitive Field" to the north, which had been unionized in the 1890s. Consolidation Coal purchased 30,000 acres in the Millers Creek Field of Eastern Kentucky in 1909 and 100,000 acres in the Elkhorn Field the next year. In February 1922, Consol secured a long term lease and option on the Carter Coal Company, whose 37,000 acres straddled the borders of Virginia, West Virginia and Kentucky. In 1925, Consol became the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal, excluding the captive mines of the steel companies.

During the Great Depression, Consolidation Coal experienced serious financial difficulties and was forced into receivership on June 2, 1932. The Rockefellers liquidated their holdings at a loss, and the Carter Coal Company was returned to the Carter heirs in 1933. Consol was reorganized and reincorporated in Delaware as the Consolidation Coal Company, Inc. on November 1, 1935, and was able to retain its position as one of the nation's top coal producers. Eventually, stock control passed into the hands of the M.A. Hanna Company group of Cleveland, dealers in coal and iron ore. Although production reached record levels during the Second World War, management feared a recurrence of the collapse that had followed World War I. It also faced the prospect of increased competition from oil and natural gas and the loss of traditional markets such as home heating and locomotive fuel. As a result Consol opened negotiations with another large producer, the Pittsburgh Coal Company, which was the dominant operator in the Pittsburgh District.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was a product of the great industrial merger movement of the late 1890s. In 1899, two large mergers were effected in the Pittsburgh District.

The Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on October 1, 1899 to merge the properties of over 90 small firms operating mines along the Monongahela River south of Pittsburgh. Some of these operations dated to the early 1800s, and all of them shipped coal down the Ohio-Mississippi River system by barge from close to the mine mouth, or later by the railroads built along the river banks. The combination controlled 40,000 acres of coal land, 100 steam towboats, 4,000 barges, and facilities for handling coal at Cincinnati, Louisville, Vicksburg, Memphis, Baton Rouge and New Orleans.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in New Jersey as a holding company on September 1, 1899 and acquired the properties of over 80 operators located in the areas back from the river on both sides of the Monongahela south of Pittsburgh. The combination was engineered by some of the most prominent Pittsburgh industrialists, including Andrew W. Mellon, Henry W. Oliver, and Henry Clay Frick. It controlled over 80,000 acres and six collector railroads, the longest of which was the Montour Railroad. Most of its output was shipped by rail, with a large share being transferred to ships on the Great Lakes for distribution throughout the industrial Midwest. The company owned coal docks and yards at Chicago, Cleveland, Duluth, West Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Ashtabula, Fairport and Thornburg. Subsequently, the company expanded in southwestern Pennsylvania and the Hocking Valley of Ohio through the lease of the Shaw Coal Company in 1901 and the purchase of the Midland Coal Company in 1903. Most of the properties were vested in a separate Pittsburgh Coal Company, an operating company incorporated in Pennsylvania.

Unlike the Consolidation Coal Company, which had grown by gradual accretion, the Pittsburgh Coal Company had been created in a single stroke. As with many mergers of the period, its capitalization probably contained a high percentage of "water" in anticipation of profits from future growth. Unfortunately, the years after the merger saw explosive growth in the coal fields of Southern Appalachia instead. Although farther from major consuming centers, they enjoyed several advantages. The coal itself was superior, low-volatile with higher BTU content and altogether cleaner than the high-volatile coals of Ohio and the Pittsburgh District. As already noted, the southern mines were also non-union. With the inroads of Southern Appalachian coal, the Pittsburgh Coal Company continuously lost ground in the crucial Lake and western markets from 1900 to 1915. The company's capitalization proved unwieldy in the unsettled economic conditions following the Panic of 1907. A reorganization plan was devised under which a new Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on January 12, 1916 by merging the old Pittsburgh Coal Company of Pennsylvania and the Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company. The old holding company was then liquidated and the stock of the new operating company distributed to its stockholders. Dissension between the common and preferred stockholders delayed consummation of the plan until July 16, 1917.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company, which had all its operations in the Central Competitive Field, had a much more difficult time than Consolidation in breaking the 1923 Jacksonville Agreement with the United Mine Workers in 1925-1927 and reverting to non-union status. The three-year struggle ended the company's ability to pay dividends. Pittsburgh Coal survived the Depression without receivership but with ever-increasing arrearages on its preferred stock. By the end of World War II, its managers were just as eager as those at Consol to attempt greater economies through merger. The Pittsburgh Coal Company and the Consolidation Coal Company merged on November 23, 1945, with exchange ratios of 65 to 35 percent. Pittsburgh Coal Company, the surviving partner, changed its name to the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company

After the merger, the M.A. Hanna Company interests of Cleveland became the dominant factor in Pitt-Consol's affairs. Hanna had transferred its pre-merger Consol stock to its subsidiary Bessemer Coal & Coke Corporation in 1943. This led to a restructuring whereby Pitt-Consol acquired Hanna's share of the North Western-Hanna Fuel Company in April 1946 and the Hanna coal properties in eastern Ohio on June 16, 1946 These included large reserves of strippable coal that accounted for about 20 percent of the state's production. Pitt-Consol later acquired Hanna's holdings of coal land in Harrison, Belmont and Jefferson Counties, Ohio, on December 30, 1949. It purchased the New York Central Railroad's 51 percent interest in the Jefferson Coal Company, giving it full control, in 1952 and merged it into the Hanna Coal Company Division.

Pitt-Consol sold its last major railroads, the Montour Railroad and the Youngstown & Southern Railway to the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad on December 31, 1946. The Northwestern Coal Railway had been sold to the Great Northern system, and the Cumberland & Pennsylvania Railroad had been sold to the Western Maryland Railway in May 1944.

In addition, a new Research and Development Division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods, new outlets for coal consumption, coal-based synthetic fuels and chemical byproducts. A new coal gasification plant opened at Library, Pa., in November 1948, and the company began the manufacture of a smokeless fuel briquette under the trademark "Disco" at Imperial, Pa., in 1949. An experimental coal slurry pipeline was built in Ohio in 1952.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, Pitt-Consol made many changes in its coal holdings, selling high-cost or less desirable properties, diversifying its reserves across many different coal fields, rationalizing property lines to permit large mechanized underground or strip mines and forming joint ventures with steel companies to secure guaranteed customers. Pitt-Consol acquired the Jamison Coal and Coke Company in 1954 and the Pocahontas Fuel Company, Incorporated, a large producer of low-volatile Southern Appalachian coal, in 1956. In the latter year, it sold its Elkhorn Field properties to the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. As Pittsburgh District operations became less central, the corporate name was changed back to Consolidation Coal Company in April 1958.

The Consolidation Coal Company, CONOCO and CONSOL Energy, Inc.:

Consol continued to expand into the early 1960s. On April 30, 1962, it absorbed the Truax-Traer Coal Company of Illinois. Truax-Traer also mined lignite in North Dakota, a low-grade but low-sulfur coal that was taking a greater share of the power generation market as environmental laws placed greater restrictions on high-sulfur coal from the Central Competitive Field. The following year Consol acquired the Crozer Coal and Land Company and the Page Coal and Coke Company, owners of additional reserves of low-volatile, low-sulfur steam coal in southern West Virginia.

In 1966, just two years after the company marked its centennial, Consolidation Coal was acquired by the Continental Oil Company (Conoco). This was part of a general trend whereby U.S. oil companies extended their reach by acquiring coal reserves and large coal producers. In turn, Conoco was acquired by E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company in 1981. This purchase was motivated by DuPont's desire to obtain better control of chemical feedstocks in an era of high oil prices. Consolidation Coal was not a major factor in the Conoco acquisition and did not really fit into DuPont's strategy, especially after coal and oil prices declined. As a result, it was quickly sold off when DuPont was restructured a decade later. In 1991, a new holding company CONSOL Engery, Inc. was incorporated as a joint venture of DuPont Energy Company and the German energy conglomerate Rheinisch-Westfalisches Elektrizitatswerk A.G., through its wholly owned subsidiaries Rheinbraun A.G. and Rheinbraun U.S.A. GmbH. Consolidation Coal Company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of CONSOL Energy, Inc. DuPont eventually sold most of its half interest, so that by 1998, Rheinbraun affiliates owned 94% of CONSOL Energy stock, while DuPont Energy retained only 6%. CONSOL Energy purchased the entire stock of the Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company on September 22, 1998. CONSOL Energy stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "CNX" in 1999, with an initial public offering of more than 20 million shares.

CONSOL Energy produced more than 74 million tons of coal in 1999, accounting for approximately 7% of domestic production. The company currently operates 22 mining complexes, primarily east of the Mississippi River.

Source

Historical note from the Consolidation Coal Company Records, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Archives Center holds a number of collections that document coal.

Coal and Gas Trust Investigation Collection (NMAH.AC.1049)

Hammond Coal Company Records (NMAH.AC.1003)

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records (NMAH.AC.0071)

Lehigh Valley Coal Company Records (NMAH.AC.1106)

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records (NMAH.AC.0282)

Materials in Other Organizations

Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

CONSOL Energy, Inc. Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1857-2002

AIS.1991.16

The CONSOL Energy Inc. collection contains coal mine maps, related documents and topographical information, as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents. Additionally, there are technical drawings, outside notes on multiple mines, traverse and survey books, information on companies and railroads with which CONSOL conducted business, and a variety of non-print materials including photographs, negatives and aperture cards. Digital reproductions of selected material are available online.

CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1880-1994

AIS.2004.22

The CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection contains coal mine maps as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents in West Virginia and Eastern Ohio. Additionally, there are technical drawings, related documents, traverse and survey books, publications and photographs.

Consolidation Coal Company Records, 1854-1971, bulk 1864-1964

AIS.2011.03

The Consolidation Coal Company (Consol) was created by the merger of several small operators mining the Georges Creek coal basin in Allegany County, Maryland. The company expanded rapidly in the early twentieth century through the purchase of substantial tracts in the coal fields of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky as well as docks and distribution facilities in the Great Lakes region. By 1927, Consol was the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal. Following a merger with the Pittsburgh Coal Company in 1945, the company pursued a policy of acquiring companies which afforded opportunities for greater diversification while selling off unprofitable lines. In addition, a new research and development division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods and new outlets for coal consumption. The records of the Consolidation Coal Company and its affiliated companies are arranged in seven series. Minute books and contract files provide the most comprehensive documentation in this collection.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of American History in 1987 by Bethlehem Steel Corporation.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Accidents  Search this
Children -- 20th century  Search this
Coal miners  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Churches  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Safety measures  Search this
Construction  Search this
Dams  Search this
Gardens  Search this
General stores  Search this
Hospitals  Search this
Housing  Search this
Kindergarten  Search this
May Day  Search this
Mine safety  Search this
Mines -- Kentucky  Search this
Mines -- Maryland  Search this
Mines -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mines -- West Virginia  Search this
Mining corporations  Search this
Mining equipment  Search this
Mining -- Kentucky  Search this
Mining -- Maryland  Search this
Mining and minerals industry  Search this
Mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mining -- West Virginia  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Schools -- school houses -- Classrooms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Window displays
Citation:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1007
See more items in:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86027ae9f-9a84-4277-adcf-d0b5e919ac6a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1007
Online Media:

A Toilet Bomb Sends Flight 870 Down

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-03-13T04:00:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_L68Hs0WYtQk

Buddhist Ekoji - Nen Daiko - Japanese Taiko Drumming

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-01-28T15:30:30.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Im2m2iFA9wg

Inka Road Symposium 23 - The Inka Road from Titicaca Basin to Contisuyu

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-07-15T18:45:36.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_dWqhrGmIVKk

Clues to the End-Permian Extinction

Creator:
Smithsonian Education  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2011-03-25T20:33:59.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianEducation
Data Source:
Smithsonian Education
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianEducation
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_eG8XyesAu74

Emperor Tamarins at Amazonia

Creator:
National Zoo  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-12-04T17:30:02.000Z
YouTube Category:
Pets & Animals  Search this
Topic:
Zoology;Animals;Veterinary medicine;Animal health  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNZP
Data Source:
National Zoo
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNZP
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_UGBBo3Dvh1A

The Primatologist

Creator:
National Zoo  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-03-20T13:51:19.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Zoology;Animals;Veterinary medicine;Animal health  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNZP
Data Source:
National Zoo
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNZP
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_xRSCl1RqPaA

#AmphibianWeek: Meet the Aquatic Caecilian

Creator:
National Zoo  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2024-05-06T18:44:38.000Z
YouTube Category:
Pets & Animals  Search this
Topic:
Zoology;Animals;Veterinary medicine;Animal health  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNZP
Data Source:
National Zoo
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNZP
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_xlR7BBjsshg

Barking Treefrog - "A Large Breeding Chorus of Florida Gopher Frogs" [Official Audio]

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2009-02-24T16:26:31.000Z
YouTube Category:
Music  Search this
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianfolkways
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianfolkways
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_CMkTLGBxEgk

basin, wash

Maker:
Fulper Pottery Company  Search this
Physical Description:
brown (overall color)
ceramic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 in x 16 in; 10.16 cm x 40.64 cm
Object Name:
Basin
basin, wash
Place made:
United States: New Jersey, Flemington
Place used:
United States: New Mexico, Albuquerque
Credit Line:
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. F. S. Elmore
ID Number:
CE.263810.16
Catalog number:
263810.16
Accession number:
263810
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Ceramics and Glass
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a3-e362-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_581062
Online Media:

American Anthropological Association records

Creator:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Extent:
175 Linear feet
Note:
The collection is stored off-site. Advanced notice must be given to view the collection.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1904-2005
bulk 1915-1996
Scope and Contents:
These records document the activities of the American Anthropological Association from 1904 through 2007 (although the majority of the files only date to 1996), with informational content regarding its constitution and by-laws, constitutional changes and ballot voting, dating back to its creation in 1902. The majority of the records consist of correspondence and memoranda, both originals and carbon copies, typed and handwritten. Also included are telegrams, postcards, notes, lists, reports, newspaper clippings, publications, newsletters, articles, receipts, meeting minutes and agendas, programs, expense accounts, budget material, planning schedules and other documents relating to the business of the Association, as well as tape recordings of various AAA program sessions, tape recordings and video tapes regarding interviews and other material pertaining to the Tasaday, tape recordings regarding ethics cases, tape recording for classroom material for the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project, and mainframe computer tapes, computer discs, and printouts regarding the Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology. There are photographs, mostly documenting some of the sessions and attendees at the annual conference in Mexico, 1959, photographs and slides used for special AAA Newsletter themes (under Publication Department files in series 4), and a photograph of Roy Rappaport.

The most extensive documentation including all of the presidential papers, date from 1947, when the newly created Executive Board (established by constitutional changes in 1946) received funds from the Carnegie Corporation of New York City to establish a secretariat headed by an executive secretary (later, executive director). With the creation of the latter office, files were more systematically transferred to and maintained by the organization. With the permanent move of the executive secretary to Washington, DC, in 1959, the records of the organization became more expansive.

Though this guide documents the records in great detail, not all items of information, whether by name, subject, or geographical location has been noted. In addition to locating information through the "find" feature, researchers should search throughout the list of file folders that come within the time frame of inquiry and review those folders that may hold additional information.

Researchers should be cognizant of the fact that there will be accretions to the records of the American Anthropological Association as tranfers are made to the National Anthropological Archives. Documentation about the accretions may reside in separate guides.

American Anthropological Association Organizational Name Index

AAA committees, task forces, and commissions that are well documented include: Administrative Advisory Committee; AIDS Task Force; Anthropology and Archaeological Research in Latin America (including laws and requirements for conducting research in Latin American countries written in Spanish and Portuguese); Anthropology as a Profession; Anthropology Curriculum Study Project; Anthropology Research Services; Archives Committee; Franz Boas Memorial Committee; Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums; Committee on Science in the Promotion of Human Welfare; Committee to Study Research and Ethics (1965-1967), including interviews of anthropologists conducting research in foreign countries and regional areas; Committee on Ethics; Committee on International Cooperation; Committee on Scientific Research; Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology and Committee to Study the Academic Employment of Women in Anthropology; Committee Point IV Manual; Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains; Committee on Scientific Communications; Commission on Lesbian and Gay Issues in Anthropology; Committee on International Cooperation; Congressional Fellowship Program; Environment Task Force; Involuntary Resettlement Task Force; Lurie Commission; Program in Anthropology and Education and Special Teacher Improvement Programs; Program of Visiting Anthropologists; Publication Policy Committee; Task Force on Poverty and Homelessness; and Task Force on Teaching Anthropology.

American Anthropological Association Cases, Issues and Projects of Concern and/or Undertaken by the Association

Franz Boas issue; status of anthropology in the United States government; Alfred Metraux and Argentine indigenous population; Vietnam; reorganization; establishment of a secretariat, executive secretary and executive director; Aswan Dam and sites in "Ancient Nubia"; CIA and anthropological research; Derek Freeman and Margaret Mead controversy; El Paso Natural Gas Company archaeological salvage program; establishment of the Alfred Vincent Kidder award; anthropology and the Graduate Record Examination; anthropology and the military; Baltimore Neighborhood Project; Camelot Project; Bureau of American Ethnology; career pamphlets on anthropology; civil liberties; employment in anthropology; Exxon-Valdez litigation; guides to anthropology departments in the United States; Hollywood "ten"; human rights; Richard G. Morgan (Ohio State Museum) case; move of the secretariat to Washington, DC, and subsequent move of AAA headquarters in DC and Virginia; Navajo/Hopi land dispute; professional freedom; race and intelligence; Peruvian research; resolutions on professional and scientific freedom; River Basin surveys; register of anthropologists; River Valley Archaeology Program; scientific freedom; selected writings from American Anthropologist for special publication; Simon Fraser University (dismissal of faculty members); Morris Swadish (City College of New York) affair; Tasaday issue; Thailand research; University of California loyalty oath and dismissal of 21 faculty members; Viking Fund Medal award; David Webster case (assassination of Webster); and Yanomami (Yonomamo) Indians and human rights violations.

American Anthropological Association Sections, other Anthropology Associations, and Additional Organizations that are well Documented

American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Association of Physical Anthropologists; American Association of University Professors; American Council on Education; American Council of Learned Societies; American Ethnological Society; American Sociological Society; Anthropological Association of Hawaii; Anthropological Society of Washington; Asia Foundation; Carnegie Foundation of New York; Carroll Reece House Congressional Committee to investigate tax exempt foundations; Central States Anthropology Society; Council for Old World Archaeology; Department of Health, Education and Welfare; Division of Anthropology and Psychology, Educational Resources in Anthropology; Indian Land Claims Committee; Indian Service Program; International Congress of Americanists; International Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences; International Council of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; International Directory of Anthropologists; International Society for Psychedelic Anthropology; National Academy of Sciences; National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel; National Institute of Mental Health; National Park Service (environmental research and applied anthropology); National Research Council; National Science Foundation; Program in Ethnographic Film; Smith, Kline and French Laboratories; Social Science Research Council; Society for American Archaeology; Society for the Anthropology of Visual Communications; Society for Applied Anthropology; Society for the History of Anthropology; Society for Medical Anthropology and Group for Medical Anthropology; Society for Psychological Anthropology; Southwestern Anthropological Society; Wenner-Gren Foundation; Western States Branch of AAA; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; Yukon Island Research Reservation.

American Anthropological Association Officers and other Individuals who are Documented or who have Important Correspondence

Aberle, David F.; Adams, Richard; Aginsky, Ethel G; Beals, Ralph Leon; Barnett, Homer Garner; Barr, William; Benedict, Ruth; Bennett, Wendell C.; Berreman, Gerald D. Boas, Franz; Boggs, Stephen T.; Bohannon, Laura; Bohannon, Paul J.; Brew, John Otis; Brumfiel, Elizabeth Margarethe; Byers, Douglas; Carstens, Peter; Casagrande, Joseph; Cault, Allen D.; Chagnon, Napoleon A.; Chapple, Eliot Dismore; Cole, Fay-Cooper; Collier, Donald; Collier, Malcolm; Collier, Malcolm Carr; Conklin, Harold C.; Cooper, John M.; Cornman, John M.; Dobzhansky, Theodosius; Douglass, Andrew Elliott (award for); Du Bois, Cora; Eddy, Elizabeth M.; Eggan, Frederick; Ehrich, Robert W.; Eiseley, Loren C.; Emery, Emil Ernest; Farabee, William Curtis; Fenton, William N.; Flannery, Regina; Forman, Sylvia Helen; Foster, George M.; Frantz, Charles; Freeman, Derek (Freeman-Mead controversy); Friedl, Ernestine; Gearing, Frederick O.; Gifford, Edward W.; Gillin, John P.; Goddard, Pliny E.; Godfrey, Jr., William S.; Godfrey, Richard; Goldschmidt, Walter; Goodenough, Ward H.; Hallowell, Alfred Irving; Haury, Emil Walter; Headland, Thomas N.; Helm, June; Henderson, Eric (use of field notes in Navajo/Hopi land dispute); Hendricks, Glenn L.; Herskovits, Melville, J.; Hill, Willard Williams; Hoebel, E. Adamson; Hoijer, Harry; Howells, William W.; Hsu, Francis K.; Hurwitch, Jan; Hymes, Dell H.; Jenness, Diamond; Jennings, Jesse D.; Jensen, Arthur P.; Johnson, Frederick; Judd, Neil M.; Keesing, Felix M.; Kidder, Alfred Vincent.; Kidder, Alfred V. II; Kluckhorn, Clyde; Knight, Jr., Vic (misuse of AAA name to collect artifacts); Kroeber, Alfred Louis; Laguna, Frederica de; Leakey, L. S. B. (1959 visit to United States); Lehman, Edward J.; Lessa, William A.; Lewis, Oscar (problem with Children of Sanchez); Linton, Ralph; Lowie, Robert H.; Lurie, Nancy Oestreich; MacCurdy, George Grant; Manners, Robert A.; Marshall, Donald S.; Maruyama, Magorah; Mason, J. Alden; Mead, Margaret; Meggers, Betty J.; Mendelbaum, David; Merwin, B. W.; Modiano, Nancy; Moorhead, Evelyn; Moorhead, Warren K.; Moran, Emilio F.; Moses, Yolanda T.; Murdock, George P.; Murra, John Victor; Nader, Laura; Noon, John A.; Nusbaum, Jesse L.; Olmsted, David; Opler, Morris Edward; Osgood, Cornelius B.; Parsons, Elsie Clews; Rappaport, Roy Abraham; Reining, Conrad C.; Roberts, Jr., Frank H. H.; Rouse, (Benjamin) Irving; Sapir, Edward; Schneider, David; Setzler, Frank Mary; Shapiro, Harry L.; Spicer, Edward H.; Spier, Leslie; Spindler, George; Spoehr, Alexander; Sterud, Eugene L.; Steward, Julian H.; Stocking, George; Stout, David B.; Strong, William Duncan; Swanton, John Reed; Tax, Sol; Textor, Robert B.; Tozzer, Alfred M.; Underhill, Ruth M.; Voegelin, Carl F.; Voegelin, Erminie Wheeler; Vogt, Evon Z.; Wallace, Anthony F. C.; Wagley, Charles; Wallach, Irving A.; Ward, Lauriston; Washburn, Sherwood Larned; Weidman, Hazel H.; Weitzer, Bella; Weltfish, Gene; White, Leslie A.; Wissler, Clark; Woodbury, Nathalie, F. S.; Woodbury, Richard B.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Historical Note:
American Anthropological Association Development and Creation of a Secretariat

Most of early American anthropology focused on indigenous Native Americans and can be traced back to 1784 when Thomas Jefferson carried out stratigraphic excavations of the Indian mounds on his land in Virginia. Jefferson's interest continued and was strongly reflected when as President he instructed Meriwether Lewis (Corps of Discovery Expedition also known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806) to record the names of the nations he encountered along with their numbers, languages, traditions, laws and customs.

Local ethnological and anthropological associations were later established, such as the American Ethnological Society (AES), founded in New York, 1842, and the Anthropological Society of Washington (ASW), created in Washington, DC, 1879. Anthropology as a national science was recognized in 1882, when the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) created a Section (H) for Anthropology. By 1896, the community of anthropologists began informal discussions regarding the establishment of a national organization. These discussions were held among members of the AES and the ASW, while informal talks (sanctioned by the AAAS) were held by Section H members on establishing a national group. At the Section H meeting a decision was reached between those members who wanted a national organization and those who were concerned about diverting attention and support away from the AAAS. With formal approval by the AAAS, Section members of the Association began holding their own winter meetings, separate from the AAAS annual conference, which continued through 1901-1902. With national leadership coming from the Anthropological Society of Washington and the American Ethnological Society, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) was formed and incorporated in Washington, DC, in 1902. Two major compromises were reached. The Anthropological Society of Washington discontinued publishing the American Anthropologist and surrendered the journal name. The new journal would be called the American Anthropologist, New Series, and would be edited by representatives of all anthropological sections in the United States and Canada. This journal began publication in January 1899. The second agreement concerned whether the national organization should be opened to anyone interested in anthropology (W. J. McGee) or should only constitute professional anthropologists (Franz Boas). The matter was settled when it was decided that membership would be opened to anyone, but that control of the organization would reside in the hands of a council composed of professional members, only.

The AAA was designed to promote the science of anthropology, stimulate and coordinate efforts of American anthropologists, support local and other societies devoted to anthropology, publish and encourage publications regarding anthropology, and conduct and support research. In a revised constitution approved by the Association in December 1902, research support was dropped. The AAA grew by assisting in the development of regional associations, authorizing the creation of a Central States Branch (1921) and the Pacific Division (1929), and increasing its affiliation with existing local organizations such as the Philadelphia Anthropological Society in 1935.

Around the close of World War II, a water-shed event occurred in the development of the Association's administration that stongly supported its ability to maintain historical and administrative records in a more permanent and cohesive fashion. Starting with the May 1945 meeting of the Society for American Archaeology held at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC, and continuing through the year, several groups of concerned anthropologists began discussing the need to find a way to provide greater support for its professional members. These anthropologists also discussed what they felt was a failure on the part of the American Anthropological Association to maximize its usefulness for the members and carry out specific projects that were desired. They questioned whether the causes were due to a lack of effective operational means. Meetings were held during the summer at the National Research Council (NRC) and again, later in the year, in Washington, DC. Additional anthropologists met at other meetings and a proposal was drafted to create an organization that represented professional anthropologists. Correspondence between Ralph L. Beals, Julian H. Steward, Margaret Mead, Theodore D. McCowan, Homer C. Barnett, Luther S. Cressman, Frank M. Setzler, and William Duncan Strong voiced a need for a new anthropological association, one that represented all areas of anthropology, supported post-war anthropological projects, coordinated activities between anthropologists and the federal government, cooperated with the various councils where anthropologists had representation, developed teaching standards in anthropology, and created employment standards for anthropologists. They drafted a constitution for such an organization. Others within this circle of correspondents wanted to reorganize the AAA. The leadership of the AAA responded to the call for reform. During the annual meeting held on December 28, 1945, attendees voted to appoint a Committee of Nine (later called the Reorganizing Committee) to ascertain the views of the professional members of the AAA, affiliated societies and local groups, regarding proposals to reorganize the AAA, establish a secretariat, and to find additional ways to further professional interests. The Committee's findings and recommendations were to be issued to the entire profession within two months before the 1946 annual meeting. Julian H. Steward was appointed chairman.

To meet the needs of those anthropologists who wanted a greater professional organization, the AAA adopted a new constitution at the winter meeting of 1946. Two classes of membership, members and fellows, were created. Anyone was eligible to become a member, but without voting privileges. To become a fellow (voting member), one had to meet certain requirements, which included a degree in anthropology, a publication(s) in the field of anthropology, or a doctorate in an allied field and being actively engaged in anthropology. An Executive Council was created. Only fellows could vote for Council members, elect officers, and vote on other business matters. The Association's Council was the final authority. From its membership were elected the president, vice-president (later, president-elect), and an Executive Board (replacing the Executive Committee). The Board voted on the selection of fellows. While the Council met once a year at the annual meeting, the Board was given the authority to meet whenever it deemed necessary. The Board received its own operating budget. It was given broad powers to act quickly and authoritatively, so that issues and actions required by the profession would be reviewed and voted upon in a timely fashion. The Board could create and disband task forces and appoint a secretary and treasurer. It could not amend the constitution and by-laws. While the revised constitution made the organization more supportive of and controlled by professional anthropologists and created a more dynamic executive branch, the Council also approved 14 major topics recommended by the Committee on Reorganization. Within those broad topics, the Council asked the Executive Board to study 35 objectives and activities. As for a permanent secretariat, the Council felt that while it could serve the profession it was unrelated to the immediate needs of the organization; that financing it should not be a problem faced for the present time and "should not prejudice the proposals concerning organization."

President Clyde Kluckhorn and the Executive Board realized that they would not be able to evaluate all the proposals and or begin the activities approved by Council, regardless of its members' individual goodwill. The AAA urgently needed an executive secretary. At the request of the Board, Kluckhorn wrote Charles Dollard at the Carnegie Corporation of New York, asking for funds to hire an executive secretary full-time for the first year and half-time for two more years, and for a salaried full-time typist-clerk for twenty-nine months. Their work and responsibilities would include the re-integration of the sub-sciences of anthropology and increasing the strategic value of anthropology as a discipline where the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences met. If the grant was awarded the Executive Board's choice for the position would be Erminie Voegelin. Kluckhorn then enumerated some of the recommendations voted by Council. Not wanting to take any chances, Kluckhorn wrote a personal letter to his friend Dollard that same day. On June 12, 1947, Dollard notified Kluckhorn that the officers of the Corporation took a very "sympathetic" view of the Association and agreed to commit the requested funds. A formal follow-up letter from the secretary would confirm the action. The funds were to be used from August 1, 1947 until December 31, 1949. When the grant was concluded, funds were committed by the AAA for a part-time executive secretary, with limited staff, until 1959, when the position once again became full-time.

From 1947 until 1959, the executive secretariat received support from the local institution where the position resided: Indiana University (Bloomington), Phillips Academy, and Beloit College. In 1959, the executive secretariat moved to Washington, DC, which became the permanent home for the Association. There, the position was funded full-time. The offices were first located at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, without cost. When the AAA lost its quarters in 1967 to the expanding needs of its host, the Association moved its offices to a permanent structure on New Hampshire Avenue. In 1993, the AAA moved to Arlington, Virginia.

American Anthropological Association: History of its Archives and an Archives for the Papers of Anthropologists

Beginning with the creation of an executive secretariat, the AAA became interested in trying to retrieve as much of its early history as possible. Calls went out from the executive secretary and president for the transfer of task force material and papers of past presidents. In addition, from 1957 through 1972, the organization officially began looking at the need to provide support for unpublished anthropological records, repositories to house them, and the question of what do with its own accumulation of records.

On April 24, 1957, the Executive Board delegated the president to appoint a committee to collaborate on the preservation of primary records. This interest appears to have come from the AAA's membership in the Committee of Primary Records, which was established in the Division of Anthropology and Psychology located within the NRC of the National Academy of Sciences. Sol Tax was appointed chairman of the Special Committee on the Preservation of Primary Records. The Committee met in Chicago, February 17-18, 1958, drafted a tentative report, and sent it to a few selected fellows for comment and suggestions. The fellows approved the recommendations and the Committee issued the draft as a final report. One recommendation was that the AAA should publish an international directory of primary sources, to continue serially with the assumption that it would report on institutional holdings and perhaps major personal collections. The Executive Board approved the report on April 25, 1958 and had it forwarded to the NRC for its consideration with an informal note that a tentative editor for the publication had been selected. At the following Board meeting, the Committee was terminated.

Formal discussions regarding the topic of what to do with research material created by anthropologists was again taken up by the Board in 1962. At the Board's next meeting, May 13-14, 1963, the Publication Policy Committee reported on the first day that its mission was to publish research findings from the conclusion of the work until the dissemination of the information. The following day Board member Joseph Casagrande reported that the issues he was concerned with, the location and preservation of field notes, papers, and other documents, were "intimately" related to the recommendations made by the Publication Policy Committee. He wanted to pursue the problem with a small committee through conversations with the Social Science Research Council (SSRC). The Board agreed and suggested that Margaret Blaker, archivist at the Bureau of American Ethnology [the BAE later merged with the Department of Anthropology and the BAE archives became the National Anthropological Archives], be contacted as a good resource person. At the November 1963 Board meeting, Casagrande reported that he was planning to form an ad hoc group after an initial discussion with the SSRC, which would meet once or twice to formulate a proposal to the Council.

Within the body of the AAA's records there appears to be no continuity between the various initiatives undertaken regarding what to do with primary source material of anthropologists as well as the Association's own records. At the November 1966 Board meeting, editor Ward Goodenough proposed publishing Anthropological Documents to make available anthropological research data so it could be used by fellow scientists. During the meeting of the Board in May 1967, its members discussed the possibility of forming another committee on archives. Executive Secretary Charles Frantz stated that he had written to several members to see if they would be interested in forming a committee to inventory and perhaps centralize documents about the Association and individual anthropologists. Several responded enthusiastically and it was suggested that the American Philosophical Society might fund such a committee. The Board endorsed the recommendation and asked that Frantz continue his correspondence with interested persons. Franz resigned from the AAA around August 1968 and Conrad C. Reining became secretary later that year (he was eventually given the title executive secretary). In October 1968, the Executive Board formed an Archives Committee. Its mission was to develop policy and procedures for the conservation and use of documents of value to the profession. Reining served as the acting chair. By November 1968, Reining reported to the Board that he had formed a committee. He found that the archives in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution adequate for the purposes proposed in a resolution that would be brought before the Council meeting. Later that month the Council adopted a resolution urging anthropologists to consider the NAA as the repository for their field notes, reports and professional papers if no other arrangements had been made for preservation of such materials.

The question before Council was whether the National Anthropological Archives should be considered the repository of choice for anthropologists, if no other arrangements were made with other archival programs. Before Council made its decision there was some concern about the selection of the NAA. At one point during the discussion, Reining considered the Library of Congress. Informal and formal discussions were held with Smithsonian staff and members of the Department of Anthropology. Saul Riesenberg, chairman of the Department of Anthropology, was sent a copy of the draft resolution and was asked if his office was prepared to undertake the task involved. The draft resolution, he wrote, had been discussed and agreed upon, and expansion of the Department's Archives was being contemplated. The Committee on Archives, now chaired by Sturtevant, met in May 1969 at the Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History. One major outcome of the meeting was the decision that all files of the Association, prior to 1959, would be transferred to the NAA as long as they would be accessible to the AAA and could be reclaimed with the proviso that the Archives be allowed to microfilm any files reclaimed. Reining would provide an inventory of the contents of the Association's files; and Sturtevant would draft a recommendation to the Board on management and preservation of official or copies of records of current and future officers, and draft a letter for Cora Du Bois requesting ex-presidents contribute their papers still in their possession.

During the following month Secretary Conrad C. Reining transferred 12 feet of records stored in file drawers, along with a content list, to the NAA archivist Margaret C. Blaker. Before she would accession them, Blaker requested a formal ruling by the Board transferring the records to the NAA. She provided suggested points to Reining for the Board to consider in a resolution at the New Orleans annual meeting later in the year. It was not approved. Instead, the Board wanted to know why it was considering Blaker's recommendations and not their own. They were more concerned about having their own personal remarks placed on record and having them quoted than approving the recommendations.

In February 1970, Stocking wrote Reining that files dating from 1917 to 1957 had been sent to the NAA. The Board was supposed to have developed a transfer form for a lawyer to review, which was then to be forwarded to Pilling to send on for comment by an archivist he knew at his university. Stocking wanted to know where the matter stood. There was no response. On July 19, 1971, Charles Wagley (AAA president) wrote Stocking that the Executive Board voted at its May 1971 meeting to discharge the Archives Committee. The new AAA executive secretary, Edward J. Lehman, wrote Stocking in August that the Committee, as well as several others, were dismissed due to a deficit in funds, and, because of that, the Finance Committee had recommended that committees which had not been active be dismissed. The Board did not take up a resolution regarding its records at the San Diego meeting in 1970, nor the following year in New York City. Blaker updated her recommendations to be considered for a resolution in October 1971. Those recommendations were basically what the Board wrote in its resolution in May 1972, establishing the NAA as the permanent repository for its records. The deposit was permanent and was not to be withdrawn under any circumstances unless the AAA established its own archives. The action was concluded after Blaker retired.

With the 1972 resolution, the American Anthropological Association officially concluded its long historical discussion regarding its recognition of the importance of anthropologists maintaining their materials, the importance of its own records, and the availability and value of the National Anthropological Archives to the anthropology community.
Related Materials:
There are over twenty-five collections in the National Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives that document various aspects of the American Anthropological Association. Researchers should work with the reference archivist in finding this material. NAA also houses the records of the following AAA sections:

American Ethnological Society Association for Feminist Anthropology Central States Anthropological Society Council for Museum Anthropology Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges Society for Cultural Anthropology Society for Humanistic Anthropology Society for Medical Anthropology Society for Visual Anthropology

NAA is also the repository for the following anthropological societies whose activities are documented in the records of AAA:

Society for American Archaeology Society for Applied Anthropology Below is a selected list of collections, not housed at NAA, documenting individuals who played a prominent role in the activities of AAA:

Homer Garner Papers, 1937-1986, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Oregon Ruth Benedict Papers, 1905-1948, Archives and Special Collections, Vassar College Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers, American Mss. Coll. 26, Philosophical Society E. Adamson Hoebel Papers, 1925-1993, Mss. Coll. 43, American Philosophical Society Dell H. Hymes Papers, 1947-1992, American Philosophical Society Frederick Johnson Papers, 1948-1968, Special Collections, University of California at Los Angeles Alfred Louis Kroeber papers, 1869-1972, Bancroft Library John Alden Mason Papers, 1904-1967, MSS.B.M384, American Philosophical Society Morris Edward Opler Papers, #14-25-3238, Division of Rare Books and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Libraries Elsie Clews Parsons papers, 1880-1980, Mss. Ms.Coll. 29, American Philosophical Society
Provenance:
Records were transferred from the American Anthropological Association to the National Anthropological Archives. The three last subseries of presidential papers (series 1) were donated directly from the creator or their heirs to NAA.
Restrictions:
At the 71st meeting of the Executive Board, May 1972, the Board adopted the motion authorizing transfer of the American Anthropological Association archives to the National Anthropological Archives. By definition all records created by elected and appointed offices, or committee members of AAA, while acting in an official capacity were records of the Association. No records less than five years old were to be deposited, and no records less than ten years old were open for scholarly use, except by Association officers, or when otherwise stated. All records would be open to use after 50 years from date of creation. The American Anthropological Association gave literary property rights to the public. Researchers will need to review restrictions that may apply to presidential papers.

All Exxon-Valdez folders located in series 4, subseries 4, "Committee on Ethics," are closed until further notification from the State of Alaska, Department of Law.

Access to the American Anthropological Association records requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Professional associations  Search this
Citation:
American Anthropological Association records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1973-49
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw38fbc3573-79ba-4b82-aaa8-cb19d9245181
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1973-49

Crematogaster detecta

Collector:
P. S. Ward  Search this
Max. Elevation:
1330  Search this
Min. Elevation:
1330  Search this
Preparation:
Pinned
Sex:
Worker
Stage:
Adult
Place:
4 km NW Calico Basin, Clark, Nevada, United States
Collection Date:
21 Apr 2016
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Formicidae
Published Name:
Crematogaster detecta Ward & Blaimer, 2022
Barcode:
CASENT0863461
Other Numbers:
Collector Number : PSW17509
USNM Number:
CASENT00863461
See more items in:
Entomology Types
Data Source:
NMNH - Entomology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3eadd4d41-9d62-45a1-8daa-5f2da6d3bf7c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhentomology_17158931
Online Media:

Pecking/Hammer-Stones & blade core

Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Site Name:
Black Widow  Search this
Culture:
Protohistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Hammer Stone
Place:
Stanley County / Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1 Jun 1955
Collection Date:
1953
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
218413
USNM Number:
A418953-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/335923c3e-8372-43fa-9379-7dcdc4ae3482
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8167766

Seeds

Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Culture:
Arikara (Sahnish)  Search this
Object Type:
Archaeobotanical
Place:
Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, South Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
2 Dec 1955
Collection Date:
1951 to 1956
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
226498
USNM Number:
A421583-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Archaeobiology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38eea8a43-62a3-4fd4-ba09-505c33fcfb78
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8173969

Fruit Pit

Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Culture:
Arikara (Sahnish)  Search this
Object Type:
Archaeobotanical
Place:
Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, South Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
2 Dec 1955
Collection Date:
1951 to 1956
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
226498
USNM Number:
A421584-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Archaeobiology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3412ee4d5-2f76-4a1e-90ce-7de485c79ac0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8173970

Rimsherds

Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Culture:
Arikara (Sahnish)  Search this
Object Type:
Sherd
Place:
Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, South Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
2 Dec 1955
Collection Date:
1951 to 1956
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
226498
USNM Number:
A421585-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/386f81a69-4081-4e93-8f15-fc41e82752e2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8173971

Bodysherds

Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Culture:
Arikara (Sahnish)  Search this
Object Type:
Sherd
Place:
Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, South Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
2 Dec 1955
Collection Date:
1951 to 1956
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
226498
USNM Number:
A421586-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/345336ba0-fb4d-4d72-81aa-20d1cbcf230d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8173972

Bodysherds

Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Culture:
Arikara (Sahnish)  Search this
Object Type:
Sherd
Place:
Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, South Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
2 Dec 1955
Collection Date:
1951 to 1956
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
226498
USNM Number:
A421587-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/391517772-6449-417a-88cd-1886e2b7f45b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8173973

Projectile Point

Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Culture:
Arikara (Sahnish)  Search this
Object Type:
Point
Place:
Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County, South Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
2 Dec 1955
Collection Date:
1951 to 1956
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
226498
USNM Number:
A421588-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/354deda0a-264f-462d-b41e-30a29fa9e033
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8173974

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