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Bridgeport -- Marina

Owner:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Architect:
Longstaff, George  Search this
Longstaff and Hurd  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
2 Slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
Marina (Bridgeport, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield County -- Bridgeport
General:
Marina was fourth and final estate of P.T. Barnum in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The house was built from 1889-1891 next door to his Waldenmere mansion for Barnum's second wife Nancy Fish. Designed by the Bridgeport architectural firm, Longstaff and Hurd, the Richardsonian-style house was fitted with the modern conveniences of the late nineteenth century. The 30-acre grounds, later subdivided into house lots, were situated near Seaside Park, facing Long Island Sound. The grounds featured broad sloping lawns and was planted with fully grown trees, and offered both park and ocean views. The location was valued for its distance to from the urban center of Bridgeport, less than a mile away, in combination with its woods, which gate it a feeling of remoteness. Torn down in the 1960s, Marina's land is now part of the University of Bridgeport.
Landscape possibly attributed to Elizabeth Bullard and Frederick Law Olmsted Sr.
001: Marina (Home of P. T. Barnum) Bridgeport, Conn. 64396. Postcard circa 1900-1950.

002: Residence of P. T. Barnum, Bridgeport, Conn. Postcard circa 1915-1930.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Bridgeport  Search this
Mansions  Search this
Lawns  Search this
Gates  Search this
Hedges  Search this
Ivy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File CT208
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1245

"Barnum and Jumbo's ABC"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
No author. Not dated, unpaged. A child's book of the alphabet in which each letter describes animals and/or persons that make up the circus.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref16

"The Royal Military Tournament"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Not dated, no author, unpaged. A picture book of the acts performed by the Royal Scots Greys, the 1st Life Guards, the Royal House Artillery, the Royal Engineers, the Coldstream Guards, and the 5th Royal Irish Lancers.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref20

"Routledge's Barnum's Show"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Not dated, no author, unpaged. Picture book, presumably for children, of several acts from the show.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref22

"Barnum's Show"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Cover torn in half vertically, undated, no author, unpaged. Picture book of several acts from the Barnum Show.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref24

P.T. Barnum Collection

Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Names:
Barnum and Bailey.  Search this
Bailey, James A.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Scrapbooks
Date:
1866-1890
Summary:
The collection consists of five children's books about the circus, a brochure announcing the show in London, an 1873 advertisement for the Great Traveling World's Fair of Barnum's, and two scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The P.T. Barnum collection consists of five children's books about the circus, a brochure announcing the show in London, an 1873 advertisement for the Great Traveling World's Fair of Barnum's, and two scrapbooks. The scrapbooks mostly contain newspaper articles, 1889 1893, as well as cartoons, pictures, and drawings of circus events and circus personalities including P.T. Barnum and James A. Bailey. Interviews of circus people, anecdotes of circus life, and techniques of training children for circus horsemanship and tigers for the ring are also a part of the scrapbook coverage.

Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of the articles is their description of the logistics of bringing 440 performers, 380 horses, 13 elephants, lions, tigers, deer, llama, camels, a bear and other animals, administrative and support staff, and 80 tons of advertising material to and from London for a 100 day run.
Biographical / Historical:
Phineas Taylor Barnum was born on July 5, 1810 in Bethel Connecticut. He worked hard as a small boy to help support the family. When Barnum was 15, his father died, leaving him almost penniless. Although he attended school irregularly, he was excellent in calculations and could drive a hard bargain. This was later referred to as his Yankee shrewdness.

In 1835 he found his true calling—show business—when he exhibited a black woman, Joice Heth, who claimed to be 161 years old and a nurse to George Washington. Barnum bought her for $1,000 and soon had his investment returned.

In 1841 Barnum obtained the American Museum in New York City, which became a famous place of amusement. He displayed exhibits which were forerunners of the sideshow, as well as performances of moral plays such as Uncle Tom's Cabin.

In November 1842, Barnum engaged Charles Stratton, whom he christened Tom Thumb. They were received by English royalty, including Queen Victoria, and other notable figures throughout Europe.

In 1850, Barnum engaged Jenny Lind and made a fortune for both of them. He lost his fortune when he speculated in the Jerome Clock Company of East Bridgeport, and regained it slowly due to multiple disasters.

About 1877, he became a partner of James A. Bailey, who started the two-ring circus in 1879. Bailey was the administrator of the Barnum and Bailey Show and was considered an excellent manager.

In March, 1882, Barnum bought Jumbo from the London Zoo for $10,000. Jumbo was a very popular elephant with the English people, who resented Barnum's purchase and subsequent export of Jumbo to the United States. After the circus's trip to London in 1890, which was a tremendous success, the English forgave Barnum. Jumbo met an untimely death in 1885. His bones went to the Smithsonian and the stuffed hide to the Barnum Museum of Natural History at Tufts College. Barnum had given the Museum to Tufts in 1884 and contributed a $55,000 stone building to the institution.

In November, 1889, Barnum brought his circus to London for fourteen weeks. He could not stay longer because the show had obligations in the United States. Other Europeans hoped to have the show visit their countries, but Barnum said the logistics and the railway tunnels prevented it.

Notices of the Circus coming to London were plastered all over England, with advertising techniques never before seen by the English. The Show, called the Great Moral Show in England, was considered more stupendous than the Wild West Show with Buffalo Bill, which had recently been shown in London, as well. About 30,000 people a day came and many others were turned away. The Circus took in $900,000, but had large expenses with over 1,800 staff on the payroll.

Barnum himself was a great hit in England. Most of the English royalty attended his circus, many more than once. Queen Victoria requested a private showing but did not receive one, and therefore never saw the show. Even the elderly Gladstone attended. It was said that the English liked audacity, Americans who were not a toady and who offered pleasure, all of which described Barnum. It is also interesting that Barnum supported Irish Home Rule while he was in England.

Barnum was a genius in public relations for himself and his enterprises. He was a great believer in the power of advertising, and made it his business to be talked about. He liked to say that his name did not have to appear beneath his picture because everyone knew him.

Barnum loved children and was known as "The Children's Friend." He often went to the show's matinees to be with the children and talk to them. He gave generously to the Children's Aid Society and made it a beneficiary of a percentage of the show's profit after his death.

With regard to religious and political beliefs, Barnum was a Universalist who believed in the salvation of all men. He was originally a Democrat, but became a Republican because he was a Union supporter. He was elected to the Connecticut General Assembly four times, where he advocated the rights of individuals against railway monopolies. He was also Mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut, and during his time in office brought many businesses to the town and invested in local real estate. He established a system of building houses and sold them to working people on long payments and low interest rates; he also gave the land which became Seaside Park to the community of Bridgeport.

Barnum was married twice, the second time in 1874 to an English woman who was half his age. He had three daughters by his first wife, and his two grandsons were his only male heirs. In 1883, he made his first will so "no business cares should devolve upon his wife at his death." He left the management of his interests to his grandson, Clinton H. Seeley whom he required to change his name to Clinton Barnum Seeley; he had previously made an agreement with Bailey for the Barnum and Bailey Show to continue for 50 years.

Barnum had a reputation for giving everyone their full money's worth. He acknowledged the unreality of some of his attractions with frankness in his autobiography, but he said he was not a humbug; he was just a showman who gave the public what it wanted. He claimed he never pretended to be more than that. After Bailey implemented the two ring circus in 1879, and subsequently a third ring, people complained that they were being given more than their money's worth with so many activities going on simultaneously.

In the interviews and stories about the Barnum and Bailey Circus, it was evident that the circus people had strong training and excellent discipline. But some backstage interviews revealed low ages, poor boarding house food, bad dressing rooms, and strict discipline, with fines often meted out for slight infractions of the rules. The treatment of the animals also was questioned. Bailey reported that 38 horses had to be killed because they had been injured during the hippodrome race in the Nero act of the show.

P.T. Barnum was involved in four lines of entertainment: (a) circus; (b) museum of curiosities; (c) theatrical (he produced plays and helped several actors and actresses get their start); and (d) musical impresario with Jenny Lind.

Barnum was known as a great story teller. He enjoyed playing jokes on himself and others. He died on April 7, 1891 at 80 years and nine months.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Amusements  Search this
Circuses (performances)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0068
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0068
Online Media:

P.T. Barnum Autograph

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1866, 1888
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref10

"P.T. Barnum's Circus Museum and Menagerie"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1888
Scope and Contents:
"P.T. Barnum's Circus Museum and Menagerie" text and illustrations arranged for little people by P.T. Barnum and Sarah J. Burke. 1888 London: Frederick Warne and Co., 1888, unpaged.

A charming story book about 3 children who are taken to the circus by P.T. Barnum in New York. The characters and animals that make up the circus are described with illustrations and anecdotes.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref12

"Scrapbook 1889 1890"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1889-1890
Scope and Contents:
Described the trip to and from London when Barnum and Bailey took the circus there in 1889 February 1890. It included about 440 performers, 380 horses, camels, bear, monkeys, leopards and 13 elephants, lions, tigers, llama, and deer. Went for 100 days and cost about 12,000 per day. Also 80 tons of advertising materials were taken over. Barnum wanted to show that Americans could do anything better. The advertising techniques and circus show itself wowed them in England.

**It is interesting to note that on the trip over meat was frozen in cubical cakes and packed in refrigerators between layers of ice.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref14

"P.T. Barnum's Greatest Show on Earth"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1889 November
Scope and Contents:
A brochure prepared for the London showing in November 1889. Distributed free. 16 p. 8/20/89.

This was to be their only show in Europe because the amphitheatre, "The Olympia", was the only one large enough to handle the show. Includes description of the acts featuring Jumbo (as restored and his skeleton) and "the classic drama of Nero", the side show and the 3 circus rings.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref18

"P.T. Barnum's The World in Contribution"

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1873
Scope and Contents:
An ad from March 15, 1873 [?], announcing the Great Traveling World's Fair. Went to nearly every large town in New England, Canada, and States east of Mississippi and north of Ohio.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref26

"Circus Scrapbook, London 18 "

Collection Creator:
Barnum, P. T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891  Search this
Container:
Box 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1889-1890
Scope and Contents:
(Presumably kept by Helen Barnum Rennell, a granddaughter whose name and address appear on back of front cover). A scrapbook of Barnum and Bailey's show in London from November 16, 1889 to February 20, 1890. The circus was there for 14 weeks. The scrapbook also contains cartoons and pictures as well as newspaper articles. Includes his death and the unveiling two years later of his statue. Includes some flyers from the Great London Circus.

**Has page with autograph of Barnum to his great grandson.

N.B. There were 5 different ABC books about the circus published in London for the show.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
P.T. Barnum Collection, 1873-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
P.T. Barnum Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0068-ref28

American testimonial banquet to Henry Morton Stanley. Portman Rooms, London, 30 May 1890

Author:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Burke, Bernard 1814-1892  Search this
Frederic, Harold 1856-1898  Search this
Harte, Bret 1836-1902  Search this
Jephson, A. J. Mounteney (Arthur Jermy Mounteney) 1858-1908  Search this
Nelson, Robert Henry 1853-1892  Search this
Osgood, James R (James Ripley) 1836-1892  Search this
Parke, Thomas Heazle 1857-1893  Search this
Stairs, William G  Search this
Stanley, Henry M (Henry Morton) 1841-1904  Search this
Whistler, James McNeill 1834-1903  Search this
Great Britain Army Grenadier Guards  Search this
Maclure, MacDonald & Co  Search this
Russell E. Train Africana Collection (Smithsonian Libraries) DSI  Search this
Photographer:
Fergus, John 1840-1908  Search this
Van der Weyde, Henry  Search this
Former owner:
Godfrey, Dan (Daniel) 1831-1903 DSi  Search this
Subject:
Jephson, A. J. Mounteney (Arthur Jermy Mounteney) 1858-1908  Search this
Nelson, Robert Henry 1853-1892  Search this
Parke, Thomas Heazle 1857-1893  Search this
Stairs, William G  Search this
Physical description:
1 item (13 pages) 6.5 x 10 x 1 in
Type:
Manuscripts
Portraits
Manuscripts (document genre)
Date:
1890
Call number:
M169
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1045429

The peerless prodigies of P.T. Barnum : a stupendous graphic novel / by Jillian Lerner & Marc Olivent

Author:
Lerner, Jillian  Search this
Olivent, Marc  Search this
Subject:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Barnum's American Museum  Search this
Physical description:
1 v. (unpaged) : chiefly ill. ; 26 cm
Type:
Comic books, strips, etc
Graphic novels
Place:
New York (State)
New York
United States
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
2012
C2012
1775-1865
Topic:
Photographers  Search this
Comic books, strips, etc  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_995489

The humbugs of the world An account of humbugs, delusions, impositions, quackeries, deceits and deceivers generally, in all ages By P. T. Barnum

Author:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Physical description:
x, [11]-424 pages 19 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1866
Topic:
Impostors and imposture  Search this
Call number:
AZ999.B3 1866X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_290269

Letter from P. T. Barnum to Spencer Baird

Subject:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887  Search this
Jumbo (Elephant)  Search this
Physical description:
Ink on paper; 6"x10"
Type:
Letters (correspondence)
Date:
1885
September 27, 1885
Topic:
Circus animals  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU000192 [SIA2010-1594]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_396442
Online Media:

The showman and the slave : race, death, and memory in Barnum's America / Benjamin Reiss

Author:
Reiss, Benjamin  Search this
Subject:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Heth, Joice -1836  Search this
Physical description:
x, 267 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Northeastern States
Date:
2001
19th century
Topic:
Popular culture--History  Search this
Women slaves  Search this
Freak shows--Social aspects--History  Search this
Whites--Race identity  Search this
African Americans in popular culture--History  Search this
Racism in popular culture--History  Search this
Death in popular culture--History  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_671510

Struggles and triumphs, or, Forty years' recollections of P.T. Barnum / written by himself

Title:
Struggles and triumphs
Forty years' recollections of P.T. Barnum
Author:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Subject:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Physical description:
856 pages, [33] leaves of plates : illustrations ; 20 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1871
Topic:
Circus owners  Search this
Call number:
GV1811.B3 A3 1871X
CT275.B263 A1s 1871
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_198359

Pioneers of promotion : how press agents for Buffalo Bill, P.T. Barnum, and the World's Columbian Exposition created modern marketing / Joe Dobrow

Author:
Dobrow, Joe  Search this
Subject:
Burke, John M. -1917  Search this
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Handy, Moses P (Moses Purnell) 1847-1898  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 391 pages, 16 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2018
19th century
Topic:
Marketing--History  Search this
Advertising--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1095451

P. T. Barnum, Joice Heth et les débuts des spectacles "raciaux" / Benjamin Reiss

Author:
Reiss, Benjamin  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Subject:
Barnum, P. T (Phineas Taylor) 1810-1891  Search this
Heth, Joice -1836  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
United States
Date:
2011
Topic:
Freak shows  Search this
Call number:
GN35 .Z68 2011
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1088627

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