Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
30 documents - page 1 of 2

Phylidonyris notabilis notabilis

Collector:
Jose G. Correia  Search this
Expedition:
Whitney South Sea Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
South Pacific Ocean  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
Female
Place:
Vanua Lava, Banks Islands, Vanuatu, South Pacific Ocean
Collection Date:
10 Nov 1926
Common name:
Vanuatu Honeyeater
White-bellied Honeyeater
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Passeriformes, Meliphagidae
Published Name:
Phylidonyris notabilis notabilis
Accession Number:
000000
Other Numbers:
Field Number : 23723
Field Number : AMNH 216178
USNM Number:
330011
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/351bdfae4-f822-47ce-a116-7e36db55ca5c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_11799777

Shell Money

Physical Description:
shells, som (overall material)
plant fiber string (overall material)
white/gray (overall color)
light brown (overall color)
polished then strung (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
average spatial: 3 1/2 in; x 8.89 cm
overall:;
Object Name:
Shell Money, Som
alternative currency
Other Terms:
Shell Money, Som; Oceania; Banks Islands
Place made:
Vanuatu: Torba, Banks Islands
Date made:
n.d.
Credit Line:
Chase Manhattan Bank
ID Number:
1979.1263.00487
Accession number:
1979.1263
Catalog number:
79.112.OC114A
See more items in:
Work and Industry: National Numismatic Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-2b15-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1066755

Shell Money

Physical Description:
shells, som disks (overall material)
string (overall material)
white/gray (overall color)
white (overall color)
strung on string (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
average spatial: 6 in; x 15.24 cm
Object Name:
Shell Money, Som
alternative currency
Other Terms:
Shell Money, Som; Necklace; Oceania; Banks Islands
Place made:
Vanuatu: Torba, Banks Islands
Associated place:
Vanuatu: Torba, Banks Islands
Date made:
n.d.
Credit Line:
Chase Manhattan Bank
ID Number:
1979.1263.00488
Accession number:
1979.1263
Catalog number:
79.112.OC114B
See more items in:
Work and Industry: National Numismatic Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-2b16-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1066756

Oliva rubrolabiata

Collector:
Dr. Paul E. Drez  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
South Pacific Ocean  Search this
Preparation:
Dry
Place:
(Vanuata), Banks Island, Vanuatu, South Pacific Ocean
Common name:
Gastropods
Published Name:
Oliva rubrolabiata Fischer, 1902
Other Numbers:
collector number : R-1227
USNM Number:
1459235
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Mollusca
Drez Collection
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3dd0caac4-e710-4c09-96de-b68ab7340468
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_13587114

Oliva rubrolabiata

Collector:
Dr. Paul E. Drez  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
South Pacific Ocean  Search this
Preparation:
Dry
Place:
(Vanuata), Banks Island, Vanuatu, South Pacific Ocean
Common name:
Gastropods
Published Name:
Oliva rubrolabiata Fischer, 1902
Other Numbers:
collector number : 517-35
USNM Number:
1459237
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Mollusca
Drez Collection
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3039bab23-de78-411b-a577-cb3c9395f0ae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_13587116

Kal Muller films and photographs of Vanuatu (New Hebrides)

Creator:
Müller, Kal, 1939-  Search this
Extent:
39 Film reels (color, 16mm)
29,095 Slides (color, 35mm)
1 Linear foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Slides
Place:
Melanesia
Vanuatu
Pentecost Island (Vanuatu)
Tanna Island (Vanuatu)
Banks Islands (Vanuatu)
Malekula (Vanuatu)
Date:
1968-1974
Summary:
Kalman "Kal" Antal Muller is a photographer and author who spent several years during the late 1960s and early 1970s living with and documenting kastom (in Bislama; tradition or custom, in English) communities in Vanuatu, an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The Kal Muller films and photographs of Vanuatu (New Hebrides) consists largely of unedited reels of 16mm film and 35mm photographic slides that Muller shot on multiple trips to the Banks, Malekula, Pentecost, and Tanna islands from 1968-1974. Supplementary textual materials include correspondence, production records, and published articles related to Muller's time in Vanuatu.
Scope and Contents:
The Kal Muller films and photographs of Vanuatu (New Hebrides) contain Muller's extensive visual documentation of traditional Ni-Vanuatu practices, including Small Nambas funerary practices; ceremonial dances and preparation of kava by followers of the John Frum movement on Tanna Island; yam harvest and preparation; and the naghol (land dive) carried out by the Bunlap community on Pentecost Island. The bulk of the collection consists of unedited reels of 16mm film and 35mm photographic slides that Muller shot on multiple trips to the Banks, Malekula, Pentecost, and Tanna islands from 1968-1974 with support from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, the National Anthropological Film Center, and National Geographic. The collection also contains supplementary textual materials, such as correspondence between Muller and E. Richard Sorenson, production records, and published articles related to Muller's film projects. The collection also includes a small number of photographic slides taken in Hong Kong.

Films and slides are organized in separate series by format, then by geographic region/film project.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Biographical Note:
Kalman "Kal" Antal Muller is a photographer and author who spent several years during the late 1960s and early 1970s living with and documenting kastom (in Bislama; tradition or custom, in English) communities in Vanuatu, an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Born in Hungary in 1939, Muller moved to the United States at age twelve. He first visited Vanuatu in 1966 following a sailing trip across the Pacific. As he developed ties with Ni-Vanuatu communities, Muller filmed and photographed traditional practices on different islands across the archipelago, including the Banks, Malekula, Pentecost, and Tanna islands. Muller filmed the naghol (land dive) carried out by the Bunlap community on Pentecost Island, resulting in the film Land-Divers of Melanesia, a collaboration with Robert Gardner and the Harvard Film Study Center. Muller also performed the naghol himself and wrote about the experience in a 1970 article for National Geographic, "Land Diving with the Pentecost Islanders," which was illustrated with his photographs. His time in Vanuatu provided Muller with material for other published pieces featuring his photographs, including a second story for National Geographic and several articles in the Journal de la Société des Océanistes. His photographs and films of kastom communities garnered interest and support from several cultural anthropologists at the time, including E. Richard Sorenson and Alan Lomax, as well as from NIH scientist D. Carleton Gajdusek.

From 1973 to 1975, with backing from Sorenson and Gajdusek, Muller also spent time with the Wixárika (Huichol) community in San Andrés Cohamiata, Jalisco, Mexico, and shot extensive film footage focusing on Wixárika religious practices.

Muller completed a PhD in Modern Language and Literature with a Major in French from the University of Arizona in 1973. Since 1976 he has lived in Indonesia, mainly Papua, where he went on to write English-language guides to traveling and diving in the region. He has also worked as an art dealer and promotor of Komoro sculpture, and as an advisor on indigenous history, culture, and social development to Freeport, a mining company operating in Papua.

Sources Consulted

Dalton, Bill. "Dr. Kal Muller: Champion of the Kamoros." 2014. Accessed February 28, 2022, https://web.archive.org/web/20210613082307/https://www.baliadvertiser.biz/kal_muller/.

Jolly, Margaret. Women of the Place: Kastom, colonialism, and gender in Vanuatu. New York: Harwood Academic Publishers, 2002.

Muller, Kal. "Land Diving with the Pentecost Islanders." National Geographic, December 1970.

Muller, Kal. "Taboos and Magic Rule Namba Lives." National Geographic, January 1972.

Tabani, Marc. "The Carnival of Custom: Land Dives, Millenarian Parades and Other Spectacular Ritualizations in Vanuatu." Oceania 80, 3 (November 2010): 309-328. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20877382.
Related Materials:
Kal Muller's film footage and photographs focusing on the Wixárika (Huichol) community in San Andrés Cohamiata, Jalisco, Mexico, are also held by the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA.1989.03, Kal Muller films of Jalisco).
Separated Materials:
A group of Muller's photographs taken in Mexico was received by the archives with the Vanuatu materials; those photographs were interfiled with HSFA.1989.03, Kal Muller films of Jalisco.
Provenance:
Films and a portion of the slides were received from Kal Muller and the National Institutes of Health in 1974 and 1975. An additional group of slides was received from Kal Muller in 2019 (accession 2019.21).
Restrictions:
Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.

Some of this material contains sensitive content and is not available for access. Please contact the repository for more information.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ni-Vanuatu  Search this
Citation:
Kal Muller films and photographs of Vanuatu (New Hebrides), Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
HSFA.1975.01
See more items in:
Kal Muller films and photographs of Vanuatu (New Hebrides)
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc91baf9def-d7dd-4fba-a1bb-15673ffe4588
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-hsfa-1975-01
Online Media:

Sargocentron punctatissimum

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Beryciformes, Holocentroidei, Holocentridae, Holocentrinae
Published Name:
Sargocentron punctatissimum
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360849
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/348a2cb30-52aa-4105-9bd7-4df1a6c5eedb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271532

Neoglyphidodon carlsoni

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Labroidei, Pomacentridae
Published Name:
Neoglyphidodon carlsoni
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360850
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30751793f-c323-4947-bccf-6a9d473761be
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271533

Neopomacentrus cyanomos

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Labroidei, Pomacentridae
Published Name:
Neopomacentrus cyanomos
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360851
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cc315171-b924-4b0d-8c75-40f2ea68bb46
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271534

Plectroglyphidodon leucozonus

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Labroidei, Pomacentridae
Published Name:
Plectroglyphidodon leucozonus
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360852
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b9c039dd-2292-45b7-ab2f-0336f8768af0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271535

Stegastes fasciolatus

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Labroidei, Pomacentridae
Published Name:
Stegastes fasciolatus
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360853
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b0e3dab5-c9f8-497e-b418-4bfedc1d478c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271536

Halichoeres hortulanus

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Labroidei, Labridae
Published Name:
Halichoeres hortulanus
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360854
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3c871e532-47d2-4c29-8d48-d6e9da6c6e7c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271537

Epinephelus spilotoceps

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Percoidei, Serranidae, Epinephelinae
Published Name:
Epinephelus spilotoceps
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360855
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38c5d58f9-c339-490c-9c50-de1d035d792e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271538

Uropterygius

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Elopomorpha, Anguilliformes, Muraenoidei, Muraenidae, Uropterygiinae
Published Name:
Uropterygius
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360856
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3500f3964-d6aa-4138-9191-4bba44c4a068
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271539

Acanthurus lineatus

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Acanthuroidei, Acanthuridae
Published Name:
Acanthurus lineatus
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360857
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37e48ba0b-d41f-4452-abf9-745a4d9abef7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271540

Acanthurus triostegus

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Acanthuroidei, Acanthuridae
Published Name:
Acanthurus triostegus
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360858
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3af080c5c-4d76-44f8-87a2-a4a9064ca711
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271541

Acanthurus nigrofuscus

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Acanthuroidei, Acanthuridae
Published Name:
Acanthurus nigrofuscus
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360859
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3ffefe638-b8d6-45ee-99ab-8f7f8eafd028
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271542

Paracirrhites forsteri

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Percoidei, Cirrhitidae
Published Name:
Paracirrhites forsteri
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360860
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cdac9484-88a3-46fe-800a-b9a45d11bdad
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271543

Amblycirrhitus unimacula

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Percoidei, Cirrhitidae
Published Name:
Amblycirrhitus unimacula
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
360861
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/365918e9f-c299-4087-93b6-514976f5cb1f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5271544

Plesiops insularis Mooi & Randall

Collector:
Jeffrey T. Williams  Search this
Expedition:
Vanuatu Expedition  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
Pacific  Search this
Vessel:
Mv Lewia  Search this
Place:
Vanuatu, exact locality unknown, localities sampled extend from Efate to Banks Islands, Vanuatu, Pacific
Collection Date:
23 May 1996 to 17 Jun 1996
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Perciformes, Percoidei, Plesiopidae, Plesiopinae
Published Name:
Plesiops insularis Mooi & Randall
Accession Number:
417715
USNM Number:
355577
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31e51f540-2e46-424a-85f4-4d638c200869
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5264253

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By