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Lake Geneva -- Windwood Garden

Former owner:
Crane, R. T.  Search this
Gartz, A. F.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Byron, Scott  Search this
Arborist:
Bader, Brian  Search this
Provenance:
Lake Geneva Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Windwood Garden (Lake Geneva, Wisconsin)
United States of America -- Wisconsin -- Walworth County -- Lake Geneva
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet, historical pictures and information regarding previous owners, historical timeline of property, planting lists, planting plans, and landscape design.
General:
Located on approximately 100 acres, Windwood Garden was originally part of a 90-plus acre property that dates back to 1879 when R.T. Crane purchased it. During the early 1900s, the property was operated as the Crane's family compound with fruit orchards, vegetable gardens, a bakery laundry building and four greenhouses. The property was subdivided in 1933 to Maxwell House and A. F. Gartz. The western side of the divided property was purchased in 1948 by the current owner from A. F. Gartz and included the original house, vegetable garden, orchard and large expanses of lawn with a few flowers or shrubs. When the property was purchase, the property was very basic and showed signs of neglect. Brian Bader, arborist consultant, and Scott Byron, landscape architect, assisted the owners in creating a plan to conserve and transform the property into a small arboretum and then to further develop vistas from many different angles across the entire property.
The property includes woodlands and meadows populated with native spring wildflowers and large beds of daffodils. The wooded areas have many varieties of oaks, beech, maple, hemlock, walnut, hickory, lindens and butternut trees. A white okay tree is marked with a plaque by a University of Wisconsin arborist as the largeest white oka in Southeast Wisconsin. Decorative sculptures, benches, bridges, fountains, ponds and trails with plantings of trees, shrubs, perennials and wild grasses are also featured on the property.
In a 2014 garden tour handout for the Garden Club of America, the following areas were described as distinct areas of the home and garden: the manor House, the Country House, the Green Carriage House, the Caretaker's House, teh Stable, the Woodland Cottage, the White Oak Savannah, the Vegetable Garden, the Cooler House, the Pond, the Boat Deck, West Pier and East Pier.
Persons associated with the property include: R. T. Crane (former owner, 1879-1933); A. F. Gartz (former owner, 1933-1948); The Griffith family (owner, 1948- ), Scott Byron (landscape architect, 1985-present); Brian Bader (arborist consultant, University of Wisconsin, Madison Arboretum, 1996-1998).
Related Materials:
Windwood Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (16 35 mm slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Wisconsin -- Lake Geneva  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File WI038
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Wisconsin
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb66267a6a1-3cfd-486d-9c17-53edb5d2ad56
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref11669

Broas Pie Bakery Token

Maker:
Scovill Manufacturing Company  Search this
Physical Description:
copper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3/4 in; x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
token
Place made:
United States: Connecticut, Waterbury
Date on object:
1863
Credit Line:
Scovill, Inc.
ID Number:
1981.0296.0385
Catalog number:
1981.0296.0385
Accession number:
1981.0296
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-d12a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1447099
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Charles Richard Drew, American, 1904 - 1950  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Roy Wilkins, American, 1901 - 1981  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr., American, 1911 - 1978  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays, American, 1894 - 1984  Search this
Ebenezer Baptist Church, American, founded 1886  Search this
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
Sen. Edward Brooke, American, born 1919  Search this
Joseph Davies Tydings, American, 1928 - 2018  Search this
Lawrence Warren Pierce, American, born 1924  Search this
Bertram L. Baker, American, 1898 - 1985  Search this
Wayne L. Morse, American, 1900 - 1974  Search this
Harry Belafonte Jr., American, 1927 - 2023  Search this
Coretta Scott King, American, 1927 - 2006  Search this
Rev. Ralph David Abernathy, American, 1926 - 1990  Search this
Gordon Parks, American, 1912 - 2006  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Percy Ellis Sutton, American, 1920 - 2009  Search this
Bayard Rustin, American, 1912 - 1987  Search this
Eugene Nickerson, American, 1918 - 2002  Search this
Leonard Farbstein, American, 1902 - 1993  Search this
Senator Robert F. Kennedy, American, 1925 - 1968  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
Floyd McKissick, American, 1922 - 1991  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Harold Robert Perry, American, 1916 - 1991  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
International Free and Accepted Modern Masons, Inc. and Order of the Eastern Star, American, founded 1950  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
New York Jets, American, founded 1960  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Joan Murray  Search this
Philippa Schuyler, American, 1931 - 1967  Search this
Berry Gordy Jr., American, born 1929  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Sen. Edward Brooke, American, born 1919  Search this
Sidney Poitier, Bahamian American, 1927 - 2022  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Inez Yeargan Kaiser, American, 1918 - 2016  Search this
Pearl Bailey, American, 1918 - 1990  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
Robert J. Mangum, American, 1920 - 2014  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 12 × 8 7/8 × 3/16 in. (30.5 × 22.5 × 0.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1968
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Baptist  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Football  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Sports  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.3
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5f7b7586d-84ee-4f44-b24e-aa264dcdee1f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.3
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Elasmosoma bakeri

Collector:
C. Baker  Search this
Prep Count:
1
Preparation:
Pinned
Sex:
Male
Stage:
Adult
Place:
Fort Collins, Larimer, Colorado, United States
Collection Date:
[Not Stated]
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Braconidae
Published Name:
Elasmosoma bakeri Ashmead
Barcode:
USNMENT00809586
Other Numbers:
Inquire SerNum : 73408
USNM Type : 23953
USNM Type Number : 23953
USNM Number:
USNMENT809586
See more items in:
Entomology Types
Data Source:
NMNH - Entomology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/330f11156-ecd4-4b33-9cb4-8c44ac40a284
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhentomology_9173011
Online Media:

Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection

Creator:
Hampson, Albert W., 1911-1990 (artist)  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Sketches
Advertisements
Date:
1926-1968
Summary:
Collection consists of the commercial artwork created by artist Albert W. Hampson dating predominately from during the 1950s and 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the creation of promotional and advertising materials through photographs, original artwork and completed print advertisements and point-of-purchase displays. The research value of the collection lies in the documentation of this process. Researchers will find that these materials demonstrate how ideas are conceived and then expressed by artists for their clients. Evidence of decision making and collaboration between the artist and the client is illustrated by elements such as color choices or model poses. Often this evidence is lost when the only record saved is the completed advertisement or display. A good example of the developmental/creative process, complete with finished product, is the Tung-Sol Radio Tubes project. Materials also demonstrate the variety and occurrence of advertising projects during the mid-twentieth century. The artist created documents and artwork for different markets, both the consumer and the company.

Materials are arranged first by parent company, then by product or brand name. However, there are a very small number of items, with obscure affiliations to a company listed by product name. Corporate ownership of many of these companies and products has changed since the era that Hampson was working in, but their historical application has been maintained in this container list. Researchers must research product or company names within their historical context.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in five series.

Series 1, Personal Papers, 1928-1980, undated

Series 2, Early Artwork, 1926-1927, undated

Series 3, Commercial Artwork, 1934-1969, undated

Series 4, Artwork for Covers of Publications, 1937-1950s, undated

Series 5, Portraits, 1951-1977,; undated
Biographical:
Albert W. Hampson was born May 20, 1910, in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He demonstrated artistic ability at an early age, winning all of the available school awards. Observing teachers encouraged him to pursue a career as an artist. His mother's death and father's unemployment forced him to get a job while still attending high school. He balanced work, school, and art all through his adolescence.

After his graduation from Northeast High School in June of 1927, Hampson pursued his art education at the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art (the University of the Arts) until June of 1931. While at the university, he was quarterback of the Germantown Boys Club football team and a semi-pro team in Chestnut Hill, and he attended the Cape Cod School of Art under a scholarship provision, for one year in 1930. Also during his education, and after graduation, Hampson earned a living by providing draft and architectural drawings for several Philadelphia architects. He was driving a bread wagon and preparing advertising layouts for a Philadelphia bakery, the Old Bond Bakery, when he got his first big break: one of his oil paintings was featured on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post on November 30, 1934. Between 1935 and 1944, his work appeared on the covers of Post and Look magazines more than a dozen times.

Hampson had been working as a commercial artist for a decade and was well established before marrying Josephine Unger Corson, a jewelry designer and librarian, on February 7, 1945. They had two children, Hillary, born 1945, and Theodore "Ted" born 1956.

In his personal life Hampson was known for his strong political opinions and work ethic, sometimes working eighteen hours a day. He did not believe in short-cuts, and his determination for perfection was evident in his do-it-yourself landscaping, according to his son. He spent time away from home, working five days a week in New York when Ted was young, but Hampson always brought gifts home and was ready for a discussion on politics. He was an active member of the Philadelphia Sketch Club, the oldest continuing artist organization in the nation. He was remembered by long-time colleague and friend, Fred Decker, as a staunch democrat (borderline socialist) who firmly publicized his views. This tenacious attitude provided him with the abilities of a great salesman, and knowing how to sell ideas can make a great commercial artist, as his son noted. He also had personal success as a father figure, according to Ted.

Hampson enjoyed a long and successful career as a freelance artist, staff artist, and art director for several New York and Philadelphia advertising agencies. He illustrated books and dust jackets and was a noted portrait painter. His work also encompassed commercial art, newspapers and magazines, point-of-purchase product displays, and was employed by such noted corporations as Johnson & Johnson™, DuPont©, General Electric©, Hiram Walker & Sons Inc., & Philco Television©. Hampson credited his success to the Saturday Evening Post for giving him the courage to continue as an artist. He saved examples, along with scrapbooks, photographs and business correspondence, as a record of his work. Ted preserved his father's collection after his death on February 19, 1990. His collection was donated to the Smithsonian on September 5, 1996 by Theodore "Ted" Hampson, who worked as a News Editor in Chicago until his death at forty–four years of age in 2000.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Francis M. Mair Papers (AC0548)

Landor Design Collection (AC500)

NW Ayer Advertising Agency Records (AC0059)

Walter H. Voigt Brewing Industry Collection (AC1195)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Hampson's son, Theodore Hampson, September 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising art -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising agencies -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Photographs -- 20th century
Sketches
Advertisements
Citation:
Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection, 1926-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0561
See more items in:
Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b552f2fa-8bf0-4e01-8a64-c0a789f66965
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0561
Online Media:

Sarsiella bakeri

Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico  Search this
Vessel:
Gyre R/V  Search this
Depth (m):
53 - 53
Prep Count:
2
Preparation:
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Slide
Sex:
female
Stage:
ovigerous
Place:
Off Galveston, Texas, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
1974
Published Name:
Sarsiella bakeri Kornicker
USNM Number:
154183
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Arthropoda
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38c75c535-5376-404b-9edb-1c211b525f22
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_117584

Tetralophidea bakeri

Collector:
[Not Stated]  Search this
Prep Count:
1
Preparation:
Pinned
Sex:
Male
Stage:
Adult
Type Citation:
Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 22 (1202): 348.
Type Status:
Syntype
Place:
[Not Stated], Colorado, United States
Collection Date:
[Not Stated]
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae
Published Name:
Tetralophidea bakeri Ashmead, 1900
Barcode:
USNMENT00802553
Other Numbers:
Inquire SerNum : 31056
USNM Type Number : 5085
USNM Number:
USNMENT802553
See more items in:
Entomology Types
Data Source:
NMNH - Entomology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/354971a57-256c-415a-9dd2-4422a3fe3e38
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhentomology_9130390
Online Media:

Family Migration Interview Project: Dino Bakeris; Inge N. Kutchins; Bonnie Cover

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Metropolitan Washington Program 1988 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Lifsey, Jennifer (field worker)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
analog.
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1988 July 3
1988
Contents:
DINO BAKERIS; INGE N. KUTCHINS; BONNIE COVER ORIG.TAPE #126
Local Numbers:
FP-1988-CT-0639
Publication, Distribution, Etc. (Imprint):
United States 1988
General:
ORAL HISTORY;MIGRATION;JUDAISM;GERMANY;WYOMING;GREECE;ITALY
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 3, 1988.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Migration  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1988, Item FP-1988-CT-0639
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: Migration to Metropolitan Washington: Making a New Place Home / Fieldwork
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5d25817fe-330e-4798-bc57-bd63c392333d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1988-ref1870

Jane and Michael Stern Collection

Creator:
Stern, Michael, 1946-  Search this
Stern, Jane  Search this
Extent:
17 Cubic feet (41 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Trade literature
Articles
Notes
Menus
Cookbooks
Brochures
Correspondence
Slides (photographs)
Writings
Business records
Postcards
Date:
1890-2008
Summary:
Collection documents Jane and Michael Stern's travels across the United States collecting data for their books on American material culture subjects, with particular emphasis on food and dining.
Scope and Contents:
Collection primarily consists of the raw materials amassed by Jane and Michael Stern as they traveled the United States, researching for their books on American material culture subjects, with particular emphasis on food and dining. These materials include writings and notes from their various stops while traveling; photographs and slides of places they visited; vintage postcards collected in their travels; paper ephemera such as take-out menus, placemats, etc.; large quantities of trade literature such as product cookbooks (some dating back to the 1920s), food packaging and brochures on food related subjects, under headings such as "Meat, Fish, Game", "Parties, Etiquette, How-To", "Baking" and numerous others; trade literature on other material culture subjects the Sterns wrote books about with headings which include Rodeo, Cowboys, Indians" and many others; correspondence; business records, articles, and clippings. The collection is arranged into five series: Series 1, Research Documentation and Writings, 1975-2015, undated; Series 2, Product Cookbooks, and Trade Literature, 1890-1993, undated; Series 3, Photographic Materials, 1947-2008, undated; Series 4, Subject Files, 1910-1995; and Series 5, Vintage Postcards, undated.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into five series:

Series 1, Research Documentation and Writings, 1975-2015, undated

Series 2, Product Cookbooks, and Trade Literature, 1890-1993, undated

Series 3, Photographic Materials, 1947-2008, undated

Subseries 3.1, Photographs, 1947-2002, undated

Subseries 3.2, Slides and Transparencies, 1965-2008, undated

Series 4, Subject Files, 1910-1995

Series 5, Vintage Postcards, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Jane Grossman Stern (1946-) and Michael Stern (1946-) are American writers best known for their popular series of books titled Roadfood. These publications provided recommendations of restaurants, truck stops, diners, delis, bakeries, and other food-related establishments in the United States who served classic American regional specialties. The Sterns are also authors of books about American material culture subjects including truckers, cowboys, kitsch, and dog shows. They have been guests on public radio, contributors to magazine columns, and have won numerous awards for their work.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Jane and Michael Stern, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobile travel -- United States  Search this
Diners -- United States  Search this
Bakeries -- United States  Search this
Restaurants -- United States  Search this
Truck stops -- United States  Search this
Cowboys -- United States  Search this
Roads -- United States  Search this
Delicatessens -- United States  Search this
Dining  Search this
Dog shows -- United States  Search this
Truck drivers -- United States  Search this
Rodeos -- United States  Search this
Food -- United States  Search this
Local foods -- United States  Search this
Kitsch -- United States  Search this
Material culture -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera -- 20th century
Ephemera -- 21st century
Trade literature
Articles -- 21st century
Notes -- 20th century
Menus -- 20th century
Cookbooks -- 21st century
Brochures -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 21st century
Brochures -- 21st century
Cookbooks -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Writings
Business records -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Postcards -- 20th century -- United States
Correspondence -- 20th century
Menus -- 21st century
Citation:
Jane and Michael Stern Collection, circa 1920-2015, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1392
See more items in:
Jane and Michael Stern Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89b79d74d-7499-469b-8dad-ee18dd9a59e3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1392
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Food

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
14.46 Cubic feet (consisting of 30.5 boxes, 1 folder, 11 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, 1 flat box (partial).)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Recipes
Date:
circa 1795-1970
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Food forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of advertising cards, bills/receipts, printed advertisements, catalogues, price lists, business cards, circulars, scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, import/export documents, fruit crate and other types of labels, publications of various types and pamphlets and books from companies involved in the food industry. These businesses include manufacturers, distributors and wholesalers of food and food products, growers, commission merchants, importers and stores selling food either exclusively, as in grocery stores or food emporiums, or together with other products in general stores. The bulk of the material consists of bills and receipts and trade cards.

The large collection of fruit crate labels consists of three boxes, primarily from growers of apples and pears in the Pacific Northwest. The images on these labels range from caricatures, primarily of Indians, to lush images of the fruits being sold. There are numerous pictures depicting or related to the names of the growers or the brand name being used, such as Mountain Brand, Pyramid Brand, Eskimo Brand, a wren for F.O. Renn or a strongman for E.C. Sampson. Some of the more common images in addition to the Indians and fruit include cowboys, children, flowers, birds and river and mountain views. Several of the images and/or brand names appear on the labels of more than one company.

There are a number of publications included in the materials. There are magazines and journals, both for the trade and for the general public. There are books published about a particular type of food, often by a manufacturer or distributor of that food. There are also histories of some of the companies, usually written by or for the company. Also, in this category, are catalogs of large metropolitan food stores such as S.S. Pierce of Boston, the Joseph R. Peebles' Sons Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Park & Tilford and Francis H. Leggett, both of New York.

Materials in boxes one through eighteen are organized alphabetically by name of company. All materials relating to a particular company, with the exception of import/export documents, publications (if that is the only material) and fruit crate labels, are included with the company related materials.

Boxes eighteen through twenty-one contain the fruit crate labels. These are arranged alphabetically by company. The first folder of each letter contains labels of companies for which there is only one label. The last folder contains labels with no company name. Box twenty-two contains other food labels which are primarily from cans and jars. They are arranged alphabetically, first by type of product such as corn and corn products, ketchup, pasta and peaches, then alphabetically by company for companies with a large number of labels and lastly a folder containing labels with no company name. The labels in the product folders are arranged within the folder first alphabetically by company followed by labels with no company name.

Boxes twenty-three through twenty-seven contain import/export documents. These are also arranged alphabetically by company in the same manner as the fruit crate labels. The import/export documents are primarily from the Port of Philadelphia. The documents cover goods coming into the port on sailing ships and, starting in the 1870's, steam ships and leaving the port on rail and river conveyances. The products were imported from such places as Cuba, Antigua, Trinidad, England, Italy, Germany and Singapore and included cocoanuts, pineapples, dried fruit and nuts, macaroni, cheese, sausages, cooked meats, pickled fish, spices and coffee and tea.

Box twenty-eight contains magazines and periodicals. Some of the publications include What to Eat from 1896 and 1899, The Dietetic Gazette from 1889, Culinary Review from 1943 and Wholesale Grocer. This box also contains correspondence and order forms relating to magazines and periodicals.

Box twenty-nine contains miscellaneous food publications. These are such things as account books, articles from other publications, publications on diet and infants and children and newsletters. Box thirty contains food related publications that are published by or about specific companies for which there is no other material. Box thirty also contains material relating to food equipment and manufacturing. This is arranged initially by company and then contains folders on canning and preserving and patents. The equipment manufactured includes such things as evaporators, sorters and washers.

Box thirty-one consists of publications about specific types of food and general works. The food types include publications about such foods as asparagus, milk and rice. These folders are arranged alphabetically by food type. General works consists of material which is not, or cannot be, related to a specific company or do not fit into one of the major categories set forth above. These are: general images which are not labels, advertising cards, correspondence, food instructions, legislation, miscellaneous price lists, railroad receipts and claims, recipes, shipping and tax stamps.
Arrangement:
Food is arranged in nine subseries:

Manufacturers and Distributors of Food and Food Products

Labels

Import/Export Documents

Magazines and Periodicals

Menus

Publications

Law & Legislation

Food Types

General Works and Miscellaneous
Partial List of Company and Proprietor Names, General Materials:
American Fruit Growers Incorporated Ana-Co

Apple Growers Association

Associated Fruit Company Barnhill Fruit Company Bear Creek

Blue Mountain Fruit Exchange

Boehmer Incorporated Bolinger Orchards

Brewster Distribution Unit

Brewster-Bridgeport Growers Incorporated

Butler Trading Company Incorporated Buck Fruit Company

Casca Growers

Cascadian Fruit Shippers Incorporated

Cashmere Fruit Exchange Cashmere Fruit Growers Union Chelan Falls Orchards

Clark-Baker Company Columbia Basin Orchards Connell Brothers, Company D

Dahn, Floyd Fruits Incorporated

Davidson Fruit Company Del Rio Orchards

Denison, H.S. and Company

Denney and Company Dow Fruit Company

Duddy-Robinson Incorporated/ Thompson-Duddy-Robinson Company

Duthie and Company Earl Fruit Company

East Wenatchee Fruit Growers

Entiat Fruit Growers League

Fairview Ranch Company

Foster's, Myron Hesperian Orchards Fruitland Fruit Association

Fruit Sales Company Incorporated

Gellatly Fruit Company

Greig, W.M.-Bonanza Orchard

Growers Service Company

Hafener Fruit Company

Haskell Packing Company

Hood River Fruit Company

Hood River Produce Exchange

Independent Fruit Shippers

Jennings Fruit Company

Kelly Brothers Company Incorporated

Koon Tai and Company

Koop, The C.M. Company

Lake Chelan Fruit Growers

Lake Chelan Fruit Growers Union

Lake Entiat Growers, Incorporated

Lippmann, J & G

Lockwood, C.M.

Mad River Orchard

Malott Growers Union

Manson, A. Fruit Growers

Marsh, A.E. Company

Methow-Pateros Growers Incorporated

Mojonner & Sons

Monitor Federated Growers

Mutual Sales Agency

Nellis, F.E. & Company

North Pacific Sales Company

Northern Fruit Company

Northwest Wholesale

Northwestern Fruit Exchange

Nuchief Sales, Incorporated

Okanogan Growers Union

Olive Apple Company

Omak Sookum Growers

Oneonta Trading Corporation

Onnail Fruit Growers

Orando Community Packing

Pacific Fruit & Produce company

Paddock, C.R. & Company

Palmer Corporation

Paxton Rivers Company Incorporated

Perhann Fruit Growers

Peshastin Fruit Growers Association

Plummer & Edwins

Renn, F.O. Fruit Company

Richey & Gilbert Company

Rivers, Burnand & Rivers

Robertson, D.O.

Rock Island Unit

Ryan Fruit Company

Sampson, E.G.

Segerstrom, H.N.

Sellers, Ben F. /Spinner Fruit Corporation/Sellers & Spinner

Sgobel & Day

Sisler, J.A.

Smith & Holden

Spokane Fruit Growers Company

Stadelman Fruit Incorporated

Standfield Fruit Growers Union

Steinhardt & Kelly Incorporated

Sterlin-Slater Fruit Growers

Stratford Orchards Company

Stubbs Fruit & Storage Company

Sunnyslope Fruit Exchange

Tedford, R.A. & Company

Tonasket Federated Growers

Trunkey-Wolfe Company, Incorporated

Vernon Orchards

Wade, J.M. Fruit Company

Wagner, E. & Son

Washington Fruit & Produce Company

Weaver, C.H. & Company

Wells & Wade Company

Wenatchee Apple Land Company

Wenatchee District Co-Op Association

Wenatchee Fruit & Storage Company

Wenatchee Fruit & Warehouse Company

Wenatchee North Central Fruit Distributers

Wenatchee Produce Company

Wenatchee Valley Fruit Exchange

Wenatchee-Beebe Orchard Company

Wenatchee-Northern Warehouse and Marketing Company

Wenatchee-Okanogan Warehouse Company

Wenatchee-Skookum Growers

Western Fruit & Produce Company, Incorporated

White Brothers & Crum

Wright Fruit Company

Yakima County Horticultural Union

Yakima Fruit Growers Association

Yakima Fruit Growers Exchange
Partial List of Company and Proprietor Names, Oversize Materials:
An & Company, Shredded Coconut, Location unknown

Armour Packing Company, White Label Soups, Kansas City, MO

Atlantic Macaroni Company, Long Island City, NY

Bajata, P. and Company, Palermo, Italy

Baker-Langdon Orchard Company, Walla Walla, WA

Beamsville Preserving Company, Peerless Brand Apples, Beamsville, Ontario

Bell, William G. Company, Bell's Spiced Seasoning

Beutel, Robert Company, West Bay City, MI

Bloomfield Packaging Company, Ltd., Quaker Hand Packed Tomatoes, Standard Lombard Plums, Bloomfield, Ontario

Brandts, William Sons and Company, London, England

British Canadian Canners Limited, Britannia Brand Choice Standard Apples, Hamilton, Ontario

Burnett's Vanilla, Location unknown

Burnham & Morrill, Portland, ME

California Associated Raisin Company, Sun-Maid Raisins, Fresno, CA

California Fruit Growers Exchange, Sunkist Oranges, Chicago, IL

Campbell , Joseph Company, Campbell's Soup, Camden, NJ

Carle, John and Sons, Imperial Granum "The Great Medicinal Food", New York, NY

Cerere Macaroni, Location unknown

Clark, William, Commission Merchant, New York, NY

Colburn, A. Company, Mustard, Philadelphia, PA

Connor, John T. Company, Wholesale Grocers, Boston, MA

Cowan and Staley, Anaheim, CA

Davis, Frank E.Fish Company, Gloucester, MA

Del Monte Brand, Raisins and Dried Fruits, Location unknown

Dewey Brand, Fancy Stem-Cut Louisiana Oranges

Ferris & Caywood, "The Walter Grape", Poughkeepsie, NY

General Foods Corporation, Jell-0, La Roy, NY

Genesee Pure Food Company, La Roy, NY

Gorton-Pew Fisheries Company, Gloucester, MA

Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, New York, NY

Griffin and Skelley Company, California Raisin Packers

Gurley, R., New Milford, OH

Harriman, Charles, Curer and Wholesaler in Dry and Pickled Fish, Gloucester, MA

Hazard, E.C. and Company, Shrewsbury Brand White Cherries, Shrewsbury, NJ

Heinz, H.J. Company, Spaghetti, Tomato Ketchup, Pittsburgh, PA

Hershey Packing Company, Pioneer Brand Quick Frozen Green Peas, Seattle, WA

Illinois Canning Company, Joan of Arc Brand French Red Kidney Beans, Hoopeston, IL

Importers and Dealers in Fine Groceries Philadelphia, PA

Jersey Biscuit Company, Newark, NJ

Johnson, C.J. and Company, General Commission Merchants, Location unknown

Kensett, Thomas and Company, Oysters, Baltimore, MD

King, William, Grocer, Philadelphia, PA

Larkin Company, Grocers, Buffalo, NY

Lester, Frank, New York, NY

Libby, McNeil and Libby, Luncheon Meats, Chicago, IL

Little Gem Cream Com, Company and Location unknown

McCormick and Company, Bee and Banquet Brand Products, Importers, Exporters, and Packers, Baltimore, MD

McQuestin, G.B., Nashua , NH

Mellins Food, For Infants and Invalids, Boston, MA

Meloripe Fruit Company Boston, MA

Minnesota Valley Canning Company

Mitchell, Fletcher and Company

Montgomery Ward and Company, Chicago, IL

Natural Food Company Triscuit, Niagara Falls, NY

Niblets Brand Mexicorn and Whole Kernel Com La Sueur, MN

Northwestern Fruit Exchange Skookum Apples, Seattle, WA Peebles and White

Penguin Brand Quick Frozen French Style Green Beans Seattle, WA

People's Tea, Spice, & Baking Powder Company, Cincinnati, OH

Pomeroy English Walnut Farm Lockport, NY

Price, Joseph J., Dealer in Family Groceries, Wines, Liquors, and Imported Cigars, Albany, NY

Procter & Gamble Company Crisco, Cincinnati, OH

Rowland, James and Company Fancy Groceries, Teas, and Coffees Location unknown

Royal Cocoanut Company, New York, NY

Schepp, L. and Company Schepp's Cocoanut, New York, NY

Snow, F.H. Canning Company

Stickney & Poor's, Premium Spices and Mustards Location unknown

Stone, Arthur and Company Wholesale Grocers, New Orleans, LA

Thurber, H.K. & F.B. and Company Grocer, New York, NY

United Fruit Company Bananas, Boston, MA

Washington Dehydrated Food Company Washington Brand Dehydrated Apples Yakima, WA

Washington Frosted Foods, Inc.

Wells, Miller & Provost Wholesaler Warehouse New York, NY

Wendell, Jacob L. Pickling and Preserving Philadelphia, PA

Wholesale Grocers and Commission Merchants Petersburg, VA

Worth, William E. and Company Wilmington , NC

Young & Lyon, Providence, RI
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Food is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- Confectionery  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Baking  Search this
Bakers and bakeries  Search this
Beverages  Search this
Chocolate  Search this
Coffee  Search this
Corn  Search this
Food  Search this
Food habits  Search this
Food -- United States  Search this
Meat industry  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery  Search this
Salt  Search this
Seafood  Search this
Tea  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Recipes
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Food, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Food
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Food
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85e832c01-d882-4b07-9429-55ea5da89013
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-food
Online Media:

Nordic Ware records

Topic:
Bundt Brand Bakeware
Creator:
Nordic Ware Division, Northland Aluminum  Search this
Donor:
Dalquist, H. David  Search this
Dalquist, Dorothy  Search this
Extent:
28 Cubic feet (53 boxes and 25 oversize folders )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Legal records
Catalogs
Financial records
Design drawings
Place:
Minneapolis (Minn.)
Date:
1940-2006
Summary:
Records of a family-owned manufacturing firm, best known for kitchenware products including the Bundt Pan and Micro-Go-Round. The collection richly documents the entrepreneurial spirit of the Minnesota firm and its history of product innovation through technical files, marketing materials, and administrative and financial records.
Scope and Contents:
The Nordic Ware collection consists of approximately twenty-eight cubic feet of records from the Northland Aluminum Company, most dealing with its Nordic Ware business. The Dalquist family recognized the importance of record keeping, and this collection documents very well the evolution of an entrepreneurial, family-owned American business from its earliest years.

Of particular interest for researchers may be the Pillsbury and Bundt Cake Pan dual marketing strategies, showcased mainly in Series 3, Marketing and Sales Records, 1948-2004, the introduction of ethnic cookware into American Culture through such dishes as the Rosettes and Timbales set and Taco dinner kit, the segmentation of product lines by price level to target consumers of differing incomes, and the issue of a trademarked term like "Bundt" becoming generic as seen in Series 6, Legal Records, 1962-1978. Series 4, Engineering Department Records, 1950-1994, provide in-depth documentation of the technical development of several of Nordic Ware's innovative products.

Series 1: Historical and Background Materials, 1940s-2006

These materials provide a history of Dave Dalquist as an entrepreneur and how this led to his ownership of Northland Aluminum Products and the Nordic Ware brand. There are histories put together by the company as well financial summaries for some years. The series contains The Nordic Ware Saga, a book edited and produced by the Dalquist family, and America at Home: A Celebration of Twentieth-Century Housewares. Both books have valuable background information on the company and how it fits into the housewares industry. There also are materials from the original business, Plastics for Industry. An undated marketing booklet, published about 1990, briefly describes the company's history and its product line and corporate structure. Additional company history is found in six installments written by Dave Dalquist under the title "From the Skipper" and covering the years 1946 to l985.

Series 2: David Dalquist Files, 1963-1993

David Dalquist, the president and founder of the company, kept these files in his office and home. Dalquist had no formal filing system and preferred to group records together as he used them. This order has been maintained as much as possible to the folder level. Several files contain information and notes from Dalquist's attendance at the National Housewares Shows and the meetings held there with his sales representatives. The annual Housewares Shows in Chicago were key events in this industry and Nordic Ware made them a high priority. The sales meetings materials include speeches Dalquist delivered. This series reveals Dalquist's involvement with every aspect of the company. It portrays an entrepreneur who began with an engineering degree, very limited capital, and no business experience. Dalquist built a multi-million dollar company while insisting on high ethical and business standards.

The several companies owned by the Dalquist family are documented in these files. There is a merger agreement between Northland Metal Finishers and Northland Aluminum. The records show the company went through several phases and had several brands besides Nordic Ware, including Minnesota Ware, DuNord, and Norcast.

Series 3: Marketing and Sales Records, 1948-2004 The Marketing and Sales Records focus mainly on the promotion of the Nordic Ware Brand and the sale and distribution of products, especially to the retail trade industry. There is evidence of how Nordic Ware presented its products to the industry and of other types of promotions to build brand awareness. These records are divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, General and Department Records, 1967-1995; Subseries 2, Promotional and Trade Sales Materials, 1958-2004; and Subseries 3, Public Relations, 1948-1992

Subseries 3.1: General and Department Records, 1967-1995

Dave Dalquist initially handled most of the company's marketing and sales, but as the company grew, a separate department was created. Among other things, this department created sketches of new product ideas that employees submitted as part of the New Product Idea meetings periodically scheduled by Dave Dalquist. Several files contain this artwork and a design notebook. There are also the files of Doug White, a Vice President of Marketing and Sales. Other art renderings, such as line art used in catalogs, are in this series.

Subseries 3.2: Promotional and Trade Sales Materials, 1958-2004

This subseries consists both of advertising geared towards the trade industry and that aimed at the consumer to promote brand image and sales. A 1970s scrapbook is a record of cross-promotional offers in which Nordic Ware and other firms advertised their products together in a single advertisement. The scrapbook also documents Nordic Ware products offered as sales premiums. The advertisements are organized by the brand co-featured in the advertisement. The Bundt Pan was the predominant Nordic Ware product in these advertisements. The Pillsbury file is especially important as it shows the building of the dual marketing arrangement which allowed Bundt Pans to be packaged with Pillsbury mixes. Nordic Ware received national publicity that it would otherwise have been difficult to generate. The Bundt Pan was integrated into magazine recipes and articles and included in mentions of other brands. These records document the remarkably brief time in which the Bundt Pan achieved national recognition.

The trade market was critical to Nordic Ware. The Sales Guides, 1982-2004, were given to regional sales representatives with information on sales promotions and incentives to representatives for sales of Nordic Ware products in specific markets. The Guides also have product descriptions, so that each representative was fully familiar with the products. Along with these guides, Nordic Ware put out trade catalogs, also found in this subseries. Although there is no master list of the catalogs, many have been hand-dated by Nordic Ware employees. Many of the models in the catalogs and the advertisements were members of the Dalquist family, neighbors, and other acquaintances.

Subseries 3.3: Public Relations, 1948-1992

These materials mainly document a series of campaigns created by Sara Jean Thomas, a public relations contractor. She worked with the marketing and sales department to build the Nordic Ware brand and to create a series of television and radio product promotions in the form of household hints. Several scripts are included here along with details of the overall campaigns. There also are files documenting the reach of these promotions. Other materials include a press kit for Chef Tell, a celebrity chef who represented Nordic Ware products for several years and who made appearances at its booth at the National Housewares Shows. New product press releases (with photographs) and general public relations files (1986-1989), along with the Marketing Communication Plans (1987-1989), give details on the planning of other public relations efforts. The trade press clippings scrapbook documents mentions of Nordic Ware and its products, competitors' advertising, and general developments in the house wares industry. Trade press clippings also are found in Series 8, subseries 4.

Series 4: Engineering Department Records, 1950-1994

The Engineering Department was vital to the success of Nordic Ware. Records in this series reveal the process by which a new product idea was developed, built, tested, and turned into a saleable product. Museum staff members selected the records in this series, occupying about five cubic feet, from a much larger group of files, roughly twenty-five feet in extent. The criteria for selection included substantive information on the design development of new products, especially those requiring substantial engineering work, and on product re-design to create cost efficiencies and resolve product problems.

Subseries 4.1: General Records, 1969-1992

These records deal with general departmental business and include incoming and outgoing correspondence and general files kept by individual engineers. They also provide operational information such as source for production materials, work orders processing, and treatment of employee issues in the department.

Subseries 4.2: Laboratory Notebooks, 1972, 1984-1993

Engineers in the department kept these notebooks mainly for developing design ideas and working out the technical logistics of bringing the designs into production. The notebooks also served as evidential records for patent disputes. The engineers signed and dated the pages of their notebooks as proof of when ideas were conceptualized and who recorded them.

Subseries 4.3: Product Files, 1976-1993, undated

These records originally were organized by product number, but no index to the numbering system accompanied the records so files of like products were grouped together. The Micro-Go-Round, Oven-Aire, and Wok are the most thoroughly documented. The records include blueprints at various stages of the products development, work orders for research and development, outside quotations, invoices, quality control tests and guidelines, memoranda to and from other company offices about product development, and other types of operational materials. Most of these products had multiple versions, and evidence of ongoing testing and modification is seen in the records.

These records document some of the innovation that made Nordic Ware an important presence in the housewares industry. The Micro-Go-Round was a particularly revolutionary product at the time, and the records show how the company recognized a need for the product and did what was necessary to develop it, although it had little or no experience with microwave technology. Micro-Go-Round records also are found in Subseries 5 of this series. The Oven-Aire required extensive development efforts to bring to fruition. The idea behind this product was to make conventional ovens cook more evenly and operate like a convection oven. The records include photographs of the original working model, tests done in some of the engineers' home kitchens, and comparison photographs of foods cooked with and without the device. Though the product never took off in the market, the invention and development process is documented here from the perspective of the several parties who worked on it. To a much more limited degree, records for some of the other products -- like the Popgun Popcorn Popper and the Supremer Ice Creamer --demonstrate the design and development process. There is even information about packaging design for some of the products.

Subseries 4.4: New Product Ideas Files, 1976-1993

These records document Nordic Ware's efforts to identify and develop a stream of new products and to involve employees in that process. They include product ideas submitted from outside the firm but primarily relate to New Product Meetings at which employees shared their own ideas. The meetings often included voting for the best ideas and for those that would be most feasible to manufacture. Most of the files contain original artwork, usually brought to the meeting by the marketing department. They also include lists of product ideas and who submitted them, ballots for the voting on the best ideas, and notes taken at the meetings. Several files have memoranda to the employees encouraging submission of ideas outside the annual meeting cycle. Related materials are found in Series 3, Marketing and Sales Records, 1948-2004, Subseries 1, General and Department Records, 1967-1995.

Subseries 4.5: General Research and Development, 1976-1993

This subseries mainly contains files on the development of microwave cookware products and the Micro-Go-Round. Dr. T.K. Ishii, a leading researcher in microwave technologies from Marquette University, served as a consultant to Nordic Ware. He advised on technical problems and explained processes to the Nordic Ware engineers to enable them to develop products. Other materials deal with the application and certification process for Underwriters Laboratories, an independent organization that tested products and certified them as meeting its safety standards.

Subseries 4.6: Patent Materials, 1950-1994

Many records in this subseries deal with the patent application process. An outside legal firm submitted Nordic Ware's applications and negotiated with the Patent Office. The records include correspondence surrounding patent disputes and sworn affidavits by engineers submitted as proof of their work. Several reference files of non-Nordic Ware patents are in this subseries. Many were sent by the law office to Nordic Ware engineers to keep them current on new developments.

Subseries 4.7: Trade Associations, 1977-1994

These records reflect the participation of Engineering Department staff in trade associations, especially The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. Lloyd Keleny and several others were involved with the Microwave Oven Cookware Committee. The Society was concerned with the absence of standards for microwave ovens and the resulting problem that cookware used in these ovens was not always effective. The Committee gathered data and encouraged the microwave industry to recognize that consistency was needed. There also are files from the Frankfurt International Housewares Fair, 1994. Nordic Ware tried to build its presence internationally, and fairs such as this were opportunities to meet foreign manufacturers and distributors. They also enabled the company to see what was happening on a global level.

Series 5: Financial Records, 1948-1982

These records include financial information for Nordic Ware and other Dalquist interests, including Maid of Scandinavia Company, when it was still joined with Northland Aluminum Products, and the Minnesota Brand of Cookware. The intermixing of financial reports, invoices and receivables, petty cash receipts, and bank statements for the various enterprises demonstrates the close relationship of all of the beginning operations of the Dalquist family. There are many examples of consolidated financial information in the records including the balance sheets, combined financial reports, income statements, and the audit reports. Of particular interest is the accounting ledger (1949-1950) for Plastics for Industry, the Dalquist brothers' original company. It has handwritten entries and shows the company's simplified bookkeeping system. It also provides important financial data on the startup capital and the progress in the first year of business.

Reports created by the research firm Dunn and Bradstreet contain information submitted by the Dalquists to prove their credit worthiness to lenders. Several loan agreements document the company's practice of borrowing money on future earnings in order to meet operating expenses and finance innovation. Machinery owned by Nordic Ware is listed in several factory inventories. The firm also leased machinery instead of buying in order to save money. Inventory summaries (1950-1978) detail the numbers and value of the unsold product then on hand.

Though Nordic Ware stock was never traded publically, there was an employee shareholder plan that included profit sharing. Records in this subseries document the evolution and operation of the plan, including one employee's case for a public offering of the company stock. At some point Dave Dalquist did consider making the company public but decided to maintain private ownership. The emphasis on taking pride and ownership in the company was often repeated in memoranda that Dalquist wrote to employees about stock options. The records show that he was very conscious of morale and high standards of work within the company.

Series 6: Legal Records, 1962-1978

The bulk of these records deals with trademark issues, especially Nordic Ware's creation, licensing, and protection of the "Bundt" mark. Included are copies of correspondence with the law firms that handled applications to the Patent and Trademark Office and correspondence from that office. Correspondence and legal papers document licensing negotiations with Pillsbury and others. In several instances Nordic Ware took legal steps when the Bundt Pan trademark was being misused.

Series 7: Recipes and Cookbooks, 1966-2004, undated

This series is comprised of a large selection of cookbooks and recipe files maintained by Dotty Dalquist and reflect her active role in business activities. She did much of her cooking and experimenting in a test kitchen in her own home and was integral to the preparation of foods to be photographed in Nordic Ware products. These photographs demonstrated the use of the products and were included in the advertisements, catalogs, and product or recipe brochures.

Subseries 7.1: Dotty Dalquist Recipe Files, bulk 1950s-1970s, mainly undated

Dotty Dalquist kept recipes, product booklets, notes, and other materials to aid in the development of her own recipes. She organized much of the material by food type, but she also had several files for specific Nordic Ware products. The Bundt Pan was a major product, and the files on it reflect that. As Nordic Ware sought new ways to promote the use of its products, Dalquist's development of new and inventive recipes was a major part of that effort.

Subseries 7.2: Bundt Pan Cookbooks, 1966-2004

Nordic Ware published several books by Dotty Dalquist to promote use of the Bundt Pan. Pillsbury and other firms also published their own books. Pillsbury incorporated its products into the recipes to promote the dual product relationship between the Bundt Pan and the Pillsbury brand of cake mixes. These books were sold in stores and added as premiums to go along with the purchase of the other products.

Subseries 7.3: Other Recipe and Public Relations Materials, 1970-1996, undated

Recipe contests and a cookbook were among the efforts to involve employees with the Nordic Ware products and to generate new recipes and ideas. These files include photographs and entries and correspondence about these employee activities.

A file of correspondence, mainly to and from Dotty Dalquist, concerns problems consumers encountered using specific recipes that she had published. Consumers also wrote about recipes they had tried on their own and could not get satisfactory results with a Nordic Ware product. Dalquist's problem-solving efforts were an example of the personal customer service in which Nordic Ware took pride.

Series 8: Non-Nordic Ware Reference Materials, 1940-2001, undated

The materials in this series were used by Nordic Ware as reference resources. They have been organized into subseries by type.

Subseries 8.1: Sponsored Cookbooks, 1943-1996, undated

Dotty Dalquist collected cookbooks published by a wide range of manufacturers and trade organizations. The cookbooks are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the sponsor. Many companies, such as Pillsbury and General Foods, put out these kinds of books to promote their own brands. This may have influenced Dalquist's creation of her own Bundt Pan cookbook.

Subseries 8.2: Product Guides (some with recipes), 1940-1992, undated

These product guides, for appliances and other items used in Dotty Dalquist's kitchen, include use instructions and, often, recipes. Nordic Ware often included recipes in the print materials packaged with its products and associated with its advertising.

Subseries 8.3: Home and Food Related Ephemera, 1950-1980, undated

These materials include booklets of general household hints, recipe cards published by various organizations, and information on food processes.

Subseries 8.4: Periodicals, 1967-2001

Several scrapbooks in this subseries contain clippings from various trade publications. Some focus on Nordic Ware and Northland Aluminum Products in articles or advertisements while others contain industry, including competitors', product advertisements. There are several issues of trade periodicals with Nordic Ware related stories. Trade press clippings also are found in Series 3, Marketing and Sales Records, 1948-2004, Subseries 3, Public Relations, 1948-1992.

Subseries 8.5: Newsletters, 1961, 1973-1987, undated

Most of these newsletters were for reference use with Nordic Ware's microwave cookware projects. With its extensive line of these microwave products, there was an active effort to stay up to date with the field. The firm also tried to find different kinds of foods and recipes that could be prepared using a microwave oven.

Series 9: Photographs, 1940s-2006, undated

This series consists of a wide range of photographic prints re-housed in archival sleeves and assembled into a single binder. The photographs are arranged roughly by image content and document the Dalquist family and employees; factory and offices scenes, including a series of black and white images by Mel Jacobsen, a commercial photographer; and product displays at trade shows and other locations. The photographs also include a few images of Nordic Ware products and of baked foods and black and white images of plastic molds created by Plastics for Industry. Most of the photographs are undated and many are unidentified. There is a View Master viewer with one viewing card containing photographs assembled for Nordic Ware's sixtieth anniversary in 2006. Series 2, David Dalquist Files, includes five photographs of foods baked in Bundt Pans. Series 3, Marketing and Sales Records, Subseries 1, General and Department Records, 1967-1995, has photographs of a factory outlet store and product displays.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Materials, 1940s-2006

Series 2: David Dalquist Files, 1963-1993

Series 3: Marketing and Sales Records, 1948-2004

Subseries 1, General and Department Records, 1967-1995

Subseries 2, Promotional and Trade Sales Materials, 1958-2004

Subseries 3, Public Relations, 1948-1992

Series 4: Engineering Department Records, 1950-1994

Subseries 1, General Records, 1969-1992

Subseries 2, Laboratory Notebooks, 1972, 1984-1993

Subseries 3, Product Files, 1976-1993, undated

Subseries 4, New Product Ideas Files, 1976-1993

Subseries 5, General Research and Development, 1950-1994

Subseries 6, Patent Materials, 1950-1994

Subseries 7, Trade Associations, 1977-1994

Series 5: Financial Records

Series 6: Legal records

Series 7: Recipes and Cookbooks

Subseries 1, Dotty Dalquist Recipe Files, 1950s-1970s, undated

Subseries 2, Bundt Pan Cookbooks, 1966-2004

Subseries 3, Other Recipe and Public Relations Materials, 1970-1996, undated

Series 8, Non-Nordic Ware Reference Materials

Subseries 1, Sponsored Cookbooks, 1943-1996, undated

Subseries 2, Product Guides (with some recipes), 1940-1992, undated

Subseries 3, Home and Food Related Ephemera, 1950-1980, undated

Subseries 4, Periodicals, 1967-2001

Subseries 5, Newsletters, 1961, 1973-1981, undated

Series 9: Photographs, 1940s-2006, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1946, the year he returned from Navy service in the Pacific, H. David (Dave) Dalquist (1918-2005) joined his brother Mark to launch a new manufacturing firm, Plastics for Industry, in Minneapolis. The two University of Minnesota graduates soon were making foundry patterns and industrial plastic products for area businesses, as well as aluminum consumer cookware. Among their earliest products were ebelskiver pans, krumkake irons, and rosette irons, essential kitchen tools for the area's large Scandinavian population. Their first employee, Donald Nygren, remained as head designer for many decades.

In 1950, the brothers bought Northland Aluminum Products, a small firm with a line of "Nordic Ware" products including griddles and steak platters. The same year, Dave Dalquist created a cast aluminum, fluted cake pan at the request of two local women, members of the Hadassah organization. The women sought to replicate a heavy mold used in Europe. Northland Aluminum registered the trademark "Bundt" for the new product and began to sell it to local department stores. (The women sold manufacturing "seconds" as a fund raiser for their group.) Mark Dalquist created a firm, Maid of Scandinavia, to market products by mail. It separated from Northland Aluminum in 1963. Over the years, Northland Aluminum increasingly used "Nordic Ware" to identify itself for marketing and public relations purposes.

Northland Aluminum created a subsidiary finishing and coating firm, Northland Color Anodizing Company, in 1962. In 1964, Northland became one of the first to license the use of Teflon from its inventor, DuPont, and non-stick products became an important part of the company's line. Northland also did coating work for many industries including medical, computer, and commercial food processing. For many years Northland also had a division to produce heads for video recording machines. Product sales reached $1,000,000 in 1964.

During the 1960s, Nordic Ware grew slowly, gradually increasing its product line to include specialty baking and cookware items and stove-top cookware. The company also expanded its production capacity and built its sales and marketing capabilities, including a national network of sales representatives working on commission. Dorothy Dalquist, Dave's wife, played a vital role in the company's history. She joined him at crucial annual sales conventions to demonstrate products, tested new products, and developed recipes for them in her home kitchen. Additionally, she represented the firm in public relations activities.

Although the Bundt Pan was only one of many Nordic Ware products, it became a national celebrity in 1966 when a Texas woman used it for her prize-winning Tunnel of Fudge Cake in the immensely popular Pillsbury Bake-Off Contest. In 1970, Nordic Ware licensed the Bundt trademark to Pillsbury for use with a line of cake mixes. Customers received a cake pan at a small additional price with the purchase of the packaged mix. Although this pan was spun of light aluminum, not cast like the original models, the Pillsbury promotion was very successful. In addition to the classic Bundt design, the company began producing special designs, including a cathedral, a castle, a rose, a heart, and, in 2006, a stadium shaped pan. The Bundt Pan continues to be the most popular cake pan in America, and the company estimates it has sold sixty million pans over the past six decades.

Despite the steady popularity of the Bundt Pan, Dalquist and his firm knew that the spike in Bundt Pan sales resulting from the Pillsbury promotion was temporary, and they continued their strategy of seeking new products to buoy overall sales revenues. In 1978 Nordic Ware developed a "new thermoset plastic molding technology to create an extensive line of cookware designed to work in both conventional and microware ovens." In these same years, as microwave oven use rapidly spread, Nordic Ware developed its second celebrity product. Designed by the company's own engineers, the Micro-Go-Round was promoted in print and television advertising and is still its most successful product. Since then, Nordic Ware has introduced a wide range of new products, some of them successful (for example, nonstick Barbecue Grill Cookware), others not (including a device to create convection currents in a baking oven and a bicentennial cake platter). Northland Aluminum holds at least twenty-five patents for its products.

Today David Dalquist (born 1949) -- son of founder "Dave Dalquist" and, like his father, an engineer -- heads Nordic Ware. He has been involved with the company for his entire working life with major executive responsibilities since the early 1980s. David Dalquist's mother, Dotty, is on the Board of Directors and serves as Corporate Secretary. David's three sisters—Corrine, Linda, and Susan—are also involved in the business. The firm employs between 200 and 400 people and continues, as a point of pride, to manufacture its products in the United States. The family has refused numerous buyout offers. Nordic Ware has managed to design and market products for the large, low price retailers, including Wal-Mart, and for the upscale, specialty gourmet market. Williams-Sonoma, a leader in the latter field, has exclusive sales for a small number of new Nordic Ware products each year.

For its sixtieth anniversary, Nordic Ware produced a company history, H. David Dalquist, The Nordic Ware Saga: An Entrepreneur's Legacy (Kirk House Publishers, Minneapolis, 2006). The volume provides edited recollections of "Dave," many family members, and other employees drawn from oral history interviews. This finding aid is based largely on that information, other historical sources within the collection, and visits to Nordic Ware offices by National Museum of American History staff members Paula Johnson and Nanci Edwards (June 2006) and Paula Johnson and John Fleckner (August 2006).
Related Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds thirty-six objects from Nordic Ware (Accession # 2007.0034), including Bundt Pans in a variety of shapes, foundry patterns and molds for Nordic Ware products, a wood panel display of products manufactured by Plastics for Industry, three versions of the Micro-Go-Round, and other kitchenware products.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Dorothy M. Dalquist and H. David Dalquist in 2007.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ethnic food industry  Search this
Cookery, American  Search this
Kitchen utensils  Search this
Aluminum  Search this
Kitchen utensil industry  Search this
Baked products  Search this
Bakery equipment and supplies industry  Search this
Baking pans  Search this
Baking  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Legal records
Catalogs
Correspondence -- 2000-2010
Financial records
Photographs -- 20th century
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Nordic Ware Collection, 1942-2006, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0980
See more items in:
Nordic Ware records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep894dc31f0-f3a9-457d-9097-4906863295b5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0980
Online Media:

Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera

Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Names:
DCA Food Industries, Inc.  Search this
Doughnut Corporation of America  Search this
Doughnut Machine Company.  Search this
Dunkin' Donuts, Inc.  Search this
Mayflower Doughnut Shop  Search this
Mayflower Doughnuts  Search this
Mister Donut  Search this
Allen, Gracie  Search this
Brown, Joe E.  Search this
Durante, Jimmy  Search this
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
Levitt, Adolph  Search this
Skelton, Red, 1913-1997  Search this
Stevenson, Adlai E. (Adlai Ewing), 1900-1965  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals)
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images)
Books
Drawings
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- Food industry
Date:
1920s-1987
Summary:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut. Photographs comprise the bulk of the collection. These depict doughnut making machines, early doughnut packaging, doughnut shops and doughnut production, doughnut promotional activities (many of them sponsored by DCA), celebrities and entertainment figures with doughnuts, and the role of doughnuts in the military. Other ephemeral materials featuring doughnuts include advertisements, posters, newsclippings, music, examples of doughnut packaging, toys, and artwork. Also included are several publications that feature doughnuts, notably such children's classics as Curious George Learns the Alphabet, Who Needs Donuts?, and Homer Price, as well as a copy of Ms. Levitt's book.

Materials relating to the history of the Doughnut Corporation of America include a 1947 memo entitled "History of Mayflower Operations, 1933 1944"; pages and clippings from the company's in house magazines, The Doughnut Magazine, 1931 1936, and DCA News, 1945 1947 (most of which are not in their entirety, since Ms. Steinberg seperated them for the production of her book); a script of the "DCA Merchandising Story"; inter office correspondence from 1947; a 1961 DCA Study of the Donut Market; and a 1973 prospectus for DCA Food Industries, Inc. Also included is a store display figure of "Danny Donut," the symbol of Mayflower Doughnuts. In addition, the collection contains 1980 and 1981 Annual Reports from Dunkin' Donuts, Inc., a sample degree from their "Dunkin' Donuts University," and a large training poster for employees. Also included are in house publications relating to other donut companies, including Krispy Kreme and Winchell, the predecessor of Denny's.
Biographical / Historical:
Sally Levitt Steinberg describes herself as a "doughnut princess," since her grandfather, Adolph Levitt, was America's original "doughnut king." Levitt's family had emigrated to the United States from Russia when he was eight and settled in Milwaukee. In 1920, he moved to New York City, where he invested in a bakery in Harlem. He soon realized that there was a strong consumer demand for doughnuts, sparked by veterans of World War One who fondly remembered those cooked by Salvation Army girls in the trenches in France. Levitt, with a flair for showmanship, placed a kettle in the bakery's window and began to fry doughnuts in it. This attracted crowds of customers, who enjoyed watching the process, smelling the aroma, and eating the doughnuts. Soon, doughnut production could not keep up with the customers' demands.

In consultation with an engineer, Levitt soon developed and patented an automatic doughnut making machine, which he then placed in the bakery's window. The result was the creation of the modern doughnut industry in America. In 1920, Levitt founded the Doughnut Machine Company to make and sell the machine across the country and to sell doughnuts under the tradename of "Mayflower." Soon after, the company began preparing and selling standardized mixes for use in the machine, and began to acquire bakeries in which its products could be made. In 1931, the company opened the first Mayflower doughnut shop at 45th and Broadway in New York City; ultimately, 18 shops were opened across the country the first retail doughnut chain.

The company, which changed its name to the Doughnut Corporation of America, dominated the doughnut industry. Its operations were characterized by a large scale approach, incorporating a full range of product and equipment systems unique in the food industry. As consumers demanded a wider variety of doughnuts from glazed to jelly filled the company developed and manufactured the necessary machinery, prepared the ingredients, and marketed the products. The company diversified its product line in the 1940s to produce pancake mixes and waffle mixes and machinery, including Downyflake Food products. The company is still in operation as DCA Food Industries, Inc.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Doughnut Machine Company Scrapbooks (AC #662) contains two scrapbooks documenting the company=s advertising and marketing campaigns, ca. 1928.

The Industry on Parade Film Collection (AC #507) contains a 1956 film (reel #273) about the Doughnut Corporation of America.

The Earl S. Tupper Papers (AC #470) contain a number of World War One photographic postcards that show Salvation Army doughnut girls.

The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC #60) contains four boxes of material on "bakers and baking."

The N W Ayer Collection (AC #59) contains advertising proofsheets for several bakeries.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Sally L. Steinberg, December 12, 1991, 1993, and 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food habits -- United States  Search this
advertising  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Books
Drawings -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera, 1920s-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0439
See more items in:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep867d1c8ca-a8fa-4ef6-805d-b7cd6768eac7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0439
Online Media:

Krispy Kreme Corporation Records

Creator:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Rudolph, Vernon Carver  Search this
Extent:
16.5 Cubic feet (40 boxes, 2 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records
Commercials
Photographs
Training films
Videotapes
Date:
1932 - 2009
Summary:
Correspondence, administrative records, operational records, company newsletters, news clippings, photographs, photograph albums, and audio-visual materials.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: History of Krisy Kreme, includes records and materials which document the history of Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. Included are stories about the company and its founder, Vernon Rudolph ("A Man and an Enterprise" is in booklet form while "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme" is 115 pages) and also a story about the employees and facilities of the Corporation; a report that includes the organization's history and brief biographies of the management team; and overall operating reports from 1948 and 1950. There is also information pertaining to Krispy Kreme's association with Beatrice Foods Company as well as a biography of William Lewis Rudolph, brother of Vernon. This series also contains a draft (from 1952) of a report to the Government Purchasing Agencies about Krispy Kreme's mix plant operations, comprising a detailed list of equipment, cost controls, and a chronology of Krispy Kreme store openings. These are located in a folder marked "Historical Data." There is also a folder entitled "Vernon Rudolph" which contains a photocopy of two photographs -- one is of the front of a house while the other is of a family -- and a funeral tribute, dated 1973, to Vernon Rudolph.

Series 2: Administrative Records, contains those records which deal with the overall operation of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. This series is arranged into the following subseries:

Subseries 2.1: Correspondence, contains copies of letters to and from Vernon Rudolph and vendors, banks, Krispy Kreme stores and office personnel, local organizations, government agencies. The dates range from the 1930s through 1972. There is one original letter and its accompanying envelope from 1939. Subseries 2.2: Executive Records, contains the articles of incorporation, bylaws, minutes, and resolutions of the Board of Directors. The dates range from 1946-1977. This subseries also includes an organizational chart from the mid-1970s as well as an article of incorporation for Frozen Products, Inc., a subsidiary of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. There is also an Incorporation Plan from 1946 that includes a plan of organization, bills of sale, and a balance sheet. The folder marked "Miscellaneous," contains minutes from the first meeting of the incorporators in 1946 and a short note from 1952 concerning floor space at the Ivy Street plant. Subseries 2.3: Financial Records, ca. 1940-1996, includes annual and audit reports, gross sales statements for the company and the corporation as well as for doughnut mix. This subseries also contains balance sheets, a general accounting ledger, and operating reports. In the folder "Canceled Checks," there are signed checks by Vernon Rudolph as well as a handwritten listing of expenses that is titled "Personal Bank Records." There is also a prospectus dated from 1975 which is one year before the merger with Beatrice. Subseries 2.4: Legal Records, 1947-1982, deals mostly with trademark issues. It contains the correspondence and registration applications pertaining to trademark laws. Also included are the actual trademark registrations from all 50 states (since expired) as well as a list of expiration dates for the registrations. This subseries also contains correspondence between Krispy Kreme and Prudential Insurance Company concerning loans. There is also a folder "Miscellaneous Agreements and Contracts" that contains a lease agreement from 1957 and an accident claims agreement from 1955. Subseries 2.5: Personnel Records, dates range from the 1950s-1985. It includes information concerning employee benefits and manuals on selling doughnuts and running doughnut machines. Female employees are provided with guidelines in both a booklet, ca. 1963, titled "Salesgirl," and a plaque from the early 1960s that instructs them on appearance, retail manner, and attitude. Also contained in this subseries are award certificates given for years of service and a photograph of service award pins, jewelry, watches, and a clock. Other certificates were those for Associates and store operators certifying that they are fully capable and properly trained to operate a Krispy Kreme store. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there are memorandums to employees, want-ad clippings, and a thank you card from the Corporation to its employees for 50 years of success. Subseries 2.6: Professional Associations, contains a certificate of membership into the US Chamber of Commerce, 1955. Subseries 2.7: Stock Records, deals with the purchase and sale of stocks from 1947-1975. There are copies of two agreements -- one regarding Krispy Kreme selling an employee stocks and the other concerning Krispy Kreme buying stocks in the Pinebrook Real Estate and Development Corporation. The folder "Stockholders," contains a 1950 end of year letter to stockholders and a brief report on a court case entitled "How Not to Sell Company Stock to Key Employees" from a 1949 newsletter, "Estate and Tax Letter." There is a stockholders ledger dated 1947-1975 which also has a list of stockholders attached to one page. Subseries 2.8: Testimonial Letters, are from customers and date from 1994-1997. In some cases, Krispy Kreme responses were attached with the original, in others they were not. All the letters are copies of the originals and are on acid-free paper. Subseries 2.9: Miscellaneous, contains drawings and pictures of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC, and of exterior store signage. It also includes logo designs from the 1960s through 1989, samples of stationery, a brochure for and a photograph of the Krispy Kreme plane, and a program for the 1994 Krispy Kreme Annual Conference. There is also a folder containing Holiday greeting cards from Krispy Kreme management and a program from their 1990 Christmas party. Series 3: Operational Records, contains those records which pertain to all aspects of the production and sale of Krispy Kreme doughnuts. This series has the following subseries:

Subseries 3.1: Advertising and Promotions, ca. 1947-1993, contains small and full page newspaper advertisements from 1947 through 1993 (including some undated advertisements), the mats and layouts that the retail stores used in their own in-store advertising, and information and correspondence concerning billboard advertising. This subseries also includes television commercial storyboards and an audience pre-test report for three of them. There is also materials on the different promotions Krispy Kreme used. The "Miscellaneous" folder contains a variety of indoor and outdoor advertisements. Subseries 3.2: Equipment and Engineering, is itself broken down into three categories: American Gas Association (AGA), Equipment Design, and Equipment Information. The "American Gas Association" section contains correspondence between the AGA and Krispy Kreme regarding AGA inspection of and seal of approval for Krispy Kreme-made equipment. "Equipment Design" contains the notes, sketches, test results, and photographs of various pieces of equipment designed and made by Krispy Kreme. "Equipment" information includes equipment brochures and booklets and more detailed information on the use of the equipment. Subseries 3.3: Franchises/Associates, ca. 1940s-1990s, contains literature to attract potential new franchisees as well as samples of franchise agreements. This subseries also includes photographs and press releases concerning store openings. These are located in three folders: "Grand Opening Summary," "Knoxville Grand Opening," and "Krispy Kreme Locations." There is also a videocassette that highlights Krispy Kreme's foray into New York City in 1996. Subseries 3.4: Fundraising, includes a variety of materials that concern Krispy Kreme's program of assisting local organizations in their fundraising efforts. The dates range from the 1940s-1990s. It contains brochures, ca. 1940s-1990s, which explain the fundraising plan and its benefits. There are also guides geared towards Krispy Kreme salespersons to help them present the plan to potential clients. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there is a newspaper advertisement from September 1988 promoting the fundraising plan. There is also a photo collage done by Krispy Kreme Fundraising Representative, Sharon Craig, to commemorate a local parade in Memphis, TN (at the Elvis Presley Boulevard plant). Subseries 3.5: Marketing, contains a 1996 marketing standards manual and press kits from 1997. The marketing manual was directed to store operators to assist them in promoting and selling their products. The press kits were given to the Smithsonian when discussions concerning Krispy Kreme's donation to the museum began in the spring of 1997. Subseries 3.6: Packaging, ca. 1930s-1992, contains examples of the different packaging used by Krispy Kreme to market their food products and mixes. Also included are designs for new packaging. One example is for doughnuts done by Comet Products Inc. (of MA) in 1979. Four samples of pie packaging designs were created by Pike & Cassels, Inc. (of NC) in late 1991 and early 1992. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are examples of other Krispy Kreme packaging. Subseries 3.7: Quality Control Laboratory, ca. 1959-1976, consists of two items. The first one, which was originally housed in a binder, is a notebook of information on lab procedures and on the chemical consistency and test concerning doughnut ingredients. This belonged to David Downs, Chief Chemist at Krispy Kreme. The second item is a "pictorial" prospectus of the entire Krispy Kreme operation -- departments, individual stores, products and packaging -- which belonged to the Laboratory. Subseries 3.8: Sales Records, ca. 1950s-1980s, contains materials that would assist both franchise managers and operators (with in-store sales) and route salespeople (in selling wholesale Krispy Kreme products to groceries, etc). It includes a Route Book, ca. late 1950s, that contained order information and belonged to Robah G. Hendrick, a Krispy Kreme salesman. There is also a sales order pad, ca. 1950s-early 1960s, used by a Krispy Kreme store in Memphis, TN. There are also two in-house catalogs -- in folders "Posters, inserts, cards..." and "Shelf talkers catalog" -- that contain items that can be ordered by managers and that are used to sell store products. Shelf talkers are signs posted near the merchandise or on grocery display shelves. They, like the posters, inserts, cards, are used to attract customers with specials and promotions. Samples of shelf talkers are included in this subseries. There is also a "Miscellaneous" folder which contains a Krispy Kreme coupon, a book of gift certificates, another example of a shelf talker sign, and brochures of different store displays. Subseries 3.9: Store Operations, ca. 1960s-1970s, deals primarily with items that are meant for store operators and mangers to help them in running a Krispy Kreme store. Two manuals -- Production and Extruded Doughnut manuals -- instruct managers in producing high quality products. Two other manuals -- Associates Operations and Branch Plant Managers' Manual -- discuss doughnut production, but also give directives and policies on other store issues, such as safety, sanitation, and personnel. The Branch Plant Managers' Manual also delves into the natural gas crisis in January 1977 and deals with advertising, security, and photo requests. This subseries also includes five 8"x6" laminated cards that contain doughnut recipe information and checklists of cleanup and sanitation procedures. There is also a plaque entitled "What is a Customer?" which explains to employees why a Krispy Kreme customer is so important. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are two guides that advise on how to promote and sell items and a store/production area sign containing the store mission statement. [Also see Series 2: Administrative Records, Subseries E: Personnel, for a guide entitled "Salesgirl" which instructs the female Krispy Kreme employee on matters pertaining to dress and attitude.] Series 4: Newsletters, 1957-1998, includes, Krispy Kreme News, Krispy Kreme Management Circle, and Hot Doughnut News.

Krispy Kreme News, 1957-1998, is geared towards all members of the Krispy Kreme community -- management, operators and managers, and employees. Its articles discuss new store openings, Corporation news, community (or news-related) events, and provides instructions and reminders concerning store upkeep and sanitation. There are sections announcing upcoming retirements, congratulating outstanding employees, and honoring long service to Krispy Kreme. Also included are articles that do not necessarily pertain to Krispy Kreme, but, rather, add a human element to the newsletters, such as humorous stories, articles on birds, and tips on highway safety. Some articles of interest are a history of chocolate (September 1963), "You Can Improve Your Memory" (May 1967), "A Communist is a Rich Marxist" (July 1967), and a discussion on skirt lengths and their relation to economics (February 1970). [In addition, there are two early issues of Krispy Kreme News (May 9 and May 15, 1951) in a folder entitled "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme, 1977" which is located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme.] Also included in this subseries and relating to Krispy Kreme News are a subject index, a questionnaire form, and signed release letters. Krispy Kreme Management Circle, 1995-1997, is a quarterly newsletter geared towards Krispy Kreme management and leadership. The articles focus on product quality, marketing and promotions, and training. At the end of each issue, there is a ranking of stores in different sales categories, i.e., average customer purchases (in dollars), highest percentages of customers buying beverages with their food or buying a second dozen doughnuts. Hot Doughnut News, 1997, caters primarily to Krispy Kreme store operators, providing reports on stores and ideas for marketing. Series 5: Press Clippings, 1949-1998, contains articles and stories that cover the Corporation, its history, its founder and subsequent leaders, and its community programs and promotions. The bulk of the clippings are from newspapers with a scattering of magazine articles. The largest number clippings come from the Winston-Salem Journalof Winston-Salem, NC, where Krispy Kreme is based. All articles have been copied onto acid-free paper.

Some clippings have been separated from the rest. One folder, "Davey Allison," contains clippings concerning the sudden death of this popular NASCAR driver and Krispy Kreme spokesman, in 1993. The folder titled "Ralph Simpson and Associates, July-Sept 1995" contains articles and news briefs on Krispy Kreme and its competitors collected by a Winston-Salem public relations firm. Two other folders with clippings from the Simpson PR firm concern Krispy Kreme's donation into the Smithsonian in July 1997. The contents of these two folders are not on acid-free paper. "School Computers" documents the efforts of the Krispy Kreme Corporation to help distribute computers to schools across North Carolina. The "TV Monitoring Report, July 1997" folder does not contain any clippings, but includes a listing of news stories that appeared on television about the Krispy Kreme donation to the Smithsonian. Series 6: Photographs, ca. late 1930s through the mid 1990s, consists of black-and-white and color photographs and some negatives and transparencies. This series is divided into the following subseries:

Subseries 6.1: Corporate Staff, Associates, and Store Managers, ca. 1940s-early 1990s, is broken down into the following two categories: "Corporate Staff" and "Associates and Store Managers." Corporate Staff contains photographs of the officers of the corporation as well as members of the staff at the headquarters in Winston-Salem. Most are portrait shots with some group photos, e.g., the Board of Directors. There are also photographs of a 1974 retirement party for Mike Harding (Chairman of the Board and CEO) and Louise Joyner (editor of the Krispy Kreme News) and of a wedding cake made in 1990 for the wedding of headquarters accountant Cathy Rogers. The cake and the wedding were featured in the winter 1991 issue of Krispy Kreme News. [Also of interest are two photocopies of photographs -- of a house and a family -- located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme, Folder: "Vernon Rudolph."] The Associates and Store Managers photographs consist mostly of group portraits taken at their respective annual meetings: Associate Operators' Meeting and Store Managers' Conference. Also included are scenes of store manager training, which was mandatory for all new Krispy Kreme managers. Subseries 6.2: Corporate Headquarters, date from the late 1940s through the late 1980s. This subseries contains photographs of the General Offices, Equipment Department, Laboratory, Mix Department, and Warehouse. [Other photographs pertaining to these areas can be found in Series 6: Photographs, Subseries H: "Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff."] The General Offices photographs include exterior and interior views of the headquarters on Ivy Avenue. The Equipment Department photographs show various pieces of doughnut equipment as well as the designing, manufacturing, and assembling of said equipment by Krispy Kreme. [For more technical information on the different equipment, please refer to Series 3: Operational Records, Subseries B: "Equipment and Engineering."] The Quality Control Laboratory photographs consist of views that show the interior of the laboratory and of the chemists at work. There are also some images of test results of the doughnut mixes for quality and consistency. In addition, there are pictures of lab results of tests on glaze made with and without stabilizers. The Mix Department photographs contain views of the different stages of department operations. They also show the equipment used to prepare the dry doughnut mixes, which later are sent to the Krispy Kreme stores. The Warehouse photographs show bags of Krispy Kreme prepared mixes stacked in a large warehouse at the headquarters and waiting to be shipped. Subseries 6.3: Retail Shops and Plants, ca. 1937-1994, contains photographs of specific Krispy Kreme stores. They show the exterior and interior views of the shops including storefront, signage, retail, and production areas, as well as employees and customers. The bulk of the photos range from the 1950s through the 1970s. They are arranged by state, by city within the state, and then by street name within the city. Subseries 6.4: General Photographs, ca. 1940s-mid 1990s, concern unspecified Krispy Kreme shops and plants. They include views of store exteriors (storefront and signage) and interiors (production and retail areas and signage). The production area photographs show the various stages of the production of doughnuts, pies, and honeybuns. There are also photographs of customers, employees, and of students participating in the Krispy Kreme fundraising plan. The employee photographs consist of general in-store action and posed shots as well as views of employees receiving service awards for years of service. The fundraising photographs show students picking up boxes of doughnuts from Krispy Kreme shops or selling those boxes in an effort to raise money. This subseries also contains photographs of the trucks used by the Krispy Kreme stores throughout the years to deliver their products to groceries and other food stores. [A a set of press clippings that detail the use of Kripsy Kreme trucks in delivering school computers to North Carolina schools. These can be found in SERIES 5: Press Clippings, in the folder titled "School Computers, May-June 1993."] Subseries 6.5: Trade Shows, range in date from the 1950s through 1970s. This subseries includes photographs of Krispy Kreme displays at trade shows in the United States (Atlanta and St. Louis) and in Greece, Indonesia, Japan, and Pakistan. Subseries 6.6: Products and Packaging, ca. late 1940s-early 1990s, shows samples of various grocery store displays as well as photographs of doughnuts, fried pies, and honeybuns -- with and without packaging. There is also a folder that contains shots of Krispy Kreme coffee cups. Subseries 6.7: Advertising and Promotions, dates from 1965-1990s. The bulk of the photographs centers around shots of Davey Allison's race car. Allison was a Krispy Kreme spokesman for their Race to Daytona Sweepstakes in 1991. The other photographs consist of views of various advertising posters used in shops and grocery stores. There are also photographs that show Krispy Kreme advertising displays in airports. Subseries 6.8: Photo Albums, consist of six albums, all falling within the date range of the 1950s through the mid 1980s. The first album, "Exterior and Interior shots of Unspecified Retail Shops," contains photographs that date from the late 1970s-mid 1980s; these consist of exterior and interior views of various stores. The second album, entitled "Krispy Kreme Album," dates from 1962. A Christmas gift to Vernon Rudolph from the Corporate staff and associates, it contains photographs of the individual staff members and associates as well as group shots of the associates at annual meetings. There are also photographs of various shop storefronts. This album also includes exterior and interior views of the corporate headquarters. "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co.," ca. 1950s-1960s, is the third album. It served as a pictorial marketing tool used to attract new associates and franchisees. It shows exterior views of the corporate headquarters, various storefronts, and views of a typical Krispy Kreme trade show display. There are also photographs showing retail doughnut production as well as images of packaging and final products. In addition, there is a price list of equipment and mixes. The "Plant and Production" album dates from the 1960s. It consists of photographs showing the different stages of doughnut production and the preceding steps involving the equipment and mix departments and laboratory. There are also exterior views of various retail shops and of the headquarters in Winston-Salem. The "Production Equipment Album," ca. 1960s-early 1970s, is similar to the "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co." album with regards to the subject of the photographs. Additionally, there are photographs of the officers of the Corporation as well as images of advertising posters used in grocery stores. The sixth album, entitled "Social Gatherings Album," dates from 1951-1971. It contains photographs of female corporate staff members at various social gatherings, such as bridal and baby showers, picnics, birthdays, and Christmas parties. Subseries 6.9: Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff, contains photographs that were taken on May 28, 1997. The photos, taken by Smithsonian photographer Rich Strauss, depict a tour of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC. One highlight of interest is a view of the safe where the secret Krispy Kreme recipe is kept (located in the "Quality Control Laboratory" section of this subseries). The photographs are arranged according to the order of the tour. Series 7: AUDIOvisual Materials, remains unprocessed as of the date of this finding aid. This series consists of training films, videotapes, TV and radio commercials, and slide presentations. A rough inventory of these materials is provided in the container list.
Biographical / Historical:
The Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation started with a recipe, a Pontiac, a pack of cigarettes, and a dream. Add in hard work and a commitment to quality and consistency and what emerges is a company that is at the top of its field and beloved by its customers. It is an organization that has been innovative over the years, but has also remained true to its belief in making top quality products and ensuring excellent customer service. All of this has made Krispy Kreme doughnuts and its company a Southern icon.

The story of Krispy Kreme is the story of one man: Vernon Rudolph. Vernon Rudolph opened his first Krispy Kreme shop in the 1930s and from there built a corporation which he led until his death in the early 1970s. There is another part of the story and that is the continuation of the dream by Joseph McAleer. It was after some years under corporate food giant, Beatrice Foods, that McAleer, beginning in 1982, steered Krispy Kreme back to its traditional emphasis on excellent doughnuts as well as on a family atmosphere within the entire corporation.

The story begins on June 30, 1915 in Marshall County, Kentucky with the birth of Vernon Carver Rudolph. He was the eldest son of Rethie Nimmo Rudolph (mother) and Plumie Harrison Rudolph (father) and had a strict, but loving, upbringing. Vernon Rudolph did well in school, both academically and athletically. He also found time to work in his father's general store as well as helping his neighbors with odd jobs.

After graduating from high school, Rudolph then began his life's work when he went to work for his uncle, Ishmael Armstrong. It seems Armstrong bought a doughnut shop -- along with the assets, name, and recipe -- from a Frenchman from New Orleans, Joe LeBeau. So in 1933, Rudolph began selling the yeast-based doughnuts door to door for the Krispy Kreme Doughnut shop in Paducah, Kentucky. Not only did Rudolph sell doughnuts, he took part in producing them, thereby giving him an all-around experience in the doughnut business.

The economic depression that rocked the country also affected the shop. Armstrong decided to move from Paducah to the much bigger Nashville, Tennessee, hoping that business would be better there. Vernon Rudolph went with him to the new location, hoping for the same. But after trying, Armstrong, in 1935, decided to sell the shop and return to Kentucky. Rudolph wanted to buy it, but unfortunately did not have the money. However, his father -- whose general store had closed and who was working for the doughnut shop as a salesman -- stepped in. He borrowed the money and soon after Krispy Kreme was operating under new ownership. It was also at this time that one of Rudolph's younger brothers, Lewis, joined the family business.

The shop was doing well, enough so that in 1936 Rudolph's father opened another shop in Charleston, West Virginia. Awhile later, a third shop opened in Atlanta, Georgia. While this growth was occurring, Vernon Rudolph still wanted to own his own Krispy Kreme store. In the summer of 1937, he left Nashville with two friends in their new 1936 Pontiac and $200. Carrying start-up doughnut equipment the three young men set out towards an unknown destination, but with a known dream.

Louise Skillman Joyner, Krispy Kreme News editor, recounts how Rudolph and his friends settled on Winston-Salem, North Carolina as the location for their shop.

After some disappointments in looking for a suitable location, Vernon Rudolph, standing on a street corner in Peoria, [Illinois], one evening, wondered what the next move should be. Rents were quite high in that section of the country and the trio was running out of money. He took a pack of Camel cigarettes from his pocket and noticed that they were manufactured in Winston-Salem, N.C. "Why not Winston-Salem?" he thought, "A town with a company producing a nationally advertised product has to be a good bet." So off across the mountains to North Carolina they went.

With only $25 left, they arrived in Winston-Salem. Using that money to rent a space on Main Street and then getting the ingredients and some equipment on credit (which they paid back promptly), the three men began making yeast doughnuts. That day was July 13, 1937. Vernon Rudolph believed in producing only doughnuts of high quality and those were the only ones that were ever sold. That belief (as well as the mouth-watering doughnuts) endeared them to the people of Winston-Salem. What also caught their eye (and their taste buds) was the doughnut production that occurred in the store's front window and the free samples given away in the evenings.

Krispy Kreme at this time was primarily a wholesale enterprise. Using trucks to deliver the products, Rudolph was able to sell doughnuts throughout the area. But soon the wonderful aroma that came from the shop caused passersby to ask for doughnuts right there on the spot. This led to the beginning of Krispy Kreme's retail operations.

In the midst of all this, Rudolph met and married an Atlanta woman, Ruth Ayers, in 1939. This family increased by one in 1943 when the Rudolphs adopted a baby girl, whom they named Patricia Ann. Sadly, Ruth Ayers Rudolph was killed in an automobile accident in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1944.

The number of Krispy Kreme stores continued to grow in the years that followed. But instead of Rudolph owning all of them outright, he entered into partnerships or into associate (franchise) relationships. The arrangements gave the operators of these particular shops that use of the Krispy Kreme name, recipe, and later the ingredients. But more importantly, they had to agree to adhere to the Krispy Kreme philosophy of producing only the highest quality doughnuts. In those early years, the business was truly family-oriented. This atmosphere continued with these associate owners.

In 1946, Rudolph began thinking about consolidating all the Krispy Kreme resources together under a corporation. This umbrella, he believed, would enable Krispy Kreme to grow further and also give the shops a sense of uniformity. So on October 1, 1946 a corporation named the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company was formed. Less than a year later, on June 3, 1947, a new corporation, the Krispy Kreme Corporation, was incorporated. The Company concerned itself with individual store operations, while the corporation took care of producing dry mixes used by the shops. Vernon Rudolph served as President and Chairman of the Board.

It was also in 1946 that Rudolph married again -- to Lorraine Flynt of Winston-Salem. Their family of three grew over the years to include Vernon Carver Jr., Sanford, Curtis, and Beverly.

The formation of the corporation was followed by the creation of three important departments within Krispy Kreme: the Mix Department, the Laboratory, and the Equipment Department. Each had an essential role in the overall success of the company. The Mix Department has grown since its creation in 1948. Its primary mission: to mix, in bulk, the key ingredients needed by the shops to make doughnuts -- both yeast- and cake-doughnuts -- but also newly added products -- fried pies and honeybuns. By providing these mixes, Krispy Kreme was able to ensure that all stores made the same excellent products.

The Laboratory was created in 1949. Vernon Rudolph's beliefs in top quality and uniformity were put in action. The Laboratory tested ingredients that were in the prepared mixes and experimented with others to see if perhaps a new ingredient would make a great product better.

Rudolph started the Equipment Department because Krispy Kreme's main supplier of yeast doughnut machines, the Doughnut Corporation of America, decided to enter the retail doughnut business itself. So with the help of consultants and staffed with engineers and machinists, the Equipment Department began manufacturing its own equipment in 1949.

The push towards automation that swept the nation also affected Krispy Kreme. One piece of equipment that illustrates this is the Ring King Junior. Designed for cake doughnut production and taking up only seven square feet, the Ring King Junior cut, fried, turned, and cooled about 30 to 75 dozen per hour. How different from the early days of Krispy Kreme when everything had to be done by hand -- measuring, cutting, frying. The Ring King not only saved space and time, but also ingredients used. And it gave a uniformity to the doughnuts produced -- something Vernon Rudolph liked very much.

Over the years, Krispy Kreme has followed a philosophy of excellent quality and customer service. It recognizes the importance of the customer -- because without him or her there would be no reason to be in business. Along with giving their customers the best, getting involved in the community is another way Krispy Kreme has endeared itself to them. They do this by primarily helping area schools raise money for equipment, uniforms, trips, etc. In order to accomplish its goals, the company needs hard-working and dependable people. Krispy Kreme recognizes the value of its employees. The family atmosphere of those early days has continued.

Vernon Rudolph believed in that philosophy and always strove to make Krispy Kreme the best in the doughnut business. His death on August 16, 1973, left a large void and the years immediately afterwards were tough. Then, in 1976, Krispy Kreme merged with corporate giant Beatrice Foods Company of Chicago. It was still headquartered in Winston-Salem and continued its operations, but as a subsidiary.

For Beatrice, showing a profit was extremely important. To help its Krispy Kreme division, Beatrice encouraged additions to the menu and substitutions of ingredients in the doughnut mixes. This did not appeal to long-time Krispy Kreme associates, but unfortunately there was not much that could be done at that time.

Beatrice's association with Krispy Kreme was not as profitable as it had hoped it would be. So in 1981, the food corporation decided to sell its subsidiary. One Krispy Kreme associate saw this as an opportunity to bring the doughnut company back to the basic traditions upon which it had built a successful enterprise. The associate, Joseph A. McAleer, Sr., had been with the company for almost thirty years when this situation arose. An Alabama native, he went to work for the company in 1951 after he saw an advertisement in the Mobile Press Register for qualified people to join a profitable organization -- the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. After meeting with Vernon Rudolph, McAleer worked at the Pensacola, Florida store for $1 per hour in order to learn all aspects of a shop's operations. Rudolph had initially wanted McAleer to work for no pay, but with a family to care for, McAleer could not do this and so the $1 an hour agreement was arranged.

McAleer worked 120 hour weeks for over a year. This experience enabled him, in 1953, to start a shop of his own, in Pritchard, Alabama, a suburb of Mobile. His first effort there was not a success -- due to a poor location. He opened another shop in 1956 -- this time off of a busy street in Mobile -- and this time was successful. Over the next 17 years, McAleer opened up other Krispy Kreme shops in Alabama and Mississippi and all promised to provide the highest quality product and the best service. And continuing the family-oriented tradition, members of his immediate family worked in the different shops.

The death of Vernon Rudolph and Beatrice's purchase of Krispy Kreme seemed to send the doughnut company in a new direction -- one not everyone, including McAleer, liked. When Beatrice wanted to sell Krispy Kreme, McAleer talked with his fellow associates and those with ties to the company -- people, like him, who had a stake in Krispy Kreme's success -- and through his efforts was able to form a group of investors. In 1982, the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation had new owners.

These new owners, though, saw Krispy Kreme as a specialty-type of operation with a certain uniqueness and familial closeness and one which needed to concentrate on its basic foundation. That is, going to back to Vernon Rudolph's philosophy of top quality and top service as well as focusing on people, both customers and employees. They are beliefs and values that have proven successful and have helped Krispy Kreme grow from a small doughnut shop in Winston-Salem to a large corporation that still makes the same much-loved doughnut.
Related Materials:
There is a folder of duplicate Krispy Kreme material in Archives Center collection #439, the Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera. The Archives Center also contains collection #662, two scrapbooks from the Doughnut Corporation of America. Artifacts donated by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation to the National Museum of American History are located in the Division of Cultural History and the Division of the History of Technology.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on July 17, 1997, by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. Additional items were donated on July 17, 1997, by V. Carver Rudolph and on August 6, 1997, by Steve Cochran.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bakers and bakeries  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records -- 20th century
Commercials
Photographs -- 20th century
Training films
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Videotapes
Citation:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0594
See more items in:
Krispy Kreme Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b98b555f-1303-4e03-8876-934ec97bb886
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0594
Online Media:

Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection

Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Names:
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader)  Search this
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Journals
Dissertations
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Place:
West Virginia -- 1930-1950
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950
Date:
circa 1920-1975
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.

The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.

Print and Manuscript Materials

The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.

The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.

The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.

De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the New York Sun, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)

The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.

Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).

Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.

Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.

The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.

The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.

De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.

Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.

In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.

Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.

Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.

There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.

Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).

Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.

A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.

Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.

Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into seventeen series.
Biographical / Historical:
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.

Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.
Gypsies in the United States:
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.

Rom

The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.

Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.

Ludar

The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.

Romnichels

The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).

Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.

'Black Dutch'

Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*

Hungarian Gypsies

The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980  Search this
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980  Search this
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.)  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950  Search this
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980  Search this
Portraits -- Gypsies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Journals -- 1930-1950
Dissertations
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970
Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0161
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81652b515-d673-490f-aca9-f85fdc91a42f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0161
Online Media:

Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Joe Scott  Search this
Place:
Gainesville., Florida, United States, North America
Collection Date:
May 1916
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela
Barcode:
04385214
USNM Number:
1060821
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30201e387-0b82-4763-916a-10292c32c221
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_16250691

Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
G. L. Bates  Search this
Place:
Merritts Island., Florida, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Mar 1889
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela
Barcode:
04385213
USNM Number:
878604
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b5c73438-c1d4-4343-8ae0-2b227d510800
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_16250692

Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Albert S. Hitchcock  Search this
Place:
Palm Beach., Florida, United States, North America
Collection Date:
26 Dec 1895 to 11 Jan 1896
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela
Barcode:
04385216
USNM Number:
747579
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d572e913-7637-4fb4-95be-260b74a6f1d7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_16250693

Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Albert S. Hitchcock  Search this
Place:
The vicinity of Eustis., Florida, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1894 to Jul 1894
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela
Barcode:
04385215
USNM Number:
731423
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d1d071b6-834c-4642-b6a7-a1de387fce4e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_16250694

Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Samuel M. Tracy  Search this
Place:
Sneed's Id., Florida, United States, North America
Collection Date:
2 May 1900
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela
Barcode:
04385218
USNM Number:
385192
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3c853f860-6938-4b94-9487-66c46313f39e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_16250695

Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Samuel M. Tracy  Search this
Place:
Pine Id., Florida, United States, North America
Collection Date:
14 May 1901
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Sporobolus bakeri (Merr.) P.M. Peterson & Saarela
Barcode:
04385217
USNM Number:
878602
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3af0b9af0-cea0-43e3-a29a-d3c7363e4388
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_16250696

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